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Jungmook Kim
CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTORs (CRFs) encode transcription factors belonging to a small family within the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) superfamily. Recent studies have revealed the biological functions of some arabidopsis CRFs, providing insight into the role of these plant transcription factors in integrating environmental and hormonal signals for plant adaptation.
October 20, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Amalia Pérez-Jiménez, Eva E Rufino-Palomares, Nieves Fernández-Gallego, M Carmen Ortuño-Costela, Fernando J Reyes-Zurita, Juan Peragón, Leticia García-Salguero, Khalida Mokhtari, Pedro P Medina, José A Lupiáñez
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a set of pathologies among which stand out the obesity, which is related to the lipid droplet accumulation and changes to cellular morphology regulated by several molecules and transcription factors. Maslinic acid (MA) is a natural product with demonstrated pharmacological functions including anti-inflammation, anti-tumor and anti-oxidation, among others. PURPOSE: Here we report the effects of MA on the adipogenesis process in 3T3-L1 cells...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Luis Figueroa-Yañez, Alejandro Pereira-Santana, Ana Arroyo-Herrera, Ulises Rodriguez-Corona, Felipe Sanchez-Teyer, Jorge Espadas-Alcocer, Francisco Espadas-Gil, Felipe Barredo-Pool, Enrique Castaño, Luis Carlos Rodriguez-Zapata
Plants respond to stress through metabolic and morphological changes that increase their ability to survive and grow. To this end, several transcription factor families are responsible for transmitting the signals that are required for these changes. Here, we studied the transcription factor superfamily AP2/ERF, particularly, RAP2.4 from Carica papaya cv. Maradol. We isolated four genes (CpRap2.4a, CpRAap2.4b, CpRap2.1 and CpRap2.10), and an in silico analysis showed that the four genes encode proteins that contain a conserved APETALA2 (AP2) domain located within group I and II transcription factors of the AP2/ERF superfamily...
2016: PloS One
Jun Niu, Jia Wang, Jiyong An, Lili Liu, Zixin Lin, Rui Wang, Libing Wang, Chao Ma, Lingling Shi, Shanzhi Lin
Recently, our transcriptomic analysis has identified some functional genes responsible for oil biosynthesis in developing SASK, yet miRNA-mediated regulation for SASK development and oil accumulation is poorly understood. Here, 3 representative periods of 10, 30 and 60 DAF were selected for sRNA sequencing based on the dynamic patterns of growth tendency and oil content of developing SASK. By miRNA transcriptomic analysis, we characterized 296 known and 44 novel miRNAs in developing SASK, among which 36 known and 6 novel miRNAs respond specifically to developing SASK...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Vijay Gahlaut, Vandana Jaiswal, Anuj Kumar, Pushpendra Kumar Gupta
TFs involved in drought tolerance in plants may be utilized in future for developing drought tolerant cultivars of wheat and some other crops. Plants have developed a fairly complex stress response system to deal with drought and other abiotic stresses. These response systems often make use of transcription factors (TFs); a gene encoding a specific TF together with -its target genes constitute a regulon, and take part in signal transduction to activate/silence genes involved in response to drought. Since, five specific families of TFs (out of >80 known families of TFs) have gained widespread attention on account of their significant role in drought tolerance in plants, TFs and regulons belonging to these five multi-gene families (AP2/EREBP, bZIP, MYB/MYC, NAC and WRKY) have been described and their role in improving drought tolerance discussed in this brief review...
October 13, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
So-Yon Park, Elizabeth Grabau
APETALA2 (AP2) belongs to the AP2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (ERF) family and regulates expression levels of downstream stress responsive genes as a transcription factor. In this study, we cloned six different isoforms of AhAP2 from peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Four isoforms (AhAP2.1, AhAP2.2, AhAP2.3 and AhAP2.4) had both AP2/ERF DNA binding domains and ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motifs. Two isoforms (AhAP2.5 and AhAP2.6) only had an EAR suppressor domain. After agroinfiltration, AhAP2.1, AhAP2...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Ahmed Bahieldin, Ahmed Atef, Sherif Edris, Nour O Gadalla, Hani M Ali, Sabah M Hassan, Magdy A Al-Kordy, Ahmed M Ramadan, Rania M Makki, Abdulrahman S M Al-Hajar, Fotouh M El-Domyati
BACKGROUND: The ultimate goal of this work was to detect the role of transcription factors (TFs) concordantly expressed with genes related to programmed cell death (PCD) during PCD and salt stress. This work was based on the hypothesis that TFs and their driven genes likely co-express under different stimuli. The conserved superfamily ethylene responsive factor (AP2/ERF) draw attention of the present study as it participates in the response to biotic and abiotic stimuli as well as to program cell death (PCD)...
