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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350990/the-putative-drp1-inhibitor-mdivi-1-is-a-reversible-mitochondrial-complex-i-inhibitor-that-modulates-reactive-oxygen-species
#1
Evan A Bordt, Pascaline Clerc, Brian A Roelofs, Andrew J Saladino, László Tretter, Vera Adam-Vizi, Edward Cherok, Ahmed Khalil, Nagendra Yadava, Shealinna X Ge, T Chase Francis, Nolan W Kennedy, Lora K Picton, Tanya Kumar, Sruti Uppuluri, Alexandrea M Miller, Kie Itoh, Mariusz Karbowski, Hiromi Sesaki, R Blake Hill, Brian M Polster
Mitochondrial fission mediated by the GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is an attractive drug target in numerous maladies that range from heart disease to neurodegenerative disorders. The compound mdivi-1 is widely reported to inhibit Drp1-dependent fission, elongate mitochondria, and mitigate brain injury. Here, we show that mdivi-1 reversibly inhibits mitochondrial complex I-dependent O2 consumption and reverse electron transfer-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at concentrations (e...
March 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346359/new-acorane-type-sesquiterpene-from-acorus-calamus-l
#2
Juan Li, Jianping Zhao, Wei Wang, Lin Li, Lan Zhang, Xiao-Fang Zhao, Qing-Ru Liu, Fang Liu, Min Yang, Ikhlas A Khan, Shun-Xiang Li
A new sesquiterpene, named neo-acorane A (1), and two known ones, acoric acid (2) and calamusin D (3), were isolated from a 95% ethanol extract of the rhizome parts of Acorus calamus L. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, and the absolute configurations were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 are nonisoprenoid sesquiterpenoids, likely biosynthesized from an acorane-type sesquiterpene by oxidative fission of the six- or five-membered ring. Moreover, compounds 1 (10 μM), 2 (5 μM and 10 μM) and 3 (10 μM) showed cell proliferation activity on the SK-N-BE (2) cell line...
March 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345120/fission-yeast-srm1-is-involved-in-stress-response-and-cell-cycle
#3
Aslıhan Örs Gevrekci
Polyamines are well-conserved, multifunctional polycations that contribute to a number of processes in the cells such as cell cycle, apoptosis, stress response, and gene expression. Therefore, polyamine levels should be kept under strict regulation by specific polyamine transporters and polyamine synthases. In this study, the aim is to experimentally characterize a predicted spermidine synthase gene srm1, which was identified upon sequence similarity, in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In an attempt to understand the role of this gene in cell cycle and stress response, deletion mutant of srm1 was generated and analyzed in terms of cell cycle regulation and environmental stress response...
March 27, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344377/effect-of-nitrogen-compounds-on-transport-of-ruthenium-through-the-rcs
#4
Ivan Kajan, Teemu Kärkelä, Ari Auvinen, Christian Ekberg
Ruthenium is a fission product that can be released from the fuel in case of a severe nuclear accident. In this work the impact of the atmosphere composition, including air radiolysis products, on the transport of ruthenium through a primary circuit was examined. Experiments were performed at temperatures 1300, 1500 and 1700 K in a slightly humid air. In the experiments significant effect of nitrogen oxides (N2O, NO2) and nitric acid on the ruthenium chemistry in the model primary circuit was observed. The obtained results indicate a strong effect of air radiolysis products on the quantity partitioning of transported ruthenium to gaseous and aerosol compounds...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343969/pds5-regulates-sister-chromatid-cohesion-and-chromosome-bi-orientation-through-a-conserved-protein-interaction-module
#5
Yuhei Goto, Yuya Yamagishi, Miyuki Shintomi-Kawamura, Mayumi Abe, Yuji Tanno, Yoshinori Watanabe
Sister-chromatid cohesion is established by the cohesin complex in S phase and persists until metaphase, when sister chromatids are captured by microtubules emanating from opposite poles [1]. The Aurora-B-containing chromosome passenger complex (CPC) plays a crucial role in achieving chromosome bi-orientation by correcting erroneous microtubule attachment [2]. The centromeric localization of the CPC relies largely on histone H3-T3 phosphorylation (H3-pT3), which is mediated by the mitotic histone kinase Haspin/Hrk1 [3-5]...
