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Mitochondrial fission

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224980/alpha-synuclein-prevents-the-formation-of-spherical-mitochondria-and-apoptosis-under-oxidative-stress
#1
Stefanie Menges, Georgia Minakaki, Patrick M Schaefer, Holger Meixner, Iryna Prots, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Kristina Friedland, Beate Winner, Tiago F Outeiro, Konstanze F Winklhofer, Christine A F von Arnim, Wei Xiang, Jürgen Winkler, Jochen Klucken
Oxidative stress (OS), mitochondrial dysfunction, and dysregulation of alpha-synuclein (aSyn) homeostasis are key pathogenic factors in Parkinson's disease. Nevertheless, the role of aSyn in mitochondrial physiology remains elusive. Thus, we addressed the impact of aSyn specifically on mitochondrial response to OS in neural cells. We characterize a distinct type of mitochondrial fragmentation, following H2O2 or 6-OHDA-induced OS, defined by spherically-shaped and hyperpolarized mitochondria, termed "mitospheres"...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220896/mitochondrial-dysregulation-secondary-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-autosomal-dominant-tubulointerstitial-kidney-disease-umod-adtkd-umod
#2
Elisabeth Kemter, Thomas Fröhlich, Georg J Arnold, Eckhard Wolf, Rüdiger Wanke
'Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease - UMOD' (ADTKD-UMOD) is caused by impaired maturation and secretion of mutant uromodulin (UMOD) in thick ascending limb of Henle loop (TAL) cells, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). To gain insight into pathophysiology, we analysed proteome profiles of TAL-enriched outer renal medulla samples from ADTKD-UMOD and control mice by quantitative LC-MS/MS. In total, 212 differentially abundant proteins were identified...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216385/the-role-of-mitochondria-in-cardiac-development-and-protection
#3
REVIEW
Jaakko L Pohjoismäki, Steffi Goffart
Mitochondria are essential for the development as well as maintenance of the myocardium, the most energy consuming tissue in the human body. Mitochondria are not only a source of ATP energy but also generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that cause oxidative damage, but also regulate physiological processes such as the switch from hyperplastic to hypertrophic growth after birth. As excess ROS production and oxidative damage are associated with cardiac pathology, it is not surprising that much of the research focused on the deleterious aspects of free radicals...
February 16, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215578/mfn2-protects-dopaminergic-neurons-exposed-to-paraquat-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-implications-for-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Fanpeng Zhao, Wenzhang Wang, Chunyu Wang, Sandra L Siedlak, Hisashi Fujioka, Beisha Tang, Xiongwei Zhu
Mitochondrial dynamics and quality control plays a critical role in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis and function. Pathogenic mutations of many genes associated with familial Parkinson's disease (PD) caused abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, suggesting a likely involvement of disturbed mitochondrial fission/fusion in the pathogenesis of PD. In this study, we focused on the potential role of mitochondrial fission/fusion in idiopathic PD patients and in neuronal cells and animals exposed to paraquat (PQ), a commonly used herbicide and PD-related neurotoxin, as models for idiopathic PD...