October 6, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Xiaozhen Huang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Zhizhong Gong, Shuhua Yang, Yiting Shi
The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in regulating seed germination and post-germination growth. ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4), an APETALA2 (AP2)-type transcription factor, is required for the ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination. Cytokinins promote seed germination and seedling growth by antagonizing ABA signaling. However, the interaction between ABA and cytokinin signaling during seed germination remains unclear. Here, we report that ABA signaling downregulates Arabidopsis response regulators (ARRs), a class of cytokinin-inducible genes, during seed germination and cotyledon greening...
October 6, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Pengkai Wang, Tielong Cheng, Mengzhu Lu, Guangxin Liu, Meiping Li, Jisen Shi, Ye Lu, Thomas Laux, Jinhui Chen
The APETALA2 (AP2) genes represent the AP2 group within a large group of DNA-binding proteins called AP2/EREBP. The AP2 gene is functional and necessary for flower development, stem cell maintenance, and seed development, whereas the other members of AP2 group redundantly affect flowering time. Here we study the phylogeny of AP2 group genes in spermatophytes. Spermatophyte AP2 group genes can be classified into AP2 and TOE types, six clades, and we found that the AP2 group homologs in gymnosperms belong to the AP2 type, whereas TOE types are absent, which indicates the AP2 type gene are more ancient and TOE type was split out of AP2 type and losing the major function...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Emma Svensk, Jana Biermann, Sofia Hammarsten, Fredrik Magnusson, Marc Pilon
The properties of cellular membranes are critical for most cellular functions and are influenced by several parameters including phospholipid composition, integral and peripheral membrane proteins, and environmental conditions such as temperature. We previously showed that the C. elegans paqr-2 and iglr-2 mutants have a defect in membrane homeostasis and exhibit several distinct phenotypes, including a characteristic tail tip defect and cold intolerance. In the present study we report that screening for novel mutants with these 2 defects can lead to the identification of genes that are important contributors to membrane properties...
2016: Worm
Zulaykho Shamansurova, Paul Tan, Basma Ahmed, Emilie Pepin, Ondrej Seda, Julie L Lavoie
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. METHODS: An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Recep Vatansever, Mehmet Emin Uras, Ugur Sen, Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Ertugrul Filiz
A transcription factor DREB1A (dehydration-responsive element-binding 1A) gene was amplified and sequenced from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). PvDREB1A had a 777 base pairs (bp) open reading frame encoding a protein of 225 residues. The protein sequence contained a conserved DNA-binding AP2 domain of about 60 residues and a nuclear localization signal (NLS) at N-terminus site. PvDREB1A demonstrated high homology with other DREB1 members only in AP2 domain and NLS site. The phylogenetic distribution of different DREB members showed three main groups as DREB1-3 and PvDREB1A was a member of DREB1 group...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Bin Sun, Xiao-Deng Zhan, Ze-Chuan Lin, Wei-Xun Wu, Ping Yu, Ying-Xin Zhang, Lian-Ping Sun, Li-Yong Cao, Shi-Hua Cheng
A major QTL for heading date, qHD5, was fine-mapped to a 52.92-kb region on the short arm of rice chromosome 5. Heading date (HD) is one of the most important traits that enables rice to adapt to seasonal differences and specific growth conditions in diverse growing regions. In this study, a major-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL), qHD5, was resolved as a single Medelian factor that causes NIL(BG1) and NIL(XLJ) (two near-isogenic lines (NILs) used in our study) to have at a minimum of 10-day difference in HD under both long-day and short-day conditions in rice...
