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Stem cell research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331905/macrophage-phenotype-switch-by-sequential-action-of-immunomodulatory-cytokines-from-hydrogel-layers-on-titania-nanotubes
#1
Junhong Chen, Mengting Li, Congling Yang, Xianzhen Yin, Ke Duan, Jianxin Wang, Bo Feng
Inflammatory response occurring between tissues and implants after implantation has attracted increasing attention because it can cause local tissue necrosis and even implant failure. Macrophages play a key role in all stages of inflammation. Pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages comprise two main phenotypes and the switch from M1 to M2 at specific time points is important for wound healing and tissue regeneration. Therefore, we hypothesized that biomaterial systems capable of facilitating macrophage phenotype switching should attenuate inflammation and enhance healing...
January 9, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331315/ethnobotany-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-arctotis-arctotoides-l-f-o-hoffm-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Md Moshfekus Saleh-E-In, Johannes Van Staden
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae) is part of the genus Arctotis. Arctotis is an African genus of approximately 70 species that occur widely in the African continent with diverse medicinal values. This plant is used for the treatment of indigestion and catarrh of the stomach, epilepsy, topical wounds and skin disorders among the ethnic groups in South Africa and reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of the present review is to appraise the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological potential, analytical methods and safety issues of A...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330730/scaffold-free-tissue-engineering-for-injured-joint-surface-restoration
#3
REVIEW
Kazunori Shimomura, Wataru Ando, Hiromichi Fujie, David A Hart, Hideki Yoshikawa, Norimasa Nakamura
Articular cartilage does not heal spontaneously due to its limited healing capacity, and thus effective treatments for cartilage injuries has remained challenging. Since the first report by Brittberg et al. in 1994, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has been introduced into the clinic. Recently, as an alternative for chondrocyte-based therapy, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy has received considerable research attention because of the relative ease in handling for tissue harvest, and subsequent cell expansion and differentiation...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330711/boosting-tendon-repair-interplay-of-cells-growth-factors-and-scaffold-free-and-gel-based-carriers
#4
REVIEW
Zexing Yan, Heyong Yin, Michael Nerlich, Christian G Pfeifer, Denitsa Docheva
BACKGROUND: Tendons are dense connective tissues and critical components for the integrity and function of the musculoskeletal system. Tendons connect bone to muscle and transmit forces on which locomotion entirely depends. Due to trauma, overuse and age-related degeneration, many people suffer from acute or chronic tendon injuries. Owing to their hypovascularity and hypocellularity, tendinopathies remain a substantial challenge for both clinicians and researchers. Surgical treatment includes suture or transplantation of autograft, allograft or xenograft, and these serve as the most common technique for rescuing tendon injuries...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329642/mesenchymal-stem-cell-macrophage-crosstalk-and-bone-healing
#5
Jukka Pajarinen, Tzuhua Lin, Emmanuel Gibon, Yusuke Kohno, Masahiro Maruyama, Karthik Nathan, Laura Lu, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman
Recent research has brought about a clear understanding that successful fracture healing is based on carefully coordinated cross-talk between inflammatory and bone forming cells. In particular, the key role that macrophages play in the recruitment and regulation of the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during bone regeneration has been brought to focus. Indeed, animal studies have comprehensively demonstrated that fractures do not heal without the direct involvement of macrophages. Yet the exact mechanisms by which macrophages contribute to bone regeneration remain to be elucidated...
January 2, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328786/connections-between-metabolism-and-epigenetics-in-programming-cellular-differentiation
#6
Danielle A Chisolm, Amy S Weinmann
Researchers are intensifying efforts to understand the mechanisms by which changes in metabolic states influence differentiation programs. An emerging objective is to define how fluctuations in metabolites influence the epigenetic states that contribute to differentiation programs. This is because metabolites such as S-adenosylmethionine, acetyl-CoA, α-ketoglutarate, 2-hydroxyglutarate, and butyrate are donors, substrates, cofactors, and antagonists for the activities of epigenetic-modifying complexes and for epigenetic modifications...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328371/cd133-expression-predicts-post-operative-recurrence-in-patients-with-colon-cancer-with-peritoneal-metastasis
#7
Hiroshi Nagata, Soichiro Ishihara, Junko Kishikawa, Hirofumi Sonoda, Koji Murono, Shigenobu Emoto, Manabu Kaneko, Kazuhito Sasaki, Kensuke Otani, Takeshi Nishikawa, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Keisuke Hata, Kazushige Kawai, Hiroaki Nozawa
Despite extensive research on cancer stem cells in colorectal cancer, the impact of stem cell markers on patient survival remains unclear, particularly in those with distant metastasis. In this study, we focused on colon cancer with peritoneal metastasis and investigated the association between the expression of CD133, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) and leucine-rich repeating G-protein coupled receptor-5 (Lgr5), and disease prognosis. Putative stem cell marker expression was immunohistochemically evaluated in samples from 142 primary tumours and 75 peritoneal nodules...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327894/cell-therapy-for-heart-disease-current-status-and-future-directions
#8
Arunpreet Kahlon, Gaurang Vaidya, Roberto Bolli
Treatment of ischemic heart disease has evolved considerably over time, seeing a technological impetus in recent times. Prompt diagnosis and progressively earlier reperfusion of the infarct artery have become the cornerstone of the early myocardial ischemia management. However, treatment of post-infarction sequelae resulting from ischemic damage sustained within the myocardium remains a considerable challenge. In this setting, stem cell therapy has emerged as an exciting regenerative modality with a promise to arrest or even reverse the pathological myocardial remodeling...
