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Organelle communication

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627434/a-different-kind-of-love-lipid-droplet-contact-sites
#1
REVIEW
Maya Schuldiner, Maria Bohnert
Lipid droplets (LDs) store lipids and hence serve as energy reservoir and as a source for building-blocks for the organelle membrane systems. LD biology therefore depends on tight communication with other organelles. The unique architecture of LDs, consisting of a neutral lipid core shielded by a phospholipid-monolayer, is however an obstacle to bulk-exchange of bilayer-bounded vesicles with other organelles. In recent years, it is emerging that contact sites, places where two organelles are positioned in close proximity allowing vesicle-independent communication, are an important way to integrate LDs into the organellar landscape...
June 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593938/myosin-dependent-cell-cell-communication-controls-synchronicity-of-division-in-acute-and-chronic-stages-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#2
Karine Frénal, Damien Jacot, Pierre-Mehdi Hammoudi, Arnault Graindorge, Bohumil Maco, Dominique Soldati-Favre
The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii possesses a repertoire of 11 myosins. Three class XIV motors participate in motility, invasion and egress, whereas the class XXII myosin F is implicated in organelle positioning and inheritance of the apicoplast. Here we provide evidence that TgUNC acts as a chaperone dedicated to the folding, assembly and function of all Toxoplasma myosins. The conditional ablation of TgUNC recapitulates the phenome of the known myosins and uncovers two functions in parasite basal complex constriction and synchronized division within the parasitophorous vacuole...
June 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593023/mechanisms-underlying-the-essential-role-of-mitochondrial-membrane-lipids-in-yeast-chronological-aging
#3
REVIEW
Younes Medkour, Paméla Dakik, Mélissa McAuley, Karamat Mohammad, Darya Mitrofanova, Vladimir I Titorenko
The functional state of mitochondria is vital to cellular and organismal aging in eukaryotes across phyla. Studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided evidence that age-related changes in some aspects of mitochondrial functionality can create certain molecular signals. These signals can then define the rate of cellular aging by altering unidirectional and bidirectional communications between mitochondria and other organelles. Several aspects of mitochondrial functionality are known to impact the replicative and/or chronological modes of yeast aging...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576471/connection-of-protein-transport-and-organelle-contact-sites-in-mitochondria
#4
REVIEW
Lars Ellenrieder, Heike Rampelt, Thomas Becker
Mitochondrial biogenesis and function depend on the intensive exchange of molecules with other cellular compartments. The mitochondrial outer membrane plays a central role in this communication process. It is equipped with a number of specific protein machineries that enable the transport of proteins and metabolites. Furthermore, the outer membrane forms molecular contact sites with other cell organelles like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), thus integrating mitochondrial function in cellular physiology. The best-studied mitochondrial organelle contact site, the ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) has been linked to many vital processes including mitochondrial division, inheritance, mitophagy and phospholipid transport...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559323/contacts-between-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-other-membranes-in-neurons
#5
Yumei Wu, Christina Whiteus, C Shan Xu, Kenneth J Hayworth, Richard J Weinberg, Harald F Hess, Pietro De Camilli
Close appositions between the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other intracellular membranes have important functions in cell physiology. These include lipid homeostasis, regulation of Ca(2+) dynamics, and control of organelle biogenesis and dynamics. Although these membrane contacts have previously been observed in neurons, their distribution and abundance have not been systematically analyzed. Here, we have used focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy to generate 3D reconstructions of intracellular organelles and their membrane appositions involving the ER (distance ≤30 nm) in different neuronal compartments...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554771/membrane-contact-sites-ancient-and-central-hubs-of-cellular-lipid-logistics
#6
REVIEW
Amrita Jain, Joost C M Holthuis
Membrane contact sites (MCSs) are regions where two organelles are closely apposed to facilitate molecular communication and promote a functional integration of compartmentalized cellular processes. There is growing evidence that MCSs play key roles in controlling intracellular lipid flows and distributions. Strikingly, even organelles connected by vesicular trafficking exchange lipids en bulk via lipid transfer proteins that operate at MCSs. Herein, we describe how MCSs developed into central hubs of lipid logistics during the evolution of eukaryotic cells...
