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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334410/selective-binding-and-precipitation-of-cesium-ions-from-aqueous-solutions-a-size-driven-supramolecular-reaction
#1
Ravell Bengiat, Benny Bogoslavsky, Daniel Mandler, Joseph Almog
The nuclear disasters of Chernobyl and Fukushima presented an urgent need for finding solutions to treatment of radioactive wastes. Among the by-products of nuclear fission is the radioactive 137Cs, which evokes an environmental hazard due to its long half-life (>30 years) and high solubility in water. In this work, a water-soluble organic ligand, readily obtained from alloxan and 1,3,5-benzenetriol, has been found to selectively bind and precipitate Cs+ ions from aqueous solutions. The special rigid structure of the ligand, which consists of a "tripodal" carbonyl base above and below an aromatic plane, contributes to the size-driven selectivity towards the large Cs+ ions and the formation of a giant, insoluble supramolecular complex...
January 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334105/specific-labeling-of-mitochondria-of-chlamydomonas-with-cationic-helicene-fluorophores
#2
Christoph Bauer, Romain Duwald, Geraldine Maria Labrador, Simon Pascal, Pau Moneva Lorente, Johann Bosson, Jérôme Lacour, Jean-David Rochaix
Twelve cationic helicenes and one triangulene were tested for the specific labeling of mitochondria from algal cells. Octyl ester derivative 5 readily penetrates algal cells and gives rise to clear fluorescence patterns when it is used at concentrations in the μM range. Under these conditions, cell structures are well preserved and cell survival is not compromised. Cationic helicene compounds such as 5 provide new useful tools for examining the mitochondrial network and its dynamics including fission and fusion events...
January 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331535/estrogen-deprivation-aggravates-cardiometabolic-dysfunction-in-obese-insulin-resistant-rats-through-the-impairment-of-cardiac-mitochondrial-dynamics
#3
Wanitchaya Minta, Siripong Palee, Duangkamol Mantor, Wissuta Sutham, Thidarat Jaiwongkum, Sasiwan Kerdpoo, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Sirinart Kumfu, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
The incidence of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome increases after the onset of menopause, suggesting estrogen has a vital role in their prevention. Mitochondrial dynamics are known to play an important role in the maintenance of cardiac physiological function. However, the effects of estrogen deprivation on cardiometabolic status and cardiac mitochondrial dynamics under conditions of obese-insulin resistance have never been investigated. We hypothesized that estrogen deprivation aggravates cardiac dysfunction through increased cardiac mitochondrial fission in obese-insulin resistant rats...
January 10, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330317/trna-production-links-nutrient-conditions-to-the-onset-of-sexual-differentiation-through-the-torc1-pathway
#4
Yoko Otsubo, Tomohiko Matsuo, Akiko Nishimura, Masayuki Yamamoto, Akira Yamashita
Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase controls cell growth and metabolism in response to nutrient availability. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, TOR complex 1 (TORC1) promotes vegetative growth and inhibits sexual differentiation in the presence of ample nutrients. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of mutants with similar phenotypes as TORC1 mutants, in that they initiate sexual differentiation even in nutrient-rich conditions. In most mutants identified, TORC1 activity is downregulated and the mutated genes are involved in tRNA expression or modification...
January 12, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329364/downregulation-of-drp1-a-fission-regulator-is-associated-with-human-lung-and-colon-cancers
#5
Young Yeon Kim, Seong-Hoon Yun, Jeanho Yun
Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a dynamin-related GTPase, is a key regulator of mitochondrial fission. Although recent studies have shown that Drp1 plays important roles in various important cellular processes, such as maintaining proper mitochondrial function, apoptosis and necrosis, the potential involvement of Drp1 in cancer development has not been fully addressed. To explore the role of Drp1 in cancer, we examined Drp1 levels in various human cancer tissues. Tissue array analysis showed that the level of Drp1 was decreased significantly in malignant colon and lung cancer tissues, whereas no change in Drp1 was observed in breast and prostate tumors...
January 10, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328724/origins-of-singlet-fission-in-solid-pentacene-from-an-ab%C3%A2-initio-green-s-function-approach
#6
Sivan Refaely-Abramson, Felipe H da Jornada, Steven G Louie, Jeffrey B Neaton
We develop a new first-principles approach to predict and understand rates of singlet fission with an ab initio Green's-function formalism based on many-body perturbation theory. Starting with singlet and triplet excitons computed from a GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation approach, we calculate the exciton-biexciton coupling to lowest order in the Coulomb interaction, assuming a final state consisting of two noninteracting spin-correlated triplets with finite center-of-mass momentum. For crystalline pentacene, symmetries dictate that the only purely Coulombic fission decay process from a bright singlet state requires a final state consisting of two inequivalent nearly degenerate triplets of nonzero, equal and opposite, center-of-mass momenta...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323762/pentacene-dimers-as-a-critical-tool-for-the-investigation-of-intramolecular-singlet-fission
#7
Constantin Hetzer, Dirk Guldi, Rik R Tykwinski
Singlet fission (SF) involves the spontaneous splitting of a photoexcited singlet state into a pair of triplets, and it holds great promise toward the realization of more efficient solar cells. Although the process of SF has been known since the 1960s, debate regarding the underlying mechanism continues to this day, especially for molecular materials. A number of different chromophores have been synthesized and studied in order to better understand the process of SF. These previous reports have established that pentacene and its derivatives are especially well suited for the study of SF, since the energetic requirement E(S1) ≥ 2E(T1) is fulfilled rendering the process exothermic and unidirectional...
