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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775559/mechanosensitivity-of-mitochondr-ial-large-conductance-calcium-activated-potassium-channels
#1
Agnieszka Walewska, Bogusz Kulawiak, Adam Szewczyk, Piotr Koprowski
Potassium channels have been discovered in the inner mitochondrial membrane of various cells. These channels can regulate the mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix volume, respiration and reactive species generation. Therefore, it is believed that their activation is cytoprotective in various tissues. In our study, the single-channel activity of a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (mitoBKCa ) was measured by the patch-clamp technique on mitoplasts derived from mitochondria isolated from human glioma U-87 MG cells...
May 15, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774507/ap180-n-terminal-homology-anth-and-epsin-n-terminal-homology-enth-domains-physiological-functions-and-involvement-in-disease
#2
Sho Takatori, Taisuke Tomita
The AP180 N-terminal homology (ANTH) and Epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domains are crucially involved in membrane budding processes. All the ANTH/ENTH-containing proteins share the phosphoinositide-binding activity and can interact with clathrin or its related proteins via multiple binding motifs. Their function also include promotion of clathrin assembly, induction of membrane curvature, and recruitment of various effector proteins, such as those involved in membrane fission. Furthermore, they play a role in the sorting of specific cargo proteins, thereby enabling the cargos to be accurately transported and function at their appropriate locations...
May 18, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774347/effect-of-humic-acid-bacterial-exudates-on-sorption-desorption-interactions-of-90-sr-with-brucite
#3
Hollie Ashworth, Liam Abrahamsen-Mills, Nick Bryan, Lynn Foster, Jonathan R Lloyd, Simon Kellet, Sarah Heath
One of the nuclear fuel storage ponds at Sellafield (United Kingdom) is open to the air, and has contained a significant inventory of corroded magnox fuel and sludge for several decades. As a result, some fission products have also been released into solution. 90Sr is known to constitute a small mass of the radionuclides present in the pond, but due to its solubility and activity, it is at risk of challenging effluent discharge limits. The sludge is predominantly composed of brucite (Mg(OH)2), and organic molecules are known to be present in the pond liquor with occasional algal blooms restricting visibility...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774234/the-fission-yeast-stn1-ten1-complex-limits-telomerase-activity-via-its-sumo-interacting-motif-and-promotes-telomeres-replication
#4
Samah Matmati, Mélina Vaurs, José M Escandell, Laetitia Maestroni, Toru M Nakamura, Miguel G Ferreira, Vincent Géli, Stéphane Coulon
Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) complex fulfills numerous functions including rescue of the stalled replication forks and termination of telomerase action. In fission yeast lacking the CTC1 ortholog, the Stn1-Ten1 complex restricts telomerase action via its sumoylation-mediated interaction with Tpz1TPP1 . We identify a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-interacting motif (SIM) in the carboxyl-terminal part of Stn1 and show that this domain is crucial for SUMO and Tpz1-SUMO interactions. Point mutations in the SIM (Stn1-226) lead to telomere elongation, impair Stn1-Ten1 recruitment to telomeres, and enhance telomerase binding, revealing that Stn1 SIM domain contributes to the inhibition of telomerase activity at chromosome ends...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772718/ectromelia-virus-affects-mitochondrial-network-morphology-distribution-and-physiology-in-murine-fibroblasts-and-macrophage-cell-line
#5
Karolina P Gregorczyk, Zbigniew Wyżewski, Joanna Szczepanowska, Felix N Toka, Matylda B Mielcarska, Magdalena Bossowska-Nowicka, Małgorzata Gieryńska, Anna Boratyńska-Jasińska, Justyna Struzik, Marek G Niemiałtowski, Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska
Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that participate in numerous processes in response to viral infection, but they are also a target for viruses. The aim of this study was to define subcellular events leading to alterations in mitochondrial morphology and function during infection with ectromelia virus (ECTV). We used two different cell lines and a combination of immunofluorescence techniques, confocal and electron microscopy, and flow cytometry to address subcellular changes following infection. Early in infection of L929 fibroblasts and RAW 264...
