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Functional neurologist

Rajani Singh, Rajnish Arora, Raj Kumar
Chiari malformations (CMs) are variant structural setup of cerebellum and brain stem at the craniovertebral junction. Normally the cerebellum and parts of the brain stem lie above the foramen magnum. When the part of the cerebellum and/or brainstem protrudes into the upper spinal canal through foramen magnum, it is defined as CM. Chiari malformations may develop when part of the skull is smaller than normal or misshapen, due to which the cerebellum herniates into spinal canal through foramen magnum. This compresses the cerebellum and brainstem affecting functions controlled by these parts and blocks the flow of cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
David Ulrich Seidel, Jonas Jae-Hyun Park, Andreas M Sesterhenn, Karel Kostev
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of dizziness- and vertigo-related diagnoses in ear, nose, and throat (ENT) practices in Germany and the associated demographic characteristics based on data from a representative nationwide practice database. METHOD: The study sample included patients from 138 ENT practices in Germany who received dizziness- and vertigorelated diagnoses (ICD-10 code) between January 2012 and December 2015. Collected parameters included age, sex, insurance status, prescribed medication (anatomical therapeutic chemical [ATC] class), and referrals to other specialists and hospitals...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Edward H Reynolds
The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420 BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as "functional neurological disorder". The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Vanessa Siffredi, Vicki Anderson, Alissandra McIlroy, Amanda G Wood, Richard J Leventer, Megan M Spencer-Smith
OBJECTIVES: Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), characterized by developmental absence of the corpus callosum, is one of the most common congenital brain malformations. To date, there are limited data on the neuropsychological consequences of AgCC and factors that modulate different outcomes, especially in children. This study aimed to describe general intellectual, academic, executive, social and behavioral functioning in a cohort of school-aged children presenting for clinical services to a hospital and diagnosed with AgCC...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Joseph D Burns, Jennifer L Fisher, Anna M Cervantes-Arslanian
Primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common, devastating disease that lacks an effective specific treatment. Mortality is high, functional outcomes are poor, and these have not substantially changed for decades. There is, therefore, considerable opportunity for advancement in the management of ICH. In recent years, a significant amount of research has begun to address this gap. This article is aimed at updating neurologists on the most clinically relevant contemporary research.
April 2018: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Edward D Huey, Stephanie Cosentino, Silvia Chapman, Martina Azar, Brittany Rohl, Kathleen Collins, Sarah Morgan, Xinhua Liu, Elan D Louis
BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are associated with essential tremor (ET). However, the relationship between cognitive, functional, and motor measures with depressive symptoms in ET is not yet understood. METHODS: The following measures were cross-sectionally assessed in a group of 223 subjects with ET: the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) Scale, the Lawton Independent Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Scale, a neurologist assessment of tremor severity, and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)...
February 20, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Semi Ozturk, Ahmet Seyfeddin Gurbuz, Suleyman Cagan Efe, Raim Iliaz, Mutse Banzragch, Kadir Demir
Background Neurologic and liver involvement in Wilson's disease (WD) is well-documented, however, few reports demonstrated cardiac involvement. Tpe and Tpe/QT are new measures of ventricular repolarization which were recently suggested as predictor of arrythmogenesis. We aimed to evaluate ventricular depolarization and repolarization parameters including QT, QTc, Tpe intervals, Tpe/QT, Tpe/QTc ratios, and QT dispersion (QTd) in patients with WD. Materials and methods Thirty-five patients with WD and 30 healthy controls were included in the study...
March 1, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
Rina Ando, Hirotaka Iwaki, Tomoaki Tsujii, Masahiro Nagai, Noriko Nishikawa, Hayato Yabe, Ikuko Aiba, Kazuko Hasegawa, Yoshio Tsuboi, Masashi Aoki, Kenji Nakashima, Masahiro Nomoto
Objective We conducted a study to obtain information that could be used to provide Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with appropriate advice on safe driving. Methods Consecutive PD patients who visited our office were studied. Among these patients, those who had experienced driving after being diagnosed with PD were interviewed by neurologists and a trained nurse to investigate their previous car accidents, motor function, cognitive function, sleepiness, levodopa equivalent dose (LED), and emotional dysregulation...
February 28, 2018: Internal Medicine
Chiara Zucchella, Angela Federico, Alice Martini, Michele Tinazzi, Michelangelo Bartolo, Stefano Tamburin
Neuropsychological testing is a key diagnostic tool for assessing people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment, but can also help in other neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy. While cognitive screening tests offer gross information, detailed neuropsychological evaluation can provide data on different cognitive domains (visuospatial function, memory, attention, executive function, language and praxis) as well as neuropsychiatric and behavioural features...
February 22, 2018: Practical Neurology
Yuqiong Liu, Gangqiong Liu, Ling Li, Jing Yang, Shengli Ma
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Many studies have investigated the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and cardiovascular risk factors, leading to conflicting results. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine whether RLS is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 5,324 consecutive subjects who visited the Physical Examination Center of The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University for their yearly routine physical examination...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Rafael Teixeira Magalhaes Leal, Bruno Mendonça Barcellos, Jose Alberto Landeiro
BACKGROUND: Brain tumor surgery near or within eloquent regions is increasingly common and is associated with a high risk of neurological injury. Awake craniotomy with mapping has been shown to be a valid method to preserve neurological function while increasing the extent of resection. However, the technique used varies greatly among centers. Most count on professionals such as neuropsychologists, speech therapists, neurophysiologists or neurologists to help in intraoperative patient evaluation...
