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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918113/regulation-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-by-the-non-canonical-roles-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-proteins-in-the-heart
#1
REVIEW
Wang Wang, Celia Fernandez-Sanz, Shey-Shing Sheu
Recent advancement in mitochondrial research has significantly extended our knowledge on the role and regulation of mitochondria in health and disease. One important breakthrough is the delineation of how mitochondrial morphological changes, termed mitochondrial dynamics, are coupled to the bioenergetics and signaling functions of mitochondria. In general, it is believed that fusion leads to an increased mitochondrial respiration efficiency and resistance to stress-induced dysfunction while fission does the contrary...
September 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917636/parallel-approach-on-sorting-of-genes-in-search-of-optimal-solution
#2
Pranav Kumar, G Sahoo
An important tool for comparing genome analysis is the rearrangement event that can transform one given genome into other. For finding minimum sequence of fission and fusion, we have proposed here an algorithm and have shown a transformation example for converting the source genome into the target genome. The proposed algorithm comprises of circular sequence i.e. "cycle graph" in place of mapping. The main concept of algorithm is based on optimal result of permutation. These sorting processes are performed in constant running time by showing permutation in the form of cycle...
September 13, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916539/comparative-analysis-of-alternative-polyadenylation-in-s-cerevisiae-and-s-pombe
#3
Xiaochuan Liu, Mainul Hoque, Marc Larochelle, Jean-François Lemay, Nathan Yurko, James L Manley, François Bachand, Bin Tian
Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a widespread mechanism that generates mRNA isoforms with distinct properties. Here we have systematically mapped and compared cleavage and polyadenylation sites (PASs) in two yeast species, S. cerevisiae and S. pombe Although >80% of the mRNA genes in each species were found to display APA, S. pombe showed greater 3' UTR size differences among APA isoforms than did S. cerevisiae PASs in different locations of gene are surrounded with distinct sequences in both species and are often associated with motifs involved in the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 termination pathway...
September 15, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915614/mitochondrial-protein-18-mtp18-plays-a-pro-apoptotic-role-in-chemotherapy-induced-gastric-cancer-cell-apoptosis
#4
Lynn H H Aung, Ruibei Li, Bellur S Prabhakar, Ajay V Maker, Peifeng Li
One of the severe limitations of chemotherapy is the development of drug resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying chemotherapy resistance remain to be elucidated. Mitochondrial mediated apoptosis is a form of cell death induced by chemotherapy. Several chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce mitochondrial fission, and finally activate the apoptosis cascade in various cancer cells. Here, we report that the mitochondrial membrane protein 18 (MTP18) induced mitochondrial fragmentation in gastric cancer cells under doxorubicin (DOX) exposure...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915329/mitophagy-as-a-protective-mechanism-against-myocardial-stress
#5
Jihoon Nah, Shigeki Miyamoto, Junichi Sadoshima
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that can undergo fusion, fission, biogenesis, and autophagic elimination to maintain mitochondrial quality control. Since the heart is in constant need of high amounts of energy, mitochondria, as a central energy supply source, play a crucial role in maintaining optimal cardiac performance. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the pathophysiology of heart diseases. In non-dividing, post-mitotic cells such as cardiomyocytes, elimination of dysfunctional organelles is essential to maintaining cellular function because non-dividing cells cannot dilute dysfunctional organelles through cell division...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915047/two-photon-absorption-in-pentacene-dimers-the-importance-of-the-tether-using-upconversion-as-an-indirect-route-to-singlet-fission
#6
Eleonora Garoni, Johannes Zirzlmeier, Bettina S Basel, Constantin Hetzer, Kenji Kamada, Dirk M Guldi, Rik R Tykwinski
In this proof of concept study, we show that intramolecular singlet fission (iSF) can be initiated from a singlet excited state accessed by two-photon absorption, rather than through a tradition route of direct one-photon excitation (OPE). Thus, iSF in pentacene dimers 2 and 3 is enabled through NIR irradiation at 775 nm, a wavelength where neither dimer exhibits linear absorption of light. The meta-phenylene and adamantyl tethers 2 and 3, respectively, are designed to feature superimposable geometry, which establishes that the electronic coupling between the two pentacenes is the significant structural feature that dictates iSF efficiency...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913665/role-of-noncoding-rnas-in-regulation-of-cardiac-cell-death-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Yanhan Dong, Cuiyun Liu, Yanfang Zhao, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Peifeng Li, Kun Wang
Loss of functional cardiomyocytes is a major underlying mechanism for myocardial remodeling and heart diseases, due to the limited regenerative capacity of adult myocardium. Apoptosis, programmed necrosis, and autophagy contribute to loss of cardiac myocytes that control the balance of cardiac cell death and cell survival through multiple intricate signaling pathways. In recent years, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have received much attention to uncover their roles in cell death of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure...
