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Organelle communication

Aylin C Hanyaloglu
The integration of GPCR signaling with membrane trafficking, as a single orchestrated system, is a theme increasingly evident with the growing reports of GPCR endosomal signaling. Once viewed as a mechanism to regulate cell surface heterotrimeric G protein signaling, the endocytic trafficking system is complex, highly compartmentalized, yet deeply interconnected with cell signaling. The organization of receptors into distinct plasma membrane signalosomes, biochemically distinct endosomal populations, endosomal microdomains, and its communication with distinct subcellular organelles such as the Golgi provides multiple unique signaling platforms that are critical for specifying receptor function physiologically and pathophysiologically...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Daniela Mennerich, Sakari Kellokumpu, Thomas Kietzmann
SIGNIFICANCE: Eukaryotic cells execute various functions in subcellular compartments or organelles for which cellular redox homeostasis is of importance. Apart from mitochondria, hypoxia and stress mediated formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to modulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (GA) functions. Recent Advances: Research during the last decade has improved our understanding of disulfide bond formation, protein glycosylation and secretion as well as pH and redox homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (GA)...
May 2, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Roberta Palmulli, Guillaume van Niel
The release of extracellular vesicles such as exosomes provides an attractive intercellular communication pathway. Exosomes are 30- to 150-nm membrane vesicles that are generated in endosomal compartment and act as intercellular mediators in both physiological and pathological context. Despite the growing interest in exosome functions, the mechanisms responsible for their biogenesis and secretion are still not completely understood. Knowledge about these mechanisms is important because they control the composition, and hence the function and secretion, of exosomes...
May 1, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
Mirca Marini, Irene Rosa, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Mirko Manetti
Telocytes (TCs) represent a new distinct type of cells found in the stromal compartment of many organs, including the skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles. TCs are morphologically defined as interstitial cells with a small cellular body from which arise very long (up to hundreds of micrometers) and thin moniliform processes (named telopodes) featuring the alternation of slender segments (called podomers) and small dilated portions (called podoms) accommodating some organelles. Although these stromal cells are mainly characterized by their ultrastructural traits, in the last few years TCs have been increasingly studied for their immunophenotypes, microRNA profiles, and gene expression and proteomic signatures...
April 25, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Galo Garcia, David R Raleigh, Jeremy F Reiter
Cilia, organelles that move to execute functions like fertilization and signal to execute functions like photoreception and embryonic patterning, are composed of a core of nine-fold doublet microtubules overlain by a membrane. Distinct types of cilia display distinct membrane morphologies, ranging from simple domed cylinders to the highly ornate invaginations and membrane disks of photoreceptor outer segments. Critical for the ability of cilia to signal, both the protein and the lipid compositions of ciliary membranes are different from those of other cellular membranes...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Anna Lürick, Daniel Kümmel, Christian Ungermann
Cells are largely compartmentalized into numerous interacting organelles with dedicated functions in lipid metabolism, energy generation, or protein turnover. In the past, each organelle has been considered as an isolated unit with an individual proteome, membrane composition, and shape. However, this view is changing rapidly as organelles communicate via contact sites, fuse directly with each other, or correspond via vesicular carriers. Each of these processes disturbs the initial individual character of each organelle and they thus need to be tightly controlled and regulated...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Tae-Young Yoon, Mary Munson
A fundamental hallmark of eukaryotic cells is their compartmentalization into functionally distinct organelles, including those of the secretory and endocytic pathways. Transport of cargo between these compartments and to/from the cell surface is mediated by membrane-bound vesicles and tubules. Delivery of cargo is facilitated by SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor)-mediated membrane fusion of vesicles with their target compartments. Vesicles contain a variety of cargos, including lipids, membrane proteins, signaling molecules, biosynthetic and hydrolytic enzymes, and the trafficking machinery itself...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Valerie B O'Donnell, Jamie Rossjohn, Michael Jo Wakelam
Phospholipids comprise a large body of lipids that define cells and organelles by forming membrane structures. Importantly, their complex metabolism represents a highly controlled cellular signaling network that is essential for mounting an effective innate immune response. Phospholipids in innate cells are subject to dynamic regulation by enzymes, whose activities are highly responsive to activation status. Along with their metabolic products, they regulate multiple aspects of innate immune cell biology, including shape change, aggregation, blood clotting, and degranulation...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Eric Boilard
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, are small membrane-bound vesicles released by cells under various conditions. In a multitude of physiological and pathological conditions, EVs contribute to intercellular communication by facilitating exchange of material between cells. Rapidly growing interest is aimed at better understanding EV function and their use as biomarkers. The vast EV cargo includes cytokines, growth factors, organelles, nucleic acids (messenger and micro RNA), and transcription factors...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Xiaoding Wang, Xukun Bi, Guangyu Zhang, Yingfeng Deng, Xiang Luo, Lin Xu, Philipp E Scherer, Anwarul Ferdous, Guosheng Fu, Thomas G Gillette, Amy S Lee, Xuejun Jiang, Zhao V Wang
Secretory and transmembrane proteins rely on proper function of the secretory pathway for folding, posttranslational modification, assembly, and secretion. Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stimulates the unfolded protein response (UPR), which communicates between the ER and other organelles to enhance ER-folding capacity and restore cellular homeostasis. Glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (GRP78), an ER-resident protein chaperone, is a master regulator of all UPR signaling branches...
