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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180024/ciliopathies-genetics-in-pediatric-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Machteld M Oud, Ideke J C Lamers, Heleen H Arts
Ciliary disorders, which are also referred to as ciliopathies, are a group of hereditary disorders that result from dysfunctional cilia. The latter are cellular organelles that stick up from the apical plasma membrane. Cilia have important roles in signal transduction and facilitate communications between cells and their surroundings. Ciliary disruption can result in a wide variety of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Because cilia occur widespread in our bodies many organs and sensory systems can be affected when they are dysfunctional...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171745/breaking-down-neighbors-to-fuel-tumorigenesis
#2
John Vaughen, Tatsushi Igaki
Autophagy supports cell growth and survival autonomously by recycling intracellular proteins and/or organelles. Reporting in Nature, Katheder and colleagues (2017) find that tumors trigger non-autonomous autophagy in neighboring cells and distant organs, thus fueling tumor growth and metastasis. This opens new avenues for understanding and manipulating cancers through cell-cell communication.
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164203/modulating-motility-of-intracellular-vesicles-in-cortical-neurons-with-nanomagnetic-forces-on-chip
#3
Anja Kunze, Coleman Tylor Murray, Chanya Godzich, Jonathan Lin, Keegan Owsley, Andy Tay, Dino Di Carlo
Vesicle transport is a major underlying mechanism of cell communication. Inhibiting vesicle transport in brain cells results in blockage of neuronal signals, even in intact neuronal networks. Modulating intracellular vesicle transport can have a huge impact on the development of new neurotherapeutic concepts, but only if we can specifically interfere with intracellular transport patterns. Here, we propose to modulate motion of intracellular lipid vesicles in rat cortical neurons based on exogenously bioconjugated and cell internalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) within microengineered magnetic gradients on-chip...
February 6, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146372/the-isolation-of-morphologically-intact-and-biologically-active-extracellular-vesicles-from-the-secretome-of-cancer-associated-adipose-tissue
#4
Sarah Jeurissen, Glenn Vergauwen, Jan Van Deun, Lore Lapeire, Victoria Depoorter, Ilkka Miinalainen, Raija Sormunen, Rudy Van den Broecke, Geert Braems, Véronique Cocquyt, Hannelore Denys, An Hendrix
Breast cancer cells closely interact with different cell types of the surrounding adipose tissue to favor invasive growth and metastasis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanometer-sized vesicles secreted by different cell types that shuttle proteins and nucleic acids to establish cell-cell communication. To study the role of EVs released by cancer-associated adipose tissue in breast cancer progression and metastasis a standardized EV isolation protocol that obtains pure EVs and maintains their functional characteristics is required...
February 1, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111982/short-peptides-interfering-with-signaling-pathways-as-new-therapeutic-tools-for-cancer-treatment
#5
Aleksandra Ellert-Miklaszewska, Katarzyna Poleszak, Bozena Kaminska
Short peptides have many advantages, such as low molecular weight, selectivity for a specific target, organelles or cells with minimal toxicity. We describe properties of short peptides, which interfere with communication networks in tumor cells and within microenvironment of malignant gliomas, the most common brain tumors. We focus on ligand/receptor axes and intracellular signaling pathways critical for gliomagenesis that could be targeted with interfering peptides. We review structures and efficacy of organelle-specific and cell-penetrating peptides and describe diverse chemical modifications increasing proteolytic stability and protecting synthetic peptides against degradation...
January 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108029/the-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-coupling-in-health-and-disease-molecules-functions-and-significance
#6
REVIEW
Riccardo Filadi, Pierre Theurey, Paola Pizzo
The close apposition between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria represents a key platform, capable to regulate different fundamental cellular pathways. Among these, Ca(2+) signaling and lipid homeostasis have been demonstrated over the last years to be deeply modulated by ER-mitochondria cross-talk. Given its importance in cell life/death decisions, increasing evidence suggests that alterations of the ER-mitochondria axis could be responsible for the onset and progression of several diseases, including neurodegeneration, cancer and obesity...