September 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913346/live-fast-die-fast-principle-in-a-single-cell-of-fission-yeast
#8
COMMENT
Hidenori Nakaoka
Growth and death are both fundamental macroscopic properties for all living matters, and thus cell division and mortality rates are good parameters for characterizing cellular physiology in a given environment. While population growth rates in various conditions have been reported in literature, death rate is rarely measured, especially in favorable culture conditions where cells grow exponentially. In our recent study (Nakaoka and Wakamoto, 2017), we developed a microfluidics-based platform to track multiple single cell lineages until death...
August 13, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910503/triplet-harvesting-from-intramolecular-singlet-fission-in-polytetracene
#9
Andrew B Pun, Samuel N Sanders, Elango Kumarasamy, Matthew Y Sfeir, Daniel N Congreve, Luis M Campos
Singlet fission (SF), a promising mechanism of multiple exciton generation, has only recently been engineered as a fast, efficient, intramolecular process (iSF). The challenge now lies in designing and optimizing iSF materials that can be practically applied in high-performance optoelectronic devices. However, most of the reported iSF systems, such as those based on donor-acceptor polymers or pentacene, have low triplet energies, which limits their applications. Tetracene-based materials can overcome significant challenges, as the tetracene triplet state is practically useful, ≈1...
September 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905697/luteolibacter-gellanilyticus-sp-nov-a-gellan-gum-degrading-bacterium-of-the-phylum-verrucomicrobia-isolated-from-miniaturized-diffusion-chambers
#10
Javier Pascual, Marina García-López, Ignacio González, Olga Genilloud
A novel chemo-organoheterotrophic bacterium, strain CB-286403T, was isolated from a Mediterranean forest soil, collected at Sierra de Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Natural Park, Spain, by using the Diffusion Sandwich System, a device with 384 miniature diffusion chambers. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified the isolate as a member of the genus Luteolibacter where the type strains Luteolibacterpohnpeiensis A4T-83T (GenBank acc. no. AB331895), Luteolibacteryonseiensis EBTL01T (JQ319003), Luteolibacterluojiensis DR4-30T (JN630810) and Luteolibacteralgae A5J-41-2T (AB331893) were the closest relatives with similarities of 97...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904389/high-wettability-of-liquid-caesium-iodine-with-solid-uranium-dioxide
#11
Ken Kurosaki, Masanori Suzuki, Masayoshi Uno, Hiroto Ishii, Masaya Kumagai, Keito Anada, Yukihiro Murakami, Yuji Ohishi, Hiroaki Muta, Toshihiro Tanaka, Shinsuke Yamanaka
In March 2011, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident caused nuclear fuel to melt and the release of high-volatility fission products into the environment. Caesium and iodine caused environmental contamination and public exposure. Certain fission-product behaviours remain unclear. We found experimentally that liquid CsI disperses extremely favourably toward solid UO2, exhibiting a contact angle approaching zero. We further observed the presence of CsI several tens of micrometres below the surface of the solid UO2 sample, which would be caused by the infiltration of pores network by liquid CsI...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904333/the-ino80-complex-mediates-epigenetic-centromere-propagation-via-active-removal-of-histone-h3
#12
Eun Shik Choi, Youngseo Cheon, Keunsoo Kang, Daeyoup Lee
The centromere is the chromosomal locus at which the kinetochore is assembled to direct chromosome segregation. The histone H3 variant, centromere protein A (CENP-A), is known to epigenetically mark active centromeres, but the mechanism by which CENP-A propagates at the centromere, replacing histone H3, remains poorly understood. Using fission yeast, here we show that the Ino80 adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, which removes histone H3-containing nucleosomes from associated chromatin, promotes CENP-A(Cnp1) chromatin assembly at the centromere in a redundant manner with another chromatin-remodeling factor Chd1(Hrp1)...