February 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210956/mdivi-1-alleviates-early-brain-injury-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-possibly-via-inhibition-of-drp1-activated-mitochondrial-fission-and-oxidative-stress
#5
Pei Wu, Yuchen Li, Shiyi Zhu, Chunlei Wang, Jiaxing Dai, Guang Zhang, Bingjie Zheng, Shancai Xu, Ligang Wang, Tongyu Zhang, PeiQuan Zhou, John H Zhang, Huaizhang Shi
Mdivi-1 is a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1, and can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Previous studies have shown that Mdivi-1 improves neurological outcomes after ischemia, seizures and trauma but it remains unclear whether Mdivi-1 can attenuate early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We thus investigated the therapeutic effect of Mdivi-1 on early brain injury following SAH. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham; SAH; SAH + vehicle; and SAH + Mdivi-1...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207880/skeletal-muscle-metabolic-adaptations-to-endurance-exercise-training-are-attainable-in-mice-with-simvastatin-treatment
#6
William M Southern, Anna S Nichenko, Daniel D Shill, Corey C Spencer, Nathan T Jenkins, Kevin K McCully, Jarrod A Call
We tested the hypothesis that a 6-week regimen of simvastatin would attenuate skeletal muscle adaptation to low-intensity exercise. Male C57BL/6J wildtype mice were subjected to 6-weeks of voluntary wheel running or normal cage activities with or without simvastatin treatment (20 mg/kg/d, n = 7-8 per group). Adaptations in in vivo fatigue resistance were determined by a treadmill running test, and by ankle plantarflexor contractile assessment. The tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and plantaris muscles were evaluated for exercised-induced mitochondrial adaptations (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193734/mitochondrial-depolarization-in-yeast-zygotes-inhibits-clonal-expansion-of-selfish-mtdna
#7
Iuliia E Karavaeva, Sergey A Golyshev, Ekaterina A Smirnova, Svyatoslav S Sokolov, Fedor F Severin, Dmitry A Knorre
Non-identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) compete with each other within a cell and the result depends on their replication rates. Using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as a model, we studied the effects of mitochondrial inhibitors on the competition between wild type mtDNA and mutant selfish mtDNA in heteroplasmic zygotes. We found that decreasing mitochondrial transmembrane potential by adding uncouplers or valinomycin changes the competition outcomes in favor of the wild type mtDNA. This effect was significantly lower in the cells with disrupted mitochondria fission or repressed autophagy-related genes ATG8, ATG32 or ATG33 implying that heteroplasmic zygotes activate mitochondrial degradation in response to the depolarization...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191022/effect-of-mahuang-gancao-ganjiang-decoction-on-fusion-and-fission-of-mitochondria-and-apoptosis-of-lymphocytes-in-mice-under-cold-stress
#8
Longyun Chen, Huimin Chen
Mahuang Gancao Ganjiang Decoction (MGGD) can effectively alleviate the symptoms of the patients suffering from exogenous cold stress. However, the curative mechanism has not been fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the effect of MGGD on the apoptosis of lymphocytes induced by cold stress in mice. The model mice were randomly divided into four groups: the normal control group (no handling mice), cold stress group, MGGD + cold stress group, and MGGD group. Lymphocytes of the mice were isolated from the peripheral blood...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190775/drp1-suppresses-leptin-and-glucose-sensing-of-pomc-neurons
#9
Anna Santoro, Michela Campolo, Chen Liu, Hiromi Sesaki, Rosaria Meli, Zhong-Wu Liu, Jung Dae Kim, Sabrina Diano
Hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons regulate energy and glucose metabolism. Intracellular mechanisms that enable these neurons to respond to changes in metabolic environment are ill defined. Here we show reduced expression of activated dynamin-related protein (pDRP1), a mitochondrial fission regulator, in POMC neurons of fed mice. These POMC neurons displayed increased mitochondrial size and aspect ratio compared to POMC neurons of fasted animals. Inducible deletion of DRP1 of mature POMC neurons (Drp1(fl/fl)-POMC-cre:ER(T2)) resulted in improved leptin sensitivity and glucose responsiveness...
