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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526446/thymoquinone-exerts-neuroprotective-effect-in-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Seyedeh Shohreh Ebrahimi, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Esmael Izadpanah, Kambiz Hassanzadeh
Oxidative stress plays an important role in both the initiation and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rotenone, an environmental toxin, induces oxidative stress and impact mitochondrial dynamics, including fission and fusion. Thymoquinone (TQ) has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics in vitro and in vivo. TQ scavenges free radicals so prevents cell damage against oxidative agents. To evaluate the efficacy of TQ in the management of PD, male Wistar rats (8-10 months) received rotenone...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526279/an-emerging-role-for-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-schizophrenia
#2
REVIEW
Kyle H Flippo, Stefan Strack
Abnormal brain development has long been thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Impaired dendritic arborization, synaptogenesis, and long term potentiation and memory have been demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. In addition to aberrant nervous system development, altered brain metabolism and mitochondrial function has long been observed in schizophrenic patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mitochondrial genome as well as impaired mitochondrial function have both been associated with increased risk for developing schizophrenia...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522285/production-of-3-hydroxypropionic-acid-via-the-malonyl-coa-pathway-using-recombinant-fission-yeast-strains
#3
Akiko Suyama, Yujiro Higuchi, Masahiro Urushihara, Yuka Maeda, Kaoru Takegawa
3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) can be converted into derivatives such as acrylic acid, a source for producing super absorbent polymers. Although Escherichia coli has often been used for 3-HP production, it exhibits low tolerance to 3-HP. To circumvent this problem, we selected the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as this microorganism has higher tolerance to 3-HP than E. coli. Therefore, we constructed S. pombe transformants overexpressing two genes, one encoding the S. pombe acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Cut6p) and the other encoding the malonyl-CoA reductase derived from Chloroflexus aurantiacus (CaMCR)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521962/the-functional-roles-of-pml-nuclear-bodies-in-genome-maintenance
#4
REVIEW
Hae Ryung Chang, Anudari Munkhjargal, Myung-Jin Kim, Seon Young Park, Eunyoung Jung, Jae-Ha Ryu, Young Yang, Jong-Seok Lim, Yonghwan Kim
In the nucleus, there are several membraneless structures called nuclear bodies. Among them, promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are involved in multiple genome maintenance pathways including the DNA damage response, DNA repair, telomere homeostasis, and p53-associated apoptosis. In response to DNA damage, PML-NBs are coalesced and divided by a fission mechanism, thus increasing their number. PML-NBs also play a role in repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination (HR). Clinically, the dominant negative PML-RARα fusion protein expressed in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) inhibits the transactivation of downstream factors and disrupts PML function, revealing the tumor suppressor role of PML-NBs...
May 5, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521497/thermal-decomposition-of-nitromethane-and-reaction-between-ch3-and-no2
#5
Akira Matsugi, Hiroumi Shiina
The thermal decomposition of gaseous nitromethane and the subsequent bimolecular reaction between CH3 and NO2 have been experimentally studied using time-resolved cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range 1336-1827 K and at pressure of 100 kPa. Temporal evolution of NO2 was observed following the pyrolysis of nitromethane (diluted to 80-140 ppm in argon) by monitoring the absorption around 400 nm. The primary objectives of the current work were to evaluate the rate constant for the CH3 + NO2 reaction (k2) and to examine the contribution of the roaming isomerization pathway in nitromethane decomposition...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520444/enhancing-singlet-fission-dynamics-by-suppressing-destructive-interference-between-charge-transfer-pathways
#6
Maria A Castellanos, Pengfei Huo