September 27, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Elham Karimi, Naser Safaie, Masoud Shams-Baksh, Bagher Mahmoudi
The use of biocontrol strains recently has become a popular alternative to conventional chemical treatments. A set of bacteria isolated from sugar beet rhizosphere and from roots and shoots of apple and walnut were evaluated for their potential to control sugar beet seedling damping-off caused by R. solani AG-4 and AG2-2.The results of in vitro assays concluded that three isolates, SB6, SB14, SB15, obtained from rhizosphere of sugar beet and five isolates, AP2, AP4, AP6, AP7, AP8, obtained from shoots and roots of apple were the most effective antagonists that inhibited the mycelial growth of both R...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Jiongming Sui, Defeng Jiang, Dandan Zhang, Xiaojun Song, Jingshan Wang, Mingxia Zhao, Lixian Qiao
Soil salinity seriously limits plant growth and yield. Strategies have been developed for plants to cope with various environmental stresses during evolution. To screen for the broad-spectrum genes and the molecular mechanism about a hydroxyproline-tolerant mutant of peanut with enhanced salinity resistance under salinity stress, digital gene expression (DGE) sequencing was performed in the leaves of salinity-resistant mutant (S2) and Huayu20 as control (S4) under salt stress. The results indicate that major transcription factor families linked to salinity stress responses (NAC, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/ERF) are differentially expressed in the leaves of peanut under salinity stress...
2016: PloS One
Bohan Cheng, Mengqi Wu, Songsong Xu, Xinyang Zhang, Yuxiang Wang, Ning Wang, Li Leng, Hui Li
The preadipocyte differentiation biological process involves a cascade of transcriptional events that culminates in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ. The differentiation cocktail (insulin, dexamethasone and isobutylmethylxanthine) can induce preadipocyte differentiation in mammals, but it is insufficient for chicken ( Gallus gallus ) adipogenesis. Oleate can induce chicken preadipocyte differentiation, but these differentiated preadipocytes may not be fully functional. The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether chicken preadipocytes can be induced to mature adipocytes by a novel induction method using differentiation cocktail supplemented with PPARγ agonist(s)...
September 16, 2016: Bioscience Reports
Lulu Xie, Pingli Liu, Zhixin Zhu, Shifan Zhang, Shujiang Zhang, Fei Li, Hui Zhang, Guoliang Li, Yunxiao Wei, Rifei Sun
Polyketide synthases (PKSs) utilize the products of primary metabolism to synthesize a wide array of secondary metabolites in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. PKSs can be grouped into three distinct classes, types I, II, and III, based on enzyme structure, substrate specificity, and catalytic mechanisms. The type III PKS enzymes function as homodimers, and are the only class of PKS that do not require acyl carrier protein. Plant type III PKS enzymes, also known as chalcone synthase (CHS)-like enzymes, are of particular interest due to their functional diversity...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhigang Huang, Ting Shi, Binglian Zheng, Rae Eden Yumul, Xigang Liu, Chenjiang You, Zhihong Gao, Langtao Xiao, Xuemei Chen
APETALA2 (AP2) is best known for its function in the outer two floral whorls, where it specifies the identities of sepals and petals by restricting the expression of AGAMOUS (AG) to the inner two whorls in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe a role of AP2 in promoting the maintenance of floral stem cell fate, not by repressing AG transcription, but by antagonizing AG activity in the center of the flower. We performed a genetic screen with ag-10 plants, which exhibit a weak floral determinacy defect, and isolated a mutant with a strong floral determinacy defect...
September 8, 2016: New Phytologist
Wubin Wang, Meifeng Liu, Yufeng Wang, Xuliang Li, Shixuan Cheng, Liping Shu, Zheping Yu, Jiejie Kong, Tuanjie Zhao, Junyi Gai
Annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.), the wild progenitor of the cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], is valuable for improving the later. The construction of a linkage map is crucial for studying the genetic differentiation between these species, but marker density is the main factor limiting the accuracy of such a map. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies allow for the generation of high-density linkage maps. Here, two sets of inter-specific recombinant inbred line populations, named NJIRNP and NJIR4P, composed of 284 and 161 lines, respectively, were generated from the same wild male parent, PI 342618B, and genotyped by restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
M Vlychou, J Teh, D Whitwell, N A Athanasou
Hibernoma is a benign adipose tumour that contains foetal brown fat cells. We report a case of hibernoma arising in the left ischium of a 65-year-old female with a past history of ovarian carcinoma. The patient presented with a relatively short history of left sacral/hip pain. Radiologically, the lesion, which was large (5 cm) and sclerotic, had been stable for a number of years. Histologically, it was composed mainly of plump cells with foamy, multivacuolated cytoplasm. These cells showed no reaction for epithelial, melanoma or leucocyte markers but expressed FABP4/aP2 and S100, indicating that they were brown fat cells...
November 2016: Skeletal Radiology
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