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Organelle communication

Yannan Zhao, Lilan Luo, Jiesi Xu, Peiyong Xin, Hongyan Guo, Jian Wu, Lin Bai, Guodong Wang, Jinfang Chu, Jianru Zuo, Hong Yu, Xun Huang, Jiayang Li
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental biological process. Deficiency in MOSAIC DEATH 1 (MOD1), a plastid-localized enoyl-ACP reductase, leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and PCD, which can be suppressed by mitochondrial complex I mutations, indicating a signal from chloroplasts to mitochondria. However, this signal remains to be elucidated. In this study, through cloning and analyzing a series of mod1 suppressors, we reveal a comprehensive organelle communication pathway that regulates the generation of mitochondrial ROS and triggers PCD...
March 14, 2018: Cell Research
Benjamin Gottschalk, Christinae Klec, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Roland Malli, Wolfgang F Graier
Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that essentially contribute to cell signaling by sophisticated mechanisms of communications. Live cell imaging studies showed that mitochondria are dynamic and complex structures that form ramified networks by directed movements, fission, and fusion events. There is emerging evidence that the morphology of mitochondria determines cellular functions and vice versa. Several intracellular signaling pathways and messengers including Ca2+ dynamically influence the architecture of mitochondria...
March 12, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Yang Chen, Ying Li, Liang Ma, Li Yu
The migrasome is a newly discovered, migration-dependent membrane-bound cellular organelle. It functions in the active release of intracellular contents into the external environment and in cell-cell communications. Migrasomes have characteristic morphological features compared with intracellular organelles and extracellular vesicles. This unit describes methods for visualizing migrasomes by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Francisco J Corpas
Peroxisome organelles have a versatile metabolism whose enzymatic content can be modulated by physiological and environment-dependent cellular conditions. They are characterized by a highly active nitro-oxidative metabolism and basic elements (H2 O2 and nitric oxide (NO)) with signaling properties. However, new elements have increased our understanding of the connections between peroxisomes and other cellular compartments. Furthermore, the presence of calcium (Ca2+ ) intensifies communication between different signaling molecules and the relationship of Ca2+ itself with NO and H2 O2 ...
March 8, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Duojiao Wu, Xiangdong Wang, Hongzhi Sun
Mitochondrial malfunction is related to aging and to the onset of many diseases, such as obesity/diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The molecular principles of biological and toxicological processes the mitochondria can regulate should be disease-specific, cell type-specific, and drug targetable. Mitochondrial biology and toxicology is evolving and undergoing a revolution through fast-developing biotechnologies garnering increasing attention due to the importance of targeted therapies...
March 6, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Bianca Schrul, Wolfgang Schliebs
In order to adapt to environmental changes, such as nutrient availability, cells have to orchestrate multiple metabolic pathways, which are catalyzed in distinct specialized organelles. Lipid droplets (LDs) and peroxisomes are both endoplasmic reticulum-derived organelles that fulfill complementary functions in lipid metabolism: Upon nutrient supply, LDs store metabolic energy in the form of neutral lipids and, when energy is needed, supply fatty acids for oxidation in peroxisomes and mitochondria. How these organelles communicate with each other for a concerted metabolic output remains a central question...
March 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Mirosława Panasiuk, Michał Rychłowski, Natalia Derewońko, Krystyna Bieńkowska-Szewczyk
Various types of intercellular connections that are essential for communication between cells are often utilized by pathogens. Recently, a new type of cellular connection, long, thin, actin-rich membrane extensions named tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), have been shown to play an important role in cell-to-cell spread of HIV and influenza virus. In the present report, we show that TNTs are frequently formed by cells infected by an alpha-herpesvirus BoHV-1 (bovine herpesvirus 1). Viral proteins, such as envelope glycoprotein gE, capsid protein VP26 and tegument protein Us3, as well as cellular organelles (mitochondria) were detected by immunofluorescence and live cell imaging of nanotubes formed by bovine primary fibroblasts and oropharynx cells (KOP)...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
J Magarian Blander
Antigen cross-presentation is an adaptation of the cellular process of loading MHC-I molecules with endogenous peptides during their biosynthesis within the endoplasmic reticulum. Cross-presented peptides derive from internalized proteins, microbial pathogens, and transformed or dying cells. The physical separation of internalized cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum, where the machinery for assembling peptide-MHC-I complexes resides, poses a challenge. To solve this problem, deliberate rewiring of organelle communication within cells is necessary to prepare for cross-presentation, and different endocytic receptors and vesicular traffic patterns customize the emergent cross-presentation compartment to the nature of the peptide source...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Zhao Lin, Michael J McClure, Junjun Zhao, Allison N Ramey, Niels Asmussen, Sharon L Hyzy, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D Boyan
Chondrocytes at different maturation states in the growth plate produce matrix vesicles (MVs), membrane organelles found in the extracellular matrix, with a wide range of contents, such as matrix processing enzymes and receptors for hormones. We have shown that MVs harvested from growth zone (GC) chondrocyte cultures contain abundant small RNAs, including miRNAs. Here, we determined whether RNA also exists in MVs produced by less mature resting zone (RC) chondrocytes and, if so, whether it differs from the RNA in MVs produced by GC cells...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cesar Cardenas, Paolo Pinton, Geert Bultynck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Soni Deshwal, Marleen Forkink, Chou-Hui Hu, Guido Buonincontri, Salvatore Antonucci, Moises Di Sante, Michael P Murphy, Nazareno Paolocci, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Thomas Krieg, Fabio Di Lisa, Nina Kaludercic
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors ameliorate contractile function in diabetic animals, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Equally elusive is the interplay between the cardiomyocyte alterations induced by hyperglycemia and the accompanying inflammation. Here we show that exposure of primary cardiomyocytes to high glucose and pro-inflammatory stimuli leads to MAO-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species that causes permeability transition pore opening and mitochondrial dysfunction. These events occur upstream of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and are abolished by the MAO inhibitor pargyline, highlighting the role of these flavoenzymes in the ER/mitochondria cross-talk...
