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Organelle communication

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340346/the-upsides-and-downsides-of-organelle-interconnectivity
#1
REVIEW
Daniel E Gottschling, Thomas Nyström
Interconnectivity and feedback control are hallmarks of biological systems. This includes communication between organelles, which allows them to function and adapt to changing cellular environments. While the specific mechanisms for all communications remain opaque, unraveling the wiring of organelle networks is critical to understand how biological systems are built and why they might collapse, as occurs in aging. A comprehensive understanding of all the routes involved in inter-organelle communication is still lacking, but important themes are beginning to emerge, primarily in budding yeast...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315083/achieving-the-promise-of-therapeutic-extracellular-vesicles-the-devil-is-in-details-of-therapeutic-loading
#2
REVIEW
Dhruvitkumar S Sutaria, Mohamed Badawi, Mitch A Phelps, Thomas D Schmittgen
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a class of cell secreted organelles which naturally contain biomolecular cargo such as miRNA, mRNA and proteins. EVs mediate intercellular communication, enabling the transfer of functional nucleic acids from the cell of origin to the recipient cells. In addition, EVs make an attractive delivery vehicle for therapeutics owing to their increased stability in circulation, biocompatibility, low immunogenicity and toxicity profiles. EVs can also be engineered to display targeting moieties on their surfaces which enables targeting to desired tissues, organs or cells...
March 17, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314780/non-coding-rnas-the-dark-side-of-nuclear-mitochondrial-communication
#3
REVIEW
Roberto Vendramin, Jean-Christophe Marine, Eleonora Leucci
Mitochondria are critical hubs for the integration of several key metabolic processes implicated in cell growth and survival. They originated from bacterial ancestors through endosymbiosis, following the transfer of more than 90% of their endosymbiont genome to the host cell nucleus. Over time, a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship has been established, which relies on continuous and elaborate signaling mechanisms between this life-essential organelle and its host. The ability of mitochondria to signal their functional state and trigger compensatory and adaptive cellular responses has long been recognized, but the underlying molecular mechanisms involved have remained poorly understood...
March 17, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276013/isolation-of-mitochondria-associated-membranes-mam-from-mouse-brain-tissue
#4
Bernadette Schreiner, Maria Ankarcrona
During the last decades, increasing evidence indicated that subcellular organelles do not exist as autarkic units but instead communicate constantly and extensively with each other in various ways. Some communication, for example, the exchange of small molecules, requires the marked convergence of two distinct organelles for a certain period of time. The cross talk between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, two subcellular organelles of utmost importance for cellular bioenergetics and protein homeostasis, has been increasingly investigated under the last years...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275911/sigma-1-%C3%AF-1-receptor-in-memory-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#5
Tangui Maurice, Nino Goguadze
The sigma-1 (σ1) receptor has been associated with regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, several cellular signaling pathways, and inter-organelle communication, in part through its chaperone activity. In vivo, agonists of the σ1 receptor enhance brain plasticity, with particularly well-described impact on learning and memory. Under pathological conditions, σ1 receptor agonists can induce cytoprotective responses. These protective responses comprise various complementary pathways that appear to be differentially engaged according to pathological mechanism...
March 9, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257779/photoregulation-of-photosystem-ii-activity-mediated-by-cytoplasmic-streaming-in-chara-and-its-relation-to-ph-bands
#6
Alexander A Bulychev, Anna V Komarova
Chloroplasts in vivo exposed to strong light export assimilates and excess reducing power to the cytoplasm for metabolic conversions and allocation to neighboring and distant organelles. The cytoplasmic streaming, being particularly fast in characean internodes, distributes the exported metabolites from brightly illuminated cell spots to light-limited regions, which is evident from the transient increase in chlorophyll fluorescence of shaded areas in response to illumination of distant cell regions situated upstream the liquid flow...
February 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255694/analysis-of-microtubules-and-microtubule-organizing-center-at-the-immune-synapse
#7
Noelia Blas-Rus, Eugenio Bustos-Morán, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Noa B Martín-Cófreces
The immune synapse (IS) is a specialized structure that enables cell-cell communication between immune cells. As such, it involves direct cell-to-cell contact. It is sustained by cytoskeletal components that allow the intracellular polarization of different organelles and the surface re-organization of signaling and adhesion receptors. The tubulin-based cytoskeleton is a key player in IS formation and signaling. We describe methods to analyze through Western blot and microscopy analysis the polarization to the IS of the centrosome, also known as microtubule-organizing center (MTOC), the dynamics of microtubule growth and polymerization from the MTOC to the IS and the activation of signaling molecules...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246299/on-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-the-mam-hypothesis
#8
REVIEW
Estela Area-Gomez, Eric A Schon
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently unclear and is the subject of much debate. The most widely accepted hypothesis designed to explain AD pathogenesis is the amyloid cascade, which invokes the accumulation of extracellular plaques and intracellular tangles as playing a fundamental role in the course and progression of the disease. However, besides plaques and tangles, other biochemical and morphological features are also present in AD, often manifesting early in the course of the disease before the accumulation of plaques and tangles...
