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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165423/meeting-report-a-hard-look-at-the-state-of-enamel-research
#1
REVIEW
Ophir D Klein, Olivier Duverger, Wendy Shaw, Rodrigo S Lacruz, Derk Joester, Janet Moradian-Oldak, Megan K Pugach, J Timothy Wright, Sarah E Millar, Ashok B Kulkarni, John D Bartlett, Thomas Gh Diekwisch, Pamela DenBesten, James P Simmer
The Encouraging Novel Amelogenesis Models and Ex vivo cell Lines (ENAMEL) Development workshop was held on 23 June 2017 at the Bethesda headquarters of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR). Discussion topics included model organisms, stem cells/cell lines, and tissues/3D cell culture/organoids. Scientists from a number of disciplines, representing institutions from across the United States, gathered to discuss advances in our understanding of enamel, as well as future directions for the field...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164815/application-of-kartogenin-for-musculoskeletal-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Gun-Il Im
Kartogenin (KGN) is a recently characterized small molecule that promotes the selective differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, and thus, KGN stimulates cartilage regeneration. KGN also possess chondro-protective effect. Furthermore, because it is highly stable small molecule, KGN can be stored and transported at room temperature. These obvious superiorities over peptide growth factors make KGN a desirable chondrogenic agent for cartilage regeneration. Since its discovery, KGN has drawn much attention as a new chondrogenic drug for intraarticular (IA) treatment...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164800/the-generation-of-human-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-whole-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-culture
#3
Daisuke Watanabe, Michiyo Koyanagi-Aoi, Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda, Yukiko Yoshida, Takeshi Azuma, Takashi Aoi
γδT cells constitute a small proportion of lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Unlike αβT cells, the anti-tumor activities are exerted through several different pathways in a MHC-unrestricted manner. Thus, immunotherapy using γδT cells is considered to be effective for various types of cancer. Occasionally, however, ex vivo expanded cells are not as effective as expected due to cell exhaustion. To overcome the issue of T-cell exhaustion, researchers have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that harbor the same T-cell receptor (TCR) genes as their original T-cells, which provide nearly limitless sources for antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)...
November 21, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164062/preleukemic-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-human-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#4
REVIEW
M Ryan Corces, Howard Y Chang, Ravindra Majeti
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy of the bone marrow characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of undifferentiated myeloid lineage cells. Decades of research have demonstrated that AML evolves from the sequential acquisition of genetic alterations within a single lineage of hematopoietic cells. More recently, the advent of high-throughput sequencing has enabled the identification of a premalignant phase of AML termed preleukemia. Multiple studies have demonstrated that AML can arise from the accumulation of mutations within hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163051/young-human-cholinergic-neurons-respond-to-physiological-regulators-and-improve-cognitive-symptoms-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Annamaria Morelli, Erica Sarchielli, Giulia Guarnieri, Elisabetta Coppi, Daniela Pantano, Paolo Comeglio, Pamela Nardiello, Anna M Pugliese, Lara Ballerini, Rosanna Matucci, Stefano Ambrosini, Giuseppe Castronovo, Rosa Valente, Benedetta Mazzanti, Sandra Bucciantini, Mario Maggi, Fiorella Casamenti, Pasquale Gallina, Gabriella B Vannelli
The degeneration of cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) in the basal forebrain (BF) is associated to the cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. To date no resolutive therapies exist. Cell-based replacement therapy is a strategy currently under consideration, although the mechanisms underlying the generation of stem cell-derived NBM cholinergic neurons able of functional integration remain to be clarified. Since fetal brain is an optimal source of neuronal cells committed towards a specific phenotype, this study is aimed at isolating cholinergic neurons from the human fetal NBM (hfNBMs) in order to study their phenotypic, maturational and functional properties...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163001/implantation-of-3d-constructs-embedded-with-oral-mucosa-derived-cells-induces-functional-recovery-in-rats-with-complete-spinal-cord-transection
#6
Javier Ganz, Erez Shor, Shaowei Guo, Anton Sheinin, Ina Arie, Izhak Michaelevski, Sandu Pitaru, Daniel Offen, Shulamit Levenberg
Spinal cord injury (SCI), involving damaged axons and glial scar tissue, often culminates in irreversible impairments. Achieving substantial recovery following complete spinal cord transection remains an unmet challenge. Here, we report of implantation of an engineered 3D construct embedded with human oral mucosa stem cells (hOMSC) induced to secrete neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, and axonal elongation-associated factors, in a complete spinal cord transection rat model. Rats implanted with induced tissue engineering constructs regained fine motor control, coordination and walking pattern in sharp contrast to the untreated group that remained paralyzed (42 vs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162538/metformin-promotes-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-murine-preosteoblast-by-regulating-the-expression-of-sirt6-and-oct4
#7
Wei Mu, Zhuoran Wang, Chuanyu Ma, Yunyun Jiang, Nannan Zhang, Kaiqiang Hu, Liyuan Li, Zhao Wang
Osteopenia, osteoporosis and bone salt metabolism disorder are common diseases in the aged and diabetics. From case reports of patients with T2DM, we have observed that metformin can decrease risk of bone fracture and promote bone formation. However, the underlying mechanism of metformin's effect on bone metabolism remains unknown. In our research, we show that metformin can promote proliferation of murine preosteoblast by regulating AMPK-mTORC2 and AKT-mTORC1 signaling axis. Furthermore, we have observed that metformin can promote SIRT6 expression before and during differentiation of murine preosteoblast...
