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Mitochondrial fission

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221178/cytotoxic-stress-induces-transfer-of-mitochondria-associated-human-endogenous-retroviral-rna-and-proteins-between-cancer-cells
#1
David Díaz-Carballo, Jacqueline Klein, Ali H Acikelli, Camilla Wilk, Sahitya Saka, Holger Jastrow, Gunther Wennemuth, Phillip Dammann, Urs Giger-Pabst, Veria Khosrawipour, Joachim Rassow, Mikalai Nienen, Dirk Strumberg
About 8 % of the human genome consists of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are relicts of ancient exogenous retroviral infections incurred during evolution. Although the majority of HERVs have functional gene defects or epigenetic modifications, many of them are still able to produce retroviral proteins that have been proposed to be involved in cellular transformation and cancer development. We found that, in chemo-resistant U87RETO glioblastoma cells, cytotoxic stress induced by etoposide promotes accumulation and large-scale fission of mitochondria, associated with the detection of HERV-WE1 (syncytin-1) and HERV-FRD1 (syncytin-2) in these organelles...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219180/laminar-shear-stress-promotes-mitochondrial-homeostasis-in-endothelial-cells
#2
Li-Hong Wu, Hao-Chun Chang, Pei-Ching Ting, Danny Ling Wang
Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly subjected to flow-induced shear stress that is crucial for endothelial functions. Laminar shear stress (LSS) exerts atheroprotection to ECs. Mitochondrial homeostasis is essential for cellular survival. However, the effects of LSS on mitochondrial homeostasis in ECs remain unclear. Mitochondrial homeostasis in ECs exposed to LSS was examined. Cultured human umbilical vein ECs were subjected to LSS (12 dynes/cm2 ) generated by a parallel-plate flow chamber system...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218784/intraspecific-genetic-structure-divergence-and-high-rates-of-clonality-in-an-amphi-atlantic-starfish
#3
Alex Garcia-Cisneros, Creu Palacín, Carlos Renato Rezende Ventura, Barbara Feital, Paulo Cesar Paiva, Rocío Pérez-Portela
Intraspecific genetic diversity and divergence have a large influence on the adaption and evolutionary potential of species. The widely distributed starfish, Coscinasterias tenuispina, combines sexual reproduction with asexual reproduction via fission. Here we analyse the phylogeography of this starfish to reveal historical and contemporary processes driving its intraspecific genetic divergence. We further consider whether asexual reproduction is the most important method of propagation throughout the distribution range of this species...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217195/calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-camkii-mediates-radiation-induced-mitochondrial-fission-by-regulating-the-phosphorylation-of-dynamin-related-protein-1-drp1-at-serine-616
#4
Tomoki Bo, Tohru Yamamori, Motofumi Suzuki, Yuri Sakai, Kumiko Yamamoto, Osamu Inanami
Mitochondrial dynamics are suggested to be indispensable for the maintenance of cellular quality and function in response to various stresses. While ionizing radiation (IR) stimulates mitochondrial fission, which is mediated by the mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), it remains unclear how IR promotes Drp1 activation and subsequent mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate these concerns. First, we found that X-irradiation triggered Drp1 phosphorylation at serine 616 (S616) but not at serine 637 (S637)...
