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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087269/mitochondrial-roles-of-the-psychiatric-disease-risk-factor-disc1
#1
REVIEW
R Norkett, S Modi, J T Kittler
Ion transport during neuronal signalling utilizes the majority of the brain's energy supply. Mitochondria are key sites for energy provision through ATP synthesis and play other important roles including calcium buffering. Thus, tightly regulated distribution and function of these organelles throughout the intricate architecture of the neuron is essential for normal synaptic communication. Therefore, delineating mechanisms coordinating mitochondrial transport and function is essential for understanding nervous system physiology and pathology...
January 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026026/mams-are-attractive-targets-for-bacterial-repurposing-of-the-host-cell-mam-functions-might-be-key-for-undermining-an-infected-cell
#2
Pedro Escoll, Monica Rolando, Carmen Buchrieser
Pathogenic bacteria frequently target the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria in order to exploit host functions. ER-mitochondria inter-organelle communication is topologically sub-compartmentalized at mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). MAMs are specific membranous microdomains with unique regulatory functions such as lipid synthesis and trafficking, calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial morphology, inflammasome activation, autophagosome formation, and apoptosis. These important cellular processes are all modulated by pathogens to subvert host functions and promote infection, thus it is tempting to assume that pathogenic bacteria target MAMs to subvert these different pathways in their hosts...
December 27, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007605/mitochondrial-networking-in-diabetic-left-ventricle-cardiomyocytes
#3
REVIEW
Lucia-Doina Popov
Cardiomyocyte mitochondria preserve "the quorum sensing" attribute of their aerobic bacterial ancestors, as shown by the transient physical connectivity and communication not only with each other, but also with other intracellular organelles and with cytosol, ensuing cellular homeostasis. In this review, we present original electron microscopy evidence on mitochondrial networking within diabetic left ventricular cardiomyocytes, focusing on: (i) the inter-mitochondrial communication, allowing electrochemical signals transfer and outer membrane components or matrix proteins exchange, (ii) the interplay between mitochondria and the cardiomyocyte nucleus, nucleolus, sarcoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and lipid droplets viewed as attributes of mitochondrial "quality control" and "retrograde signaling function", and (iii) the crosstalk between mitochondria and cardiomyocyte cytosol, as part of the adaptive responses that allow cells survival...
December 19, 2016: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005071/rab8a-rab11a-regulate-intercellular-communications-between-neural-cells-via-tunneling-nanotubes
#4
Hui Zhu, Chengbin Xue, Xi Xu, Yibing Guo, Xiaohong Li, Jingjing Lu, Shaoqing Ju, Yongjun Wang, Zheng Cao, Xiaosong Gu
Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are F-actin-based membrane tubes, and can form between cultured cells and within vital tissues. TNTs mediate intercellular communications that range from electrical signaling to the transfer of organelles. Following peripheral nerve injury, the orchestrated intercellular communications among neural and non-neural cells are required for effective nerve regeneration. It remains unknown whether TNTs exist between neural cells in the peripheral nerve system and how TNTs affect neural regeneration...
December 22, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943215/bioinformatics-tools-for-extracellular-vesicles-research
#5
Shivakumar Keerthikumar, Lahiru Gangoda, Yong Song Gho, Suresh Mathivanan
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a class of membranous vesicles that are released by multiple cell types into the extracellular environment. This unique class of extracellular organelles which play pivotal role in intercellular communication are conserved across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Depending upon the cell origin and the functional state, the molecular cargo including proteins, lipids, and RNA within the EVs are modulated. Owing to this, EVs are considered as a subrepertoire of the host cell and are rich reservoirs of disease biomarkers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943187/isolation-of-synaptosomes-synaptic-plasma-membranes-and-synaptic-junctional-complexes
#6
Mary L Michaelis, Lei Jiang, Elias K Michaelis
Isolation of synaptic nerve terminals or synaptosomes provides an opportunity to study the process of neurotransmission at many levels and with a variety of approaches. For example, structural features of the synaptic terminals and the organelles within them, such as synaptic vesicles and mitochondria, have been elucidated with electron microscopy. The postsynaptic membranes are joined to the presynaptic "active zone" of transmitter release through cell adhesion molecules and remain attached throughout the isolation of synaptosomes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875684/a-tether-is-a-tether-is-a-tether-tethering-at-membrane-contact-sites
#7
REVIEW
Michal Eisenberg-Bord, Nadav Shai, Maya Schuldiner, Maria Bohnert
Membrane contact sites enable interorganelle communication by positioning organelles in close proximity using molecular "tethers." With a growing understanding of the importance of contact sites, the hunt for new contact sites and their tethers is in full swing. Determining just what is a tether has proven challenging. Here, we aim to delineate guidelines that define the prerequisites for categorizing a protein as a tether. Setting this gold standard now, while groups from different disciplines are beginning to explore membrane contact sites, will enable efficient cooperation in the growing field and help to realize a great collaborative opportunity to boost its development...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821772/emulating-proton-induced-conformational-changes-in-the-vesicular-monoamine-transporter-vmat2-by-mutagenesis
#8
Dana Yaffe, Ariela Vergara-Jaque, Lucy R Forrest, Shimon Schuldiner
