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Organelle communication

Zhaogang Yang, Jing Xie, Jing Zhu, Chen Kang, Chiling Chiang, Xinmei Wang, Xiaobing Wang, Tairong Kuang, Feng Chen, Zhou Chen, Aili Zhang, Bo Yu, Robert J Lee, Lesheng Teng, L James Lee
Exosomes, the smallest subgroup of extracellular vesicles, have been recognized as extracellular organelles that contain genetic and proteomic information for long distance intercellular communication. Exosome-based drug delivery is currently a subject of intensive research. Here, we report a novel strategy to produce nanoscale exosome-mimics (EMs) in sufficient quantity for gene delivery in cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Size-controllable EMs were generated at a high yield by serial extrusion of non-tumorigenic epithelial MCF-10A cells through filters with different pore sizes...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Alexander Brobeil, Eric Dietel, Stefan Gattenlöhner, Monika Wimmer
The protein tyrosine phosphatase interacting protein 51 (PTPIP51) is thought to regulate crucial cellular functions such as mitosis, apoptosis, migration, differentiation and communication between organelles as a scaffold protein. These diverse functions are modulated by the tyrosine/serine phosphorylation status of PTPIP51. This review interconnects the insights obtained about the action of PTPIP51 in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, nuclear factor kB signaling, calcium homeostasis and chromosomal segregation and identifies important signaling hubs...
October 12, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Pamela Dakik, Vladimir I Titorenko
Studies employing the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism have provided deep insights into molecular mechanisms of cellular and organismal aging in multicellular eukaryotes and have demonstrated that the main features of biological aging are evolutionarily conserved. Aging in S. cerevisiae is studied by measuring replicative or chronological lifespan. Yeast replicative aging is likely to model aging of mitotically competent human cell types, while yeast chronological aging is believed to mimic aging of post-mitotic human cell types...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
Alberto T Gatta, Tim P Levine
Contact sites are places where two organelles join together to carry out a shared activity requiring nonvesicular communication. A large number of contact sites have been discovered, and almost any two organelles can contact each other. General rules about contacts include constraints on bridging proteins, with only a minority of bridges physically creating contacts by acting as 'tethers'. The downstream effects of contacts include changing the physical behaviour of organelles, and also forming biochemically heterogeneous subdomains...
October 4, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Mihai Miclaus, Ovidiu Balacescu, Ioan Has, Loredana Balacescu, Voichita Has, Dana Suteu, Samuel Neuenschwander, Irene Keller, Rémy Bruggmann
The genomes of the two plant organelles encode for a relatively small number of proteins. Thus, nuclear genes encode the vast majority of their proteome. Organelleto-nucleus communication takes place through retrograde signaling (RS) pathways. Signals relayed through RS pathways have an impact on nuclear gene expression (NGE) but their target-genes remain elusive in a normal state of the cell (considering that only mutants and stress have been used so far). Here we use maize cytolines as an alternative. The nucleus of a donor line was transferred into two other cytoplasmic environments through at least nine back-crosses, in a time-span of more than 10 years...
October 3, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Eirini Lionaki, Ilias Gkikas, Nektarios Tavernarakis
The coordination of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes plays a pivotal role in maintenance of mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality during stress and aging. Environmental and cellular inputs signal to nucleus and/or mitochondria to trigger interorganellar compensatory responses. Loss of this tightly orchestrated coordination results in loss of cellular homeostasis and underlies various pathologies and age-related diseases. Several signaling cascades that govern interorganellar communication have been revealed up to now, and have been classified as part of the anterograde (nucleus to mitochondria) or retrograde (mitochondrial to nucleus) response...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
E Bustos-Morán, N Blas-Rus, N B Martín-Cófreces, F Sánchez-Madrid
The immune synapse (IS) is a specialized structure established between different immune cells that fulfills several functions, including a role as a communication bridge. This intimate contact between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell promotes the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes involved in the contact. T-cell activation requires the specific triggering of the T-cell receptor (TCR), which promotes the activation of different signaling pathways inducing the polarization of the T cell. During this process, different adhesion and signaling receptors reorganize at specialized membrane domains, concomitantly to the polarization of the tubulin and actin cytoskeletons, forming stable polarization platforms...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Pierre Theurey, Jennifer Rieusset
Metabolic diseases are associated with nutrient excess and metabolic inflexibility. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum are important organelles and nutrient sensors, and their dysfunction has been extensively and independently implicated in metabolic diseases. Both organelles interact at sites known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), in order to exchange metabolites and calcium. Recent evidence indicates that MAM could be a hub of hepatic insulin signaling and nutrient sensing. In this review, we discuss the roles organelle function and communication play in the cell's adaptation to nutrient availability, in both physiology and metabolic diseases...
