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Organelle communication

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164114/interorganelle-communication-between-mitochondria-and-the-endolysosomal-system
#1
REVIEW
Gonzalo Soto-Heredero, Francesc Baixauli, María Mittelbrunn
The function of mitochondria and lysosomes has classically been studied separately. However, evidence has now emerged of intense crosstalk between these two organelles, such that the activity or stress status of one organelle may affect the other. Direct physical contacts between mitochondria and the endolysosomal compartment have been reported as a rapid means of interorganelle communication, mediating lipid or other metabolite exchange. Moreover, mitochondrial derived vesicles can traffic obsolete mitochondrial proteins into the endolysosomal system for their degradation or secretion to the extracellular milieu as exosomes, representing an additional mitochondrial quality control mechanism that connects mitochondria and lysosomes independently of autophagosome formation...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163229/cx43-isoform-gja1-20k-promotes-microtubule-dependent-mitochondrial-transport
#2
Ying Fu, Shan-Shan Zhang, Shaohua Xiao, Wassim A Basheer, Rachel Baum, Irina Epifantseva, TingTing Hong, Robin M Shaw
Connexin 43 (Cx43, encoded by GJA1) is a cell-cell communication gap junction protein expressed in all organ systems. It was recently found that GJA1 mRNA undergoes alternative translation to generate N-terminal truncated isoforms, of which GJA1-20k is the most abundant. Here we report a surprising finding that, unlike full length GJA1-43k, GJA1-20k has a strong tropism for mitochondria. Exploring function, we found that GJA1-20k appears to be an organelle chaperone and that overexpression of GJA1-20k is sufficient to rescue mitochondrial localization to the cell periphery upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide, which effectively limits the network fragmentation that occurs with oxidative stress...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150402/network-science-of-biological-systems-at-different-scales-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Marko Gosak, Rene Markovič, Jurij Dolenšek, Marjan Slak Rupnik, Marko Marhl, Andraž Stožer, Matjaž Perc
Network science is today established as a backbone for description of structure and function of various physical, chemical, biological, technological, and social systems. Here we review recent advances in the study of complex biological systems that were inspired and enabled by methods of network science. First, we present research highlights ranging from determination of the molecular interaction network within a cell to studies of architectural and functional properties of brain networks and biological transportation networks...
November 3, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143784/primary-cilium-dependent-signaling-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Rajasekharreddy Pala, Nedaa Alomari, Surya M Nauli
Primary cilia are hair-like organelles and play crucial roles in vertebrate development, organogenesis, health, and many genetic disorders. A primary cilium is a mechano-sensory organelle that responds to mechanical stimuli in the micro-environment. A cilium is also a chemosensor that senses chemical signals surrounding a cell. The overall function of a cilium is therefore to act as a communication hub to transfer extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Although intracellular calcium has been one of the most studied signaling messengers that transmit extracellular signals into the cells, calcium signaling by various ion channels remains a topic of interest in the field...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106371/3d-visualization-of-mitochondrial-solid-phase-calcium-stores-in-whole-cells
#5
Sharon Grayer Wolf, Yael Mutsafi, Tali Dadosh, Tal Ilani, Zipora Lansky, Ben Horowitz, Sarah Rubin, Michael Elbaum, Deborah Fass
The entry of calcium into mitochondria is central to metabolism, inter-organelle communication, and cell life/death decisions. Long-sought transporters involved in mitochondrial calcium influx and efflux have recently been identified. To obtain a unified picture of mitochondrial calcium utilization, a parallel advance in understanding the forms and quantities of mitochondrial calcium stores is needed. We present here the direct 3D visualization of mitochondrial calcium in intact mammalian cells using cryo-scanning transmission electron tomography (CSTET)...
November 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093569/implications-of-mitochondrial-network-organization-in-mitochondrial-stress-signalling-in-narp-cybrid-and-rho0-cells
#6
Jarosław Walczak, Małgorzata Partyka, Jerzy Duszyński, Joanna Szczepanowska
Mitochondrial dysfunctions lead to the generation of signalling mediators that influence the fate of that organelle. Mitochondrial dynamics and their positioning within the cell are important elements of mitochondria-nucleus communication. The aim of this project was to examine whether mitochondrial shape, distribution and fusion/fission proteins are involved in the mitochondrial stress response in a cellular model subjected to specifically designed chronic mitochondrial stress: WT human osteosarcoma cells as controls, NARP cybrid cells as mild chronic stress and Rho0 as severe chronic stress...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092621/piecing-the-puzzle-together-the-central-role-of-ros-and-redox-hubs-in-chloroplast-retrograde-signaling
#7
Dario Leister
SIGNIFICANCE: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox regulation are established components of chloroplast-nucleus retrograde signaling. Recent Advances: In recent years a complex array of putative retrograde signaling molecules and novel signaling pathways has emerged, including various metabolites, chloroplast translation, mobile transcription factors, calcium and links to the unfolded protein response (UPR). This critical mass of information now permits us to fit individual pieces into a larger picture and outline a few important stimuli and pathways...