September 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903048/set2-methyltransferase-facilitates-dna-replication-and-promotes-genotoxic-stress-responses-through-mbf-dependent-transcription
#13
Chen-Chun Pai, Anastasiya Kishkevich, Rachel S Deegan, Andrea Keszthelyi, Lisa Folkes, Stephen E Kearsey, Nagore De León, Ignacio Soriano, Robertus Antonius Maria de Bruin, Antony M Carr, Timothy C Humphrey
Chromatin modification through histone H3 lysine 36 methylation by the SETD2 tumor suppressor plays a key role in maintaining genome stability. Here, we describe a role for Set2-dependent H3K36 methylation in facilitating DNA replication and the transcriptional responses to both replication stress and DNA damage through promoting MluI cell-cycle box (MCB) binding factor (MBF)-complex-dependent transcription in fission yeast. Set2 loss leads to reduced MBF-dependent ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) expression, reduced deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) synthesis, altered replication origin firing, and a checkpoint-dependent S-phase delay...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902503/correction-to-design-principles-of-electronic-couplings-for-intramolecular-singlet-fission-in-covalently-linked-systems
#14
Soichi Ito, Takanori Nagami, Masayoshi Nakano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900637/beta-transmutations-in-apatites-with-ferric-iron-as-an-electron-acceptor-implication-for-nuclear-waste-form-development
#15
Ge Yao, Zelong Zhang, Jianwei Wang
Apatite-structured materials have been considered for the immobilization of a number of fission products from reprocessing nuclear fuel because of their chemical durability as well as compositional and structural flexibility. It is hypothesized that the effect of beta decay on the stability can be mitigated by introducing an appropriate electron acceptor at the neighboring sites in the structure. The decay series (137)Cs → (137)Ba and (90)Sr → (90)Y → (90)Zr were investigated using a spin-polarized DFT approach to test the hypothesis...
September 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900232/three-novel-structural-phenomena-in-the-cellular-ontogeny-of-oenococcus-oeni-from-northern-china
#16
Yun Wang, Shuwen Liu, Jing Su, Yu Zhang, Jing Li, Yin-Qiang Sui, Ying-Ying Li, Hua Wang, Hua Li
Stress resistance and growth are important aspects to consider when engineering Oenococcus oeni strains for winemaking. We identified 3 previously unreported structural phenomena in the cell ontogeny of O. oeni sampled in northern China. We show that budding and binary fission (BBF) occur simultaneously in the growth process; that a novel 'pomegranate-shaped structure' (PSS) occurs mainly in the stationary and death phases; and that symbiosis and cyclical phenomena (SCP) occur throughout the various cell growth phases...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899032/mating-response-and-construction-of-heterothallic-strains-of-the-fission-yeast-schizosaccharomyces-octosporus
#17
Taisuke Seike, Hironori Niki
The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces octosporus is one of four species in the genus Schizosaccharomyces. Recently released genome sequence data provide useful information for comparative studies. However, Sz. octosporus has not yet been genetically characterized because there have been no heterothallic strains of this species. Here we report the construction of stable heterothallic strains of Sz. octosporus for genetic crosses. First, we continuously observed the mating process of a homothallic strain, yFS286, and determined the mating frequency of Sz...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895105/1-3-diphenylisobenzofuran-a-model-chromophore-for-singlet-fission
#18
REVIEW
Justin C Johnson, Josef Michl
In this review we first provide an introductory description of the singlet fission phenomenon and then describe the ground and electronically excited states of the parent 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran chromophore (1) and about a dozen of its derivatives. A discussion of singlet fission in thin polycrystalline layers of these materials follows. The highest quantum yield of triplet formation by singlet fission, 200% at 80 K, is found in one of the two known crystal modification of the parent. In the other modification and in many derivatives, excimer formation competes successfully and triplet yields are low...
September 11, 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893855/mitigating-mitochondrial-genome-erosion-without-recombination
#19
Arunas L Radzvilavicius, Hanna Kokko, Joshua R Christie
Mitochondria are ATP-producing organelles of bacterial ancestry that played a key role in the origin and early evolution of complex eukaryotic cells. Most modern eukaryotes transmit mitochondrial genes uniparentally, often without recombination among genetically divergent organelles. While this asymmetric inheritance maintains the efficacy of purifying selection at the level of the cell, the absence of recombination could also make the genome susceptible to Muller's ratchet. How mitochondria escape this irreversible defect accumulation is a fundamental unsolved question...
September 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893840/the-monoplastidic-bottleneck-in-algae-and-plant-evolution
#20
REVIEW
Jan de Vries, Sven B Gould
Plastids in plants and algae evolved from the endosymbiotic integration of a cyanobacterium by a heterotrophic eukaryote. New plastids can only emerge through fission; thus, the synchronization of bacterial division with the cell cycle of the eukaryotic host was vital to the origin of phototrophic eukaryotes. Most of the sampled algae house a single plastid per cell and basal-branching relatives of polyplastidic lineages are all monoplastidic, as are some non-vascular plants during certain stages of their life cycle...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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