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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793157/energy-dissipation-in-quasi-linear-viscoelastic-tissues-cells-and-extracellular-matrix
#1
Behzad Babaei, A J Velasquez-Mao, Kenneth M Pryse, William B McConnaughey, Elliot L Elson, Guy M Genin
Characterizing how a tissue's constituents give rise to its viscoelasticity is important for uncovering how hidden timescales underlie multiscale biomechanics. These constituents are viscoelastic in nature, and their mechanics must typically be assessed from the uniaxial behavior of a tissue. Confounding the challenge is that tissue viscoelasticity is typically associated with nonlinear elastic responses. Here, we experimentally assessed how fibroblasts and extracellular matrix (ECM) within engineered tissue constructs give rise to the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of a tissue...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792860/diphenyleneiodonium-enhances-oxidative-stress-and-inhibits-japanese-encephalitis-virus-induced-autophagy-and-er-stress-pathways
#2
Manish Sharma, Kiran Bala Sharma, Shailendra Chauhan, Sankar Bhattacharyya, Sudhanshu Vrati, Manjula Kalia
Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), two widely used anti-oxidants, were employed to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) induced autophagy, stress responses and replication. DPI and NAC exerted opposite effects on ROS levels in JEV infected mouse neuronal cells (Neuro2a), mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and human epithelial cells (HeLa). While NAC effectively quenched ROS, DPI enhanced ROS levels, suggesting that DPI induces oxidative stress in JEV infected cells...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792846/adenosine-receptor-distribution-in-rhesus-monkey-ocular-tissue
#3
Krista M Beach, Li-Fang Hung, Baskar Arumugam, Earl L Smith, Lisa A Ostrin
Adenosine receptor (ADOR) antagonists, such as 7-methylxanthine (7-MX), have been shown to slow myopia progression in humans and animal models. Adenosine receptors are found throughout the body, and regulate the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate. However, the role of adenosine in eye growth is unclear. Evidence suggests that 7-MX increases scleral collagen fibril diameter, hence preventing axial elongation. This study used immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to examine the distribution of the four ADORs in the normal monkey eye to help elucidate potential mechanisms of action...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792385/an-organotypic-reconstructed-human-urethra-to-study-c-trachomatis-infection
#4
Bart Versteeg, Lenie J van den Broek, Sylvia Bruisten, Margriet Mullender, Henry J C de Vries, Susan Gibbs
Organotypic models to investigate host-microbiome interactions are still a challenge for the field of tissue engineering. This is particularly the case for organs such as the urethra. Several cell line, animal and tissue models are available to study C. trachomatis infections, but none fully reflect natural infection in native human tissue. Therefore, we developed an organotypic reconstructed human urethral model (RhU) to study invasive and non-invasive strains of C. trachomatis. Primary urethra cells were used to reconstruct epithelium on a fibroblast populated collagen-fibrin hydrogel, yielding a RhU...
May 24, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792311/pedf-regulates-plasticity-of-a-novel-lipid-mtoc-axis-in-prostate-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#5
Francesca Nardi, Philip Fitchev, Omar E Franco, Jelena Ivanisevic, Adrian Scheibler, Simon W Hayward, Charles B Brendler, Michael A Welte, Susan E Crawford
Prostate tumors make metabolic adaptations to ensure adequate energy and amplify cell cycle regulators such as centrosomes to sustain their proliferative capacity. It is not known whether cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) undergo metabolic re-programming. We postulated that CAFs augment lipid storage and amplify centrosomal or non-centrosomal microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) through a pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF)-dependent lipid-MTOC signaling axis. Primary normal human prostate fibroblasts (NFs) and CAFs were evaluated for lipid content, triacylglycerol-regulating proteins, MTOC number and distribution...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792034/soft-hydrogel-zwitterionic-coatings-minimize-fibroblast-and-macrophage-adhesion-on-polyimide-substrates
#6
Dusana Trelova, Alice Rita Salgarella, Leonardo Ricotti, Guido Giudetti, Annarita Cutrone, Petra Sramkova, Anna Zahoranova, Dusan Chorvat, Daniel Hasko, Claudio Canale, Silvestro Micera, Juraj Kronek, Arianna Menciassi, Igor Lacik
Minimizing the foreign body reaction to polyimide-based implanted devices has a pivotal role for several biomedical applications. In this work we propose materials exhibiting non-biofouling properties and a Young's modulus reflecting the one of soft human tissues. We describe the synthesis, characterization and in vitro validation of poly(carboxybetaine) hydrogel coatings covalently attached to polyimide substrates via a photolabile 4-azidophenyl group, incorporated in poly(carboxybetaine) chains at two concentrations of 1...