December 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212875/imiq-a-novel-protein-quality-control-compartment-protecting-mitochondrial-functional-integrity
#5
Michael Bruderek, Witold Jaworek, Anne Wilkening, Cornelia Rüb, Giovanna Cenini, Arion Förtsch, Marc Sylvester, Wolfgang Voos
Aggregation processes can cause severe perturbations of cellular homeostasis and are frequently associated with diseases. We performed a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial quality and function in presence of aggregation-prone polypeptides. Despite a significant aggregate formation inside mitochondria, we observed only a minor impairment of mitochondrial function. Detoxification of aggregated reporter polypeptides as well as endogenous proteins inside mitochondria takes place via their sequestration into a specific organellar deposit site we termed intra-mitochondrial protein quality control compartment (IMiQ)...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210177/mitochondrial-fission-promotes-cell-migration-by-ca2-camkii-erk-fak-pathway-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Xiacheng Sun, Haiyan Cao, Lei Zhan, Chun Yin, Gang Wang, Ping Liang, Jibin Li, Zhe Wang, Bingrong Liu, Qichao Huang, Jinliang Xing
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mitochondrial dynamics of fission and fusion plays critical roles in a diverse range of important cellular functions, and its deregulation has been increasingly implicated in human diseases. Previous studies have shown that increased mitochondrial fission significantly promoted the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, how they influence the migration of tumor cells remained largely unknown. METHODS: In the present study, we further investigated the effect of mitochondrial fission on the migration and metastasis of HCC cells...
December 6, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209146/adhesion-regulating-molecule-1-mediates-hap40-overexpression-induced-mitochondrial-defects
#7
Zih-Ning Huang, Her Min Chung, Su-Chiung Fang, Lu-Shiun Her
Striatal neuron death in Huntington's disease is associated with abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and functions. However, the mechanisms for this mitochondrial dysregulation remain elusive. Increased accumulation of Huntingtin-associated protein 40 (HAP40) has been shown to be associated with Huntington's disease. However, the link between increased HAP40 and Huntington's disease remains largely unknown. Here we show that HAP40 overexpression causes mitochondrial dysfunction and reduces cell viability in the immortalized mouse striatal neurons...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208514/fragmentation-level-determines-mitochondrial-damage-response-and-subsequently-the-fate-of-cancer-cells-exposed-to-carbon-ions
#8
Xiaodong Jin, Xiaogang Zheng, Feifei Li, Bingtao Liu, Hongbin Li, Ryoichi Hirayama, Ping Li, Xiongxiong Liu, Guosheng Shen, Qiang Li
OBJECTIVES: Although mitochondria are known to play an important role in radiation-induced cellular damage response, the mechanisms of how radiation elicits mitochondrial responses are largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human cervical cancer cell line HeLa and human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were irradiated with high LET carbon ions at low (0.5 Gy) and high (3 Gy) doses. Mitochondrial functions, dynamics, mitophagy, intrinsic apoptosis and total apoptosis, and survival fraction were investigated after irradiation...
December 2, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205851/regulated-cell-death-of-lymphoma-cells-after-graded-mitochondrial-damage-is-differentially-affected-by-drugs-targeting-cell-stress-responses
#9
Tomás Lombardo, Martín Gil Folgar, Luciana Salaverry, Estela Rey-Roldán, Elida M Alvarez, María C Carreras, Laura Kornblihtt, Guillermo A Blanco
Collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) is often considered the initiation of regulated cell death (RCD). Carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) is an uncoupler of the electron transport chain (ETC) that facilitates the translocation of protons into the mitochondrial matrix leading to the collapse of the MMP. Several cell stress responses such as mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and the ubiquitin proteasome system, may differentially contribute to restrain the initiation of RCD depending on the extent of mitochondrial damage...
