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Delia Bucher, Felix Frey, Kem A Sochacki, Susann Kummer, Jan-Philip Bergeest, William J Godinez, Hans-Georg Kräusslich, Karl Rohr, Justin W Taraska, Ulrich S Schwarz, Steeve Boulant
Although essential for many cellular processes, the sequence of structural and molecular events during clathrin-mediated endocytosis remains elusive. While it was long believed that clathrin-coated pits grow with a constant curvature, it was recently suggested that clathrin first assembles to form flat structures that then bend while maintaining a constant surface area. Here, we combine correlative electron and light microscopy and mathematical growth laws to study the ultrastructural rearrangements of the clathrin coat during endocytosis in BSC-1 mammalian cells...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Chieun Song, Jimin Lee, Taeyoon Kim, Jong Chan Hong, Chae Oh Lim
Under normal growth conditions, Arabidopsis VOZ1 interacts with DREB2C and acts as a transcriptional repressor by reducing DNA binding of DREB2C. Under heat stress conditions, VOZ1 is degraded by ubiquitination, and DREB2C, which is freed from VOZ1, functions as a transcription activator. To investigate the mechanism by which the DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR 2C (DREB2C)-dependent signaling cascade regulates heat stress (HS) responses, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening using the DREB2C APETALA2 (AP2) DNA-binding domain as the bait against a cDNA library derived from Arabidopsis...
March 13, 2018: Planta
Tao Wei, Kejun Deng, Hongbin Wang, Lipeng Zhang, Chunguo Wang, Wenqin Song, Yong Zhang, Chengbin Chen
In our previous study, drought-resistant transgenic plants of Salvia miltiorrhiza were produced via overexpression of the transcription factor AtDREB1A. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underpinning elevated drought tolerance in transgenic plants, in the present study we compared the global transcriptional profiles of wild-type (WT) and AtDREB1A -expressing transgenic plants using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Using cluster analysis, we identified 3904 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Compared with WT plants, 423 unigenes were up-regulated in pRD29A::AtDREB1A-31 before drought treatment, while 936 were down-regulated and 1580 and 1313 unigenes were up- and down-regulated after six days of drought...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jason P Londo, Alisson P Kovaleski, Jacquelyn A Lillis
Low-temperature stresses limit the sustainability and productivity of grapevines when early spring frosts damage young grapevine leaves. Spring conditions often expose grapevines to low, but not damaging, chilling temperatures and these temperatures have been shown to increase freeze resistance in other model systems. In this study, we examined whole-transcriptome gene expression patterns of young leaf tissue from cuttings of five different grapevine cultivars, exposed to chill and freeze shock, in order to understand the underlying transcriptional landscape associated with cold stress response...
2018: Horticulture Research
X Su, D Q Peng
Objective: To verify whether Apo A5 could inhibit the adipogenic differentiation of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs). Methods: We isolated AMSCs by collagenase digestion method from the adipocyte tissue of patients underwent abdominal surgery in our hospital from February to July 2015. AMSCs were differentiated into mature adipocytes and incubated with Apo A5 (600 and 1 200 ng/ml) for 7, 14 and 21 days. Morphological changes, TG content, and gene expression levels of adipogenic differentiation markers were determined...
February 24, 2018: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
Shahzad Ahmad, Christian Bannister, Sven J van der Lee, Dina Vojinovic, Hieab H H Adams, Alfredo Ramirez, Valentina Escott-Price, Rebecca Sims, Emily Baker, Julie Williams, Peter Holmans, Meike W Vernooij, M Arfan Ikram, Najaf Amin, Cornelia M van Duijn
INTRODUCTION: Exploring the role of Alzheimer's disease (AD) implicated pathways in the predementia phase may provide new insight for preventive and clinical trials targeting disease specific pathways. METHODS: We constructed weighted Genetic risk scores, first based on 20 genome-wide significant AD risk variants and second clustering these variants within pathways. Risk scores were investigated for their association with AD, mild cognitive impairment, and brain magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes including white matter lesions, hippocampal volume, and brain volume...