January 30, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185389/palmitic-acid-stimulates-interleukin-8-via-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ros-pathway-and-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-bovine-oviduct-epithelial-cells
#10
Ayaka Ohtsu, Hazuki Tanaka, Kotomi Seno, Hisataka Iwata, Takehito Kuwayama, Koumei Shirasuna
PROBLEM: We investigated the effect of palmitic acid (PA), a major saturated fatty acid in NEFA, on bovine oviduct epithelial cells (OECs) during in vitro cell culture. METHOD OF STUDY: Bovine oviductal tissues ipsilateral to the corpus luteum were collected 1-3 days after ovulation; the OECs were isolated and cultured. RESULTS: PA increased lipid accumulation and activated caspase-3 in OECs, resulting in decreased cell proliferation. PA also stimulated the secretion of inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 depending on TLR4, NF-κB activation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181922/burn-serum-stimulates-myoblast-cell-death-associated-with-il-6-induced-mitochondrial-fragmentation
#11
Alvand Sehat, Ryan M Huebinger, Deborah L Carlson, Qun S Zang, Steven E Wolf, Juquan Song
BACKGROUND: Burn patients suffer muscle mass loss associated with hyperinflammation and hypercatabolism. The mitochondria are affected by this metabolic alteration. Mitochondrial fission activates a caspase cascade which ultimately leads to cell death. We postulate that burn-induced muscle loss is associated with increased mitochondrial fission and subsequent functional impairment. Further, we investigated whether the cytokine IL-6 plays a major role in mitochondrial fission-associated cell death after burn...
February 8, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178868/low-level-lasers-effect-on-proliferation-migration-and-anti-apoptosis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Kan Yin, Rongjia Zhu, Shihua Wang, Robert Chunhua Zhao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to be helpful elements in tissue regeneration. Photobiomodulation (PBM) used extremely low level lasers (LLL) to affect the behaviour of cells. The effect mechanism of LLL on MSCs remained to be discovered. Here cell viability was assessed using MTS assays and cell cycle was evaluated by FACS. The influence of LLL on mitochondrial biogenesis (fission or fusion) and function (ATP, ROS, NO) were evaluated by TEM, FACS, RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry. Cell migration and cytoskeleton alteration (actin and tubulin) were evaluated using transwell assay, immunocytochemistry, ELISA and Western blotting...
February 8, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174288/direct-substrate-delivery-into-mitochondrial-fission-deficient-pancreatic-islets-rescues-insulin-secretion
#13
Uma D Kabra, Katrin Pfuhlmann, Adriana Migliorini, Susanne Keipert, Daniel Lamp, Olle Korsgren, Moritz Gegg, Stephen C Woods, Paul T Pfluger, Heiko Lickert, Charles Affourtit, Matthias H Tschöp, Martin Jastroch
In pancreatic beta cells, mitochondrial bioenergetics control glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Mitochondrial dynamics are generally associated with quality control, maintaining the functionality of bioenergetics. By acute pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, we here demonstrate that mitochondrial fission is necessary for GSIS in mouse and human islets. We confirm that genetic silencing of Drp1 increases mitochondrial proton leak in MIN6 cells. However, our comprehensive analysis of pancreatic islet bioenergetics reveals that Drp1 does not control insulin secretion via its effect on proton leak but instead via modulation of glucose-fuelled respiration...
February 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173848/inhibition-of-dynamin-related-protein-1-protects-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-diabetic-mice
#14
Mingge Ding, Qianqian Dong, Zhenghua Liu, Zheng Liu, Yinxian Qu, Xing Li, Cong Huo, Xin Jia, Feng Fu, Xiaoming Wang
BACKGROUND: Many cardioprotective pharmacological agents failed to exert their protective effects in diabetic hearts subjected to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R). Identify the molecular basis linking diabetes with MI/R injury is scientifically important and may provide effective therapeutic approaches. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission plays an important role in MI/R injury under non-diabetic conditions. Importantly, recent studies indicated that Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission is enhanced in the myocardium of diabetic mice...
February 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170315/cytoplasmic-irradiation-induces-metabolic-shift-in-human-small-airway-epithelial-cells-via-activation-of-pim-1-kinase
#15
Jinhua Wu, Qin Zhang, Yen-Ruh Wuu, Sirui Zou, Tom K Hei
The unique cellular and molecular consequences of cytoplasmic damage caused by ionizing radiation were studied using a precision microbeam irradiator. Our results indicated that targeted cytoplasmic irradiation induced metabolic shift from an oxidative to glycolytic phenotype in human small airway epithelial cells (SAE). At 24 h postirradiation, there was an increase in the mRNA expression level of key glycolytic enzymes as well as lactate secretion in SAE cells. Using RNA-sequencing analysis to compare genes that were responsive to cytoplasmic versus nuclear irradiation, we found a glycolysis related gene, Pim-1, was significantly upregulated only in cytoplasmic irradiated SAE cells...
