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ataxia telangiectasia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535250/evidence-for-the-deregulation-of-protein-turnover-pathways-in-atm-deficient-mouse-cerebellum-an-organotypic-study
#1
Catherine D Kim, Ryan E Reed, Meredith A Juncker, Zhide Fang, Shyamal D Desai
Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), an antagonist of the ubiquitin pathway, is elevated in cells and brain tissues obtained from ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) patients. Previous studies reveal that an elevated ISG15 pathway inhibits ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, leading to activation of basal autophagy as a compensatory mechanism for protein turnover in A-T cells. Also, genotoxic stress (ultraviolet [UV] radiation) deregulates autophagy and induces aberrant degradation of ubiquitylated proteins in A-T cells...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521290/mir-2964a-5p-binding-site-snp-regulates-atm-expression-contributing-to-age-related-cataract-risk
#2
Han Rong, Shanshan Gu, Guowei Zhang, Lihua Kang, Mei Yang, Junfang Zhang, Xinyue Shen, Huaijin Guan
This study was to explore the involvement of DNA repair genes in the pathogenesis of age-related cataract (ARC). We genotyped nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes responsible to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in 804 ARC cases and 804 controls in a cohort of eye diseases in Chinese population and found that the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene-rs4585:G>T was significantly associated with ARC risk. An in vitro functional test found that miR-2964a-5p specifically down-regulated luciferase reporter expression and ATM expression in the cell lines transfected with rs4585 T allele compared to rs4585 G allele...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508083/structures-of-closed-and-open-conformations-of-dimeric-human-atm
#3
Domagoj Baretić, Hannah K Pollard, David I Fisher, Christopher M Johnson, Balaji Santhanam, Caroline M Truman, Tomas Kouba, Alan R Fersht, Christopher Phillips, Roger L Williams
ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) is a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) best known for its role in DNA damage response. ATM also functions in oxidative stress response, insulin signaling, and neurogenesis. Our electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) suggests that human ATM is in a dynamic equilibrium between closed and open dimers. In the closed state, the PIKK regulatory domain blocks the peptide substrate-binding site, suggesting that this conformation may represent an inactive or basally active enzyme...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507315/the-herpesvirus-nuclear-egress-complex-component-ul31-can-be-recruited-to-sites-of-dna-damage-through-poly-adp-ribose-binding
#4
Maxwell R Sherry, Thomas J M Hay, Michael A Gulak, Arash Nassiri, Renée L Finnen, Bruce W Banfield
The herpes simplex virus (HSV) UL31 gene encodes a conserved member of the herpesvirus nuclear egress complex that not only functions in the egress of DNA containing capsids from the nucleus, but is also required for optimal replication of viral DNA and its packaging into capsids. Here we report that the UL31 protein from HSV-2 can be recruited to sites of DNA damage by sequences found in its N-terminus. The N-terminus of UL31 contains sequences resembling a poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) binding motif suggesting that PAR interactions might mediate UL31 recruitment to damaged DNA...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502009/quantitative-mass-spectrometry-by-isotope-dilution-and-multiple-reaction-monitoring-mrm
#5
Paul Russo, Brian L Hood, Nicholas W Bateman, Thomas P Conrads
Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is used in molecular profiling to detect and quantify specific known proteins in complex mixtures. Using isotope dilution (Barnidge et al., Anal Chem 75(3):445-451, 2003) methodologies, peptides can be quantified without the need for an antibody-based method. Selected reaction monitoring assays employ electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) followed by two stages of mass selection: a first stage where the mass of the peptide ion is selected and, after fragmentation by collision-induced dissociation (CID), a second stage (tandem MS) where either a single (e...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495793/usp7-inhibition-alters-homologous-recombination-repair-and-targets-cll-cells-independent-of-atm-p53-functional-status
#6
Angelo Agathanggelou, Edward Smith, Nicholas J Davies, Marwan Kwok, Anastasia Zlatanou, Ceri E Oldreive, Jingwen Mao, David Da Costa, Sina Yadollahi, Tracey Perry, Pamela Kearns, Anna Skowronska, Elliot Yates, Helen Parry, Peter Hillmen, Celine Reverdy, Remi Delansorne, Shankara Paneesha, Guy Pratt, Paul Moss, A Malcolm R Taylor, Grant S Stewart, Tatjana Stankovic
The role of the deubiquitylase ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) in the regulation of the p53-dependent DNA damage response (DDR) pathway is well established. Whilst previous studies have mostly focused on the mechanisms underlying how USP7 directly controls p53 stability, we have recently shown that USP7 modulates the stability of the DNA damage responsive E3 ubiquitin ligase, RAD18. This suggests that targeting USP7 may have therapeutic potential even in tumors with defective p53 or ibrutinib resistance...