May 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538669/the-peroxisome-mitochondria-connection-how-and-why
#7
REVIEW
Marc Fransen, Celien Lismont, Paul Walton
Over the past decades, peroxisomes have emerged as key regulators in overall cellular lipid and reactive oxygen species metabolism. In mammals, these organelles have also been recognized as important hubs in redox-, lipid-, inflammatory-, and innate immune-signaling networks. To exert these activities, peroxisomes must interact both functionally and physically with other cell organelles. This review provides a comprehensive look of what is currently known about the interconnectivity between peroxisomes and mitochondria within mammalian cells...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526133/metabolic-reprogramming-and-oncogenesis-one-hallmark-many-organelles
#8
A S H Costa, C Frezza
The process of tumorigenesis can be described by a series of molecular features, among which alteration of cellular metabolism has recently emerged. This metabolic rewiring fulfills the energy and biosynthetic demands of fast proliferating cancer cells and amplifies their metabolic repertoire to survive and proliferate in the poorly oxygenated and nutrient-deprived tumor microenvironment. During the last decade, the complex reprogramming of cancer cell metabolism has been widely investigated, revealing cancer-specific metabolic alterations...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524859/mesenchymal-stem-cells-sense-mitochondria-released-from-damaged-cells-as-danger-signals-to-activate-their-rescue-properties
#9
Meriem Mahrouf-Yorgov, Lionel Augeul, Claire Crola Da Silva, Maud Jourdan, Muriel Rigolet, Sylvie Manin, René Ferrera, Michel Ovize, Adeline Henry, Aurélie Guguin, Jean-Paul Meningaud, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Roberto Motterlini, Roberta Foresti, Anne-Marie Rodriguez
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) protect tissues against cell death induced by ischemia/reperfusion insults. This therapeutic effect seems to be controlled by physiological cues released by the local microenvironment following injury. Recent lines of evidence indicate that MSC can communicate with their microenvironment through bidirectional exchanges of mitochondria. In particular, in vitro and in vivo studies report that MSCs rescue injured cells through delivery of their own mitochondria. However, the role of mitochondria conveyed from somatic cells to MSC remains unknown...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502611/defining-the-momiome-promiscuous-information-transfer-by-mobile-mitochondria-and-the-mitochondrial-genome
#10
REVIEW
Bhupendra Singh, Josephine S Modica-Napolitano, Keshav K Singh
Mitochondria are complex intracellular organelles that have long been identified as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells because of the central role they play in oxidative metabolism. A resurgence of interest in the study of mitochondria during the past decade has revealed that mitochondria also play key roles in cell signaling, proliferation, cell metabolism and cell death, and that genetic and/or metabolic alterations in mitochondria contribute to a number of diseases, including cancer. Mitochondria have been identified as signaling organelles, capable of mediating bidirectional intracellular information transfer: anterograde (from nucleus to mitochondria) and retrograde (from mitochondria to nucleus)...
May 11, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463579/peroxisomal-acbd4-interacts-with-vapb-and-promotes-er-peroxisome-associations
#11
Joseph L Costello, Inês G Castro, Tina A Schrader, Markus Islinger, Michael Schrader
Cooperation between cellular organelles such as mitochondria, peroxisomes and the ER is essential for a variety of important and diverse metabolic processes. Effective communication and metabolite exchange requires physical linkages between the organelles, predominantly in the form of organelle contact sites. At such contact sites organelle membranes are brought into close proximity by the action of molecular tethers, which often consist of specific protein pairs anchored in the membrane of the opposing organelles...
June 3, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461574/microtubule-based-transport-and-the-distribution-tethering-and-organization-of-organelles
#12
REVIEW
Kari Barlan, Vladimir I Gelfand
SUMMARYMicrotubules provide long tracks along which a broad range of organelles and vesicles are transported by kinesin and dynein motors. Motor protein complexes also tether cargoes to cytoskeletal filaments, helping facilitate their interaction and communication. The generation of biochemically distinct microtubule subpopulations allows subsets of motors to recognize a given microtubule identity, allowing further organization within the cytoplasm. Both transport and tethering are spatiotemporally regulated through multiple modes, including acute modification of both motor-cargo and motor-track associations by various physiological signals...
May 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460188/proteasomal-and-autophagy-degradation-systems
#13
Ivan Dikic
Autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system are the two major quality control pathways responsible for cellular homeostasis. As such, they provide protection against age-associated changes and a plethora of human diseases. Ubiquitination is utilized as a degradation signal by both systems, albeit in different ways, to mark cargoes for proteasomal and lysosomal degradation. Both systems intersect and communicate at multiple points to coordinate their actions in proteostasis and organelle homeostasis. This review summarizes molecular details of how proteasome and autophagy pathways are functionally interconnected in cells and indicates common principles and nodes of communication that can be therapeutically exploited...
May 1, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456629/mitochondrial-adventures-at-the-organelle-society
#14
Cátia V Diogo, King Faisal Yambire, Lorena Fernández Mosquera, Tiago Branco F, Nuno Raimundo
Mitochondria are constantly communicating with the rest of the cell. Defects in mitochondria underlie severe pathologies, whose mechanisms remain poorly understood. It is becoming increasingly evident that mitochondrial malfunction resonates in other organelles, perturbing their function and their biogenesis. In this manuscript, we review the current knowledge on the cross-talk between mitochondria and other organelles, particularly lysosomes, peroxisomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. Several organelle interactions are mediated by transcriptional programs, and other signaling mechanisms are likely mediating organelle dysfunction downstream of mitochondrial impairments...