February 26, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Igor V Kubasov, Andrei Stepanov, Danila Bobkov, Przemysław B Radwanski, Maxim A Terpilowski, Maxim Dobretsov, Sandor Gyorke
The cardiac action potential (AP) is commonly recoded as an integral signal from isolated myocytes or ensembles of myocytes (with intracellular microelectrodes and extracellular macroelectrodes, respectively). These signals, however, do not provide a direct measure of activity of ion channels and transporters located in two major compartments of a cardiac myocyte: surface sarcolemma and the T-tubule system, which differentially contribute to impulse propagation and excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. In the present study we investigated electrical properties of myocytes within perfused intact rat heart employing loose patch recording with narrow-tip (2 μm diameter) extracellular electrodes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Momoko Ikeuchi, Michitaro Shibata, Bart Rymen, Akira Iwase, Anne-Maarit Bågman, Lewis Watt, Duncan Coleman, David S Favero, Tatsuya Takahashi, Sebastian E Ahnert, Siobhan M Brady, Keiko Sugimoto
Wounding triggers organ regeneration in many plant species, and application of plant hormones, such as auxin and cytokinin, enhances their regenerative capacities in tissue culture. Recent studies have identified several key players mediating wound- and/or plant hormone-induced cellular reprogramming, but the global architecture of gene regulatory relationships underlying plant cellular reprogramming is still far from clear. In this study, we uncovered a gene regulatory network (GRN) associated with plant cellular reprogramming by using an enhanced yeast one-hybrid (eY1H) screen systematically to identify regulatory relationships between 252 transcription factors (TFs) and 48 promoters...
February 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
G L Tiemeier, J M Brown, S E Pratap, C McCarthy, A Kastrenopoulou, K Bradley, S Wilson, Z Orosz, C L M H Gibbons, U Oppermann, N A Athanasou
Background: Liposarcoma is an extremely rare primary bone sarcoma. Case presentation: We report a case of primary pleomorphic liposarcoma that arose in an 18 year old male in the metaphysis of the left tibia. Plain radiographs showed a partly sclerotic lesion and MR imaging a heterogeneous tumour predominantly isointense on T1- and high-signal on T2-weighted sequences with focal areas of increased T1 signal that suppressed with fat saturation. PET/CT showed marked FDG uptake (SUV = 17...
2018: Clinical Sarcoma Research
Outi Huttala, Maaria Palmroth, Pauliina Hemminki, Tarja Toimela, Tuula Heinonen, Timo Ylikomi, Jertta-Riina Sarkanen
Many adipose tissue-related diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are worldwide epidemics. For studying these diseases, relevant human cell models are needed. In this study, we developed a vascularized adipose tissue model where human adipose stromal cells (hASC) and human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were co-cultured with natural adipogenic and defined serum-free angiogenic media for 14 days. Several different protocols were compared to each other. The protocols varied in cell numbers and plating sequences...
February 14, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Christoph Lippuner, Chandra Ramakrishnan, Walter U Basso, Marc W Schmid, Michal Okoniewski, Nicholas C Smith, Michael Hässig, Peter Deplazes, Adrian B Hehl
Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrhoea in humans and animals. There are no vaccines and few drugs available to control C. parvum. In this study, we used RNA-Seq to compare gene expression in sporozoites and intracellular stages of C. parvum to identify genes likely to be important for successful completion of the parasite's life cycle and, thereby, possible targets for drugs or vaccines. We identified 3774 protein-encoding transcripts in C. parvum. Applying a stringent cut-off of eight fold for determination of differential expression, we identified 173 genes (26 coding for predicted secreted proteins) upregulated in sporozoites...
February 9, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Abubakar Mohammad Gumi, Pritam Kanti Guha, Abhishek Mazumder, Pawan Jayaswal, Tapan Kumar Mondal
In this study, AP2 DNA-binding domain-containing transcription factor, OglDREB2A, was cloned from the African rice ( Oryza glaberrima ) and compared with 3000 rice genotypes. Further, the phylogenetic and various structural analysis was performed using in silico approaches. Further, to understand its allelic variation in rice, SNPs and indels were detected among the 3000 rice genotypes which indicated that while coding region is highly conserved, yet noncoding regions such as UTR and intron contained most of the variation...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Hyojin Kim, Young Sam Go, Mi Chung Suh
The aerial parts of terrestrial plants are covered with hydrophobic wax layers, which represent the primary barrier between plant cells and the environment and act to protect plants from abiotic and biotic stresses. Although total wax loads are precisely regulated in environmental or organ-specific manner, regulatory mechanisms underlying cuticular wax biosynthesis remain largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the DEWAX2, which encodes an AP2/ERF-type transcription factor and is predominantly expressed in young seedlings, and rosette and cauline leaves...
February 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Caroline M Gorvin, Angela Rogers, Benoit Hastoy, Andrei I Tarasov, Morten Frost, Silvia Sposini, Asuka Inoue, Michael P Whyte, Patrik Rorsman, Aylin C Hanyaloglu, Gerda E Breitwieser, Rajesh V Thakker
Spatial control of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, which is used by cells to translate complex information into distinct downstream responses, is achieved by using plasma membrane (PM) and endocytic-derived signaling pathways. The roles of the endomembrane in regulating such pleiotropic signaling via multiple G-protein pathways remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of disease-causing mutations of the adaptor protein-2 ? subunit (AP2?) on signaling by the class C GPCR calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR)...