November 1, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089870/tunneling-nanotubes-and-gap-junctions-their-role-in-long-range-intercellular-communication-during-development-health-and-disease-conditions
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer Ariazi, Andrew Benowitz, Vern De Biasi, Monique L Den Boer, Stephanie Cherqui, Haifeng Cui, Nathalie Douillet, Eliseo A Eugenin, David Favre, Spencer Goodman, Karine Gousset, Dorit Hanein, David I Israel, Shunsuke Kimura, Robert B Kirkpatrick, Nastaran Kuhn, Claire Jeong, Emil Lou, Robbie Mailliard, Stephen Maio, George Okafo, Matthias Osswald, Jennifer Pasquier, Roel Polak, Gabriele Pradel, Bob de Rooij, Peter Schaeffer, Vytenis A Skeberdis, Ian F Smith, Ahmad Tanveer, Niels Volkmann, Zhenhua Wu, Chiara Zurzolo
Cell-to-cell communication is essential for the organization, coordination, and development of cellular networks and multi-cellular systems. Intercellular communication is mediated by soluble factors (including growth factors, neurotransmitters, and cytokines/chemokines), gap junctions, exosomes and recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNTs). It is unknown whether a combination of these communication mechanisms such as TNTs and gap junctions may be important, but further research is required. TNTs are long cytoplasmic bridges that enable long-range, directed communication between connected cells...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049733/tunneling-nanotubes-are-novel-cellular-structures-that-communicate-signals-between-trabecular-meshwork-cells
#9
Kate E Keller, John M Bradley, Ying Ying Sun, Yong-Feng Yang, Ted S Acott
Purpose: The actin cytoskeleton of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells plays a role in regulating aqueous humor outflow. Many studies have investigated stress fibers, but F-actin also assembles into other supramolecular structures including filopodia. Recently, specialized filopodia called tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been described, which communicate molecular signals and organelles directly between cells. Here, we investigate TNT formation by TM cells. Methods: Human TM cells were labeled separately with the fluorescent dyes, DiO and DiD, or with mitochondrial dye...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032399/evidence-of-extracellular-vesicles-biogenesis-and-release-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#10
Lilian Cruz, Jenny Andrea Arevalo Romero, Mariana Brandão Prado, Tiago G Santos, Marilene Hohmuth Lopes
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are considered a source of bioactive molecules that modulate their microenvironment by acting on intercellular communication. Either intracellular endosomal machinery or their derived EVs have been considered a relevant system of signal circuits processing. Herein, we show that these features are found in mESCs. Ultrastructural analysis revealed structures and organelles of the endosomal system such as coated pits and endocytosis-related vesicles, prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, and multivesicular bodies (MVBs) containing either few or many intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that could be released as exosomes to extracellular milieu...
October 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030479/lipids-at-membrane-contact-sites-cell-signaling-and-ion-transport
#11
REVIEW
Shmuel Muallem, Woo Young Chung, Archana Jha, Malini Ahuja
Communication between organelles is essential to coordinate cellular functions and the cell's response to physiological and pathological stimuli. Organellar communication occurs at membrane contact sites (MCSs), where the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane is tethered to cellular organelle membranes by specific tether proteins and where lipid transfer proteins and cell signaling proteins are located. MCSs have many cellular functions and are the sites of lipid and ion transfer between organelles and generation of second messengers...
November 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985476/in-silico-analysis-of-coevolution-among-ermes-proteins-pex11-and-lam6
#12
Deborah A Court, Shivani Khetoo, Sabbir R Shuvo, Shayne D Reitmeier, Georg Hausner
In eukaryotic cells, communication and dynamic interactions among different organelles are important for maintaining cellular homeostasis. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) complex establishes membrane contact sites between ER and mitochondria and is essential for phospholipid transport, protein import, and mitochondrial dynamics and inheritance. In this work, in silico analyses were used to probe the intramolecular interactions in ERMES proteins and the interactions that support the ERMES complex...