March 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235672/neurobiology-of-axonal-transport-defects-in-motor-neuron-diseases-opportunities-for-translational-research
#9
REVIEW
Kurt J De Vos, Majid Hafezparast
Intracellular trafficking of cargoes is an essential process to maintain the structure and function of all mammalian cell types, but especially of neurons because of their extreme axon/dendrite polarisation. Axonal transport mediates the movement of cargoes such as proteins, mRNA, lipids, membrane-bound vesicles and organelles that are mostly synthesised in the cell body and in doing so is responsible for their correct spatiotemporal distribution in the axon, for example at specialised sites such as nodes of Ranvier and synaptic terminals...
February 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214945/characterization-of-tunneling-nanotubes-in-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-an-intercellular-exchange-of-components-between-neighboring-cells
#10
Viviana Sanchez, Nerina Villalba, Luciano Fiore, Carlos Luzzani, Santiago Miriuka, Alberto Boveris, Ricardo J Gelpi, Alicia Brusco, Juan José Poderoso
Intercellular communication is one of the most important events in cell population behavior. In the last decade, tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been recognized as a new form of long distance intercellular connection. TNT function is to allow molecular and subcellular structure exchange between neighboring cells via the transfer of molecules and organelles such as calcium ions, prions, viral and bacterial pathogens, small lysosomes and mitochondria. New findings support the concept that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can affect cell microenvironment by the release of soluble factors or the transfer of cellular components to neighboring cells, in a way which significantly contributes to cell regulation and tissue repair, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood...
February 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180024/ciliopathies-genetics-in-pediatric-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Machteld M Oud, Ideke J C Lamers, Heleen H Arts
Ciliary disorders, which are also referred to as ciliopathies, are a group of hereditary disorders that result from dysfunctional cilia. The latter are cellular organelles that stick up from the apical plasma membrane. Cilia have important roles in signal transduction and facilitate communications between cells and their surroundings. Ciliary disruption can result in a wide variety of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Because cilia occur widespread in our bodies many organs and sensory systems can be affected when they are dysfunctional...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171745/breaking-down-neighbors-to-fuel-tumorigenesis
#12
John Vaughen, Tatsushi Igaki
Autophagy supports cell growth and survival autonomously by recycling intracellular proteins and/or organelles. Reporting in Nature, Katheder and colleagues (2017) find that tumors trigger non-autonomous autophagy in neighboring cells and distant organs, thus fueling tumor growth and metastasis. This opens new avenues for understanding and manipulating cancers through cell-cell communication.
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164203/modulating-motility-of-intracellular-vesicles-in-cortical-neurons-with-nanomagnetic-forces-on-chip
#13
Anja Kunze, Coleman Tylor Murray, Chanya Godzich, Jonathan Lin, Keegan Owsley, Andy Tay, Dino Di Carlo
Vesicle transport is a major underlying mechanism of cell communication. Inhibiting vesicle transport in brain cells results in blockage of neuronal signals, even in intact neuronal networks. Modulating intracellular vesicle transport can have a huge impact on the development of new neurotherapeutic concepts, but only if we can specifically interfere with intracellular transport patterns. Here, we propose to modulate motion of intracellular lipid vesicles in rat cortical neurons based on exogenously bioconjugated and cell internalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) within microengineered magnetic gradients on-chip...
February 6, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146372/the-isolation-of-morphologically-intact-and-biologically-active-extracellular-vesicles-from-the-secretome-of-cancer-associated-adipose-tissue
#14
Sarah Jeurissen, Glenn Vergauwen, Jan Van Deun, Lore Lapeire, Victoria Depoorter, Ilkka Miinalainen, Raija Sormunen, Rudy Van den Broecke, Geert Braems, Véronique Cocquyt, Hannelore Denys, An Hendrix
Breast cancer cells closely interact with different cell types of the surrounding adipose tissue to favor invasive growth and metastasis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanometer-sized vesicles secreted by different cell types that shuttle proteins and nucleic acids to establish cell-cell communication. To study the role of EVs released by cancer-associated adipose tissue in breast cancer progression and metastasis a standardized EV isolation protocol that obtains pure EVs and maintains their functional characteristics is required...
