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Mitochondrial fission

Trey Farmer, Naava Naslavsky, Steve Caplan
The mitochondrion is a unique organelle that serves as the main site of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation needed for energy in the cell. However, mitochondria also play essential roles in cell death through apoptosis and necrosis, as well as a variety of crucial functions related to stress regulation, autophagy, lipid synthesis, and calcium storage. There is a growing appreciation that mitochondrial function is regulated by the dynamics of its membrane fusion and fission; longer, fused mitochondria are optimal for ATP generation, whereas fission of mitochondria facilitates mitophagy and cell division...
April 16, 2018: Traffic
Phoebe B Chen, Jason S Yang, Yeonhwa Park
Mitochondria intricately modulate their energy production through the control of mitochondrial adaptation (mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion, and/or fission) to meet energy demands. Nutrient overload may result in dysregulated mitochondrial biogenesis, morphology toward mitochondrial fragmentation, and oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle. In addition, physical activity and diet components influence mitochondrial function. Exercise may stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and promote mitochondrial fusion/fission in the skeletal muscle...
April 16, 2018: Lipids
Anthony Arlia-Ciommo, Anna Leonov, Adam Beach, Vincent R Richard, Simon D Bourque, Michelle T Burstein, Pavlo Kyryakov, Alejandra Gomez-Perez, Olivia Koupaki, Rachel Feldman, Vladimir I Titorenko
A dietary regimen of caloric restriction delays aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes, including the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Here, we assessed how caloric restriction influences morphological, biochemical and cell biological properties of chronologically aging yeast advancing through different stages of the aging process. Our findings revealed that this low-calorie diet slows yeast chronological aging by mechanisms that coordinate the spatiotemporal dynamics of various cellular processes before entry into a non-proliferative state and after such entry...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Min Guo, Xun Wang, Yanxin Zhao, Qi Yang, Hongyan Ding, Qiang Dong, Xingdong Chen, Mei Cui
Background : Neuroprotective effects of ketogenic diets (KD) have been reported in stroke models, and nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke. This study aimed to investigate the effects of KD on NLRP3 inflammasome and explore the potential molecular mechanisms. Methods : In in vivo study, mice were fed with KD for 3 weeks and then subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R)-injury. In in vitro study, SH-SY-5Y cells were treated with β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) followed by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Frédéric Daste, Cécile Sauvanet, Andrej Bavdek, James Baye, Fabienne Pierre, Rémi Le Borgne, Claudine David, Manuel Rojo, Patrick Fuchs, David Tareste
Mitochondria are double-membrane-bound organelles that constantly change shape through membrane fusion and fission. Outer mitochondrial membrane fusion is controlled by Mitofusin, whose molecular architecture consists of an N-terminal GTPase domain, a first heptad repeat domain (HR1), two transmembrane domains, and a second heptad repeat domain (HR2). The mode of action of Mitofusin and the specific roles played by each of these functional domains in mitochondrial fusion are not fully understood. Here, using a combination of in situ and in vitro fusion assays, we show that HR1 induces membrane fusion and possesses a conserved amphipathic helix that folds upon interaction with the lipid bilayer surface...
April 16, 2018: EMBO Reports
Zeinab Namjoo, Fateme Moradi, Roya Aryanpour, Abbas Piryaei, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Yusef Abbasi, Amir Hosseini, Sajad Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Ranjbar Taklimie, Cordian Beyer, Adib Zendedel
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating traumatic event which burdens the affected individuals and the health system. Schwann cell (SC) transplantation is a promising repair strategy after SCI. However, a large number of SCs do not survive following transplantation. Previous studies demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E2) protects different cell types and reduces tissue damage in SCI experimental animal model. In the current study, we evaluated the protective potential of E2 on SCs in vitro and investigated whether the combination of hormonal and SC therapeutic strategy has a better effect on the outcome after SCI...
April 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Yulai Shen, Lu Wu, Dongdong Qin, Yankai Xia, Zhu Zhou, Xuemei Zhang, Xin Wu
BACKGROUND: The rapid increase in carbon black poses threats to human health. We evaluated the effect of CB (Printex 90) on the osteogenesis of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Mitochondria play an important role in the osteogenesis of MSCs and are potential targets of nanomaterials, so we studied the role of mitochondria in the CB Printex 90-induced effects on osteogenesis. RESULTS: Low doses of Printex 90 (3 ng/mL and 30 ng/mL) that did not cause deleterious effects on MSCs' viability significantly inhibited osteogenesis of MSCs...