October 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944215/endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-calcium-communication-and-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-cancer-a-novel-potential-target
#13
REVIEW
Galdo Bustos, Pablo Cruz, Alenka Lovy, César Cárdenas
Cancer is characterized by an uncontrolled cell proliferation rate even under low nutrient availability, which is sustained by a metabolic reprograming now recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Warburg was the first to establish the relationship between cancer and mitochondria; however, he interpreted enhanced aerobic glycolysis as mitochondrial dysfunction. Today it is accepted that many cancer cell types need fully functional mitochondria to maintain their homeostasis. Calcium (Ca(2+))-a key regulator of several cellular processes-has proven to be essential for mitochondrial metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935608/mechanical-coupling-of-microtubule-dependent-motor-teams-during-peroxisome-transport-in-drosophila-s2-cells
#14
María Cecilia De Rossi, Diana E Wetzler, Lorena Benseñor, María Emilia De Rossi, Mariela Sued, Daniela Rodríguez, Vladimir Gelfand, Luciana Bruno, Valeria Levi
BACKGROUND: Intracellular transport requires molecular motors that step along cytoskeletal filaments actively dragging cargoes through the crowded cytoplasm. Here, we explore the interplay of the opposed polarity motors kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein during peroxisome transport along microtubules in Drosophila S2 cells. METHODS: We used single particle tracking with nanometer accuracy and millisecond time resolution to extract quantitative information on the bidirectional motion of organelles...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935166/mitochondrial-nanotunnels
#15
REVIEW
Amy E Vincent, Doug M Turnbull, Veronica Eisner, György Hajnóczky, Martin Picard
Insight into the regulation of complex physiological systems emerges from understanding how biological units communicate with each other. Recent findings show that mitochondria communicate at a distance with each other via nanotunnels, thin double-membrane protrusions that connect the matrices of non-adjacent mitochondria. Emerging evidence suggest that mitochondrial nanotunnels are generated by immobilized mitochondria and transport proteins. This review integrates data from the evolutionarily conserved structure and function of intercellular projections in bacteria with recent developments in mitochondrial imaging that permit nanotunnel visualization in eukaryotes...
November 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918113/regulation-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-by-the-non-canonical-roles-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-proteins-in-the-heart
#16
REVIEW
Wang Wang, Celia Fernandez-Sanz, Shey-Shing Sheu
Recent advancement in mitochondrial research has significantly extended our knowledge on the role and regulation of mitochondria in health and disease. One important breakthrough is the delineation of how mitochondrial morphological changes, termed mitochondrial dynamics, are coupled to the bioenergetics and signaling functions of mitochondria. In general, it is believed that fusion leads to an increased mitochondrial respiration efficiency and resistance to stress-induced dysfunction while fission does the contrary...
September 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916813/genome-sequencing-reveals-metabolic-and-cellular-interdependence-in-an-amoeba-kinetoplastid-symbiosis
#17
Goro Tanifuji, Ugo Cenci, Daniel Moog, Samuel Dean, Takuro Nakayama, Vojtěch David, Ivan Fiala, Bruce A Curtis, Shannon J Sibbald, Naoko T Onodera, Morgan Colp, Pavel Flegontov, Jessica Johnson-MacKinnon, Michael McPhee, Yuji Inagaki, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Steven Kelly, Keith Gull, Julius Lukeš, John M Archibald
Endosymbiotic relationships between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are common in nature. Endosymbioses between two eukaryotes are also known; cyanobacterium-derived plastids have spread horizontally when one eukaryote assimilated another. A unique instance of a non-photosynthetic, eukaryotic endosymbiont involves members of the genus Paramoeba, amoebozoans that infect marine animals such as farmed fish and sea urchins. Paramoeba species harbor endosymbionts belonging to the Kinetoplastea, a diverse group of flagellate protists including some that cause devastating diseases...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892263/regulation-of-germ-cell-development-by-intercellular-signaling-in-the-mammalian-ovarian-follicle
#18
REVIEW
Hugh J Clarke
Prior to ovulation, the mammalian oocyte undergoes a process of differentiation within the ovarian follicle that confers on it the ability to give rise to an embryo. Differentiation comprises two phases-growth, during which the oocyte increases more than 100-fold in volume as it accumulates macromolecules and organelles that will sustain early embryogenesis; and meiotic maturation, during which the oocyte executes the first meiotic division and prepares for the second division. Entry of an oocyte into the growth phase appears to be triggered when the adjacent granulosa cells produce specific growth factors...
September 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882140/role-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-dysregulation-of-ca-2-homeostasis-in-the-pathophysiology-of-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Chih-Hao Wang, Yau-Huei Wei
Metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and insulin resistance have attracted great attention from biomedical researchers and clinicians because of the astonishing increase in its prevalence. Decrease in the capacity of oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction are a major contributor to the development of these metabolic disorders. Recent studies indicate that alteration of intracellular Ca(2+) levels and downstream Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways appear to modulate gene transcription and the activities of many enzymes involved in cellular metabolism...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865976/from-shaping-organelles-to-signalling-platforms-the-emerging-functions-of-plant-er-pm-contact-sites
#20
REVIEW
Emmanuelle M Bayer, Imogen Sparkes, Steffen Vanneste, Abel Rosado
The plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) defines the biosynthetic site of lipids and proteins destined for secretion, but also contains important signal transduction and homeostasis components that regulate multiple hormonal and developmental responses. To achieve its various functions, the ER has a unique architecture, both reticulated and highly plastic, that facilitates the spatial-temporal segregation of biochemical reactions and the establishment of inter-organelle communication networks. At the cell cortex, the cortical ER (cER) anchors to and functionally couples with the PM through largely static structures known as ER-PM contact sites (EPCS)...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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