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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091569/epigenetic-regulation-of-plasmodium-falciparum-clonally-variant-gene-expression-during-development-in-anopheles-gambiae
#1
Elena Gómez-Díaz, Rakiswendé S Yerbanga, Thierry Lefèvre, Anna Cohuet, M Jordan Rowley, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo, Victor G Corces
P. falciparum phenotypic plasticity is linked to the variant expression of clonal multigene families such as the var genes. We have examined changes in transcription and histone modifications that occur during sporogonic development of P. falciparum in the mosquito host. All var genes are silenced or transcribed at low levels in blood stages (gametocyte/ring) of the parasite in the human host. After infection of mosquitoes, a single var gene is selected for expression in the oocyst, and transcription of this gene increases dramatically in the sporozoite...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091526/a-disrupted-transsulphuration-pathway-results-in-accumulation-of-redox-metabolites-and-induction-of-gametocytogenesis-in-malaria
#2
Divya Beri, Balu Balan, Shweta Chaubey, Suraj Subramaniam, Bachu Surendra, Utpal Tatu
Intra-erythrocytic growth of malaria parasite is known to induce redox stress. In addition to haem degradation which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), the parasite is also thought to efflux redox active homocysteine. To understand the basis underlying accumulation of homocysteine, we have examined the transsulphuration (TS) pathway in the parasite, which is known to convert homocysteine to cysteine in higher eukaryotes. Our bioinformatic analysis revealed absence of key enzymes in the biosynthesis of cysteine namely cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase in the parasite...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088385/flavonoid-derivative-fla-cn-inhibited-adipocyte-differentiation-via-activating-ampk-and-up-regulating-microrna-27-in-3t3-l1-cells
#3
Chun-Chun Gan, Tian-Wen Ni, Yang Yu, Nan Qin, Ying Chen, Mei-Na Jin, Hong-Quan Duan
Fla-CN (3-O-[(E)-4-(4-cyanophenyl)-2-oxobut-3-en-1-yl] kaempferol) is a semi-synthesized flavonoid derivative of tiliroside which exhibited anti-diabetic effect in vivo. Our previous study revealed the role of Fla-CN in anti-obesity and anti-diabetes in vivo, but the underlying mechanism remained to be addressed. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of anti-adipogenesis in vitro. Fla-CN markedly inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibitory effect was mainly limited to the early stage of adipocyte differentiation in vitro...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081440/a-knockout-screen-of-apiap2-genes-reveals-networks-of-interacting-transcriptional-regulators-controlling-the-plasmodium-life-cycle
#4
Katarzyna Modrzynska, Claudia Pfander, Lia Chappell, Lu Yu, Catherine Suarez, Kirsten Dundas, Ana Rita Gomes, David Goulding, Julian C Rayner, Jyoti Choudhary, Oliver Billker
A family of apicomplexa-specific proteins containing AP2 DNA-binding domains (ApiAP2s) was identified in malaria parasites. This family includes sequence-specific transcription factors that are key regulators of development. However, functions for the majority of ApiAP2 genes remain unknown. Here, a systematic knockout screen in Plasmodium berghei identified ten ApiAP2 genes that were essential for mosquito transmission: four were critical for the formation of infectious ookinetes, and three were required for sporogony...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072841/a-small-insulinomimetic-molecule-also-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-diabetic-mice
#5
Sandip Mukherjee, Mrittika Chattopadhyay, Sushmita Bhattacharya, Suman Dasgupta, Sahid Hussain, Saitanya K Bharadwaj, Dhrubajyoti Talukdar, Abul Usmani, Bhola S Pradhan, Subeer S Majumdar, Pronobesh Chattopadhyay, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Tushar K Maity, Mihir K Chaudhuri, Samir Bhattacharya
Dramatic increase of diabetes over the globe is in tandem with the increase in insulin requirement. This is because destruction and dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells are of common occurrence in both Type1 diabetes and Type2 diabetes, and insulin injection becomes a compulsion. Because of several problems associated with insulin injection, orally active insulin mimetic compounds would be ideal substitute. Here we report a small molecule, a peroxyvanadate compound i.e. DmpzH[VO(O2)2(dmpz)], henceforth referred as dmp, which specifically binds to insulin receptor with considerable affinity (KD-1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068194/the-erf-required-for-nodulation1-ern1-transcription-factor-is-required-for-infection-thread-formation-in-lotus-japonicus