April 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433686/mitochatting-if-only-we-could-be-a-fly-on-the-cell-wall
#15
REVIEW
Michal Eisenberg-Bord, Maya Schuldiner
Mitochondria, cellular metabolic hubs, perform many essential processes and are required for the production of metabolites such as ATP, iron-sulfur clusters, heme, amino acids and nucleotides. To fulfill their multiple roles, mitochondria must communicate with all other organelles to exchange small molecules, ions and lipids. Since mitochondria are largely excluded from vesicular trafficking routes, they heavily rely on membrane contact sites. Contact sites are areas of close proximity between organelles that allow efficient transfer of molecules, saving the need for slow and untargeted diffusion through the cytosol...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429675/cell-biology-of-hyphal-growth
#16
Gero Steinberg, Miguel A Peñalva, Meritxell Riquelme, Han A Wösten, Steven D Harris
Filamentous fungi are a large and ancient clade of microorganisms that occupy a broad range of ecological niches. The success of filamentous fungi is largely due to their elongate hypha, a chain of cells, separated from each other by septa. Hyphae grow by polarized exocytosis at the apex, which allows the fungus to overcome long distances and invade many substrates, including soils and host tissues. Hyphal tip growth is initiated by establishment of a growth site and the subsequent maintenance of the growth axis, with transport of growth supplies, including membranes and proteins, delivered by motors along the cytoskeleton to the hyphal apex...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423494/control-of-long-distance-cell-to-cell-communication-and-autophagosome-transfer-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-via-tunneling-nanotubes
#17
Inés Sáenz-de-Santa-María, Cristóbal Bernardo-Castiñeira, Eduardo Enciso, Inmaculada García-Moreno, Jose Luis Chiara, Carlos Suarez, María-Dolores Chiara
Tunneling nanotubes (TnTs) are thin channels that temporally connect nearby cells allowing the cell-to-cell trafficking of biomolecules and organelles. The presence or absence of TnTs in human neoplasms and the mechanisms of TnT assembly remains largely unexplored. In this study, we have identified TnTs in tumor cells derived from squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) cultured under bi-dimensional and tri-dimensional conditions and also in human SCC tissues. Our study demonstrates that TnTs are not specific of epithelial or mesenchymal phenotypes and allow the trafficking of endosomal/lysosomal vesicles, mitochondria, and autophagosomes between both types of cells...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414270/human-biallelic-mfn2-mutations-induce-mitochondrial-dysfunction-upper-body-adipose-hyperplasia-and-suppression-of-leptin-expression
#18
Nuno Rocha, David A Bulger, Andrea Frontini, Hannah Titheradge, Sigrid Bjerge Gribsholt, Rachel Knox, Matthew Page, Julie Harris, Felicity Payne, Claire Adams, Alison Sleigh, John Crawford, Anette Prior Gjesing, Jette Bork-Jensen, Oluf Pedersen, Inês Barroso, Torben Hansen, Helen Cox, Mary Reilly, Alex Rossor, Rebecca J Brown, Simeon I Taylor, Duncan McHale, Martin Armstrong, Elif A Oral, Vladimir Saudek, Stephen O'Rahilly, Eamonn R Maher, Bjørn Richelsen, David B Savage, Robert K Semple
MFN2 encodes mitofusin 2, a membrane-bound mediator of mitochondrial membrane fusion and inter-organelle communication. MFN2 mutations cause axonal neuropathy, with associated lipodystrophy only occasionally noted, however homozygosity for the p.Arg707Trp mutation was recently associated with upper body adipose overgrowth. We describe similar massive adipose overgrowth with suppressed leptin expression in four further patients with biallelic MFN2 mutations and at least one p.Arg707Trp allele. Overgrown tissue was composed of normal-sized, UCP1-negative unilocular adipocytes, with mitochondrial network fragmentation, disorganised cristae, and increased autophagosomes...
April 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388033/toward-the-inner-nanostructure-of-a-secretory-vesicle
#19
José Luis Nieto-González, Rafael Fernández-Chacón
The release of chemical mediators is an essential element of cell-to-cell communication. Signaling molecules such as neurotransmitters and hormones are stored in membrane-bound organelles called secretory vesicles. Some of these organelles can store molecules at high concentrations, overcoming the osmotic shock that could burst the organelle. These organelles contain a proteinaceous matrix that traps the molecules and avoids high intravesicular osmotic pressure. The functional nanostructure and internal organization of the matrix is not well understood...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386457/clearing-the-outer-mitochondrial-membrane-from-harmful-proteins-via-lipid-droplets
#20
Johannes Bischof, Manuel Salzmann, Maria Karolin Streubel, Jiri Hasek, Florian Geltinger, Jutta Duschl, Nikolaus Bresgen, Peter Briza, Danusa Haskova, Renata Lejskova, Mentor Sopjani, Klaus Richter, Mark Rinnerthaler
In recent years it turned out that there is not only extensive communication between the nucleus and mitochondria but also between mitochondria and lipid droplets (LDs) as well. We were able to demonstrate that a number of proteins shuttle between LDs and mitochondria and it depends on the metabolic state of the cell on which organelle these proteins are predominantly localized. Responsible for the localization of the particular proteins is a protein domain consisting of two α-helices, which we termed V-domain according to the predicted structure...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
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