March 18, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342806/molecular-regulation-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-cardiac-disease
#6
REVIEW
Jinliang Nan, Wei Zhu, M S Rahman, Mingfei Liu, Dan Li, Shengan Su, Na Zhang, Xinyang Hu, Hong Yu, Mahesh P Gupta, Jian''an Wang
Mitochondrial homeostasis is critical for keeping functional heart in response to metabolic or environmental stresses. Mitochondrial fission and fusion (mitochondrial dynamics) play essential roles in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis, defects in mitochondrial dynamics lead to cardiac diseases such as ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), heart failure and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mitochondrial dynamics is determined by mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins, including OPA1, mitofusins and Drp1. These proteins are tightly regulated by a series of signaling pathways through different aspects such as transcription, post translation modifications (PTMs) and proteasome-dependent protein degradation...
March 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340937/sirtuin-5-protects-mitochondria-from-fragmentation-and-degradation-during-starvation
#7
Hala Guedouari, Tanya Daigle, Luca Scorrano, Etienne Hebert-Chatelain
During starvation, intra-mitochondrial sirtuins, NAD(+) sensitive deacylating enzymes that modulate metabolic homeostasis and survival, directly adjust mitochondrial function to nutrient availability; concomitantly, mitochondria elongate to escape autophagic degradation. However, whether sirtuins also impinge on mitochondrial dynamics is still uncharacterized. Here we show that the mitochondrial Sirtuin 5 (Sirt5) is essential for starvation induced mitochondrial elongation. Deletion of Sirt5 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts increased levels of mitochondrial dynamics of 51kDa protein and mitochondrial fission protein 1, leading to mitochondrial accumulation of the pro-fission dynamin related protein 1 and to mitochondrial fragmentation...
January 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340764/revisiting-the-fission-track-method-for-the-analysis-of-particles-in-safeguards-environmental-samples
#8
N Dzigal, E Chinea-Cano, S Walsh, A Limbeck
This paper details an improved approach to environmental particle analysis for safeguards by means of a combination of an upgraded version of the so-called fission track method with state-of-the-art microscope and microprobe techniques. Improvements to the fission track method comprise a novel sample assembly, the automation of several of its steps and the extensive use of correlative microscopy. This is followed by an automated isolation of particles-of-interest by means of laser micro-dissection (LMD) and their collection onto a harvester for transfer to other micro-analytical instruments for further analysis...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340756/simultaneous-quantification-of-iodine-and-high-valent-metals-via-icp-ms-under-acidic-conditions-in-complex-matrices
#9
Kristina Brix, Christina Hein, Jonas Michael Sander, Ralf Kautenburger
The determination of iodine as a main fission product (especially the isotopes I-129 and I-131) of stored HLW in a disposal beside its distribution as a natural ingredient of many different products like milk, food and seawater is a matter of particular interest. The simultaneous ICP-MS determination of iodine as iodide together with other elements (especially higher valent metal ions) relevant for HLW is analytically very problematic. A reliable ICP-MS quantification of iodide must be performed at neutral or alkaline conditions in contrast to the analysis of metal ions which are determined in acidic pH ranges...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338873/molecular-dissection-of-the-actin-binding-ability-of-the-fission-yeast-%C3%AE-actinin-ain1-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Rikuri Morita, Masak Takaine, Osamu Numata, Kentaro Nakano
A contractile ring (CR) is involved in cytokinesis in animal and yeast cells. Although several types of actin-bundling proteins associate with F-actin in the CR, their individual roles in the CR have not yet been elucidated in detail. Ain1 is the sole α-actinin homologue in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and specifically localizes to the CR with a high turnover rate. S. pombe cells lacking the ain1+ gene show defects in cytokinesis under stress conditions. We herein investigated the biochemical activity and cellular localization mechanisms of Ain1...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338681/dynamics-of-the-triplet-pair-state-reveals-the-likely-coexistence-of-coherent-and-incoherent-singlet-fission-in-crystalline-hexacene