April 12, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Hao Zhou, Chen Shi, Shunying Hu, Hong Zhu, Jun Ren, Yundai Chen
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial fission has been identified as the pathogenesis underlying the development of cardiac microvascular ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, although the regulatory signaling upstream from fission is far from clear. Bax inhibitor is a novel anti-apoptotic factor, and, however, its role of cardiac microvascular IR injury and mitochondrial homeostasis remains unclear. METHODS: The cardiac microvascular IR injury was performed in WT mice and BI1 transgenic (BITG ) mice...
April 6, 2018: Angiogenesis
Ying Cheng, Feng Bai
Increasing evidence suggests that abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mitochondrial dysfunction also has a recognized role in the pathophysiology of AD. In recent years, mitochondrial dysfunction has been strongly associated with tau pathology in AD. Overexpression of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau appears to damage the axonal transport, leading to abnormal mitochondrial distribution. In addition, pathological tau impairs mitochondrial dynamics by regulating mitochondrial fission/fusion proteins, and further causes mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal damage...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Phyu Synn Oo, Yuya Yamaguchi, Akira Sawaguchi, Myat Tin Htwe Kyaw, Narantsog Choijookhuu, Mohmand Noor Ali, Naparee Srisowanna, Shin-Ichiro Hino, Yoshitaka Hishikawa
Estrogen affects mitochondrial function in various tissues, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. We, therefore investigated the effect on estrogen-regulated mitochondrial morphology by dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and its Ser616-phosphorylated derivative (pDrp1Ser616 ) are involved in mitochondrial fission. MCF7 human breast cancer cells were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2 ), an estrogen receptor (ER) α and β antagonist (ICI 182, 780), an ERα antagonist (MPP), and an ERβ antagonist (PHTPP) for 24 hr...
February 27, 2018: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
Xiaotang Ma, Jinju Wang, Jiao Li, Chunlian Ma, Shuzhen Chen, Wei Lei, Yi Yang, Shiming Liu, Ji Bihl, Can Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Stem cell-derived exosomes (EXs) offer protective effects on various cells via their carried microRNAs (miRs). Meanwhile, miR-210 has been shown to reduce mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. In this study, we determined the potential effects of endothelial progenitor cell-derived EXs (EPC-EXs) on hypoxia/ reoxygenation (H/R) injured endothelial cells (ECs) and investigated whether these effects could be boosted by miR-210 loading. METHODS: Human EPCs were used to generate EPC-EXs, or transfected with scrambler control or miR-210 mimics to generate EPC-EXssc and EPC-EXsmiR-210...
March 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Huixiang Wang, Xiaoli Zhao, Chengxiang Ni, Yuyang Dai, Yan Guo
Increased endometrial stromal cell (ESC) survival and migration is responsible for the development and progression of endometriosis. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying ESC survival and migration, and limited therapeutic strategies that are able to reverse these abnormalities are available. The present study investigated the effects of zearalenone (ZEA) on ESC survival and migration, particularly focusing on mitochondrial fission and the c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK)/dynamin‑related protein 1 (Drp1) pathway...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Juan A Godoy, Angel G Valdivieso, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Mitochondria are widely recognized as fundamental organelles for cellular physiology and constitute the main energy source for different cellular processes. The location, morphology, and interactions of mitochondria with other organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), have emerged as critical events capable of determining cellular fate. Mitochondria-related functions have proven particularly relevant in neurons; mitochondria are necessary for proper neuronal morphogenesis and the highly energy-demanding synaptic transmission process...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Ilan Y Benador, Michaela Veliova, Kiana Mahdaviani, Anton Petcherski, Jakob D Wikstrom, Essam A Assali, Rebeca Acín-Pérez, Michaël Shum, Marcus F Oliveira, Saverio Cinti, Carole Sztalryd, William D Barshop, James A Wohlschlegel, Barbara E Corkey, Marc Liesa, Orian S Shirihai
Mitochondria associate with lipid droplets (LDs) in fat-oxidizing tissues, but the functional role of these peridroplet mitochondria (PDM) is unknown. Microscopic observation of interscapular brown adipose tissue reveals that PDM have unique protein composition and cristae structure and remain adherent to the LD in the tissue homogenate. We developed an approach to isolate PDM based on their adherence to LDs. Comparison of purified PDM to cytoplasmic mitochondria reveals that (1) PDM have increased pyruvate oxidation, electron transport, and ATP synthesis capacities; (2) PDM have reduced β-oxidation capacity and depart from LDs upon activation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and β-oxidation; (3) PDM support LD expansion as Perilipin5-induced recruitment of mitochondria to LDs increases ATP synthase-dependent triacylglyceride synthesis; and (4) PDM maintain a distinct protein composition due to uniquely low fusion-fission dynamics...