November 18, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161648/derivation-and-characterization-of-the-nyscfe003-a-human-embryonic-stem-cell-line
#8
Ana Sevilla, Eliana Forero, Matthew Zimmer, Hector Martinez, Katie Reggio, Daniel Paull, Dieter Egli, Scott Noggle
The human embryonic stem cell line NYSCFe003-A was derived from a day 5 to day 6 blastocyst in feeder-free and antibiotic free conditions. The blastocyst was voluntarily donated for research as surplus after in vitro fertilization treatment following informed consent. The NYSCFe003-A line expresses all the pluripotency markers and has the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. The line presents normal karyotype and is mycoplasma free.
November 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160745/the-unveiling-of-the-warburg-effect-and-the-inscribed-innovative-approach-to-a-radical-non-toxic-anticancer-therapy
#9
Olivia Crociani, Ilaria Marzi, Maria Grazia Cipolleschi, Antonella Mannini, Massimo Contini, Massimo Olivotto
The purpose of this research has been deciphering the Warburg paradox, the biochemical enigma unsolved since 1923. This paradox consists of the aerobic pyruvate conversion to lactate brought about by anaplastic cancer, through the metabolic pathway known as aerobic glycolysis. This pathway implies a heavy energetic waste. We solved the enigma by demonstrating that its specific character, i.e. the forced aerobic lactate exportation, represents a crucial metabolic device to counteract the cytotoxic effect produced by an excess of pyruvate at the connection of glycolysis with the Krebs cycle...
November 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160629/chitosan-and-its-composites-properties-for-use-in-bone-substitution
#10
REVIEW
Marek Stępniewski, Jacek Martynkiewicz, Jerzy Gosk
For many years, research has been carried out on finding an ideal bone substitute. Chitosan (CTS) is a naturally occurring polysaccharide, obtained mainly from, inter alia, the shells of crustaceans. It is characterized by its high level of biocompatibility, biodegradability and antimicrobial properties as well as its support in the healing of wounds. Chitosan, due to its ability to form porous structures, can be used in the production of scaffolds used in the treatment of bone defects. There are numerous studies on the use of CTS in combination with other substances which aim to improve its biological and mechanical properties...
January 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160181/chick-embryo-model-homing-and-host-interactions-of-tissue-engineering-aimed-human-dental-stem-cells
#11
Jennifer Adriane Dos Santos, Monica Talarico Duailibi, Durvanei Augusto Maria, Sonia Elisabete Alves de Lima Will, Paulo Cesar Simoes Silva, Ligia Ferreira Gomes, Silvio Eduardo Duailibi
Human dental stem cells (hDSC) have a potential for regenerative therapies and could differentiate in vitro into many tissues such as dentin, nerve and vascular endothelium. Gallus gallus domesticus developing fertilized egg, or chick embryo is an experimental model absent of xenografts rejection, largely employed in replacement of mammal species in scientific research and pre-clinical studies to evaluate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, tissue differentiation, and embryonic development. This multiscale research deals with the homing and cell signaling effects of a standardized hDSC towards the receptor tissues of Gallus gallus domesticus in ovo...