May 24, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791931/effectiveness-of-a-crocus-sativus-extract-on-burn-wounds-in-rats
#7
Esmat Alemzadeh, Ahmad Oryan
Crocus sativus is a spice with various pharmacological properties. Crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal are the main compositions of saffron that have recently been considered in the therapy of many diseases. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed presence of these compounds in our saffron extract. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of saffron on burn wound healing at an in vivo model. Saffron was topically applied on burn wounds in rats; the percentage of wound closure, wound contraction, and the levels of main cytokines and growth factors were measured...
May 23, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791904/the-cgas-sting-pathway-is-important-for-dendritic-cell-activation-but-is-not-essential-to-induce-protective-immunity-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#8
Fabio V Marinho, Sulayman Benmerzoug, Stephanie Rose, Priscila C Campos, João T Marques, André Báfica, Glen Barber, Bernhard Ryffel, Sergio C Oliveira, Valerie F J Quesniaux
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection remains a major public health concern. The STING (stimulator of interferon genes) pathway contributes to the cytosolic surveillance of host cells. Most studies on the role of STING activation in Mtb infection have focused on macrophages. Moreover, a detailed investigation of the role of STING during Mtb infection in vivo is required. Here, we deciphered the involvement of STING in the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and the host response to Mtb infection in vivo...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791829/burosumab-therapy-in-children-with-x-linked-hypophosphatemia
#9
Thomas O Carpenter, Michael P Whyte, Erik A Imel, Annemieke M Boot, Wolfgang Högler, Agnès Linglart, Raja Padidela, William Van't Hoff, Meng Mao, Chao-Yin Chen, Alison Skrinar, Emil Kakkis, Javier San Martin, Anthony A Portale
BACKGROUND: X-linked hypophosphatemia is characterized by increased secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), which leads to hypophosphatemia and consequently rickets, osteomalacia, and skeletal deformities. We investigated burosumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets FGF-23, in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia. METHODS: In an open-label, phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned 52 children with X-linked hypophosphatemia, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive subcutaneous burosumab either every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks; the dose was adjusted to achieve a serum phosphorus level at the low end of the normal range...
May 24, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791810/anal-fibropapillomas-containing-bovine-papillomavirus-type-2-dna-in-two-groups-of-heifers
#10
J S Munday, A A Cullum, N A Thomson, M Bestbier, T McCormack, A F Julian
CASE HISTORY: Anal warts were observed in heifers in two unrelated groups of animals. Heifers in one group developed visible warts 4 months after manual rectal examination and heifers in the other group developed warts 5 months after examination using a hand-held rectal ultrasound probe. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Large exophytic proliferative anal masses were observed in 5/15 (33%) heifers in one group and 13/149 (9%) heifers in the second group. Heifers in the second group were also noted to have similar masses on the underside of the tail at sites previously used for venepuncture and some of the heifers had skin warts...