#6
Yasuyuki Kawaharada, Euan K James, Simon Kelly, Niels Sandal, Jens Stougaard
Several hundred genes are transcriptionally regulated during infection thread formation and development of nitrogen fixing root nodules. We have characterized a set of Lotus japonicus mutants impaired in root nodule formation and found that the causative gene, Ern1, encodes a protein with a characteristic APETALA2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor domain. Phenotypic characterisation of four ern1 alleles shows that infection pockets are formed but root hair infection threads are absent...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067580/cis-regulatory-plethora-promoter-elements-directing-root-and-nodule-expression-are-conserved-between-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-medicago-truncatula
#7
Henk J Franssen, Olga Kulikova, Viola Willemsen, Renze Heidstra
Nodules are unique organs formed on roots of legumes by soil-borne bacteria, collectively known as rhizobium. Recently, we have shown that orthologs of the AINTEGUMENTA-like (AIL) AP2 transcription factors PLETHORA (PLT) 1 to 4, that redundantly regulate Arabidopsis thaliana root development are involved in root and nodule growth in Medicago truncatula. Hence, it is conceivable that rhizobium has co-opted these genes for nodule development. Whether this co-option requires the presence of specific cis-elements in the promoters and/or specialisation of PLT protein function is not clear...
January 9, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055298/vitamin-d-limits-inflammation-linked-microrna-expression-in-adipocytes-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-a-new-mechanism-for-the-regulation-of-inflammation-by-vitamin-d
#8
Esma Karkeni, Lauriane Bonnet, Julie Marcotorchino, Franck Tourniaire, Julien Astier, Jianping Ye, Jean-François Landrier
Inflammation of adipose tissue is believed to be a contributing factor to many chronic diseases associated with obesity. Vitamin D (VD) is now known to limit this metabolic inflammation by decreasing inflammatory marker expression and leukocyte infiltration in adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated the impact of VD on microRNA (miR) expression in inflammatory conditions in human and mouse adipocytes, using high-throughput methodology (miRNA PCR arrays). Firstly, we identified three miRs (miR-146a, miR-150, and miR-155) positively regulated by TNFα in human adipocytes...
January 5, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052251/interplay-between-obesity-induced-inflammation-and-cgmp-signaling-in-white-adipose-tissue
#9
Abhishek Sanyal, Jennifer Naumann, Linda Sarah Hoffmann, Agnieszka Chabowska-Kita, Anna Ehrlund, Andreas Schlitzer, Peter Arner, Matthias Blüher, Alexander Pfeifer
Current worldwide figures suggest that obesity is pandemic. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms would help develop viable anti-obesity therapies. Here, we assess the influence of obesity-induced inflammation on white adipocyte cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling, which is beneficial for adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis. We find that murine gonadal and not inguinal fat is prone to obesity-induced inflammation. Correspondingly, the cGMP cascade is dysregulated in gonadal but not in inguinal fat of obese mice...
January 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045578/cytokinin-response-factor-5-has-transcriptional-activity-governed-by-its-c-terminal-domain
#10
Bernd Striberny, Anthony E Melton, Rainer Schwacke, Kirsten Krause, Karsten Fischer, Leslie R Goertzen, Aaron M Rashotte
Cytokinin Response Factors (CRFs) are AP2/ERF transcription factors involved in cytokinin signal transduction. CRF proteins consist of a N-terminal dimerization domain (CRF domain), an AP2 DNA-binding domain, and a clade-specific C-terminal region of unknown function. Using a series of sequential deletions in yeast-two-hybrid assays, we provide evidence that the C-terminal region of Arabidopsis CRF5 can confer transactivation activity. Although comparative analyses identified evolutionarily conserved protein sequence within the C-terminal region, deletion experiments suggest that this transactivation domain has a partially redundant modular structure required for activation of target gene transcription...