#11
Nicholas R Monahan, Dezheng Sun, Hiroyuki Tamura, Kristopher W Williams, Bolei Xu, Yu Zhong, Bharat Kumar, Colin Nuckolls, Avetik R Harutyunyan, Gugang Chen, Hai-Lung Dai, David Beljonne, Yi Rao, X-Y Zhu
The absorption of a photon usually creates a singlet exciton (S1) in molecular systems, but in some cases S1 may split into two triplets (2×T1) in a process called singlet fission. Singlet fission is believed to proceed through the correlated triplet-pair (1)(TT) state. Here, we probe the (1)(TT) state in crystalline hexacene using time-resolved photoemission and transient absorption spectroscopies. We find a distinctive (1)(TT) state, which decays to 2×T1 with a time constant of 270 fs. However, the decay of S1 and the formation of (1)(TT) occur on different timescales of 180 fs and <50 fs, respectively...
April 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338148/extraction-of-minor-actinides-lanthanides-and-other-fission-products-by-silica-immobilized-btbp-btphen-ligands
#12
Ashfaq Afsar, Petr Distler, Laurence M Harwood, Jan John, James Westwood
Novel BTBP [bis-(1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine]/BTPhen [bis-(1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-1,10-phenanthroline] functionalized silica gels have been developed to extract minor actinides, lanthanides and other fission products. BTPhen functionalized silica gel is capable of near-quantitative removal of Am(iii) in the presence of Eu(iii) from aqueous HNO3, while BTBP functionalized silica gel is able to remove problematic corrosion and fission products that are found in PUREX raffinates.
March 24, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336913/fission-fusion-dynamics-over-large-distances-in-raven-non-breeders
#13
Matthias-Claudio Loretto, Richard Schuster, Christian Itty, Pascal Marchand, Fulvio Genero, Thomas Bugnyar
The influence of fission-fusion dynamics, i.e., temporal variation in group size and composition, on social complexity has been studied in large-brained mammals that rely on social bonds. Little is known about birds, even though some species like ravens have recently received attention for their socio-cognitive skills and use of social bonds. While raven breeders defend territories year-round, non-breeders roam through large areas and form groups at food sources or night roosts. We here examined the fission-fusion patterns of non-breeding ravens over years, investigating whether birds meet repeatedly either at the same or at different locations...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336315/cardiolipin-and-mitochondrial-cristae-organization
#14
REVIEW
Nikita Ikon, Robert O Ryan
A fundamental question in cell biology, under investigation for over six decades, is the structural organization of mitochondrial cristae. Long known to harbor electron transport chain proteins, crista membrane integrity is key to establishment of the proton gradient that drives oxidative phosphorylation. Visualization of cristae morphology by electron microscopy / tomography has provided evidence that cristae are tube-like extensions of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) that project into the matrix space...
March 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334955/the-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-ppr-protein-ppr10-associates-with-a-novel-protein-mpa1-and-acts-as-a-mitochondrial-translational-activator
#15
Yirong Wang, Jianhua Yan, Qingzhen Zhang, Xuting Ma, Juan Zhang, Minghui Su, Xiaojun Wang, Ying Huang
The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins characterized by tandem repeats of a degenerate 35-amino-acid motif function in all aspects of organellar RNA metabolism, many of which are essential for organellar gene expression. In this study, we report the characterization of a fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe PPR protein, Ppr10 and a novel Ppr10-associated protein, designated Mpa1. The ppr10 deletion mutant exhibits growth defects in respiratory media, and is dramatically impaired for viability during the late-stationary phase...