September 23, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Deborah Naon, Marta Zaninello, Marta Giacomello, Tatiana Varanita, Francesca Grespi, Sowmya Lakshminaranayan, Annalisa Serafini, Martina Semenzato, Stephanie Herkenne, Maria Isabel Hernández-Alvarez, Antonio Zorzano, Diego De Stefani, Gerald W Dorn, Luca Scorrano
The discovery of the multiple roles of mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) juxtaposition in cell biology often relied upon the exploitation of Mitofusin (Mfn) 2 as an ER-mitochondria tether. However, this established Mfn2 function was recently questioned, calling for a critical re-evaluation of Mfn2's role in ER-mitochondria cross-talk. Electron microscopy and fluorescence-based probes of organelle proximity confirmed that ER-mitochondria juxtaposition was reduced by constitutive or acute Mfn2 deletion...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nuno Raimundo, Lorena Fernández-Mosquera, King Faisal Yambire, Cátia V Diogo
Mitochondria and lysosomes have long been studied in the context of their classic functions: energy factory and recycle bin, respectively. In the last twenty years, it became evident that these organelles are much more than simple industrial units, and are indeed in charge of many of cellular processes. Both mitochondria and lysosomes are now recognized as far-reaching signaling platforms, regulating many key aspects of cell and tissue physiology. It has furthermore become clear that mitochondria and lysosomes impact each other...
October 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Prashant Nighot, Thomas Ma
Autophagy is a cell survival mechanism by which bulk cytoplasmic material, including soluble macromolecules and organelles, is targeted for lysosomal degradation. The role of autophagy in diverse cellular processes such as metabolic stress, neurodegeneration, cancer, aging, immunity, and inflammatory diseases is being increasingly recognized. Epithelial cell junctions play an integral role in the cell homeostasis via physical binding, regulating paracellular pathways, integrating extracellular cues into intracellular signaling, and cell-cell communication...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
Aileen R Ariosa, Daniel J Klionsky
Autophagy is a major degradation pathway that engulfs, removes, and recycles unwanted cytoplasmic material including damaged organelles and toxic protein aggregates. One type of autophagy, macroautophagy, is a tightly regulated process facilitated by autophagy-related (Atg) proteins that must communicate effectively and act in concert to enable the de novo formation of the phagophore, its maturation into an autophagosome, and its subsequent targeting and fusion with the lysosome or the vacuole. Autophagy plays a significant role in physiology, and its dysregulation has been linked to several diseases, which include certain cancers, cardiomyopathies, and neurodegenerative diseases...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
A Ozan Bicen, Ian F Akyildiz, Sasitharan Balasubramaniam, Yevgeni Koucheryavy
The use of intra/inter cellular calcium ion (Ca2+) signaling for molecular communication (MC) is investigated in this paper. In particular, the elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration upon the external excitation, i.e., Ca2+ wave generation, and the intercellular propagation of Ca2+ wave over consecutive cells are studied for information transmission. The main objective of this paper is to develop a linear channel model for intra/inter cellular Ca2+ MC. In this context, the end-to-end Ca2+ MC system is studied under three blocks: the wave generation, the gap junctional (intercellular) propagation, and the intracellular propagation...