April 17, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Pil Seok Chae, Muhammad Ehsan, Manabendra Das, Valerie Stern, Yang Du, Jonas Mortensen, Parameswaran Hariharan, Bernadette Byrne, Claus Loland, Brian Kobilka, Lan Guan
Membrane proteins allow effective communication between cells and organelles and their external environments. Maintaining membrane protein stability in a non-native environment is the major bottleneck to their structural study. Detergents are widely used to extract membrane proteins from the membrane and keep the extracted protein in a stable state for downstream characterization. In the current study, three sets of steroid-based amphiphiles, glyco-diosgenin analogs (GDNs), steroid-based penta-saccharides either lacking a linker (SPSs) or with a linker (SPS-Ls), were developed as novel chemical tools for membrane protein research...
April 16, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Junsheng Qi, Chun-Peng Song, Baoshan Wang, Jianmin Zhou, Jaakko Kangasjärvi, Jian-Kang Zhu, Zhizhong Gong
Stomata, the pores formed by a pair of guard cells, are the main gateways for water transpiration and photosynthetic CO2 exchange, as well as pathogen invasion in land plants. Guard cell movement is regulated by a combination of environmental factors including water status, light, CO2 levels and pathogen attack, as well as endogenous signals such as abscisic acid and apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under abiotic and biotic stress conditions, extracellular ROS are mainly produced by plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases, whereas intracellular ROS are produced in multiple organelles...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Erica A Moehle, Koning Shen, Andrew Dillin
As a central hub of cellular metabolism and signaling, the mitochondrion is a crucial organelle whose dysfunction can cause disease and whose activity is intimately connected to aging. We review how the mitochondrial network maintains proteomic integrity, how mitochondrial proteotoxic stress is communicated and resolved in the context of the entire cell, and how mitochondrial systems function in the context of organismal health and aging. A deeper understanding of how mitochondrial protein quality control mechanisms are coordinated across these distinct biological levels should help explain why these mechanisms fail with age and, ultimately, how routes to intervention might be attained...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Juan A Godoy, Angel G Valdivieso, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Mitochondria are widely recognized as fundamental organelles for cellular physiology and constitute the main energy source for different cellular processes. The location, morphology, and interactions of mitochondria with other organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), have emerged as critical events capable of determining cellular fate. Mitochondria-related functions have proven particularly relevant in neurons; mitochondria are necessary for proper neuronal morphogenesis and the highly energy-demanding synaptic transmission process...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Toni Radanović, John Reinhard, Stephanie Ballweg, Kristina Pesek, Robert Ernst
The biological membranes of eukaryotic cells harbor sensitive surveillance systems to establish, sense, and maintain characteristic physicochemical properties that ultimately define organelle identity. They are fundamentally important for membrane homeostasis and play active roles in cellular signaling, protein sorting, and the formation of vesicular carriers. Here, we compare the molecular mechanisms of Mga2 and Ire1, two sensors involved in the regulation of fatty acid desaturation and the response to unfolded proteins and lipid bilayer stress in order to identify their commonalities and specializations...
March 25, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Yannan Zhao, Lilan Luo, Jiesi Xu, Peiyong Xin, Hongyan Guo, Jian Wu, Lin Bai, Guodong Wang, Jinfang Chu, Jianru Zuo, Hong Yu, Xun Huang, Jiayang Li
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental biological process. Deficiency in MOSAIC DEATH 1 (MOD1), a plastid-localized enoyl-ACP reductase, leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and PCD, which can be suppressed by mitochondrial complex I mutations, indicating a signal from chloroplasts to mitochondria. However, this signal remains to be elucidated. In this study, through cloning and analyzing a series of mod1 suppressors, we reveal a comprehensive organelle communication pathway that regulates the generation of mitochondrial ROS and triggers PCD...
March 14, 2018: Cell Research
Benjamin Gottschalk, Christinae Klec, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Roland Malli, Wolfgang F Graier
Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that essentially contribute to cell signaling by sophisticated mechanisms of communications. Live cell imaging studies showed that mitochondria are dynamic and complex structures that form ramified networks by directed movements, fission, and fusion events. There is emerging evidence that the morphology of mitochondria determines cellular functions and vice versa. Several intracellular signaling pathways and messengers including Ca2+ dynamically influence the architecture of mitochondria...
March 12, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Yang Chen, Ying Li, Liang Ma, Li Yu
The migrasome is a newly discovered, migration-dependent membrane-bound cellular organelle. It functions in the active release of intracellular contents into the external environment and in cell-cell communications. Migrasomes have characteristic morphological features compared with intracellular organelles and extracellular vesicles. This unit describes methods for visualizing migrasomes by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Francisco J Corpas
Peroxisome organelles have a versatile metabolism whose enzymatic content can be modulated by physiological and environment-dependent cellular conditions. They are characterized by a highly active nitro-oxidative metabolism and basic elements (H2 O2 and nitric oxide (NO)) with signaling properties. However, new elements have increased our understanding of the connections between peroxisomes and other cellular compartments. Furthermore, the presence of calcium (Ca2+ ) intensifies communication between different signaling molecules and the relationship of Ca2+ itself with NO and H2 O2 ...
March 4, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Duojiao Wu, Xiangdong Wang, Hongzhi Sun
Mitochondrial malfunction is related to aging and to the onset of many diseases, such as obesity/diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The molecular principles of biological and toxicological processes the mitochondria can regulate should be disease-specific, cell type-specific, and drug targetable. Mitochondrial biology and toxicology is evolving and undergoing a revolution through fast-developing biotechnologies garnering increasing attention due to the importance of targeted therapies...
April 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
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