February 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334931/rgf1p-rho1p-gef-is-required-for-double-strand-break-repair-in-fission-yeast
#16
Elvira Manjón, Tomás Edreira, Sofía Muñoz, Yolanda Sánchez
Rho GTPases are conserved molecules that control cytoskeletal dynamics. These functions are expedited by Rho GEFs that stimulate the release of GDP to enable GTP binding, thereby allowing Rho proteins to initiate intracellular signaling. How Rho GEFs and Rho GTPases protect cells from DNA damage is unknown. Here, we explore the extreme sensitivity of a deletion mutation in the Rho1p exchange factor Rgf1p to the DNA break/inducing antibiotic phleomycin (Phl). The Rgf1p mutant cells are defective in reentry into the cell cycle following the induction of severe DNA damage...
March 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334526/an-unusual-non-emissive-behavior-of-rubrene-j-aggregates-a-rare-violation
#17
Nikhil Aggarwal, Archita Patnaik
Structure - property correlations in Rubrene (RB) colloidal J-aggregates were unravelled by steady state and time resolved spectroscopy in conjunction with excited state density functional calculations. The RB J-aggregate with a slippage angle θ = 30.4(0), estimated from the monomeric transition dipole moment directions, exhibited a broad FWHM of 1073 cm(-1) and a 5 nm red shifted absorption band carrying a transition dipole moment (M ⃗_(λagg )= 1.80 D) almost equivalent to the monomeric dye (M ⃗_(λmon )=1...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330939/chlamydia-preserves-the-mitochondrial-network-necessary-for-replication-via-microrna-dependent-inhibition-of-fission
#18
Suvagata Roy Chowdhury, Anastasija Reimer, Malvika Sharan, Vera Kozjak-Pavlovic, Ana Eulalio, Bhupesh K Prusty, Martin Fraunholz, Karthika Karunakaran, Thomas Rudel
Obligate intracellular bacteria such as Chlamydia trachomatis depend on metabolites of the host cell and thus protect their sole replication niche by interfering with the host cells' stress response. Here, we investigated the involvement of host microRNAs (miRNAs) in maintaining the viability of C. trachomatis-infected primary human cells. We identified miR-30c-5p as a prominently up-regulated miRNA required for the stable down-regulation of p53, a major suppressor of metabolite supply in C. trachomatis-infected cells...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330934/fundamental-mechanisms-of-telomerase-action-in-yeasts-and-mammals-understanding-telomeres-and-telomerase-in-cancer-cells
#19
REVIEW
Christine A Armstrong, Kazunori Tomita
Aberrant activation of telomerase occurs in 85-90% of all cancers and underpins the ability of cancer cells to bypass their proliferative limit, rendering them immortal. The activity of telomerase is tightly controlled at multiple levels, from transcriptional regulation of the telomerase components to holoenzyme biogenesis and recruitment to the telomere, and finally activation and processivity. However, studies using cancer cell lines and other model systems have begun to reveal features of telomeres and telomerase that are unique to cancer...
March 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329914/ginsenoside-rg3-restores-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-aberrant-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-inhibits-virus-propagation
#20
Seong-Jun Kim, Jae Young Jang, Eun-Jung Kim, Eun Kyung Cho, Dae Gyun Ahn, Chonsaeng Kim, Han Seul Park, Soung Won Jeong, Sae Hwan Lee, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim, Hong Soo Kim, Boo Sung Kim, Ji-Hyung Lee, Aleem Siddiqui
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) alters mitochondrial dynamics associated with persistent viral infection and suppression of innate immunity. Mitochondrial dysfunction is also a pathologic feature of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment. Despite the high efficacy of DAAs, their treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C in interferon-sparing regimens occasionally produces undesirable side effects such as fatigue, migraine and other conditions, which may be linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we show that clinically prescribed DAAs, including Sofosbuvir, affect mitochondrial dynamics...
March 22, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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