January 12, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107184/tunneling-nanotubes-promote-intercellular-mitochondria-transfer-followed-by-increased-invasiveness-in-bladder-cancer-cells
#7
Jinjin Lu, Xiufen Zheng, Fan Li, Yang Yu, Zhong Chen, Zheng Liu, Zhihua Wang, Hua Xu, Weimin Yang
Intercellular transfer of organelles via tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) is a novel means of cell-to-cell communication. Here we demonstrate the existence of TNTs between co-cultured RT4 and T24 bladder cancer cells using light microscopy, fluorescence imaging, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spontaneous unidirectional transfer of mitochondria from T24 to RT4 cells was detected using fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. The distribution of mitochondria migrated from T24 cells was in good agreement with the original mitochondria in RT4 cells, which may imply mitochondrial fusion...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087269/mitochondrial-roles-of-the-psychiatric-disease-risk-factor-disc1
#8
REVIEW
R Norkett, S Modi, J T Kittler
Ion transport during neuronal signalling utilizes the majority of the brain's energy supply. Mitochondria are key sites for energy provision through ATP synthesis and play other important roles including calcium buffering. Thus, tightly regulated distribution and function of these organelles throughout the intricate architecture of the neuron is essential for normal synaptic communication. Therefore, delineating mechanisms coordinating mitochondrial transport and function is essential for understanding nervous system physiology and pathology...
January 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026026/mams-are-attractive-targets-for-bacterial-repurposing-of-the-host-cell-mam-functions-might-be-key-for-undermining-an-infected-cell
#9
Pedro Escoll, Monica Rolando, Carmen Buchrieser
Pathogenic bacteria frequently target the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria in order to exploit host functions. ER-mitochondria inter-organelle communication is topologically sub-compartmentalized at mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). MAMs are specific membranous microdomains with unique regulatory functions such as lipid synthesis and trafficking, calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial morphology, inflammasome activation, autophagosome formation, and apoptosis. These important cellular processes are all modulated by pathogens to subvert host functions and promote infection, thus it is tempting to assume that pathogenic bacteria target MAMs to subvert these different pathways in their hosts...
December 27, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007605/mitochondrial-networking-in-diabetic-left-ventricle-cardiomyocytes
#10
REVIEW
Lucia-Doina Popov
Cardiomyocyte mitochondria preserve "the quorum sensing" attribute of their aerobic bacterial ancestors, as shown by the transient physical connectivity and communication not only with each other, but also with other intracellular organelles and with cytosol, ensuing cellular homeostasis. In this review, we present original electron microscopy evidence on mitochondrial networking within diabetic left ventricular cardiomyocytes, focusing on: (i) the inter-mitochondrial communication, allowing electrochemical signals transfer and outer membrane components or matrix proteins exchange, (ii) the interplay between mitochondria and the cardiomyocyte nucleus, nucleolus, sarcoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and lipid droplets viewed as attributes of mitochondrial "quality control" and "retrograde signaling function", and (iii) the crosstalk between mitochondria and cardiomyocyte cytosol, as part of the adaptive responses that allow cells survival...
December 19, 2016: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005071/rab8a-rab11a-regulate-intercellular-communications-between-neural-cells-via-tunneling-nanotubes
#11
Hui Zhu, Chengbin Xue, Xi Xu, Yibing Guo, Xiaohong Li, Jingjing Lu, Shaoqing Ju, Yongjun Wang, Zheng Cao, Xiaosong Gu
Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are F-actin-based membrane tubes, and can form between cultured cells and within vital tissues. TNTs mediate intercellular communications that range from electrical signaling to the transfer of organelles. Following peripheral nerve injury, the orchestrated intercellular communications among neural and non-neural cells are required for effective nerve regeneration. It remains unknown whether TNTs exist between neural cells in the peripheral nerve system and how TNTs affect neural regeneration...