January 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323270/two-three-strand-intermediates-are-processed-during-rad51-driven-dna-strand-exchange
#8
Kentaro Ito, Yasuto Murayama, Masayuki Takahashi, Hiroshi Iwasaki
During homologous recombination, Rad51 forms a nucleoprotein filament with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that undergoes strand exchange with homologous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Here, we use real-time analysis to show that strand exchange by fission yeast Rad51 proceeds via two distinct three-strand intermediates, C1 and C2. Both intermediates contain Rad51, but whereas the donor duplex remains intact in C1, the ssDNA strand is intertwined with the complementary strand of the donor duplex in C2. Swi5-Sfr1, an evolutionarily conserved recombination activator, facilitates the C1-C2 transition and subsequent ssDNA release from C2 to complete strand exchange in an ATP-hydrolysis-dependent manner...
January 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323185/biogenesis-of-podosome-rosettes-through-fission
#9
Szu-Lin Kuo, Chien-Lin Chen, Yi-Ru Pan, Wen-Tai Chiu, Hong-Chen Chen
Podosomes are dynamic actin-based membrane protrusions that are important for extracellular matrix degradation and invasive cell motility. Individual podosomes are often found to organize into large rosette-like structures in some types of cells, such as osteoclasts, endothelial cells, Src-transformed fibroblasts, and certain highly invasive cancer cells. In this study, we show that new podosome rosettes arise through one of two mechanisms; de novo assembly or fission of a pre-existing podosome rosette in Src-transformed fibroblasts...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322557/veni-vidi-vici-the-success-of-wtf-meiotic-drivers-in-fission-yeast
#10
José Fabricio López Hernández, Sarah E Zanders
Meiotic drivers are selfish DNA loci that can bias their own transmission into gametes. Due to their transmission advantages, meiotic drivers can spread in populations even if the drivers or linked variants decrease organismal fitness. Meiotic drive was first formally described in the 1950s and is thought to be a powerful force shaping eukaryotic genomes. Classic genetic analyses have detected the action of meiotic drivers in plants, filamentous fungi, insects, and vertebrates. Several of these drive systems have limited experimental tractability and relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms of meiotic drive...
January 11, 2018: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322298/a-new-microsporidium-fibrillaspora-daphniae-g-n-sp-n-infecting-daphnia-magna-crustacea-cladocera-in-siberia-and-its-taxonomic-placing-within-a-new-family-fibrillasporidae-and-new-superfamily-tubulinosematoidea-opisthosporidia-microsporidia
#11
Anastasia V Simakova, Yuri S Tokarev, Irma V Issi
Infection with a new microsporidium, Fibrillaspora daphniae g. n. sp. n., was found in a local Daphnia magna population in Tomsk region (Western Siberia, Russia) at the prevalence rate of 52%. Histological sections showed parasite cells entirely encompassing the host haemocoel. Methanol-fixed spores were elongate, oval, 4.8 ± 0.3 μm × 2.3 ± 0.2 μm in size. All developmental stages were in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm, with single nuclei, and division by binary fission. The sporont surface was covered with an additional outer layer composed of fine tubules...
January 10, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322012/inhibition-of-aqueous-extracts-of-solanum-nigrum-aesn-on-oral-cancer-through-regulation-of-mitochondrial-fission
#12
Wu-Ching Uen, Bao-Hong Lee, Yeu-Ching Shi, She-Ching Wu, Chen-Jei Tai, Cheng-Jeng Tai
The present study is designed to investigate the anti-oral cancer properties of Solanum nigrum on oral squamous cell carcinoma. S. nigrum is a Chinese herb used for suppression of various cancers. However, the inhibition of S. nigrum on oral cancer is unclear. Therefore, human oral squamous cancer cells (SCC)-4 were used to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of S. nigrum (AESN) on cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle, mitochondrial function and apoptosis. The SCC-4 cells were treated by AESN to evaluate the inhibition of cell proliferation and mitochondrial function in vitro...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321664/mitochondrial-fission-and-mitophagy-depend-on-cofilin-mediated-actin-depolymerization-activity-at-the-mitochondrial-fission-site
#13
Guo-Bing Li, Hong-Wei Zhang, Ruo-Qiu Fu, Xiao-Ye Hu, Lei Liu, Yu-Nong Li, Yan-Xia Liu, Xin Liu, Jin-Jiao Hu, Qin Deng, Qing-Song Luo, Rong Zhang, Ning Gao
Mitochondria fission and mitophagy are fundamentally crucial to cellular physiology and play important roles in cancer progression. Developing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial fission and mitophagy will provide novel strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. Actin has been shown to participate in mitochondrial fission and mitophagy regulation. Cofilin is best known as an actin-depolymerizing factor. However, the molecular mechanism by which cofilin regulates mitochondrial fission and mitophagy remains largely unknown...