January 23, 2018: Cell Reports
F Carvajal, R Rosales, F Palma, S Manzano, J Cañizares, M Jamilena, D Garrido
BACKGROUND: Zucchini fruit is susceptible to chilling injury (CI), but the response to low storage temperature is cultivar dependent. Previous reports about the response of zucchini fruit to chilling storage have been focused on the physiology and biochemistry of this process, with little information about the molecular mechanisms underlying it. In this work, we present a comprehensive analysis of transcriptomic changes that take place after cold storage in zucchini fruit of two commercial cultivars with contrasting response to chilling stress...
February 7, 2018: BMC Genomics
Xueying Liu, Shanshan Lv, Ran Liu, Shuangxi Fan, Chaojie Liu, Renyi Liu, Yingyan Han
A cool temperature is preferred for lettuce cultivation, as high temperatures cause premature bolting. Accordingly, exploring the mechanism of bolting and preventing premature bolting is important for agriculture. To explore this relationship in depth, morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic analyses of the bolting-sensitive line S39 at the five-leaf stage grown at 37°C were performed in the present study. Based on paraffin section results, we observed that S39 began bolting on the seventh day at 37°C...
2018: PloS One
Valentina Pomatto, Erika Cottone, Paolo Cocci, Matteo Mozzicafreddo, Gilberto Mosconi, Erik Russel Nelson, Francesco Alessandro Palermo, Patrizia Bovolin
Recent studies suggest that exposure to some plasticizers, such as Bisphenol A (BPA), play a role in endocrine/metabolic dispruption and can affect lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Here, we investigated the adipogenic activity and nuclear receptor interactions of four plasticizers approved for the manufacturing of food-contact materials (FCMs) and currently considered safer alternatives. Differentiating 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocytes were exposed to scalar concentrations (0.01-25 μM) of DiNP (Di-iso-nonyl-phthalate), DiDP (Di-iso-decyl-phthalate), DEGDB (Diethylene glycol dibenzoate), or TMCP (Tri-m-cresyl phosphate)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Chunge Guan, Simiao Qiao, Qi Lv, Na Cao, Kai Wang, Yue Dai, Zhifeng Wei
Berberine has been demonstrated to alleviate renal interstitial, liver and myocardial fibrosis when administered orally despite its extremely low bioavailability. Here, we inspected effect of berberine on pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and explored underlying mechanisms on the basis of intestinal endocrine. The results showed that either oral or rectal administration of berberine exhibited marked alleviation of bleomycin-induced PF in mice. In contrast, anti-PF activity of berberine disappeared when given by an intravenous injection, implying that it functioned in a gut-dependent manner...
February 3, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Beatriz Pérez Montoro, Nabil Benomar, Natacha Caballero Gómez, Said Ennahar, Peter Horvatovich, Charles W Knapp, Antonio Gálvez, Hikmate Abriouel
Acidity often prevents the undesirable microbial colonization both in fermented foods and under gastric conditions. Thus, the acid resistance of Lactobacillus pentosus strains used as starter cultures and/or probiotics requires further understanding. This was investigated by means of comparative proteomic approach using three strains representing the phenotypes: resistant (AP2-15), intermediate (AP2-18) and sensitive (LP-1) to acidic conditions. Proteomic analysis of constitutive phenotypes revealed that the intrinsic resistance of L...
June 2018: Food Microbiology
Ling Chen, Xing-Yun Wang, Jin-Gai Zhu, Liang-Hui You, Xing Wang, Xian-Wei Cui, Chun-Mei Shi, Fang-Yan Huang, Ya-Hui Zhou, Lei Yang, Ling-Xia Pang, Yao Gao, Chen-Bo Ji, Xi-Rong Guo
The novel obesity-associated protein Phosphotyrosine Interaction Domain containing 1 (PID1) inhibits insulin-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in vitro. In this study, we generated fat tissue-specific aP2-PID1 transgenic (aP2-PID1tg) mice and PID1 knockout (PID1-/-) mice to explore how PID1 affects glucose metabolism in vivo. We observed insulin resistance and impaired insulin-PI3K/Akt signaling in aP2-PID1tg mice. Consistent with these data, the PID1-/- mice displayed improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity under chow diet, with increased Akt phosphorylation in white adipose tissue (WAT)...
January 29, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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