February 7, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168604/the-natural-product-osthole-attenuates-yeast-growth-by-extensively-suppressing-the-gene-expressions-of-mitochondrial-respiration-chain
#16
Zhe Wang, Yan Shen
The fast growing evidences have indicated that the natural product osthole is a promising drug candidate for fighting several serious human diseases, for example, cancer and inflammation. However, the mode-of-action (MoA) of osthole remains largely incomplete. In this study, we investigated the growth inhibition activity of osthole using fission yeast as a model, with the goal of understanding the osthole's mechanism of action, especially from the molecular level. Microarray analysis indicated that osthole has significant impacts on gene transcription levels (In total, 214 genes are up-regulated, and 97 genes are down-regulated)...
February 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161998/paternal-genetic-structure-in-contemporary-mennonite-communities-from-the-american-midwest
#17
Kristine G Beaty, M J Mosher, Michael H Crawford, Phillip Melton
Over the last 35 years, researchers from the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Kansas have been working with Mennonite communities to better understand evolutionary patterns of fission-fusion in relationship to their genetic history and population structure. In this study, short tandem repeat (STR) markers from the nonrecombining region of the Y chromosome (NRY) provided increased resolution of the molecular population structure for these groups. NRY is known to be informative for determining paternal genetic ancestral patterns in recently derived human populations...
April 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160744/mitochondrial-contribution-to-lipofuscin-formation
#18
Jeannette König, Christiane Ott, Martín Hugo, Tobias Jung, Anne-Laure Bulteau, Tilman Grune, Annika Höhn
Mitochondria have been in the focus of oxidative stress and aging research for decades due to their permanent production of ROS during the oxidative phosphorylation. The hypothesis exists that mitochondria are involved in the formation of lipofuscin, an autofluorescent protein aggregate that accumulates progressively over time in lysosomes of post-mitotic and senescent cells. To investigate the influence and involvement of mitochondria in lipofuscinogenesis, we analyzed lipofuscin amounts as well as the mitochondrial function in young and senescent cells...
January 25, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158949/methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-a-deficiency-exacerbates-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity-via-increased-mitochondrial-damage-and-renal-cell-death
#19
Mi Ra Noh, Ki Young Kim, Sang Jun Han, Jee In Kim, Hwa-Young Kim, Kwon Moo Park
AIMS: Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), which is abundantly localized in the mitochondria, reduces methionine-S-sulfoxide scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cisplatin, an anticancer drug, accumulates at high levels in the mitochondria of renal cells, causing mitochondrial impairment that ultimately leads to nephrotoxicity. Here, we investigated the role of MsrA in cisplatin-induced mitochondrial damage and kidney cell death using MsrA gene-deleted (MsrA-/-) mice. RESULTS: Cisplatin injection resulted in increases of ROS production, methionine oxidation, and oxidative damage in the kidneys...
February 3, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154157/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-neuronal-injury-development-and-plasticity
#20
REVIEW
Kyle H Flippo, Stefan Strack
Mitochondria fulfill numerous cellular functions including ATP production, Ca(2+) buffering, neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation, ROS production and sequestration, apoptosis and intermediate metabolism. Mitochondrial dynamics, a collective term for the processes of mitochondrial fission, fusion and transport, governs mitochondrial function and localization within the cell. Correct balance of mitochondrial dynamics is especially important in neurons as mutations in fission and fusion enzymes cause peripheral neuropathies and impaired development of the nervous system in humans...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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