May 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770351/a-microfluidic-device-for-massively-parallel-whole-lifespan-imaging-of-single-fission-yeast-cells
#6
Stephen K Jones, Eric C Spivey, James R Rybarski, Ilya J Finkelstein
Whole-lifespan single-cell analysis has greatly increased our understanding of fundamental cellular processes such as cellular aging. To observe individual cells across their entire lifespan, all progeny must be removed from the growth medium, typically via manual microdissection. However, manual microdissection is laborious, low-throughput, and incompatible with fluorescence microscopy. Here, we describe assembly and operation of the multiplexed-Fission Yeast Lifespan Microdissector (multFYLM), a high-throughput microfluidic device for rapidly acquiring single-cell whole-lifespan imaging...
April 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769312/the-chloroplast-division-protein-arc6-acts-to-inhibit-disassembly-of-gdp-bound-ftsz2
#7
Min Woo Sung, Rahamthulla Shaik, Allan D TerBush, Katherine W Osteryoung, Stanislav Vitha, Andreas Holzenburg
Chloroplasts host photosynthesis and fulfill other metabolic functions that are essential to plant life. They have to divide by binary fission to maintain their numbers throughout cycles of cell division. Chloroplast division is achieved by a complex ring-shaped division machinery located on both the inner (stromal) and the outer (cytosolic) side of the chloroplast envelope. The inner division ring (termed the Z ring) is formed by the assembly of tubulin-like FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 proteins. ARC6 is a key chloroplast division protein that interacts with the Z ring...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768513/increased-mitochondrial-fission-is-critical-for-hypoxia-induced-pancreatic-beta-cell-death
#8
Da Zhang, Yanfang Liu, Yao Tang, Xiaofeng Wang, Zhichao Li, Rui Li, Zhenyu Ti, Weidong Gao, Jigang Bai, Yi Lv
Hypoxia-mediated pancreatic beta cell death is one of the main causes of pancreatic beta celldeath, which leads to the loss of functional pancreatic beta cell mass and type 1 diabetes andtype 2 diabetes.However, the molecular mechanisms that control life and death of pancreatic beta cells remain poorly understood. Here we showed that mitochondrial fission was strongly induced in pancreatic beta cellsmainly due to an elevation of DRP1S616 phosphorylation through HIF-1αactivation and subsequent DRP1 mitochondrial translocation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768044/cocl2-induces-apoptosis-via-ros-dependent-pathway-and-drp1-mediated-mitochondria-fission-in-the-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells
#9
Yuting He, Xueqi Gan, Ling Zhang, Beilei Liu, Zhuoli Zhu, Tao Li, Junfei Zhu, Junsheng Chen, Haiyang Yu
Oxygen deficiency is associated with various oral diseases, including chronic periodontitis, age-related alveolar bone loss and mechanical stress-linked cell injury from orthodontic appliances. Nevertheless, our understanding of the impact of hypoxia on periodontal tissues and its biochemical mechanism is still rudimentary. The purpose of this research was to elucidate the effects of hypoxia on the apoptosis of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in vitro and the underlying mechanism. Herein, we showed that CoCl2 triggered cell dysfunction in human PDLSCs in a concentration-dependent manner and resulted in cell apoptosis and oxidative stress overproduction and accumulation in PDLSCs...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764134/on-the-possibility-of-singlet-fission-in-crystalline-quaterrylene
#10
Xiaopeng Wang, Xingyu Liu, Cameron Cook, Bohdan Schatschneider, Noa Marom
Singlet fission (SF), the spontaneous down-conversion of a singlet exciton into two triplet excitons residing on neighboring molecules, is a promising route to improve organic photovoltaic (OPV) device efficiencies by harvesting two charge carriers from one photon. However, only a few materials have been discovered that exhibit intermolecular SF in the solid state, most of which are acene derivatives. Recently, there has been a growing interest in rylenes as potential SF materials. We use many-body perturbation theory in the GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation to investigate the possibility of intermolecular SF in crystalline perylene and quaterrylene...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763325/identifying-bn-2-pyrenes-as-a-new-class-of-singlet-fission-chromophores-significance-of-azaborine-substitution
#11
Tao Zeng, Soren K Mellerup, Deng-Tao Yang, Xiang Wang, Suning Wang, Kevin G Stamplecoskie