February 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Mayeul Collot, Tkhe-Kyong Fam, Pichandi Ashokkumar, Orestis Faklaris, Thierry Galli, Lydia Danglot, Andrey S Klymchenko
Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular lipid-rich organelles that regulate the storage of neutral lipids and were recently found to be involved in many physiological processes, metabolic disorders as well as diseases including obesity, diabetes and cancers. Herein we present a family of new fluorogenic merocyanine fluorophores based on an indolenine moiety and a dioxaborine barbiturate derivative. These so-called StatoMerocyanines (SMCy) span their fluorescence from yellow to the near infrared (NIR) in oil with an impressive fluorescence enhancement compared to aqueous media...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shobi Veleri, Pradeep Punnakkal, Gary L Dunbar, Panchanan Maiti
In eukaryotes, the cellular functions are segregated to membrane-bound organelles. This inherently requires sorting of metabolites to membrane-limited locations. Sorting the metabolites from ribosomes to various organelles along the intracellular trafficking pathways involves several integral cellular processes, including an energy-dependent step, in which the sorting of metabolites between organelles is catalyzed by membrane-anchoring protein Rab-GTPases (Rab). They contribute to relaying the switching of the secretory proteins between hydrophobic and hydrophilic environments...
February 8, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
Maeva Dupont, Shanti Souriant, Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Isabelle Maridonneau-Parini, Christel Vérollet
Tunneling nanotubes (TNT) are dynamic connections between cells, which represent a novel route for cell-to-cell communication. A growing body of evidence points TNT towards a role for intercellular exchanges of signals, molecules, organelles, and pathogens, involving them in a diverse array of functions. TNT form among several cell types, including neuronal cells, epithelial cells, and almost all immune cells. In myeloid cells (e.g., macrophages, dendritic cells, and osteoclasts), intercellular communication via TNT contributes to their differentiation and immune functions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nathan L Hendel, Matthew Thomson, Wallace F Marshall
An important question in cell biology is whether cells are able to measure size, either whole cell size or organelle size. Perhaps cells have an internal chemical representation of size that can be used to precisely regulate growth, or perhaps size is just an accident that emerges due to constraint of nutrients. The eukaryotic flagellum is an ideal model for studying size sensing and control because its linear geometry makes it essentially one-dimensional, greatly simplifying mathematical modeling. The assembly of flagella is regulated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), in which kinesin motors carry cargo adaptors for flagellar proteins along the flagellum and then deposit them at the tip, lengthening the flagellum...
February 6, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Nuno Raimundo, Anita Kriško
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2018: Aging
Sri Rahavi Boovarahan, Gino A Kurian
Air pollution has become an environmental burden with regard to non-communicable diseases, particularly heart disease. It has been reported that air pollution can accelerate the development of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Air pollutants encompass various particulate matters (PMs), which change the blood composition and heart rate and eventually leads to cardiac failure by triggering atherosclerotic plaque ruptures or by developing irreversible ischemia. A series of major epidemiological and observational studies have established the noxious effect of air pollutants on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying molecular mechanisms of its susceptibility and the pathological disease events remain largely elusive and are predicted to be initiated in the cell organelle...
January 18, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Junsen Tong, Mohammad Kawsar Manik, Young Jun Im
Membrane contact sites (MCSs) in eukaryotic cells are hotspots for lipid exchange, which is essential for many biological functions, including regulation of membrane properties and protein trafficking. Lipid transfer proteins anchored at membrane contact sites (LAMs) contain sterol-specific lipid transfer domains [StARkin domain (SD)] and multiple targeting modules to specific membrane organelles. Elucidating the structural mechanisms of targeting and ligand recognition by LAMs is important for understanding the interorganelle communication and exchange at MCSs...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Martyna Broda, Olivier Van Aken
Cellular homeostasis requires precise communication between various types of organelles. In particular, the communication between nucleus and semiautonomous organelles, mitochondria and chloroplasts, has received widespread attention. Communication from nucleus to other organelles is known as anterograde signaling, whereas communication from mitochondria or chloroplasts to the nucleus is known as retrograde signaling. Here we discuss methods used to study retrograde signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. These methods may also be modified to study retrograde signaling in other plant species...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Christopher K Patil, Vladimir Denic
In a recent issue of Nature, Bohnert and Kenyon (2017) describe a signaling pathway that prevents transgenerational inheritance of cytoplasmic protein aggregates. Fertilizing sperm trigger aggregate clearance in the ovum by a microautophagy-like effector mechanism mediated by inter-organelle communication between lysosomes and mitochondria.
January 8, 2018: Developmental Cell
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