November 21, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158841/autophagy-maintains-the-function-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-prevent-estrogen-deficiency-induced-osteoporosis
#12
Meng Qi, Liqiang Zhang, Yang Ma, Yi Shuai, Liya Li, Kefu Luo, Wenjia Liu, Yan Jin
Rationale: The impaired function of endogenous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) is a determinant in the development of osteoporosis (OP). Recent researches have proved that autophagy plays an important role in maintenance of skeletal phenotype. However, whether autophagy affects the development of OP through regulating the function of BMMSCs remains elusive. Methods: Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced OP model and sham model were established in 8-week-old C57 mice. The differentiation and immunoregulation properties of BMMSCs from two models were examined by osteogenic/adipogenic induction in vitro and treatment of a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mice colitis model in vivo...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158838/crispr-genome-engineering-for-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-research
#13
REVIEW
Somali Chaterji, Eun Hyun Ahn, Deok-Ho Kim
The emergence of targeted and efficient genome editing technologies, such as repurposed bacterial programmable nucleases (e.g., CRISPR-Cas systems), has abetted the development of cell engineering approaches. Lessons learned from the development of RNA-interference (RNA-i) therapies can spur the translation of genome editing, such as those enabling the translation of human pluripotent stem cell engineering. In this review, we discuss the opportunities and the challenges of repurposing bacterial nucleases for genome editing, while appreciating their roles, primarily at the epigenomic granularity...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158085/generation-of-branching-ureteric-bud-tissues-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Shin-Ichi Mae, Makoto Ryosaka, Taro Toyoda, Kyoko Matsuse, Yoichi Oshima, Hiraku Tsujimoto, Shiori Okumura, Aya Shibasaki, Kenji Osafune
Recent progress in kidney regeneration research is noteworthy. However, the selective and robust differentiation of the ureteric bud (UB), an embryonic renal progenitor, from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) remains to be established. The present study aimed to establish a robust induction method for branching UB tissue from hPSCs towards the creation of renal disease models. Here, we found that anterior intermediate mesoderm (IM) differentiates from anterior primitive streak, which allowed us to successfully develop an efficient two-dimensional differentiation method of hPSCs into Wolffian duct (WD) cells...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156849/interest-of-integrins-targeting-in-glioblastoma-according-to-tumor-heterogeneity-and-cancer-stem-cell-paradigm-an-update
#15
REVIEW
Laure Malric, Sylvie Monferran, Julia Gilhodes, Sabrina Boyrie, Perrine Dahan, Nicolas Skuli, Julie Sesen, Thomas Filleron, Aline Kowalski-Chauvel, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan Moyal, Christine Toulas, Anthony Lemarié
Glioblastomas are malignant brain tumors with dismal prognosis despite standard treatment with surgery and radio/chemotherapy. These tumors are defined by an important cellular heterogeneity and notably contain a particular subpopulation of Glioblastoma-initiating cells, which recapitulate the heterogeneity of the original Glioblastoma. In order to classify these heterogeneous tumors, genomic profiling has also been undertaken to classify these heterogeneous tumors into several subtypes. Current research focuses on developing therapies, which could take into account this cellular and genomic heterogeneity...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156633/alcohol-and-cancer-stem-cells
#16
REVIEW
Mei Xu, Jia Luo
Heavy alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risk of several cancers, including cancer of the colon, rectum, female breast, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, liver, and esophagus. It appears that alcohol exposure not only promotes carcinogenesis but also enhances the progression and aggressiveness of existing cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol tumor promotion, however, remain unclear. Cancer stem cells (CSC), a subpopulation of cancer cells with self-renewal and differentiation capacity, play an important role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy resistance...
November 20, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156629/reconstruction-of-craniomaxillofacial-bone-defects-using-tissue-engineering-strategies-with-injectable-and-non-injectable-scaffolds
#17
REVIEW
Bipin Gaihre, Suren Uswatta, Ambalangodage C Jayasuriya
Engineering craniofacial bone tissues is challenging due to their complex structures. Current standard autografts and allografts have many drawbacks for craniofacial bone tissue reconstruction; including donor site morbidity and the ability to reinstate the aesthetic characteristics of the host tissue. To overcome these problems; tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies have been developed as a potential way to reconstruct damaged bone tissue. Different types of new biomaterials; including natural polymers; synthetic polymers and bioceramics; have emerged to treat these damaged craniofacial bone tissues in the form of injectable and non-injectable scaffolds; which are examined in this review...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156557/the-invasive-region-of-glioblastoma-defined-by-5ala-guided-surgery-has-an-altered-cancer-stem-cell-marker-profile-compared-to-central-tumour
#18
Stuart J Smith, Mohammed Diksin, Saachi Chhaya, Shwetha Sairam, Maria A Estevez-Cebrero, Ruman Rahman
Glioblastoma, a WHO grade IV astrocytoma, is a highly aggressive and heterogeneous tumour that infiltrates deeply into surrounding brain parenchyma, making complete surgical resection impossible. Despite chemo-radiotherapy, the residual cell population within brain parenchyma post-surgery causes inevitable recurrence. Previously, the tumour core has been the focus of research and the basis for targeted therapeutic regimes, which have failed to improve survival in clinical trials. Here, we focus on the invasive margin as defined by the region with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5ALA) (GliolanTM) fluorescence at surgery beyond the T1 enhancing region on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155789/efficient-generation-and-editing-of-feeder-free-ipscs-from-human-pancreatic-cells-using-the-crispr-cas9-system
#19
Anjali Nandal, Barbara Mallon, Bhanu P Telugu
Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells can self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types of the body. The pluripotent cells are thus coveted for research in regenerative medicine and are currently in clinical trials for eye diseases, diabetes, heart diseases, and other disorders. The potential to differentiate into specialized cell types coupled with the recent advances in genome editing technologies including the CRISPR/Cas system have provided additional opportunities for tailoring the genome of iPSC for varied applications including disease modeling, gene therapy, and biasing pathways of differentiation, to name a few...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155780/rapid-directed-differentiation-of-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-from-human-embryonic-or-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Leah P Foltz, Dennis O Clegg
We describe a robust method to direct the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). The purpose of providing a detailed and thorough protocol is to clearly demonstrate each step and to make this readily available to researchers in the field. This protocol results in a homogenous layer of RPE with minimal or no manual dissection needed. The method presented here has been shown to be effective for induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and human embryonic stem cells...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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