Singlet fission converts one photoexcited singlet state to two triplet excited states and raises photoelectric conversion efficiency in photovoltaic devices. However, only a handful of chromophores have been known to undergo this process, which greatly limits the application of singlet fission in photovoltaics. We hereby identify a recently synthesized diazadiborine-pyrene ((BN)2 -pyrene) as a singlet fission chromophore. Theoretical calculations indicate that it satisfies the thermodynamics criteria for singlet fission...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761456/pombase-the-scientific-resource-for-fission-yeast
#12
Antonia Lock, Kim Rutherford, Midori A Harris, Valerie Wood
The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has become well established as a model species for studying conserved cell-level biological processes, especially the mechanics and regulation of cell division. PomBase integrates the S. pombe genome sequence with traditional genetic, molecular, and cell biological experimental data as well as the growing body of large datasets generated by emerging high-throughput methods. This chapter provides insight into the curation philosophy and data organization at PomBase, and provides a guide to using PomBase for infrequent visitors and anyone considering exploring S...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760744/mst1-regulates-post-infarction-cardiac-injury-through-the-jnk-drp1-mitochondrial-fission-pathway
#13
Xisong Wang, Qing Song
Background: Post-infarction cardiac injury is closely associated with cardiac remodeling and heart dysfunction. Mammalian STE20-like kinase 1 (Mst1), a regulator of cellular apoptosis, is involved in cardiac remodeling in post-infarction heart, but the mechanisms remain poorly defined. We aimed to explore the role of Mst1 in regulating chronic post-infarction cardiac injury, with a focus on mitochondrial homoeostasis. Methods: Wild-type (WT) and Mst1-knockout mice were as the cardiac myocardial infarction model...
2018: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760122/perturbations-in-mitochondrial-dynamics-by-p66shc-lead-to-renal-tubular-oxidative-injury-in-human-diabetic-nephropathy
#14
Ming Zhan, Irtaza Usman, Jingbo Yu, Liemin Ruan, Xueyan Bian, Jun Yang, Shikun Yang, Lin Sun, Yashpal S Kanwar
Renal tubular injury is increasingly being recognized as an early characteristic of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Mitochondrial dynamic alterations and redox protein p66Shc-mediated oxidative stress are both critical for ensuing diabetic tubular cell injury and apoptosis; whether these two processes are interlinked remains unclear. In this study, we observed changes in mitochondrial morphology and expression of associated proteins in tubules of patients with DN. We demonstrated mitochondrial fragmentation as an important pathogenic feature of tubular cell injury that is linked to oxidative stress and p66Shc up-regulation...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759255/rapid-separation-of-zirconium-using-microvolume-anion-exchange-cartridge-for-93-zr-determination-with-isotope-dilution-icp-ms
#15
Shiho Asai, Yukiko Hanzawa, Miki Konda, Daisuke Suzuki, Masaaki Magara, Takaumi Kimura, Ryo Ishihara, Kyoichi Saito, Shinsuke Yamada, Hideyuki Hirota
Estimating the risks associated with radiation from long-lived fission products (LLFP) in radioactive waste is essential to ensure the long-term safety of potential disposal sites. In this study, the amount of 93 Zr, a LLFP, was determined by ICP-MS after separating Zr from a spent nuclear fuel solution using a microvolume anion-exchange cartridge (TEDA cartridge). Zirconium in 9.4 M HCl was stably retained on the TEDA cartridge and readily eluted with 0.75 mL of a mixed solution of 9.4 M HCl and 0.01 M HF...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759106/stage-specific-feed-intake-restriction-differentially-regulates-placental-traits-and-proteome-of-goats
#16
Qiongxian Yan, Juanzhi Xu, Xiaosong Wu, Dingding Su, Zhiliang Tan
A total of twenty-four healthy twin-bearing Liuyang black goats were allocated to two trials. In Trial 1, twelve goats received either the control diet (CG, n 6, 100 % feed) or restricted diet (RG, n 6, 60 % feed of CG) from gestation days 26 to 65 after synchronisation. In Trial 2, the remaining goats were randomly and equally divided into two treatments: CG and RG from days 95 to 125 of gestation. Placental traits, fetal weight, serum parameters, nitric oxide (NO), angiogenesis gene expression and cotyledon proteome were measured at the end of each trial...