May 23, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791759/ctnnal1-inhibits-ozone-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#11
Meiling Tan, Caixia Liu, Wenjie Huang, Linhong Deng, Xiaoqun Qin, Yang Xiang
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? In our previous work, CTNNAL1 (catenin alpha-like 1), an asthma-related epithelial adhesion molecule, was found to play a vital role in airway epithelial wound repair. The effect of CTNNAL1 on airway EMT has not been previously explored. What is the main finding and its importance? CTNNAL1 inhibits ozone-induced airway EMT features and mediated by repressing the expression of Twist1 mRNA and reducing TGF-β1 levels. These findings contribute to our understanding of the pathology of airway EMT and may indicate a possible therapeutic target for airway remodelling in bronchial asthma...
May 23, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791754/atp-triggers-a-robust-intracellular-ca-2-mediated-signalling-pathway-in-human-synovial-fibroblasts
#12
Kondo C, R B Clark, T Y Kim, Belke D, Banderali U, R T Szerencsei, A H Jalloul, P P M Schnetkamp, Spitzer Kw, Giles Wr
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? In human articular joints, the synovial fibroblast HSF cell population has essential functions including secretion of lubricants. We address some remaining questions concerning activation-secretion coupling by characterizing the main [Ca2+ ]i signalling pathways activated by ATP. What is the main finding and its importance? In HSF ATP acts through a linked G-protein (Gq ) and phospholipase C signalling mechanisms to produce IP-3 which markedly enhances release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum...
May 23, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791662/graves-ophthalmopathy-low-dose-dexamethasone-reduces-retinoic-acid-receptor-alpha-gene-expression-in-orbital-fibroblasts
#13
Sarah Santiloni Cury, Miriane Oliveira, Maria Teresa Síbio, Sueli Clara, Renata De Azevedo Melo Luvizotto, Sandro Conde, Edson Nacib Jorge, Vania Dos Santos Nunes, Célia Regina Nogueira, Gláucia Maria Ferreira da Silva Mazeto
OBJECTIVE: Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune disease that leads to ocular proptosis caused by fat accumulation and inflammation, and the main treatment is corticosteroid therapy. Retinoid acid receptor-alpha (RARα) seems to be associated with inflammation and adipocyte differentiation. This study aimed to assess the effect of glucocorticoid treatment on orbital fibroblasts of GO patient treated or not with different glucocorticoid doses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Orbital fibroblasts collected during orbital decompression of a female patient with moderately severe/severe GO were cultivated and treated with 10 nM and 100 nM dexamethasone (Dex)...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791256/nlrp6-induces-pyroptosis-by-activation-of-caspase-1-in-gingival-fibroblasts
#14
W Liu, J Liu, W Wang, Y Wang, X Ouyang
NLRP6, a member of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) innate immune receptor family, has been reported to participate in inflammasome formation. Activation of inflammasome triggers a caspase-1-dependent programming cell death called pyroptosis. However, whether NLRP6 induces pyroptosis has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that NLRP6 overexpression activated caspase-1 and gasdermin-D and then induced pyroptosis of human gingival fibroblasts, resulting in release of proinflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791034/high-expression-of-cd10-in-anaplastic-thyroid-carcinomas
#15
Tadao Nakazawa, Tetsuo Kondo, Huy Gia Vunong, Toru Odate, Masataka Kawai, Ippei Tahara, Kazunari Kasai, Tomohiro Inoue, Naoki Oishi, Kunio Mochizuki, Koichi Ito, Ryohei Katoh
AIMS: CD10 is an endopeptidase that degrades variable bioactive peptides in extra-cellular matrix. In addition to the enzymatic degradation, it affects multiple intra-cellular signal transduction pathways. CD10 expression has been extensively studied in human epithelial cancers of numerous organs and sites. However, its presence is not fully determined in thyroid carcinomas, especially in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined CD10 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 152 thyroid lesions: 9 adenomatous goiters (AGs) and 143 tumors including 47 anaplastic carcinomas...