August 4, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Daniel G J Smethurst, Katrina F Cooper
Following extracellular stress signals, all eukaryotic cells choose whether to elicit a pro-survival or pro-death response. The decision over which path to take is governed by the severity and duration of the damage. In response to mild stress, pro-survival programs are initiated (unfolded protein response, autophagy, mitophagy) whereas severe or chronic stress forces the cell to abandon these adaptive programs and shift towards regulated cell death to remove irreversibly damaged cells. Both pro-survival and pro-death programs involve regulated communication between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria...
August 6, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Michael L Dustin, Kaushik Choudhuri
T cells express a somatically recombined antigen receptor (αβTCR) that is calibrated during development to respond to changes in peptides displayed by major histocompatibility complex proteins (pMHC) on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APC). A key characteristic of pMHC for adaptive immunity is the ability to sample internal states of cells and tissues to sensitively detect changes associated with infection, cell derangement, or tissue injury. Physical T cell-APC contact sets up an axis for polarization of TCR, adhesion molecules, kinases, cytoskeletal elements, and organelles inherent in this mode of juxtacrine signaling...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Hanaa Hariri, Rupali Ugrankar, Yang Liu, W Mike Henne
Since their initial observation, contact sites formed between different organelles have transitioned from ignored curiosities to recognized centers for the exchange of metabolites and lipids. Contact formed between the ER and endomembrane system (eg. the plasma membrane, endosomes, and lysosomes) is of particular biomedical interest, as it governs aspects of lipid metabolism, organelle identity, and cell signaling. Here, we review the field of ER-endolysosomal communication from the perspective of three model systems: budding yeast, the fruit fly D...
May 2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Cara A Griffiths, Matthew J Paul, Christine H Foyer
Metabolite transport between organelles, cells and source and sink tissues not only enables pathway co-ordination but it also facilitates whole plant communication, particularly in the transmission of information concerning resource availability. Carbon assimilation is co-ordinated with nitrogen assimilation to ensure that the building blocks of biomass production, amino acids and carbon skeletons, are available at the required amounts and stoichiometry, with associated transport processes making certain that these essential resources are transported from their sites of synthesis to those of utilisation...
October 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Chunman Li, Sidney S B Yu
Lipid droplets (LDs) are highly dynamic organelles that not only store neutral lipids but also are involved in multiple cellular processes. Dysregulation of lipogenesis or lipolysis greatly contributes to the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. Rab proteins have been found to be associated with LDs in proteomic studies and are also known to extensively regulate intracellular membrane traffic, suggesting that LDs actively communicate with other membrane compartments to maintain energy homeostasis...
October 2016: Cell Biology International
Lucio Barile, Tiziano Moccetti, Eduardo Marbán, Giuseppe Vassalli
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin which have emerged as key mediators of intercellular communication. All major cardiac cell types-including cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts-release exosomes that modulate cellular functions. Exosomes released from human cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are cardioprotective and improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction to an extent comparable with that achieved by their parent cells. Cardiac progenitor cell-derived exosomes are enriched in cardioprotective microRNAs, particularly miR-146a-3p...
July 21, 2016: European Heart Journal
Kai Xun Chan, Peter D Mabbitt, Su Yin Phua, Jonathan W Mueller, Nazia Nisar, Tamara Gigolashvili, Elke Stroeher, Julia Grassl, Wiebke Arlt, Gonzalo M Estavillo, Colin J Jackson, Barry J Pogson
Intracellular signaling during oxidative stress is complex, with organelle-to-nucleus retrograde communication pathways ill-defined or incomplete. Here we identify the 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate (PAP) phosphatase SAL1 as a previously unidentified and conserved oxidative stress sensor in plant chloroplasts. Arabidopsis thaliana SAL1 (AtSAL1) senses changes in photosynthetic redox poise, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide concentrations in chloroplasts via redox regulatory mechanisms. AtSAL1 phosphatase activity is suppressed by dimerization, intramolecular disulfide formation, and glutathionylation, allowing accumulation of its substrate, PAP, a chloroplast stress retrograde signal that regulates expression of plastid redox associated nuclear genes (PRANGs)...
August 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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