March 4, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111982/short-peptides-interfering-with-signaling-pathways-as-new-therapeutic-tools-for-cancer-treatment
#15
Aleksandra Ellert-Miklaszewska, Katarzyna Poleszak, Bozena Kaminska
Short peptides have many advantages, such as low molecular weight, selectivity for a specific target, organelles or cells with minimal toxicity. We describe properties of short peptides, which interfere with communication networks in tumor cells and within microenvironment of malignant gliomas, the most common brain tumors. We focus on ligand/receptor axes and intracellular signaling pathways critical for gliomagenesis that could be targeted with interfering peptides. We review structures and efficacy of organelle-specific and cell-penetrating peptides and describe diverse chemical modifications increasing proteolytic stability and protecting synthetic peptides against degradation...
January 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108029/the-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-coupling-in-health-and-disease-molecules-functions-and-significance
#16
REVIEW
Riccardo Filadi, Pierre Theurey, Paola Pizzo
The close apposition between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria represents a key platform, capable to regulate different fundamental cellular pathways. Among these, Ca(2+) signaling and lipid homeostasis have been demonstrated over the last years to be deeply modulated by ER-mitochondria cross-talk. Given its importance in cell life/death decisions, increasing evidence suggests that alterations of the ER-mitochondria axis could be responsible for the onset and progression of several diseases, including neurodegeneration, cancer and obesity...
January 12, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107184/tunneling-nanotubes-promote-intercellular-mitochondria-transfer-followed-by-increased-invasiveness-in-bladder-cancer-cells
#17
Jinjin Lu, Xiufen Zheng, Fan Li, Yang Yu, Zhong Chen, Zheng Liu, Zhihua Wang, Hua Xu, Weimin Yang
Intercellular transfer of organelles via tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) is a novel means of cell-to-cell communication. Here we demonstrate the existence of TNTs between co-cultured RT4 and T24 bladder cancer cells using light microscopy, fluorescence imaging, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spontaneous unidirectional transfer of mitochondria from T24 to RT4 cells was detected using fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. The distribution of mitochondria migrated from T24 cells was in good agreement with the original mitochondria in RT4 cells, which may imply mitochondrial fusion...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087269/mitochondrial-roles-of-the-psychiatric-disease-risk-factor-disc1
#18
REVIEW
R Norkett, S Modi, J T Kittler
Ion transport during neuronal signalling utilizes the majority of the brain's energy supply. Mitochondria are key sites for energy provision through ATP synthesis and play other important roles including calcium buffering. Thus, tightly regulated distribution and function of these organelles throughout the intricate architecture of the neuron is essential for normal synaptic communication. Therefore, delineating mechanisms coordinating mitochondrial transport and function is essential for understanding nervous system physiology and pathology...
January 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026026/mams-are-attractive-targets-for-bacterial-repurposing-of-the-host-cell-mam-functions-might-be-key-for-undermining-an-infected-cell
#19
Pedro Escoll, Monica Rolando, Carmen Buchrieser
Pathogenic bacteria frequently target the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria in order to exploit host functions. ER-mitochondria inter-organelle communication is topologically sub-compartmentalized at mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). MAMs are specific membranous microdomains with unique regulatory functions such as lipid synthesis and trafficking, calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial morphology, inflammasome activation, autophagosome formation, and apoptosis. These important cellular processes are all modulated by pathogens to subvert host functions and promote infection, thus it is tempting to assume that pathogenic bacteria target MAMs to subvert these different pathways in their hosts...
December 27, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007605/mitochondrial-networking-in-diabetic-left-ventricle-cardiomyocytes
#20
REVIEW
Lucia-Doina Popov
Cardiomyocyte mitochondria preserve "the quorum sensing" attribute of their aerobic bacterial ancestors, as shown by the transient physical connectivity and communication not only with each other, but also with other intracellular organelles and with cytosol, ensuing cellular homeostasis. In this review, we present original electron microscopy evidence on mitochondrial networking within diabetic left ventricular cardiomyocytes, focusing on: (i) the inter-mitochondrial communication, allowing electrochemical signals transfer and outer membrane components or matrix proteins exchange, (ii) the interplay between mitochondria and the cardiomyocyte nucleus, nucleolus, sarcoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and lipid droplets viewed as attributes of mitochondrial "quality control" and "retrograde signaling function", and (iii) the crosstalk between mitochondria and cardiomyocyte cytosol, as part of the adaptive responses that allow cells survival...
December 19, 2016: Mitochondrion
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