January 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028038/function-and-evolution-of-a-lotus-japonicus-ap2-erf-family-transcription-factor-that-is-required-for-development-of-infection-threads
#11
Koji Yano, Seishiro Aoki, Meng Liu, Yosuke Umehara, Norio Suganuma, Wataru Iwasaki, Shusei Sato, Takashi Soyano, Hiroshi Kouchi, Masayoshi Kawaguchi
Legume-rhizobium symbiosis is achieved by two major events evolutionarily acquired: root hair infection and organogenesis. Infection thread (IT) development is a distinct element for rhizobial infection. Through ITs, rhizobia are efficiently transported from infection foci on root hairs to dividing meristematic cortical cells. To unveil this process, we performed genetic screening using Lotus japonicus MG-20 and isolated symbiotic mutant lines affecting nodulation, root hair morphology, and IT development. Map-based cloning identified an AP2/ERF transcription factor gene orthologous to Medicago truncatula ERN1 LjERN1 was activated in response to rhizobial infection and depended on CYCLOPS and NSP2...
December 27, 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018397/function-of-ap2-erf-transcription-factors-involved-in-the-regulation-of-specialized-metabolism-in-ophiorrhiza-pumila-revealed-by-transcriptomics-and-metabolomics
#12
Nirin Udomsom, Amit Rai, Hideyuki Suzuki, Jun Okuyama, Ryosuke Imai, Tetsuya Mori, Ryo Nakabayashi, Kazuki Saito, Mami Yamazaki
The hairy roots (HR) of Ophiorrhiza pumila produce camptothecin (CPT), a monoterpenoid indole alkaloid used as a precursor in the synthesis of chemotherapeutic drugs. O. pumila HR culture is considered as a promising alternative source of CPT, however, the knowledge about the biosynthetic pathway and regulatory mechanism is still limited. In this study, five genes that encode AP2/ERF transcription factors, namely OpERF1-OpERF5, were isolated from HR of O. pumila. Phylogenetic analysis of AP2/ERF protein sequences suggested the close evolutionary relationship of OpERF1 with stress-responsive ERF factors in Arabidopsis and of OpERF2 with ERF factors reported to regulate alkaloid production, such as ORCA3 in Catharanthus roseus, NIC2 locus ERF in tobacco, and JRE4 in tomato...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018366/identification-of-mirnas-affecting-the-establishment-of-brassica-alboglabra-seedling
#13
Rongfang Guo, Yanping Deng, Zhongkai Huang, Xiaodong Chen, Xu XuHan, Zhongxiong Lai
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important for plant development including seed formation, dormancy, and germination, as well as seedling establishment. The Brassica vegetable seedling establishment stage influences the development of high quality seedlings, but also affects the nutrient content of sprouts. Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) seedlings at different growth stages were used to construct two small-RNA (sRNA) libraries. We comprehensively analyzed the miRNAs in 2- and 9-day-old seedlings. An average of 11,722,490 clean reads were generated after removing low-quality reads and adapter contaminants...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011694/wind1-promotes-shoot-regeneration-through-transcriptional-activation-of-enhancer-of-shoot-regeneration1-in-arabidopsis
#14
Akira Iwase, Hirofumi Harashima, Momoko Ikeuchi, Bart Rymen, Mariko Ohnuma, Shinichiro Komaki, Kengo Morohashi, Tetsuya Kurata, Masaru Nakata, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Erich Grotewold, Keiko Sugimoto
Many plant species display remarkable developmental plasticity and regenerate new organs after injury. Local signals produced by wounding are thought to trigger organ regeneration but molecular mechanisms underlying this control remain largely unknown. We previously identified an AP2/ERF transcription factor WOUND INDUCED DEDIFFERENTIATION 1 (WIND1) as a central regulator of wound-induced cellular reprogramming in plants. In this study, we demonstrate that WIND1 promotes callus formation and shoot regeneration by up-regulating the expression of the ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 (ESR1) gene, which encodes another AP2/ERF transcription factor in Arabidopsis...