December 4, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204450/the-role-of-oxidative-stress-mitochondrial-function-and-autophagy-in-diabetic-polyneuropathy
#10
REVIEW
Sonia Sifuentes-Franco, Fermín Paul Pacheco-Moisés, Adolfo Daniel Rodríguez-Carrizalez, Alejandra Guillermina Miranda-Díaz
Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is the most frequent and prevalent chronic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). The state of persistent hyperglycemia leads to an increase in the production of cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and favors deregulation of the antioxidant defenses that are capable of activating diverse metabolic pathways which trigger the presence of nitro-oxidative stress (NOS) and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Hyperglycemia provokes the appearance of micro- and macrovascular complications and favors oxidative damage to the macromolecules (lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins) with an increase in products that damage the DNA...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202017/molecular-motor-dnm1-synergistically-induces-membrane-curvature-to-facilitate-mitochondrial-fission
#11
Michelle W Lee, Ernest Y Lee, Ghee Hwee Lai, Nolan W Kennedy, Ammon E Posey, Wujing Xian, Andrew L Ferguson, R Blake Hill, Gerard C L Wong
Dnm1 and Fis1 are prototypical proteins that regulate yeast mitochondrial morphology by controlling fission, the dysregulation of which can result in developmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Loss of Dnm1 blocks the formation of fission complexes and leads to elongated mitochondria in the form of interconnected networks, while overproduction of Dnm1 results in excessive mitochondrial fragmentation. In the current model, Dnm1 is essentially a GTP hydrolysis-driven molecular motor that self-assembles into ring-like oligomeric structures that encircle and pinch the outer mitochondrial membrane at sites of fission...
November 22, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201274/slower-dynamics-and-aged-mitochondria-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Patricia Martín-Maestro, Ricardo Gargini, Esther García, George Perry, Jesús Avila, Vega García-Escudero
Sporadic Alzheimer's disease corresponds to 95% of cases whose origin is multifactorial and elusive. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major feature of Alzheimer's pathology, which might be one of the early events that trigger downstream principal events. Here, we show that multiple genes that control mitochondrial homeostasis, including fission and fusion, are downregulated in Alzheimer's patients. Additionally, we demonstrate that some of these dysregulations, such as diminished DLP1 levels and its mitochondrial localization, as well as reduced STOML2 and MFN2 fusion protein levels, take place in fibroblasts from sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200899/effects-of-exercise-on-obesity-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-skeletal-muscle
#13
REVIEW
Jun-Won Heo, Mi-Hyun No, Dong-Ho Park, Ju-Hee Kang, Dae Yun Seo, Jin Han, P Darrell Neufer, Hyo-Bum Kwak
Obesity is known to induce inhibition of glucose uptake, reduction of lipid metabolism, and progressive loss of skeletal muscle function, which are all associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that regulate cellular metabolism and bioenergetics, including ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation. Due to these critical roles of mitochondria, mitochondrial dysfunction results in various diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with impairment of mitochondrial function (e...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198814/a-high-content-imaging-flow-cytometry-approach-to-study-mitochondria-in-t-cells-mitotracker-green-fm-dye-concentration-optimization
#14
Namrata Gautam, Shvetha Sankaran, John A Yason, Kevin S W Tan, Nicholas R J Gascoigne
Mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, are known to remodel their membrane structures through the process of fusion or fission. Studies have indicated that T cells adopt different energy metabolic phenotypes, namely oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis depending on whether they are naïve, effector and memory T cells. It has recently been shown that changes in mitochondrial morphology dictate T cell fate via regulation of their metabolism. Our keen interest in T cell function and metabolism led us to explore and establish a method to study mitochondria in live T cells through a novel high content approach called Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC)...
November 30, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198749/mitochondrial-fission-is-associated-with-ucp1-activity-in-human-brite-beige-adipocytes
#15
Didier F Pisani, Valentin Barquissau, Jean-Claude Chambard, Diane Beuzelin, Rayane A Ghandour, Maude Giroud, Aline Mairal, Sophie Pagnotta, Saverio Cinti, Dominique Langin, Ez-Zoubir Amri
OBJECTIVE: Thermogenic adipocytes (i.e. brown or brite/beige adipocytes) are able to burn large amounts of lipids and carbohydrates as a result of highly active mitochondria and enhanced uncoupled respiration, due to UCP1 activity. Although mitochondria are the key organelles for this thermogenic function, limited human data are available. METHODS/RESULTS: We characterized changes in the mitochondrial function of human brite adipocytes, using hMADS cells as a model of white- to brite-adipocyte conversion...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191091/schizosaccharomyces-japonicus-has-low-levels-of-coq10-synthesis-respiration-deficiency-and-efficient-ethanol-production
#16
Tomohiro Kaino, Kai Tonoko, Shiomi Mochizuki, Yuriko Takashima, Makoto Kawamukai
Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is essential for mitochondrial respiration and as a cofactor for sulfide quinone reductase. Schizosaccharomyces pombe produces a human-type CoQ10. Here, we analyzed CoQ in other fission yeast species. S. cryophilus and S. octosporus produce CoQ9. S. japonicus produces low levels of CoQ10, although all necessary genes for CoQ synthesis have been identified in its genome. We expressed three genes (dps1, dlp1, and ppt1) for CoQ synthesis from S. japonicus in the corresponding S. pombe mutants, and confirmed that they were functional...