Neurotransporters located in synaptic vesicles are essential for communication between nerve cells in a process mediated by neurotransmitters. Vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), a member of the largest superfamily of transporters, mediates transport of monoamines to synaptic vesicles and storage organelles in a process that involves exchange of two H(+) per substrate. VMAT transport is inhibited by the competitive inhibitor reserpine, a second-line agent to treat hypertension, and by the noncompetitive inhibitor tetrabenazine, presently in use for symptomatic treatment of hyperkinetic disorders...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810356/protein-trafficking-at-the-crossroads-to-mitochondria
#9
REVIEW
Michal Wasilewski, Katarzyna Chojnacka, Agnieszka Chacinska
Mitochondria are central power stations in the cell, which additionally serve as metabolic hubs for a plethora of anabolic and catabolic processes. The sustained function of mitochondria requires the precisely controlled biogenesis and expression coordination of proteins that originate from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Accuracy of targeting, transport and assembly of mitochondrial proteins is also needed to avoid deleterious effects on protein homeostasis in the cell. Checkpoints of mitochondrial protein transport can serve as signals that provide information about the functional status of the organelles...
January 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809400/structural-analysis-of-endothelial-projections-from-mesenteric-arteries
#10
Nadia Maarouf, Maria Sancho, Tobias Fürstenhaupt, Cam Ha Tran, Donald G Welsh
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial and smooth muscle cells must communicate with one another to regulate arterial diameter. A key structure driving heterocellular communication is the endothelial projection, a thin extension that crosses the internal elastic lamina (IEL) making contact with smooth muscle. This study sought to define the precise structural composition of endothelial projections in the mesenteric circulation. METHODS: Third and fourth order mesenteric arteries from hamster were prepared for electron microscopy...
November 3, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790613/sending-out-an-sos-mitochondria-as-a-signaling-hub
#11
REVIEW
Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk
Normal cellular physiology is critically dependent on numerous mitochondrial activities including energy conversion, cofactor and precursor metabolite synthesis, and regulation of ion and redox homeostasis. Advances in mitochondrial research during the last two decades provide solid evidence that these organelles are deeply integrated with the rest of the cell and multiple mechanisms are in place to monitor and communicate functional states of mitochondria. In many cases, however, the exact molecular nature of various mitochondria-to-cell communication pathways is only beginning to emerge...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787792/analysis-of-t-cell-activation-by-confocal-microscopy
#12
Paola Larghi, Antonella Viola, Barbara Molon
Antigen-recognition by T cells requires the physical association with an antigen presenting cell (APC). At the interface between a T cell and an APC, the orchestrated redistribution of lipids, membrane receptors, and intracellular adaptors assembles a highly specialized junction, controlling the communication between the two cells, named the immunologic synapse (IS). The proper organization of the IS is a key step in host defense. Indeed, an appropriate T cell-APC interaction ensures the elimination of a wide range of pathogens and aberrant cells, whereas a deregulated IS formation leads to pathological situations such as infections, tumor development, or autoimmunity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786276/revealing-the-diversity-of-extracellular-vesicles-using-high-dimensional-flow-cytometry-analyses
#13
Geneviève Marcoux, Anne-Claire Duchez, Nathalie Cloutier, Patrick Provost, Peter A Nigrovic, Eric Boilard
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small membrane vesicles produced by cells upon activation and apoptosis. EVs are heterogeneous according to their origin, mode of release, membrane composition, organelle and biochemical content, and other factors. Whereas it is apparent that EVs are implicated in intercellular communication, they can also be used as biomarkers. Continuous improvements in pre-analytical parameters and flow cytometry permit more efficient assessment of EVs; however, methods to more objectively distinguish EVs from cells and background, and to interpret multiple single-EV parameters are lacking...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742443/functional-exosome-mimic-for-delivery-of-sirna-to-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#14
Zhaogang Yang, Jing Xie, Jing Zhu, Chen Kang, Chiling Chiang, Xinmei Wang, Xiaobing Wang, Tairong Kuang, Feng Chen, Zhou Chen, Aili Zhang, Bo Yu, Robert J Lee, Lesheng Teng, L James Lee
Exosomes, the smallest subgroup of extracellular vesicles, have been recognized as extracellular organelles that contain genetic and proteomic information for long distance intercellular communication. Exosome-based drug delivery is currently a subject of intensive research. Here, we report a novel strategy to produce nanoscale exosome-mimics (EMs) in sufficient quantity for gene delivery in cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Size-controllable EMs were generated at a high yield by serial extrusion of non-tumorigenic epithelial MCF-10A cells through filters with different pore sizes...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734150/orchestrating-cellular-signaling-pathways-the-cellular-conductor-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-interacting-protein-51-ptpip51
#15
Alexander Brobeil, Eric Dietel, Stefan Gattenlöhner, Monika Wimmer
The protein tyrosine phosphatase interacting protein 51 (PTPIP51) is thought to regulate crucial cellular functions such as mitosis, apoptosis, migration, differentiation and communication between organelles as a scaffold protein. These diverse functions are modulated by the tyrosine/serine phosphorylation status of PTPIP51. This review interconnects the insights obtained about the action of PTPIP51 in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, nuclear factor kB signaling, calcium homeostasis and chromosomal segregation and identifies important signaling hubs...
