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Organelle communication

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526133/metabolic-reprogramming-and-oncogenesis-one-hallmark-many-organelles
#1
A S H Costa, C Frezza
The process of tumorigenesis can be described by a series of molecular features, among which alteration of cellular metabolism has recently emerged. This metabolic rewiring fulfills the energy and biosynthetic demands of fast proliferating cancer cells and amplifies their metabolic repertoire to survive and proliferate in the poorly oxygenated and nutrient-deprived tumor microenvironment. During the last decade, the complex reprogramming of cancer cell metabolism has been widely investigated, revealing cancer-specific metabolic alterations...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524859/mesenchymal-stem-cells-sense-mitochondria-released-from-damaged-cells-as-danger-signals-to-activate-their-rescue-properties
#2
Meriem Mahrouf-Yorgov, Lionel Augeul, Claire Crola Da Silva, Maud Jourdan, Muriel Rigolet, Sylvie Manin, René Ferrera, Michel Ovize, Adeline Henry, Aurélie Guguin, Jean-Paul Meningaud, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Roberto Motterlini, Roberta Foresti, Anne-Marie Rodriguez
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) protect tissues against cell death induced by ischemia/reperfusion insults. This therapeutic effect seems to be controlled by physiological cues released by the local microenvironment following injury. Recent lines of evidence indicate that MSC can communicate with their microenvironment through bidirectional exchanges of mitochondria. In particular, in vitro and in vivo studies report that MSCs rescue injured cells through delivery of their own mitochondria. However, the role of mitochondria conveyed from somatic cells to MSC remains unknown...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502611/defining-the-momiome-promiscuous-information-transfer-by-mobile-mitochondria-and-mitochondrial-genome
#3
REVIEW
Bhupendra Singh, Josephine S Modica-Napolitano, Keshav K Singh
Mitochondria are complex intracellular organelles that have long been identified as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells because of the central role they play in oxidative metabolism. A resurgence of interest in the study of mitochondria during the past decade has revealed that mitochondria also play key roles in cell signaling, proliferation, cell metabolism and cell death, and that genetic and/or metabolic alterations in mitochondria contribute to a number of diseases, including cancer. Mitochondria have been identified as signaling organelles, capable of mediating bidirectional intracellular information transfer: anterograde (from nucleus to mitochondria) and retrograde (from mitochondria to nucleus)...
May 11, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463579/peroxisomal-acbd4-interacts-with-vapb-and-promotes-er-peroxisome-associations
#4
Joseph L Costello, Inês G Castro, Tina A Schrader, Markus Islinger, Michael Schrader
Cooperation between cellular organelles such as mitochondria, peroxisomes and the ER is essential for a variety of important and diverse metabolic processes. Effective communication and metabolite exchange requires physical linkages between the organelles, predominantly in the form of organelle contact sites. At such contact sites organelle membranes are brought into close proximity by the action of molecular tethers, which often consist of specific protein pairs anchored in the membrane of the opposing organelles...
May 2, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461574/microtubule-based-transport-and-the-distribution-tethering-and-organization-of-organelles
#5
REVIEW
Kari Barlan, Vladimir I Gelfand
SUMMARYMicrotubules provide long tracks along which a broad range of organelles and vesicles are transported by kinesin and dynein motors. Motor protein complexes also tether cargoes to cytoskeletal filaments, helping facilitate their interaction and communication. The generation of biochemically distinct microtubule subpopulations allows subsets of motors to recognize a given microtubule identity, allowing further organization within the cytoplasm. Both transport and tethering are spatiotemporally regulated through multiple modes, including acute modification of both motor-cargo and motor-track associations by various physiological signals...
May 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460188/proteasomal-and-autophagy-degradation-systems
#6
Ivan Dikic
Autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system are the two major quality control pathways responsible for cellular homeostasis. As such, they provide protection against age-associated changes and a plethora of human diseases. Ubiquitination is utilized as a degradation signal by both systems, albeit in different ways, to mark cargoes for proteasomal and lysosomal degradation. Both systems intersect and communicate at multiple points to coordinate their actions in proteostasis and organelle homeostasis. This review summarizes molecular details of how proteasome and autophagy pathways are functionally interconnected in cells and indicates common principles and nodes of communication that can be therapeutically exploited...
May 1, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456629/mitochondrial-adventures-in-the-organelle-society
#7
Cátia V Diogo, King Faisal Yambire, Lorena Fernández Mosquera, Tiago Fonseca, Nuno Raimundo
Mitochondria are constantly communicating with the rest of the cell. Defects in mitochondria underlie severe pathologies, whose mechanisms remain poorly understood. It is becoming increasingly evident that mitochondrial malfunction resonates in other organelles, perturbing their function and their biogenesis. In this manuscript, we review the current knowledge on the cross-talk between mitochondria and other organelles, particularly lysosomes, peroxisomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. Several organelle interactions are mediated by transcriptional programs, and other signaling mechanisms are likely mediating organelle dysfunction downstream of mitochondrial impairments...