May 23, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790940/pycotools-a-python-toolbox-for-copasi
#16
Ciaran M Welsh, Nicola Fullard, Carole J Proctor, Alvaro Martinez-Guimera, Robert J Isfort, Charles C Bascom, Ryan Tasseff, Stefan A Przyborski, Daryl P Shanley
Motivation: COPASI is an open source software package for constructing, simulating and analysing dynamic models of biochemical networks. COPASI is primarily intended to be used with a graphical user interface but often it is desirable to be able to access COPASI features programmatically, with a high level interface. Results: PyCoTools is a Python package aimed at providing a high level interface to COPASI tasks with an emphasis on model calibration. PyCoTools enables the construction of COPASI models and the execution of a subset of COPASI tasks including time courses, parameter scans and parameter estimations...
May 22, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790699/evaluation-of-the-secretion-and-release-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-from-two-dimensional-culture-and-three-dimensional-cell-spheroids-formed-with-stem-cells-and-osteoprecursor-cells
#17
Hyunjin Lee, Sung-Il Lee, Youngkyung Ko, Jun-Beom Park
BACKGROUND: Co-culture has been applied in cell therapy, including stem cells, and has been reported to give enhanced functionality. OBJECTIVES: In this study, stem-cell spheroids were formed in concave micromolds at different ratios of stem cells to osteoprecursor cells, and the amount of secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gingiva-derived stem cells and osteoprecursor cells in the amount of 6 × 105 were seeded on a 24-well culture plate or concave micromolds...
May 18, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790692/serum-concentrations-of-vegf-and-bfgf-in-the-course-of-propranolol-therapy-of-infantile-hemangioma-in-children-are-we-closer-to-understand-the-mechanism-of-action-of-propranolol-on-hemangiomas
#18
Lidia Babiak-Choroszczak, Kaja Giżewska-Kacprzak, Elżbieta Gawrych, Katarzyna Fischer, Anna Walecka, Lidia Puchalska-Niedbał, Justyna Rajewska-Majchrzak, Maciej Bagłaj
BACKGROUND: Propranolol has become the treatment of choice for infantile hemangiomas (IH). Neither the pathogenesis of IH nor the mechanism of action of propranolol on them are well understood. Possible explanations include the inhibition of angiogenesis by decreasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), induction of vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and vasoconstriction. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess serum concentrations of VEGF and bFGF in the course of propranolol therapy of IH in children, and to assess their clinical implications...
May 16, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790395/hyaluronic-acid-conjugated-ph-sensitive-liposomes-for-targeted-delivery-of-prednisolone-on-rheumatoid-arthritis-therapy
#19
Virgínia M Gouveia, José Lopes-de-Araújo, Sofia A Costa Lima, Cláudia Nunes, Salette Reis
AIM: The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis remains a challenge as available therapies still entail the risk of deleterious off-target effects. The present study describes hyaluronic acid-conjugated pH-sensitive liposomes as an effective drug delivery-targeting strategy to synovial cells. MATERIALS & METHODS: Therapeutic, cytotoxic and targeting potential of developed liposomes were studied in vitro using macrophages and fibroblasts cell lines. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: Results suggest an enhanced cellular uptake of conjugated liposomes, mainly mediated by caveolae- and clathrin-dependent endocytosis...
May 2018: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790379/a-review-of-hydrogen-sulfide-synthesis-metabolism-and-measurement-is-modulation-of-hydrogen-sulfide-a-novel-therapeutic-for-cancer
#20
Xu Cao, Lei Ding, Zhi-Zhong Xie, Yong Yang, Matthew Whiteman, Philip K Moore, Jin-Song Bian
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as the third gaseous transmitter alongside nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). In the past decade, numerous studies have demonstrated an active role of H2S in the context of cancer biology. The three H2S producing enzymes namely cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) have been found highly expressed in numerous types of cancer. Moreover, inhibition of CBS has shown anti-tumor activity particularly in colon cancer, ovarian cancer and breast cancer, whereas the consequence of CSE or 3MST inhibition remains largely unexplored in cancer cells...
May 23, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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