October 12, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729926/communications-between-mitochondria-the-nucleus-vacuoles-peroxisomes-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-the-plasma-membrane-lipid-droplets-and-the-cytosol-during-yeast-chronological-aging
#16
Pamela Dakik, Vladimir I Titorenko
Studies employing the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism have provided deep insights into molecular mechanisms of cellular and organismal aging in multicellular eukaryotes and have demonstrated that the main features of biological aging are evolutionarily conserved. Aging in S. cerevisiae is studied by measuring replicative or chronological lifespan. Yeast replicative aging is likely to model aging of mitotically competent human cell types, while yeast chronological aging is believed to mimic aging of post-mitotic human cell types...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717534/piecing-together-the-patchwork-of-contact-sites
#17
Alberto T Gatta, Tim P Levine
Contact sites are places where two organelles join together to carry out a shared activity requiring nonvesicular communication. A large number of contact sites have been discovered, and almost any two organelles can contact each other. General rules about contacts include constraints on bridging proteins, with only a minority of bridges physically creating contacts by acting as 'tethers'. The downstream effects of contacts include changing the physical behaviour of organelles, and also forming biochemically heterogeneous subdomains...
October 4, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702813/maize-cytolines-unmask-key-nuclear-genes-that-are-under-the-control-of-retrograde-signaling-pathways-in-plants
#18
Mihai Miclaus, Ovidiu Balacescu, Ioan Has, Loredana Balacescu, Voichita Has, Dana Suteu, Samuel Neuenschwander, Irene Keller, Rémy Bruggmann
The genomes of the two plant organelles encode for a relatively small number of proteins. Thus, nuclear genes encode the vast majority of their proteome. Organelle-to-nucleus communication takes place through retrograde signaling (RS) pathways. Signals relayed through RS pathways have an impact on nuclear gene expression but their target-genes remain elusive in a normal state of the cell (considering that only mutants and stress have been used so far). Here, we use maize cytolines as an alternative. The nucleus of a donor line was transferred into two other cytoplasmic environments through at least nine back-crosses, in a time-span of > 10 years...
November 17, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695477/differential-protein-distribution-between-the-nucleus-and-mitochondria-implications-in-aging
#19
Eirini Lionaki, Ilias Gkikas, Nektarios Tavernarakis
The coordination of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes plays a pivotal role in maintenance of mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality during stress and aging. Environmental and cellular inputs signal to nucleus and/or mitochondria to trigger interorganellar compensatory responses. Loss of this tightly orchestrated coordination results in loss of cellular homeostasis and underlies various pathologies and age-related diseases. Several signaling cascades that govern interorganellar communication have been revealed up to now, and have been classified as part of the anterograde (nucleus to mitochondria) or retrograde (mitochondrial to nucleus) response...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692176/orchestrating-lymphocyte-polarity-in-cognate-immune-cell-cell-interactions
#20
E Bustos-Morán, N Blas-Rus, N B Martín-Cófreces, F Sánchez-Madrid
The immune synapse (IS) is a specialized structure established between different immune cells that fulfills several functions, including a role as a communication bridge. This intimate contact between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell promotes the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes involved in the contact. T-cell activation requires the specific triggering of the T-cell receptor (TCR), which promotes the activation of different signaling pathways inducing the polarization of the T cell. During this process, different adhesion and signaling receptors reorganize at specialized membrane domains, concomitantly to the polarization of the tubulin and actin cytoskeletons, forming stable polarization platforms...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
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