December 22, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943215/bioinformatics-tools-for-extracellular-vesicles-research
#12
Shivakumar Keerthikumar, Lahiru Gangoda, Yong Song Gho, Suresh Mathivanan
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a class of membranous vesicles that are released by multiple cell types into the extracellular environment. This unique class of extracellular organelles which play pivotal role in intercellular communication are conserved across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Depending upon the cell origin and the functional state, the molecular cargo including proteins, lipids, and RNA within the EVs are modulated. Owing to this, EVs are considered as a subrepertoire of the host cell and are rich reservoirs of disease biomarkers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943187/isolation-of-synaptosomes-synaptic-plasma-membranes-and-synaptic-junctional-complexes
#13
Mary L Michaelis, Lei Jiang, Elias K Michaelis
Isolation of synaptic nerve terminals or synaptosomes provides an opportunity to study the process of neurotransmission at many levels and with a variety of approaches. For example, structural features of the synaptic terminals and the organelles within them, such as synaptic vesicles and mitochondria, have been elucidated with electron microscopy. The postsynaptic membranes are joined to the presynaptic "active zone" of transmitter release through cell adhesion molecules and remain attached throughout the isolation of synaptosomes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875684/a-tether-is-a-tether-is-a-tether-tethering-at-membrane-contact-sites
#14
REVIEW
Michal Eisenberg-Bord, Nadav Shai, Maya Schuldiner, Maria Bohnert
Membrane contact sites enable interorganelle communication by positioning organelles in close proximity using molecular "tethers." With a growing understanding of the importance of contact sites, the hunt for new contact sites and their tethers is in full swing. Determining just what is a tether has proven challenging. Here, we aim to delineate guidelines that define the prerequisites for categorizing a protein as a tether. Setting this gold standard now, while groups from different disciplines are beginning to explore membrane contact sites, will enable efficient cooperation in the growing field and help to realize a great collaborative opportunity to boost its development...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821772/emulating-proton-induced-conformational-changes-in-the-vesicular-monoamine-transporter-vmat2-by-mutagenesis
#15
Dana Yaffe, Ariela Vergara-Jaque, Lucy R Forrest, Shimon Schuldiner
Neurotransporters located in synaptic vesicles are essential for communication between nerve cells in a process mediated by neurotransmitters. Vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), a member of the largest superfamily of transporters, mediates transport of monoamines to synaptic vesicles and storage organelles in a process that involves exchange of two H(+) per substrate. VMAT transport is inhibited by the competitive inhibitor reserpine, a second-line agent to treat hypertension, and by the noncompetitive inhibitor tetrabenazine, presently in use for symptomatic treatment of hyperkinetic disorders...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810356/protein-trafficking-at-the-crossroads-to-mitochondria
#16
REVIEW
Michal Wasilewski, Katarzyna Chojnacka, Agnieszka Chacinska
Mitochondria are central power stations in the cell, which additionally serve as metabolic hubs for a plethora of anabolic and catabolic processes. The sustained function of mitochondria requires the precisely controlled biogenesis and expression coordination of proteins that originate from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Accuracy of targeting, transport and assembly of mitochondrial proteins is also needed to avoid deleterious effects on protein homeostasis in the cell. Checkpoints of mitochondrial protein transport can serve as signals that provide information about the functional status of the organelles...
January 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809400/structural-analysis-of-endothelial-projections-from-mesenteric-arteries
#17
Nadia Maarouf, Maria Sancho, Tobias Fürstenhaupt, Cam Ha Tran, Donald G Welsh
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial and smooth muscle cells must communicate with one another to regulate arterial diameter. A key structure driving heterocellular communication is the endothelial projection, a thin extension that crosses the internal elastic lamina (IEL) making contact with smooth muscle. This study sought to define the precise structural composition of endothelial projections in the mesenteric circulation. METHODS: Third and fourth order mesenteric arteries from hamster were prepared for electron microscopy...
November 3, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790613/sending-out-an-sos-mitochondria-as-a-signaling-hub
#18
REVIEW
Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk
Normal cellular physiology is critically dependent on numerous mitochondrial activities including energy conversion, cofactor and precursor metabolite synthesis, and regulation of ion and redox homeostasis. Advances in mitochondrial research during the last two decades provide solid evidence that these organelles are deeply integrated with the rest of the cell and multiple mechanisms are in place to monitor and communicate functional states of mitochondria. In many cases, however, the exact molecular nature of various mitochondria-to-cell communication pathways is only beginning to emerge...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787792/analysis-of-t-cell-activation-by-confocal-microscopy
#19
Paola Larghi, Antonella Viola, Barbara Molon
Antigen-recognition by T cells requires the physical association with an antigen presenting cell (APC). At the interface between a T cell and an APC, the orchestrated redistribution of lipids, membrane receptors, and intracellular adaptors assembles a highly specialized junction, controlling the communication between the two cells, named the immunologic synapse (IS). The proper organization of the IS is a key step in host defense. Indeed, an appropriate T cell-APC interaction ensures the elimination of a wide range of pathogens and aberrant cells, whereas a deregulated IS formation leads to pathological situations such as infections, tumor development, or autoimmunity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786276/revealing-the-diversity-of-extracellular-vesicles-using-high-dimensional-flow-cytometry-analyses
#20
Geneviève Marcoux, Anne-Claire Duchez, Nathalie Cloutier, Patrick Provost, Peter A Nigrovic, Eric Boilard
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small membrane vesicles produced by cells upon activation and apoptosis. EVs are heterogeneous according to their origin, mode of release, membrane composition, organelle and biochemical content, and other factors. Whereas it is apparent that EVs are implicated in intercellular communication, they can also be used as biomarkers. Continuous improvements in pre-analytical parameters and flow cytometry permit more efficient assessment of EVs; however, methods to more objectively distinguish EVs from cells and background, and to interpret multiple single-EV parameters are lacking...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
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