February 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
David S Zee
The cerebellum, its normal functions and its diseases, and especially its relation to the control of eye movements, has been at the heart of my academic career. Here I review how this came about, with an emphasis on epiphanies, "tipping points" and the influences of mentors, colleagues and trainees. I set a path for young academicians, both clinicians and basic scientists, with some guidelines for developing a productive and rewarding career in neuroscience.
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Ann H Tilton, Claudio Melo de Gusmao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With advances in medical care, the number of youths surviving with medically complex conditions has been steadily increasing. Inadequate transition planning and execution can lead to gaps in care, unexpected emergency department visits, and an increase in health care costs and patient/caregiver anxiety. Many barriers that prevent adequate transition have been identified, including insufficient time or staff to provide transition services, inadequate reimbursement, resistance from patients and caregivers, and a dearth of accepting adult providers...
February 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Thomas McLaughlin, David Han, James Nicholson, Bruce Steinberg, Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Eric Braverman, Mona Li, Lyle Fried, Rajendra Badgaiyan
With aging, there is decline in both short-term and long-term memory. This effect is magnified by epigenetic insults on specific, dopamine- related genes (e.g., DRD2, DAT1) as well as by impaired or reduced mRNA transcription. In addition, long-term memory ability is positively correlated with dopamine function and there is evidence that aging is associated with a reduction in brain dopamine D2 receptors, with an acceleration seen in aging-induced dementia. As a result, the authors tested the acute effect of a Pro-Dopamine Regulator (KB220Z, liquid Nano variant) on an aspect of long-term memory performance in a 77-year-old, highly functional male, using the Animal Naming Test (ANT)...
May 2017: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
Christiane Cavalcante Feitoza, Matheus Corrêa da-Silva, Yasmim Lima Nascimento, Elaine Sobral Leite, Corintho Viana Pereira, Lucas Gomes Patrocínio
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA) is a multifactorial disease that highly alters a persons quality of life. It is characterized by the repeated interruption of breathing during sleep, due to an obstruction or the collapse of the upper airways. Since it is a multifactorial etiological disorder, it requires a thorough diagnosis and treatment with an interdisciplinary team, which comprises several professionals such as a surgical dentist, phonoaudiologist, otorhinolaryngologist, sleep doctor, neurologist and physiotherapist...
October 2017: Sleep Science
Giuseppa Maresca, Maria C De Cola, Santina Caliri, Rosaria De Luca, Alfredo Manuli, Ileana Scarcella, Giuseppe Silvestri, Placido Bramanti, Michele Torrisi, Rocco S Calabrò, Alessia Bramanti
Introduction Elderly care is a worldwide social and economic challenge for the public health system, and it requires the development of new management strategies. Telemedicine provides an innovative approach towards elderly care, especially for those with chronic diseases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential role of a multidisciplinary telemedicine approach for improving elderly quality of life. Methods Twenty-two participants received weekly vital parameter monitoring and nutritional counselling, biweekly psychological counselling and a monthly consultation with a neurologist...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Chris P Stephenson, Ian J Baguley
Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder (FND) is a relatively common neurological condition, accounting for approximately 3-6% of neurologist referrals. FND is considered a transient disorder of neuronal function, sometimes linked to physical trauma and psychological stress. Despite this, chronic disability is common, for example, around 40% of adults with motor FND have permanent disability. Building on current theoretical models, this paper proposes that microglial dysfunction could perpetuate functional changes within acute motor FND, thus providing a pathophysiological mechanism underlying the chronic stage of the motor FND phenotypes seen clinically...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Xiaolei Liu, Roi Treister, Magdalena Lang, Anne Louise Oaklander
Objectives: Small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN) has various underlying causes, including associations with systemic autoimmune conditions. We have proposed a new cause; small-fiber-targeting autoimmune diseases akin to Guillain-Barré and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). There are no treatment studies yet for this 'apparently autoimmune SFPN' (aaSFPN), but intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), first-line for Guillain-Barré and CIDP, is prescribed off-label for aaSFPN despite very high cost...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Thomas J Cusack, J Ricardo Carhuapoma, Wendy C Ziai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) is a prominent challenge faced globally by neurosurgeons, neurologists, and intensivists. Over the past few decades, basic and clinical research efforts have been undertaken with the goal of delineating biologically and evidence-based practices aimed at decreasing mortality and optimizing the likelihood of meaningful functional outcome for patients afflicted with this devastating condition. Here, the authors review the medical and surgical approaches available for the treatment of spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage, identifying areas of recent progress and ongoing research to delineate the scope and scale of IPH as it is currently understood and treated...
February 3, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Stacy Schantz Wilkins, Paula Bourke, Abdul Salam, Naveed Akhtar, Atlantic D'Souza, Saadat Kamran, Zain Bhutta, Ashfaq Shuaib
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 30% of acute stroke cases are found to be stroke mimics (SM); with functional/psychological stroke mimics (FSM) accounting for up to 6.4% of all stroke presentations. Middle Eastern countries may have higher rates of somatization of emotional distress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of functional SM at a large general hospital in the Middle East. METHODS: All patients presenting with an initial diagnosis of stroke from June 2015 through September 2016 were eligible for this study...
February 1, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
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