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ataxia telangiectasia mutated

Yan-Yan Zhao, Qiong Wu, Zhi-Bing Wu, Jing-Jing Zhang, Lu-Cheng Zhu, Yang Yang, Sheng-Lin Ma, Shi-Rong Zhang
Post-operative microwave (MW) hyperthermia has been applied as an important adjuvant therapy to enhance the efficacy of traditional cancer treatment. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of MW hyperthermia may provide guided and further information on clinical hyperthermia treatment. In this study, we examined the effects of MW hyperthermia on non‑small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells in vitro, as well as the underlying mechanisms. In order to mimic clinical treatment, we developed special MW heating equipment for this study...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Qi Shi, Luyan Shen, Bin Dong, Hao Fu, Xiaozheng Kang, Yongbo Yang, Liang Dai, Wanpu Yan, Hongchao Xiong, Zhen Liang, Keneng Chen
Inducing DNA damage is known to be one of the mechanisms of cytotoxic chemotherapy agents for cancer such as cisplatin. The endogenous DNA damage response confers chemoresistance to these agents by repairing DNA damage. The initiation and transduction of the DNA damage response (DDR) signaling pathway, which is dependent on the activation of ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related), is essential for DNA damage repair, the maintenance of genomic stability and cell survival...
June 8, 2018: Cancer Letters
Mengqian Li, Liting You, Jianxin Xue, You Lu
Cellular senescence is identified by a living cell in irreversible and persistent cell cycle arrest in response to various cellular stresses. Senescent cells secrete senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors that can amplify cellular senescence and alter the microenvironments. Radiotherapy, via ionizing radiation, serves as an effective treatment for local tumor control with side effects on normal cells, which can induce inflammation and fibrosis in irradiated and nearby regions. Research has revealed that senescent phenotype is observable in irradiated organs...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yi-Lin Chan, Ching-Len Liao, Yi-Ling Lin
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes acute encephalitis in humans with high mortality. Not much is known about the interactions between viral and cellular factors that regulate JEV infection. By using a kinase/phosphatase-wide RNAi screening approach, we identified a cell cycle-regulating molecule, checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2), that plays a role in regulating JEV replication. JEV infection induced G1 arrest and activated CHK2. Inactivation of CHK2 and its upstream ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase in JEV-infected cells by using inhibitors reduced virus replication...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Alexander Krauthammer, Avishay Lahad, Lior Goldberg, Ifat Sarouk, Batia Weiss, Raz Somech, Michalle Soudack, Itai M Pessach
BACKGROUND: Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare, multi-systemic, genetic disorder. Mutations in the ATM gene cause dysfunction in cell-cycle, apoptosis and V (D) J recombination leading to neurodegeneration, cellular, humoral immunodeficiencies and predisposition to malignancies. Previous studies have suggested that a sub-group of AT patients with elevated IgM levels have a distinct and more severe phenotype. In the current study we aimed to better characterize this group of patients...
June 4, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Xu Chen, Lei Wu, Dezhi Li, Yanmei Xu, Luping Zhang, Kai Niu, Rui Kong, Jiaoyang Gu, Zihan Xu, Zhengtang Chen, Jianguo Sun
Lung cancer is one of the main causes of cancer mortality globally. Most patients received radiotherapy during the course of disease. However, radioresistance generally occurs in the majority of these patients, leading to poor curative effect, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, miR-18a-5p expression was downregulated in irradiated lung cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-18a-5p increased the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells and inhibited the growth of A549 xenografts after radiation exposure...
June 2, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Xiao-Qin Li, Jin Ren, Ping Chen, Yu-Jiao Chen, Min Wu, Yan Wu, Kang Chen, Jian Li
For the majority of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the standard of care remains platinum-based chemotherapy. However, cisplatin resistance is a big obstacle to the treatment, and elucidation of its mechanism is warranted. In this study, we showed that there was no difference in intracellular uptake of cisplatin or the removal of platinum-DNA adducts between a cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cell line (A549/DR) and a cisplatin-sensitive NSCLC cell line (A549). However, the capacity to repair DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) was significantly enhanced in the A549/DR cell line compared to 3 cisplatin-sensitive cell lines...