January 10, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327735/acquired-sensorineural-hearing-loss-in-children-current-research-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#9
M Ralli, R Rolesi, R Anzivino, R Turchetta, A R Fetoni
The knowledge of mechanisms responsible for acquired sensorineural hearing loss in children, such as viral and bacterial infections, noise exposure, aminoglycoside and cisplatin ototoxicity, is increasing and progressively changing the clinical management of affected patients. Viral infections are by far the most relevant cause of acquired hearing loss, followed by aminoglycoside and platinum derivative ototoxicity; moreover, cochlear damage induced by noise overexposure, mainly in adolescents, is an emerging topic...
December 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327730/eosinophil-derived-ccl-6-impairs-hematopoietic-stem-cell-homeostasis
#10
Chao Zhang, Weiwei Yi, Fei Li, Xufei Du, Hu Wang, Ping Wu, Chao Peng, Man Luo, Wen Hua, Catherine Cl Wong, James J Lee, Wen Li, Zhihua Chen, Songmin Ying, Zhenyu Ju, Huahao Shen
Eosinophils (Eos) have been long considered as end-stage effector cells in the hierarchical hematopoietic system. Numerous lines of evidence have suggested that Eos are multifunctional leukocytes with respect to the initiation, propagation and regulation of various inflammatory or immune reactions, especially in allergic diseases. Recent studies have shown that Eos are also required for maintenance of bone marrow plasma cells and differentiation of B cells. However, it remains unclear whether Eos contributes to regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis...
January 12, 2018: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327729/h5n1-influenza-virus-specific-mirna-like-small-rna-increases-cytokine-production-and-mouse-mortality-via-targeting-poly-rc-binding-protein-2
#11
Xihan Li, Zheng Fu, Hongwei Liang, Yanbo Wang, Xian Qi, Meng Ding, Xinlei Sun, Zhen Zhou, Ying Huang, Hongwei Gu, Limin Li, Xi Chen, Donghai Li, Quan Zhao, Fenyong Liu, Hua Wang, Jin Wang, Ke Zen, Chen-Yu Zhang
Infection of H5N1 influenza virus causes the highest mortality among all influenza viruses. The mechanisms underlying such high viral pathogenicity are incompletely understood. Here, we report that the H5N1 influenza virus encodes a microRNA-like small RNA, miR-HA-3p, which is processed from a stem loop-containing viral RNA precursor by Argonaute 2, and plays a role in enhancing cytokine production during H5N1 infection. Mechanistic study shows that miR-HA-3p targets poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) and suppresses its expression...
January 12, 2018: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327010/dna-methylation-assay-using-droplet-based-dna-melting-curve-analysis
#12
F-W Liu, H-F Liao, S-P Lin, Y-W Lu
DNA methylation is an epigenetic regulation of gene expression, which has drawn great attention in biomedical research due to its association with various diseases. A robust, inexpensive platform to detect and quantify the methylation status in a specific genomic region is necessary. In this study, an on-chip analytical technique of cytosine methylation with droplets in a microchannel is proposed. Genomic DNA samples are encapsulated into a series of droplets and transported through a detection region, where a stable temperature gradient is created...