May 11, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489848/a-coordinated-dna-damage-response-promotes-adult-quiescent-neural-stem-cell-activation
#7
Lara Barazzuol, Limei Ju, Penny A Jeggo
Stem and differentiated cells frequently differ in their response to DNA damage, which can determine tissue sensitivity. By exploiting insight into the spatial arrangement of subdomains within the adult neural subventricular zone (SVZ) in vivo, we show distinct responses to ionising radiation (IR) between neural stem and progenitor cells. Further, we reveal different DNA damage responses between neonatal and adult neural stem cells (NSCs). Neural progenitors (transit amplifying cells and neuroblasts) but not NSCs (quiescent and activated) undergo apoptosis after 2 Gy IR...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488180/a-new-ataxia-telangiectasia-mutation-in-an-11-year-old-female
#8
Esmaeil Mortaz, Sayed Mehran Marashian, Hosseinali Ghaffaripour, Mohammad Varahram, Payam Mehrian, Atosa Dorudinia, Johan Garssen, Ian M Adcock, Malcolm Taylor, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), a rare inherited disorder, usually affects the nervous and immune systems, and occasionally other organs. A-T is associated mainly with mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, which encodes a protein kinase that has a major role in the cellular response to DNA damage. We report here a novel ATM mutation (c.3244_3245insG; p.His1082fs) in an 11-year old female. This subject presented with typical features, with the addition of chest manifestations including mediastinal lymphadenopathy and diffuse bilateral micronodular infiltration of the lungs, along with a high EBV titer...
May 9, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487983/role-of-ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated-in-hydrogen-peroxide-preconditioning-against-oxidative-stress-in-neuro-2a-cells
#9
Jianhua Wu, Fang Wang, Zhiqiang Su, Jue Liu, Sang Hu, Hao Li, Pei Hu, Dongfang Wu
Ischemic preconditioning is an endogenous protective mechanism that may be triggered by exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, the exact mechanisms underlying preconditioning remain to be fully understood. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is regarded as an essential endogenous protective protein against stress. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether ATM mediates H2O2 preconditioning. Preconditioning of Neuro‑2a (N2a) cells with 100 µM H2O2 for 90 min resulted in protection from injury induced by a long period of exposure to 600 µM H2O2...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481984/the-dna-damage-response-ddr-is-induced-by-the-c9orf72-repeat-expansion-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#10
Manal A Farg, Anna Konopka, Kai Ying Soo, Daisuke Ito, Julie D Atkin
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons. Hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansions in a non-coding region of C9orf72 are the major cause of familial ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) worldwide. The C9orf72 repeat expansion undergoes repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation to produce five dipeptide repeat proteins (DRPs), including poly(GR) and poly(PR). Whilst it remains unclear how mutations in C9orf72 lead to neurodegeneration in ALS/FTD, dysfunction to the nucleolus and R loop formation are implicated as pathogenic mechanisms...
May 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477136/monitoring-the-atm-mediated-dna-damage-response-in-the-cerebellum-using-organotypic-cultures
#11
Efrat Tal, Yosef Shiloh
The ATM gene and its protein product, the ATM protein kinase, were identified as a result of attempts to understand the molecular basis of the genetic disorder, ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). The cardinal symptom of A-T is neurodegeneration expressed primarily as progressive cerebellar atrophy. A major tool in the investigation of ATM functions in the cerebellum is cerebellar organotypic cultures, which allow cerebellar slices to live in culture for several weeks without losing their viability and organization...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477135/lentiviral-reprogramming-of-a-t-patient-fibroblasts-to-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Sam Nayler, Sergei V Kozlov, Martin F Lavin, Ernst Wolvetang
Reprogramming of cells enables generation of pluripotent stem cells and resulting progeny through directed differentiation, making this technology an invaluable tool for the study of human development and disease. Reprogramming occurs with a wide range of efficiency, a culmination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors including the tissue of origin, the passage number and culture history of the target cells. Another major factor affecting reprogramming is the methodology used and the quality of the reprogramming process itself, including for conventional viral-based approaches viral titer and subsequent viral transduction efficiency, including downstream transgene insertion and stoichiometry...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477134/a-patient-specific-stem-cell-model-to-investigate-the-neurological-phenotype-observed-in-ataxia-telangiectasia
#13
Romal Stewart, Gautam Wali, Chris Perry, Martin F Lavin, Francois Féron, Alan Mackay-Sim, Ratneswary Sutharsan
The molecular pathogenesis of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is not yet fully understood, and a versatile cellular model is required for in vitro studies. The occurrence of continuous neurogenesis and easy access make the multipotent adult stem cells from the olfactory mucosa within the nasal cavity a potential cellular model. We describe an efficient method to establish neuron-like cells from olfactory mucosa biopsies derived from A-T patients for the purpose of studying the cellular and molecular aspects of this debilitating disease...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477133/dna-damage-response-in-human-stem-cells-and-neural-descendants