May 31, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Zhiming Li, Yinglu Li, Ming Tang, Bin Peng, Xiaopeng Lu, Qiaoyan Yang, Qian Zhu, Tianyun Hou, Meiting Li, Chaohua Liu, Lina Wang, Xingzhi Xu, Ying Zhao, Haiying Wang, Yang Yang, Wei-Guo Zhu
Linker histone H1 is a master regulator of higher order chromatin structure, but its involvement in the DNA damage response and repair is unclear. Here, we report that linker histone H1.2 is an essential regulator of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) activation. We show that H1.2 protects chromatin from aberrant ATM activation through direct interaction with the ATM HEAT repeat domain and inhibition of MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex-dependent ATM recruitment. Upon DNA damage, H1.2 undergoes rapid PARP1-dependent chromatin dissociation through poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) of its C terminus and further proteasomal degradation...
May 29, 2018: Cell Research
Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga Jayasooriya, Matharage Gayani Dilshara, Ilandarage Menu Neelaka Molagoda, Cheol Park, Sang Rul Park, Seungheon Lee, Yung Hyun Choi, Gi-Young Kim
In the present study, we report that camptothecin (CPT) caused irreversible cell cycle arrest at the G2 /M phase, and was associated with decreased levels of cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C) and increased levels of cyclin B1, p21, and phospho-H3. Interestingly, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor, glutathione, decreased CPT-induced G2 /M phase arrest and moderately induced S phase arrest, indicating that the ROS is required for the regulation of CPT-induced G2 /M phase arrest. Furthermore, transient knockdown of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), in the presence of CPT, increased the ROS' level and further shifted the cell cycle from early S phase to the G2 /M phase, indicating that Nrf2 delayed the S phase in response to CPT...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
Sharmin Afroz, Ravendra Garg, Michel Fodje, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
VP8, the UL47 gene product in bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1), is a major tegument protein, essential for virus replication in vivo The major DNA damage response protein, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), phosphorylates Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS1) and structural maintenance of chromosome-1 (SMC1) proteins during the DNA damage response. VP8 was found to interact with ATM and NBS1 during transfection and BoHV-1 infection. However, VP8 did not interfere with phosphorylation of ATM in transfected or BoHV-1-infected cells...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
Jeremy Karlin, Jasmine Allen, Syed F Ahmad, Gareth Hughes, Victoria Sheridan, Rajesh Odedra, Paul Farrington, Elaine B Cadogan, Lucy C Riches, Antonio Garcia-Trinidad, Andrew G Thomason, Bhavika Patel, Jennifer Vincent, Alan Lau, Kurt G Pike, Thomas A Hunt, Amrita Sule, Nicholas C K Valerie, Laura Biddlestone-Thorpe, Jenna Kahn, Jason M Beckta, Nitai Mukhopadhyay, Bernard Barlaam, Sebastien L Degorce, Jason Kettle, Nicola Colclough, Joanne Wilson, Aaron Smith, Ian P Barrett, Li Zheng, Tianwei Zhang, Yingchun Wang, Kan Chen, Martin Pass, Stephen T Durant, Kristoffer Valerie
Inhibition of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) during radiotherapy of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) may improve tumor control by short-circuiting the response to radiation-induced DNA damage. A major impediment for clinical implementation is that current inhibitors have limited CNS bioavailability, thus, the goal was to identify ATM inhibitors (ATMi) with improved CNS penetration. Drug screens and refinement of lead compounds identified AZ31 and AZ32. The compounds were then tested in vivo for efficacy and impact on tumor and healthy brain...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Jiying Sun, Lin Shi, Aiko Kinomura, Atsuhiko Fukuto, Yasunori Horikoshi, Yukako Oma, Masahiko Harata, Masae Ikura, Tsuyoshi Ikura, Roland Kanaar, Satoshi Tashiro
Chromosomal translocations are hallmarks of various types of cancers and leukemias. However, the molecular mechanisms of chromosome translocations remain largely unknown. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator, facilitates DNA repair to prevent chromosome abnormalities. Previously, we showed that ATM deficiency led to the 11q23 chromosome translocation, the most frequent chromosome abnormalities in secondary leukemia. Here, we show that ARP8, a subunit of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, is phosphorylated after etoposide treatment...
May 8, 2018: ELife
Jose Luis Lopez Guerra, Yi-Peng Song, Quynh-Nhu Nguyen, Daniel R Gomez, Zhongxing Liao, Ting Xu
Objective: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated gene ATM have been linked with pneumonitis after radiotherapy for lung cancer but have not been evaluated in terms of pulmonary function impairment. Here we investigated potential associations between SNPs in ATM and changes in diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after radiotherapy. Methods: From November 1998 through June 2009, 448 consecutive patients with inoperable primary NSCLC underwent definitive (≥60 Gy) radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy...