April 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433686/mitochatting-if-only-we-could-be-a-fly-on-the-cell-wall
#8
REVIEW
Michal Eisenberg-Bord, Maya Schuldiner
Mitochondria, cellular metabolic hubs, perform many essential processes and are required for the production of metabolites such as ATP, iron-sulfur clusters, heme, amino acids and nucleotides. To fulfill their multiple roles, mitochondria must communicate with all other organelles to exchange small molecules, ions and lipids. Since mitochondria are largely excluded from vesicular trafficking routes, they heavily rely on membrane contact sites. Contact sites are areas of close proximity between organelles that allow efficient transfer of molecules, saving the need for slow and untargeted diffusion through the cytosol...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429675/cell-biology-of-hyphal-growth
#9
Gero Steinberg, Miguel A Peñalva, Meritxell Riquelme, Han A Wösten, Steven D Harris
Filamentous fungi are a large and ancient clade of microorganisms that occupy a broad range of ecological niches. The success of filamentous fungi is largely due to their elongate hypha, a chain of cells, separated from each other by septa. Hyphae grow by polarized exocytosis at the apex, which allows the fungus to overcome long distances and invade many substrates, including soils and host tissues. Hyphal tip growth is initiated by establishment of a growth site and the subsequent maintenance of the growth axis, with transport of growth supplies, including membranes and proteins, delivered by motors along the cytoskeleton to the hyphal apex...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423494/control-of-long-distance-cell-to-cell-communication-and-autophagosome-transfer-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-via-tunneling-nanotubes
#10
Inés Sáenz-de-Santa-María, Cristóbal Bernardo-Castiñeira, Eduardo Enciso, Inmaculada García-Moreno, Jose Luis Chiara, Carlos Suarez, María-Dolores Chiara
Tunneling nanotubes (TnTs) are thin channels that temporally connect nearby cells allowing the cell-to-cell trafficking of biomolecules and organelles. The presence or absence of TnTs in human neoplasms and the mechanisms of TnT assembly remains largely unexplored. In this study, we have identified TnTs in tumor cells derived from squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) cultured under bi-dimensional and tri-dimensional conditions and also in human SCC tissues. Our study demonstrates that TnTs are not specific of epithelial or mesenchymal phenotypes and allow the trafficking of endosomal/lysosomal vesicles, mitochondria, and autophagosomes between both types of cells...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414270/human-biallelic-mfn2-mutations-induce-mitochondrial-dysfunction-upper-body-adipose-hyperplasia-and-suppression-of-leptin-expression
#11
Nuno Rocha, David A Bulger, Andrea Frontini, Hannah Titheradge, Sigrid Bjerge Gribsholt, Rachel Knox, Matthew Page, Julie Harris, Felicity Payne, Claire Adams, Alison Sleigh, John Crawford, Anette Prior Gjesing, Jette Bork-Jensen, Oluf Pedersen, Inês Barroso, Torben Hansen, Helen Cox, Mary Reilly, Alex Rossor, Rebecca J Brown, Simeon I Taylor, Duncan McHale, Martin Armstrong, Elif A Oral, Vladimir Saudek, Stephen O'Rahilly, Eamonn R Maher, Bjørn Richelsen, David B Savage, Robert K Semple
MFN2 encodes mitofusin 2, a membrane-bound mediator of mitochondrial membrane fusion and inter-organelle communication. MFN2 mutations cause axonal neuropathy, with associated lipodystrophy only occasionally noted, however homozygosity for the p.Arg707Trp mutation was recently associated with upper body adipose overgrowth. We describe similar massive adipose overgrowth with suppressed leptin expression in four further patients with biallelic MFN2 mutations and at least one p.Arg707Trp allele. Overgrown tissue was composed of normal-sized, UCP1-negative unilocular adipocytes, with mitochondrial network fragmentation, disorganised cristae, and increased autophagosomes...