#14
Jason M Beckta, Bret R Adams, Kristoffer Valerie
Glial cells are crucial for the normal function of neurons and are intricately involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases as well as neurologic malignancies. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which glial cells influence the development of such pathologies will undoubtedly lead to new and improved therapeutic approaches. Commercially available human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), both of which can be differentiated into neural progenitors (NPs) and various neural cell lineages, have become widely used as sources for producing normal human central nervous system (CNS) cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477132/study-of-atm-phosphorylation-by-cdk5-in-neuronal-cells
#15
Hua She, Zixu Mao
The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-like kinase ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) plays a central role in coordinating the DNA damage responses including cell cycle checkpoint control, DNA repair, and apoptosis. Mutations of ATM cause a spectrum of defects ranging from neurodegeneration to cancer predisposition. We previously showed that Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) is activated by DNA damage and directly phosphorylates ATM at serine 794 in postmitotic neurons. Phosphorylation at serine 794 precedes and is required for ATM autophosphorylation at serine 1981, and activates ATM kinase activity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477131/noncanonical-atm-activation-and-signaling-in-response-to-transcription-blocking-dna-damage
#16
Jurgen A Marteijn, Wim Vermeulen, Maria Tresini
Environmental genotoxins and metabolic byproducts generate DNA lesions that can cause genomic instability and disrupt tissue homeostasis. To ensure genomic integrity, cells employ mechanisms that convert signals generated by stochastic DNA damage into organized responses, including activation of repair systems, cell cycle checkpoints, and apoptotic mechanisms. DNA damage response (DDR) signaling pathways coordinate these responses and determine cellular fates in part, by transducing signals that modulate RNA metabolism...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477129/phenotypic-analysis-of-atm-protein-kinase-in-dna-double-strand-break-formation-and-repair
#17
Elisabeth Mian, Lisa Wiesmüller
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase, which is involved in various regulatory processes in mammalian cells. Its best-known role is apical activation of the DNA damage response following generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). When DSBs appear, sensor and mediator proteins are recruited, activating transducers such as ATM, which in turn relay a widespread signal to a multitude of downstream effectors. ATM mutation causes Ataxia telangiectasia (AT), whereby the disease phenotype shows differing characteristics depending on the underlying ATM mutation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477123/statistical-analysis-of-atm-dependent-signaling-in-quantitative-mass-spectrometry-phosphoproteomics
#18
Ashley J Waardenberg
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase, which when perturbed is associated with modified protein signaling that ultimately leads to a range of neurological and DNA repair defects. Recent advances in phospho-proteomics coupled with high-resolution mass-spectrometry provide new opportunities to dissect signaling pathways that ATM utilize under a number of conditions. This chapter begins by providing a brief overview of ATM function, its various regulatory roles and then leads into a workflow focused on the use of the statistical programming language R, together with code, for the identification of ATM-dependent substrates in the cytoplasm...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477120/atm-activation-and-h2ax-phosphorylation-induced-by-genotoxic-agents-assessed-by-flow-and-laser-scanning-cytometry
#19
Hong Zhao, H Dorota Halicka, Jorge Garcia, Jiangwei Li, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz
Activation of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mediated protein kinase (ATM) by its phosphorylation on serine 1981 and phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine 139 (γH2AX) are the key events reporting DNA damage, primarily formation of DNA double strand breaks. These events are detected immunocytochemically in individual cells using phospho-specific Abs. The protocols are presented that describe the methodology of immunofluorescent labeling of cells in conjunction with specific staining of cellular DNA. Flow- and imaging-cytometry, the latter exemplified as laser scanning cytometry, is used to quantify intensity of cellular fluorescence reporting activation of ATM and induction of γH2AX with respect to cellular DNA content, which in turn reports the cell cycle phase...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477117/studies-of-atm-kinase-activity-using-engineered-atm-sensitive-to-atp-analogues-atm-as
#20
Masato Enari, Yuko Matsushima-Hibiya, Makoto Miyazaki, Ryo Otomo
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3-K)-related protein kinase (PIKK) family and is implicated in the initiation of signaling pathways following DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) elicited by exposure to ionizing irradiation (IR) or radiomimetic compounds. Loss of function of the ATM gene product results in the human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) characterized by neurodegeneration, immunodeficiency, genomic instability, and cancer predisposition...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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