March 2018: Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine
Jun Yoshioka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Tao Shen, Hongyu Zhou, Chaowei Shang, Yan Luo, Yang Wu, Shile Huang
Ciclopirox olamine (CPX), an off-patent anti-fungal drug, has been found to inhibit the G1 -cyclin dependent kinases partly by increasing the phosphorylation and degradation of Cdc25A. However, little is known about the molecular target(s) of CPX responsible for Cdc25A degradation. Here, we show that CPX induced the degradation of Cdc25A neither by increasing CK1α or decreasing DUB3 expression, nor via activating GSK3β, but through activating Chk1 in rhabdomyosarcoma (Rh30) and breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cells...
January 2018: Genes & Cancer
K J Jerzak, T Mancuso, A Eisen
Background: Despite the fact that heterozygosity for a pathogenic ATM variant is present in 1%-2% of the adult population, clinical guidelines to inform physicians and genetic counsellors about optimal management in that population are lacking. Methods: In this narrative review, we describe the challenges and controversies in the management of women who are heterozygous for a pathogenic ATM variant with respect to screening for breast and other malignancies, to choices for systemic therapy, and to decisions about radiation therapy...
April 2018: Current Oncology
Althaf Shaik, Rashmi Bhakuni, Sivapriya Kirubakaran
Targeting DNA damage and response (DDR) pathway has become an attractive approach in cancer therapy. The key mediators involved in this pathway are ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia-mutated, Rad3-related kinase (ATR). These kinases induce cell cycle arrest in response to chemo- and radio-therapy and facilitate DNA repair via their major downstream targets. Targeting ATP-binding site of these kinases is currently under study. Torin2 is a second generation ATP competitive mTOR kinase inhibitor (EC50 = 250 pmol/L) with better pharmacokinetic profile...
April 24, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kurt G Pike, Bernard Barlaam, Elaine Cadogan, Andrew Campbell, Yingxue Chen, Nicola Colclough, Nichola L Davies, Camila de-Almeida, Sebastien L Degorce, Myriam Didelot, Allan Dishington, Richard Ducray, Stephen T Durant, Lorraine A Hassall, Jane Holmes, Gareth D Hughes, Philip A MacFaul, Keith R Mulholland, Thomas M McGuire, Gilles Ouvry, Martin Pass, Graeme Robb, Natalie Stratton, Zhenhua Wang, Joanne Wilson, Baochang Zhai, Kang Zhao, Nidal Al-Huniti
ATM inhibitors, such as 7, have demonstrated the antitumor potential of ATM inhibition when combined with DNA double-strand break-inducing agents in mouse xenograft models. However, the properties of 7 result in a relatively high predicted clinically efficacious dose. In an attempt to minimize attrition during clinical development, we sought to identify ATM inhibitors with a low predicted clinical dose (<50 mg) and focused on strategies to increase both ATM potency and predicted human pharmacokinetic half-life (predominantly through the increase of volume of distribution)...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Vincent Picher-Martel, Nicolas Dupre
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Ataxia is clinically characterized by unsteady gait and imbalance. Cerebellar disorders may arise from many causes such as metabolic diseases, stroke or genetic mutations. The genetic causes are classified by mode of inheritance and include autosomal dominant, X-linked and autosomal recessive ataxias. Many years have passed since the description of Friedreich's ataxia, the most common autosomal recessive ataxia, and mutations in many other genes have now been described...
April 18, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Jun Tu Zhen, Jamil Syed, Kevin Anh Nguyen, Michael S Leapman, Neeraj Agarwal, Karina Brierley, Xavier Llor, Erin Hofstatter, Brian Shuch
A significant proportion of prostate cancer diagnoses may be associated with a strong hereditary component. Men who have multiple single-gene polymorphisms and a family history of prostate cancer have a significantly greater risk of developing prostate cancer. Numerous single-gene alterations have been confirmed to increase the risk of prostate cancer. These include breast cancer genes 1 and 2 (BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively), mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), mutS homologs 2 and 6 (MSH2 and MSH6, respectively), postmeiotic segregation increased 2 (PMS2), homeobox B13 (HOXB13), checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2), nibrin (NBN), BRCA1-interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 (BRIP1), and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)...
April 18, 2018: Cancer
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