April 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388033/toward-the-inner-nanostructure-of-a-secretory-vesicle
#12
José Luis Nieto-González, Rafael Fernández-Chacón
The release of chemical mediators is an essential element of cell-to-cell communication. Signaling molecules such as neurotransmitters and hormones are stored in membrane-bound organelles called secretory vesicles. Some of these organelles can store molecules at high concentrations, overcoming the osmotic shock that could burst the organelle. These organelles contain a proteinaceous matrix that traps the molecules and avoids high intravesicular osmotic pressure. The functional nanostructure and internal organization of the matrix is not well understood...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386457/clearing-the-outer-mitochondrial-membrane-from-harmful-proteins-via-lipid-droplets
#13
Johannes Bischof, Manuel Salzmann, Maria Karolin Streubel, Jiri Hasek, Florian Geltinger, Jutta Duschl, Nikolaus Bresgen, Peter Briza, Danusa Haskova, Renata Lejskova, Mentor Sopjani, Klaus Richter, Mark Rinnerthaler
In recent years it turned out that there is not only extensive communication between the nucleus and mitochondria but also between mitochondria and lipid droplets (LDs) as well. We were able to demonstrate that a number of proteins shuttle between LDs and mitochondria and it depends on the metabolic state of the cell on which organelle these proteins are predominantly localized. Responsible for the localization of the particular proteins is a protein domain consisting of two α-helices, which we termed V-domain according to the predicted structure...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377785/organellar-gene-expression-and-acclimation-of-plants-to-environmental-stress
#14
REVIEW
Dario Leister, Liangsheng Wang, Tatjana Kleine
Organelles produce ATP and a variety of vital metabolites, and are indispensable for plant development. While most of their original gene complements have been transferred to the nucleus in the course of evolution, they retain their own genomes and gene-expression machineries. Hence, organellar function requires tight coordination between organellar gene expression (OGE) and nuclear gene expression (NGE). OGE requires various nucleus-encoded proteins that regulate transcription, splicing, trimming, editing, and translation of organellar RNAs, which necessitates nucleus-to-organelle (anterograde) communication...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370892/integrated-omics-analyses-of-retrograde-signaling-mutant-delineate-interrelated-stress-response-strata
#15
Marta Bjornson, Gerd Ulrich Balcke, Yanmei Xiao, Amancio de Souza, Jin-Zheng Wang, Dina Zhabinskaya, Ilias Tagkopoulos, Alain Tissier, Katayoon Dehesh
To maintain homeostasis in the face of intrinsic and extrinsic insults, cells have evolved elaborate quality control networks to resolve damage at multiple levels. Interorganellar communication is a key requirement for this maintenance, however the underlying mechanisms of this communication have remained an enigma. Here we integrate the outcome of transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomics analyses of genotypes including ceh1, a mutant with constitutively elevated levels of both the stress-specific plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite methyl-erythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP) and the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA), as well as the high MEcPP but SA deficient genotype ceh1/eds16, along with corresponding controls...
March 28, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360917/ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent-regulation-of-bidirectional-communication-between-plastids-and-the-nucleus
#16
Yoshihiro Hirosawa, Yasuko Ito-Inaba, Takehito Inaba
Plastids are DNA-containing organelles and can have unique differentiation states depending on age, tissue, and environment. Plastid biogenesis is optimized by bidirectional communication between plastids and the nucleus. Import of nuclear-encoded proteins into plastids serves as anterograde signals and vice versa, plastids themselves send retrograde signals to the nucleus, thereby controlling de novo synthesis of nuclear-encoded plastid proteins. Recently, it has become increasingly evident that the ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates both the import of anterograde plastid proteins and retrograde signaling from plastids to the nucleus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340346/the-upsides-and-downsides-of-organelle-interconnectivity
#17
REVIEW
Daniel E Gottschling, Thomas Nyström
Interconnectivity and feedback control are hallmarks of biological systems. This includes communication between organelles, which allows them to function and adapt to changing cellular environments. While the specific mechanisms for all communications remain opaque, unraveling the wiring of organelle networks is critical to understand how biological systems are built and why they might collapse, as occurs in aging. A comprehensive understanding of all the routes involved in inter-organelle communication is still lacking, but important themes are beginning to emerge, primarily in budding yeast...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315083/achieving-the-promise-of-therapeutic-extracellular-vesicles-the-devil-is-in-details-of-therapeutic-loading
#18
REVIEW
Dhruvitkumar S Sutaria, Mohamed Badawi, Mitch A Phelps, Thomas D Schmittgen
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a class of cell secreted organelles which naturally contain biomolecular cargo such as miRNA, mRNA and proteins. EVs mediate intercellular communication, enabling the transfer of functional nucleic acids from the cell of origin to the recipient cells. In addition, EVs make an attractive delivery vehicle for therapeutics owing to their increased stability in circulation, biocompatibility, low immunogenicity and toxicity profiles. EVs can also be engineered to display targeting moieties on their surfaces which enables targeting to desired tissues, organs or cells...
May 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314780/non-coding-rnas-the-dark-side-of-nuclear-mitochondrial-communication
#19
REVIEW
Roberto Vendramin, Jean-Christophe Marine, Eleonora Leucci
Mitochondria are critical hubs for the integration of several key metabolic processes implicated in cell growth and survival. They originated from bacterial ancestors through endosymbiosis, following the transfer of more than 90% of their endosymbiont genome to the host cell nucleus. Over time, a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship has been established, which relies on continuous and elaborate signaling mechanisms between this life-essential organelle and its host. The ability of mitochondria to signal their functional state and trigger compensatory and adaptive cellular responses has long been recognized, but the underlying molecular mechanisms involved have remained poorly understood...
May 2, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276013/isolation-of-mitochondria-associated-membranes-mam-from-mouse-brain-tissue
#20
Bernadette Schreiner, Maria Ankarcrona
During the last decades, increasing evidence indicated that subcellular organelles do not exist as autarkic units but instead communicate constantly and extensively with each other in various ways. Some communication, for example, the exchange of small molecules, requires the marked convergence of two distinct organelles for a certain period of time. The cross talk between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, two subcellular organelles of utmost importance for cellular bioenergetics and protein homeostasis, has been increasingly investigated under the last years...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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