January 12, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325286/-research-advances-in-the-role-of-the-hippo-yap-taz-signaling-pathway-in-primary-liver-cancer
#13
L W Guo, G L Shao
The Hippo-YAP/TAZ signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway, which has been confirmed to play an important role in organ volume control, stem cell function, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis. Recent research findings show that the Hippo-YAP/TAZ signaling pathway is closely associated with the development and progression of primary liver cancer, and inhibition of the activity of this pathway may be a new method for the treatment of liver cancer. This article reviews the research advances in the role of the Hippo-YAP/TAZ signaling pathway in primary liver cancer...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323053/roles-of-neural-stem-cells-in-the-repair-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#14
REVIEW
Chong Wang, Chang-Feng Lu, Jiang Peng, Cheng-Dong Hu, Yu Wang
Currently, researchers are using neural stem cell transplantation to promote regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, as neural stem cells play an important role in peripheral nerve injury repair. This article reviews recent research progress of the role of neural stem cells in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. Neural stem cells can not only differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but can also differentiate into Schwann-like cells, which promote neurite outgrowth around the injury...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322302/the-superiority-of-sucrose-cushion-centrifugation-to-ultrafiltration-and-pegylation-in-generating-high-titer-lentivirus-particles-and-transducing-stem-cells-with-enhanced-efficiency
#15
Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Mossa Gardaneh
Viral gene delivery is hailed as a great milestone in gene-based therapeutic approaches. The human immunodeficiency virus-derived lentiviral vectors (LVs) are advantageous in infecting both dividing and non-dividing cells leading to continuous expression of transgenes. A variety of protocols are available for concentration of LVs. We primarily generated our internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-based LVs. Virus titration and transduction efficiency were compared between various strategies that included sucrose cushion centrifugation (SCC), protein column ultrafiltration and polyethylene glycol precipitation...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322086/engineered-livers-for-infectious-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Nil Gural, Liliana Mancio-Silva, Jiang He, Sangeeta N Bhatia
Engineered liver systems come in a variety of platform models, from 2-dimensional cocultures of primary human hepatocytes and stem cell-derived progeny, to 3-dimensional organoids and humanized mice. Because of the species-specificity of many human hepatropic pathogens, these engineered systems have been essential tools for biologic discovery and therapeutic agent development in the context of liver-dependent infectious diseases. Although improvement of existing models is always beneficial, and the addition of a robust immune component is a particular need, at present, considerable progress has been made using this combination of research platforms...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321823/yin-and-yang-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-aplastic-anemia
#17
REVIEW
Larisa Broglie, David Margolis, Jeffrey A Medin
Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by peripheral cytopenias and bone marrow hypoplasia. It is ultimately fatal without treatment, most commonly from infection or hemorrhage. Current treatments focus on suppressing immune-mediated destruction of bone marrow stem cells or replacing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by transplantation. Our incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis of AA has limited development of targeted treatment options. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a vital role in HSC proliferation; they also modulate immune responses and maintain an environment supportive of hematopoiesis...
December 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321681/in-vivo-monitoring-of-hair-cycle-stages-via-bioluminescence-imaging-of-hair-follicle-ng2-cells
#18
Yasuhisa Tamura, Kumi Takata, Asami Eguchi, Yosky Kataoka
Hair growth occurs periodically in a cycle that consists of three different phases: growth, regression, and resting. The length of each phase is regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors throughout life, and influenced by physiological and pathological conditions. Elongation of the resting phase and shortening of the growth phase occur during physiological ageing and in baldness, respectively. In vivo discrimination of each phase of the hair cycle can be used to research for regeneration of hair follicles as well as to evaluate the efficacy of hair regrowth treatments in the same individual...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321615/functional-isolation-of-tumor-initiating-cells-using-microfluidic-based-migration-identifies-phosphatidylserine-decarboxylase-as-a-key-regulator
#19
Yu-Chih Chen, Brock Humphries, Riley Brien, Anne E Gibbons, Yu-Ting Chen, Tonela Qyli, Henry R Haley, Matthew E Pirone, Benjamin Chiang, Annie Xiao, Yu-Heng Cheng, Yi Luan, Zhixiong Zhang, Jason Cong, Kathryn E Luker, Gary D Luker, Euisik Yoon
Isolation of tumor-initiating cells currently relies on markers that do not reflect essential biologic functions of these cells. We proposed to overcome this limitation by isolating tumor-initiating cells based on enhanced migration, a function tightly linked to tumor-initiating potential through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We developed a high-throughput microfluidic migration platform with automated cell tracking software and facile recovery of cells for downstream functional and genetic analyses...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320953/spaceflight-activates-protein-kinase-c-alpha-signaling-and-modifies-the-developmental-stage-of-human-neonatal-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells
#20
Jonathan Baio, Aida F Martinez, Leonard L Bailey, Nahidh Hasaniya, Michael Pecaut, Mary Kearns-Jonker
Spaceflight impacts cardiovascular function in astronauts; however, its impact on cardiac development and the stem cells that form the basis for cardiac repair is unknown. Accordingly, further research is needed to uncover the potential relevance of such changes to human health. Using simulated microgravity (SMG) generated via two-dimensional clinorotation and culture aboard the International Space Station (ISS), we assessed the effects of mechanical unloading on human neonatal cardiovascular progenitor cell (CPC) developmental properties and signaling...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
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