May 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757643/peridinin-torsional-distortion-and-bond-length-alternation-introduce-intramolecular-charge-transfer-and-correlated-triplet-pair-intermediate-excited-states
#17
Elliot J Taffet, Gregory D Scholes
The nature of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and the mechanism of intramolecular singlet fission (SF) in peridinin remain open research questions. Obtaining an understanding of the population evolution from the bright state to dark states following a photoinduced electronic transition is critical. Unambiguously describing this evolution in peridinin, and light-harvesting carotenoids in general, has proven elusive experimentally and computationally. To offer a balanced description of bright- and dark-state electronic structure, we here apply ab initio multireference perturbation theory quantum chemistry-the density matrix renormalization group self-consistent-field (DMRG-SCF) and complete-active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) with second-order N-electron valence perturbation theory (NEVPT2)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757620/separation-of-protactinium-employing-sulfur-based-extraction-chromatographic-resins
#18
Tara Mastren, Benjamin W Stein, T Gannon Parker, Valery Radchenko, Roy Copping, Allison Owens, Lance E Wyant, Mark Brugh, Stosh A Kozimor, F Meiring Nortier, Eva R Birnbaum, Kevin D John, Michael Ernst-Heinrich Fassbender
Protactinium-230 (t1/2 17.4 d) is the parent isotope of 230U (t1/2 20.8 d), a radionuclide of interest for targeted alpha therapy (TAT). Column chromatographic methods have been developed to separate no-carrier-added 230Pa from proton irradiated thorium targets and accompanying fission products. Results reported within demonstrate the use of novel sulfur bearing chromatographic extraction resins for the selective separation of protactinium. The recovery yield of 230Pa was 93 ± 4 % employing a R3P=S type commercially available resin and 88 ± 4 % employing a DGTA (diglycothioamide) containing custom synthesized extraction chromatographic resin...
May 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756934/fission-of-polyanionic-metal-clusters
#19
S König, A Jankowski, G Marx, L Schweikhard, M Wolfram
Size-selected dianionic lead clusters Pb_{n}^{2-}, n=34-56, are stored in a Penning trap and studied with respect to their decay products upon photoexcitation. Contrary to the decay of other dianionic metal clusters, these lead clusters show a variety of decay channels. The mass spectra of the fragments are compared to the corresponding spectra of the monoanionic precursors. This comparison leads to the conclusion that, in the cluster size region below about n=48, the fission reaction Pb_{n}^{2-}→Pb_{n-10}^{-}+Pb_{10}^{-} is the major decay process...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749475/mir-125a-induces-apoptosis-metabolism-disorder-and-migrationimpairment-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells-by-targeting-mfn2-related-mitochondrial-fission
#20
Lichao Pan, Lin Zhou, Weijia Yin, Jia Bai, Rong Liu
Mitochondrial fission is important for the development and progression of pancreatic cancer (PC). However, little is known regarding its role in pancreatic cancer apoptosis, metabolism and migration. In the current study, the mechanism by which mitochondrial fission modifies the biological characteristics of PC was explored. MicroRNA‑125a (miR‑125a) had the ability to inhibit mitochondrial fission and contributed to cellular survival. Suppressed mitochondrial fission led to a reduction in mitochondrial debris, preserved the mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, ablated cytochrome c leakage into the cytoplasm and reduced the pro‑apoptotic protein contents, finally blocking mitochondria related apoptosis pathways...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
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