December 23, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003333/regulation-of-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis-by-hierarchical-allosteric-activation-of-ap2
#15
Zuzana Kadlecova, Stephanie J Spielman, Dinah Loerke, Aparna Mohanakrishnan, Dana Kim Reed, Sandra L Schmid
The critical initiation phase of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) determines where and when endocytosis occurs. Heterotetrameric adaptor protein 2 (AP2) complexes, which initiate clathrin-coated pit (CCP) assembly, are activated by conformational changes in response to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and cargo binding at multiple sites. However, the functional hierarchy of interactions and how these conformational changes relate to distinct steps in CCP formation in living cells remains unknown...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001315/glandular-trichome-specific-wrky-1-promotes-artemisinin-biosynthesis-in-artemisia-annua
#16
Minghui Chen, Tingxiang Yan, Qian Shen, Xu Lu, Qifang Pan, Youran Huang, Yueli Tang, Xueqing Fu, Meng Liu, Weimin Jiang, Zongyou Lv, Pu Shi, Ya-Nan Ma, Xiaolong Hao, Lida Zhang, Ling Li, Kexuan Tang
Artemisinin is a type of sesquiterpene lactone well known as an antimalarial drug, and is specifically produced in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua. However, the regulatory network for the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway remains poorly understood. Exploration of trichome-specific transcription factors would facilitate the elucidation of regulatory mechanism of artemisinin biosynthesis. The WRKY transcription factor GLANDULAR TRICHOME-SPECIFIC WRKY 1 (AaGSW1) was cloned and analysed in A. annua. AaGSW1 exhibited similar expression patterns to the trichome-specific genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway and AP2/ERF transcription factor AaORA...
December 21, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994206/cytosine-deletion-at-ap2-box-region-of-hsp70-promoter-and-its-influence-on-semen-quality-traits-in-crossbred-bulls
#17
Rajib Deb, Basavraj Sajjanar, Umesh Singh, Sushil Kumar, Gyanendra Singh Sengar, Rani Alex, A K Das, S Tyagi, T V Raja, R R Alyethodi, Rani Singh, V Bhanuprakash, B Prakash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987315/partial-protection-by-dietary-antioxidants-against-ethanol-induced-osteopenia-and-changes-in-bone-morphology-in-female-mice
#18
Alexander W Alund, Kelly E Mercer, Casey F Pulliam, Larry J Suva, Jin-Ran Chen, Thomas M Badger, Martin J J Ronis
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol consumption leads to increased fracture risk and an elevated risk of osteoporosis by decreasing bone accrual through increasing osteoclast activity and decreasing osteoblast activity. We have shown that this mechanism involves the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases. It was hypothesized that different dietary antioxidants, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC; 1.2 mg/kg/d), and α-tocopherol (Vit.E; 60 mg/kg/d) would be able to attenuate the NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS effects on bone due to chronic alcohol intake...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980069/multiple-routes-of-endocytic-internalization-of-pdgfr%C3%AE-contribute-to-pdgf-induced-stat3-signaling
#19
Kamil Jastrzębski, Daria Zdżalik-Bielecka, Agnieszka Mamińska, Yannis Kalaidzidis, Carina Hellberg, Marta Miaczynska
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) is a receptor tyrosine kinase which upon activation by PDGF-BB stimulates cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. Ligand binding induces intracellular signaling cascades but also internalization of the receptor, eventually resulting in its lysosomal degradation. However, endocytic trafficking of receptors often modulates their downstream signaling. We previously reported that internalization of PDGFRβ occurs via dynamin-dependent and -independent pathways but their further molecular determinants remained unknown...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965678/expression-profiles-and-dna-binding-affinity-of-five-erf-genes-in-bunches-of-vitis-vinifera-cv-cardinal-treated-with-high-levels-of-co2-at-low-temperature
#20
Irene Romero, Maria Vazquez-Hernandez, M I Escribano, Carmen Merodio, M T Sanchez-Ballesta
Ethylene response factors (ERFs) play an important role in plants by regulating defense response through interaction with various stress pathways. After harvest, table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are subject to a range of problems associated with postharvest storage at 0°C, such as fungal attack, water loss and rachis browning. The application of a 3-day high CO2 treatment maintained fruit quality and activated the induction of transcription factors belonging to different families such as ERF. In this paper, we have isolated five VviERFs from table grapes cv...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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