January 11, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321618/uncoupled-mitochondria-quickly-shorten-along-their-long-axis-to-form-indented-spheroids-instead-of-rings-in-a-fission-independent-manner
#14
Yoshihiro Miyazono, Shingo Hirashima, Naotada Ishihara, Jingo Kusukawa, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura, Keisuke Ohta
Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) triggers dramatic structural changes in mitochondria from a tubular to globular shape, referred to as mitochondrial fragmentation; the resulting globular mitochondria are called swelled or ring/doughnut mitochondria. We evaluated the early period of structural changes during the ΔΨm loss-induced transformation after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine (CCCP) administration using a newly developed correlative microscopic method combined with fluorescence microscopic live imaging and volume electron microscopy...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321594/estimating-the-capacity-for-production-of-formamide-by-radioactive-minerals-on-the-prebiotic-earth
#15
Zachary R Adam, Yayoi Hongo, H James Cleaves, Ruiqin Yi, Albert C Fahrenbach, Isao Yoda, Masashi Aono
Water creates special problems for prebiotic chemistry, as it is thermodynamically favorable for amide and phosphodiester bonds to hydrolyze. The availability of alternative solvents with more favorable properties for the formation of prebiotic molecules on the early Earth may have helped bypass this so-called "water paradox". Formamide (FA) is one such solvent, and can serve as a nucleobase precursor, but it is difficult to envision how FA could have been generated in large quantities or accumulated in terrestrial surface environments...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321534/mitochondrial-network-complexity-emerges-from-fission-fusion-dynamics
#16
Nahuel Zamponi, Emiliano Zamponi, Sergio A Cannas, Orlando V Billoni, Pablo R Helguera, Dante R Chialvo
Mitochondrial networks exhibit a variety of complex behaviors, including coordinated cell-wide oscillations of energy states as well as a phase transition (depolarization) in response to oxidative stress. Since functional and structural properties are often interwinded, here we characterized the structure of mitochondrial networks in mouse embryonic fibroblasts using network tools and percolation theory. Subsequently we perturbed the system either by promoting the fusion of mitochondrial segments or by inducing mitochondrial fission...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321167/construction-of-designer-selectable-marker-deletions-with-crispr-cas9-toolbox-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-and-optimized-design-of-common-entry-vectors
#17
Yu Zhao, Jef D Boeke
Vectors encoding selectable markers have been widely used in yeast to maintain or express exogenous DNA fragments. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, several engineered markers have been reported and widely used, such as ura4+ and ScLEU2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which complement ura4 and leu1 mutations, respectively. These two auxotrophic markers share no homology with the Sch. pombe genome, however most others can recombine with the genomic due to sequence homology shared between the genomic and plasmid-born copies of the markers...
January 10, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319164/microvesicles-intercellular-messengers-in-cutaneous-wound-healing
#18
REVIEW
Alexandra Laberge, Syrine Arif, Véronique J Moulin
Longtime considered as inert cellular debris, microvesicles (MVs) have gained tremendous attention in the past decade. MVs are 100-1000 nm vesicles released into the extracellular environment by the outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane. They are now regarded as essential mediators of cell-to-cell interactions in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we discuss the increasingly recognized contribution of MVs to the biology of wound healing. We highlight current concepts relating to the biogenesis and mode of action of MVs...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316789/super-resolution-monitoring-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-upon-time-gated-photo-triggered-release-of-nitric-oxide
#19
Haihong He, Zhiwei Ye, Yi Xiao, Wei Yang, Xuhong Qian, Youjun Yang
Nitric oxide (NO) potentially plays a regulatory role in mitochondrial fusion and fission, which are vital to cell survival and implicated in health, disease and ageing. Molecular tools facilitating study of the interrelationship between NO and mito-chondrial dynamics are in need. We have recently developed a novel NO donor (NOD550). Upon photo-activation, NOD550 decomposes to release two NO molecules and a fluorophore. The NO release could be spatially mapped with sub-diffraction resolution and with a temporal resolution of 10 s...
January 10, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316654/exercise-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-keeping-in-shape-with-ros-and-ampk
#20
REVIEW
Adam J Trewin, Brandon J Berry, Andrew P Wojtovich
Exercise is a robust stimulus for mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle which consequently plays a central role in enhancing metabolic health. Despite this, the precise molecular events that underpin these beneficial effects remain elusive. In this review, we discuss molecular signals generated during exercise leading to altered mitochondrial morphology and dynamics. In particular, we focus on the interdependence between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox homeostasis, the sensing of cellular bioenergetic status via 5' adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and the regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion...
January 6, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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