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Youngjin Han, Untack Cho, Soochi Kim, In Sil Park, Jae Hyun Cho, Danny N Dhanasekaran, Yong Sang Song
Mitochondria, evolutionally acquired symbionts of eukaryotic cells, are essential cytoplasmic organelles. They are structurally dynamic organelles that continually go through fission and fusion processes in response to various stimuli. Tumor tissue is composed of not just cancer cells but also various cell types like fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem and immune cells. Mitochondrial dynamics of cancer cells has been shown to be significantly affected by features of tumor microenvironment such as hypoxia, inflammation and energy deprivation...
April 2, 2018: Free Radical Research
A Srivastava, S Singh, C S Rajpurohit, P Srivastava, A Pandey, D Kumar, V K Khanna, A B Pant
A perturbed cellular homeostasis is a key factor associated with xenobiotic exposure resulting in various ailments. The local cellular microenvironment enriched with secretory components aids in cell-cell communication that restores this homeostasis. Deciphering the underlying mechanism behind this restorative potential of secretome could serve as a possible solution to many health hazards. We, therefore, explored the protective efficacy of the secretome of differentiated PC12 cells with emphasis on induction of autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis...
March 30, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
Jia Qi, Feng Wang, Ping Yang, Xuelian Wang, Renjie Xu, Jihui Chen, Yanggang Yuan, Zhaoyang Lu, Junli Duan
Hypertension-induced cardiac apoptosis is a major contributor to early-stage heart-failure. Our previous studies have found that p53-mediated mitochondrial fission is involved in aldosterone-induced podocyte apoptosis. However, it is not clear that whether p53-induced mitochondrial fission is critical for hypertensive Angiotensin II (AngII)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In this study, we found that inhibition of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1) by Mdivi-1 prevented cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac remodeling in SHRs...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sun Young Kyung, Yu Jin Kim, Eun Suk Son, Sung Hwan Jeong, Jeong Woong Park
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that mitophagy, the autophagy-dependent turnover of mitochondria, mediates pulmonary epithelial cell death in response to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure and contributes to the development of emphysema in vivo during chronic cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the role of mitophagy in the regulation of CSE-exposed lung bronchial epithelial cell (Beas-2B) death...
April 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Lijuan Huang, Ting Luan, Yujin Chen, Xin Bao, Yinglong Huang, Shi Fu, Haifeng Wang, Jiansong Wang
Mitochondria coordinated a lot of vital cellular processes of energy production and distribution. Change of mitochondrial functions has been implicated in cancer progression. The present study aims to investigate the involvement of mitochondria dynamics in LASS2 induced invasion and chemoresistance of bladder cancer cells. J82 and BIU87 cell lines were used for LASS2 plasmid transfection while siRNA knockdown was carried out in 5637 cell line. Matrigel invasion assay and Annexin V/PI staining demonstrated that LASS2 negatively regulated cancer cell invasion and chemoresistance...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Shuangzhe Lin, Haiping Xing, Tongtong Zang, Xin Ruan, Lulu Wo, Ming He
Mitochondria play an essential part in guaranteeing normal cellular physiological functions through providing ATP and participating in diverse processes and signaling pathways. Recently, more and more studies have revealed the vital roles of mitochondria in coping with stressors in the aging process, metabolic disturbances and neurological disorders. Mitochondrial stress responses, including the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt ), antioxidant defense, mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial fusion and mitophagy, are induced to maintain cellular integrity in response to stress...
March 23, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
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