December 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190966/microrna-21-inhibits-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-in-keloid
#17
Hao Wu, Jie Wang, Hui Ma, Zhibo Xiao, Xiaoqun Dong
MicroRNA-21 acts as an oncogene by promoting cell proliferation and migration, whereas inhibiting apoptosis in majority of cancers. MicroRNA-21 is upregulated in human keloid fibroblasts. We hypothesized that microRNA-21 may contribute to pathogenesis of keloid fibroblasts. First, enhanced miR-21 but reduced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis observed in keloid tissues indicated its importance in keloids development. Second, upregulation of microRNA-21 induced a decrease in the ratio of BAX to BCL-2 and suppressed mitochondrial fission in keloid fibroblasts...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189636/mitochondrial-fusion-and-fission-proteins-and-the-recognition-memory-of-imprinting-in-domestic-chicks
#18
Giorgi Margvelani, Maia Meparishvili, Ekaterine Tevdoradze, Brian J McCabe, Revaz Solomonia
Visual imprinting is a learning process through which young, visually naive animals come to recognize a visual stimulus by being exposed to it (training) and subsequently approach the stimulus in preference to others. A large body of evidence indicates that a restricted part of the forebrain, the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM), is a memory region for visual imprinting in the domestic chick. Previous studies have shown learning-related up-regulation of several mitochondrial proteins in the IMM 24 h after training...
November 17, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180626/mitochondrial-dynamics-controls-anti-tumour-innate-immunity-by-regulating-chip-irf1-axis-stability
#19
Zhengjun Gao, Yiyuan Li, Fei Wang, Tao Huang, Keqi Fan, Yu Zhang, Jiangyan Zhong, Qian Cao, Tong Chao, Junling Jia, Shuo Yang, Long Zhang, Yichuan Xiao, Ji-Yong Zhou, Xin-Hua Feng, Jin Jin
Macrophages, dendritic cells and other innate immune cells are involved in inflammation and host defense against infection. Metabolic shifts in mitochondrial dynamics may be involved in Toll-like receptor agonist-mediated inflammatory responses and immune cell polarization. However, whether the mitochondrial morphology in myeloid immune cells affects anti-tumor immunity is unclear. Here we show that FAM73b, a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, has a pivotal function in Toll-like receptor-regulated mitochondrial morphology switching from fusion to fission...
November 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179476/hyperoside-alleviates-adriamycin-induced-podocyte-injury-via-inhibiting-mitochondrial-fission
#20
Zhuyun Chen, Xiaofei An, Xi Liu, Jia Qi, Dafa Ding, Min Zhao, Suyan Duan, Zhimin Huang, Chengning Zhang, Lin Wu, Bo Zhang, Aihua Zhang, Yanggang Yuan, Changying Xing
Podocyte injury underlies many forms of glomerular diseases. Our previous study showed that hyperoside, a naturally occurring flavonoid, could decrease albuminuria at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy by ameliorating renal damage and podocyte injury. However, its protective mechanism against podocyte injury is unknown. A previous study demonstrated that hyperoside might inhibit amyloid β-protein-induced neurotoxicity by suppressing mitochondrial dysfunction. Both mitochondrial dysfunction and its upstream determinant mitochondrial fission were closely related to podocyte injury...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
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