We apply a real-time path-integral approach to investigate the charge-transfer mediated singlet fission quantum dynamics in a model pentacene dimer. Our path-integral method gives accurate fission dynamics across various reaction regimes as well as a broad range of reorganization energies and temperatures. With this method, we investigate the destructive interference between the two charge-transfer (CT) mediated fission pathways, and discovered two mechanisms that can suppress this deleterious effect. First, increasing the energy gap between the two CT states effectively shuts down the high-lying CT pathway, leaving a better functioning low-lying CT pathway with a minimum amount of destructive interference...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518143/calcium-sensing-receptor-protects-high-glucose-induced-energy-metabolism-disorder-via-blocking-gp78-ubiquitin-proteasome-pathway
#7
Yuehong Wang, Ping Gao, Can Wei, Hongzhu Li, Li Zhang, Yajun Zhao, Bo Wu, Ye Tian, Weihua Zhang, Lingyun Wu, Rui Wang, Changqing Xu
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major complication and fatal cause of the patients with diabetes. The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is involved in maintaining calcium homeostasis, regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis, and so on. In our previous study, we found that CaSR expression, intracellular calcium levels and cardiac function were all significantly decreased in DCM rats; however, the exact mechanism are not clear yet. The present study revealed the protective role of CaSR in myocardial energy metabolism disorder induced by high glucose (HG) as well as the underlying mechanism...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516916/unified-model-for-singlet-fission-within-a-non-conjugated-covalent-pentacene-dimer
#8
Bettina S Basel, Johannes Zirzlmeier, Constantin Hetzer, Brian T Phelan, Matthew D Krzyaniak, S Rajagopala Reddy, Pedro B Coto, Noah E Horwitz, Ryan M Young, Fraser J White, Frank Hampel, Timothy Clark, Michael Thoss, Rik R Tykwinski, Michael R Wasielewski, Dirk M Guldi
When molecular dimers, crystalline films or molecular aggregates absorb a photon to produce a singlet exciton, spin-allowed singlet fission may produce two triplet excitons that can be used to generate two electron-hole pairs, leading to a predicted ∼50% enhancement in maximum solar cell performance. The singlet fission mechanism is still not well understood. Here we report on the use of time-resolved optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to probe singlet fission in a pentacene dimer linked by a non-conjugated spacer...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515144/transient-activation-of-fission-yeast-ampk-is-required-for-cell-proliferation-during-osmotic-stress
#9
Katherine L Schutt, James B Moseley
The heterotrimeric kinase AMPK acts as an energy sensor to coordinate cell metabolism with environmental status in yeast through humans. Low intracellular ATP leads to AMPK activation through phosphorylation of the activation loop within the catalytic subunit. Other environmental stresses also activate AMPK, but it is unclear if cellular energy status affects AMPK activation under these conditions. Fission yeast AMPK catalytic subunit Ssp2 is phosphorylated at Thr189 by the upstream kinase Ssp1 in low glucose conditions, similar to other systems...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515143/cyclin-c-influences-the-timing-of-mitosis-in-fission-yeast
#10
Gabor Banyai, Zsolt Szilagyi, Vera Baraznenok, Olga Khorosjutina, Claes M Gustafsson
The multiprotein Mediator complex is required for the regulated transcription of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Mediator contains the Cdk8 regulatory subcomplex, which directs periodic transcription and influences cell cycle progression in fission yeast. We here investigate the role of CycC, the cognate cyclin partner of Cdk8, in cell cycle control. Previous reports suggested that CycC interact with other cellular Cdks, but a fusion of CycC to Cdk8 reported here did not cause any obvious cell cycle phenotypes...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514731/antagonistic-effects-of-selenium-on-cadmium-induced-apoptosis-by-restoring-the-mitochondrial-dynamic-equilibrium-and-energy-metabolism-in-chicken-spleens
#11
Zhe Xu, Xi Jin, Tingru Pan, Tianqi Liu, Na Wan, Shu Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of cadmium-induced apoptosis in chicken spleens and the antagonistic effects of selenium. We duplicated the selenium-cadmium interaction model and examined the expression of apoptosis-, immune-, mitochondrial dynamics- and energy metabolism-related genes. The results demonstrated that after treatment with cadmium, the frequency of apoptosis was significantly increased, and the morphological characteristics of apoptosis were observed. The expression of pro-apoptotic genes was increased, and that of anti-apoptotic genes was decreased...
April 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513584/kinesin-5-independent-mitotic-spindle-assembly-requires-the-antiparallel-microtubule-crosslinker-ase1-in-fission-yeast
#12
Sergio A Rincon, Adam Lamson, Robert Blackwell, Viktoriya Syrovatkina, Vincent Fraisier, Anne Paoletti, Meredith D Betterton, Phong T Tran
Bipolar spindle assembly requires a balance of forces where kinesin-5 produces outward pushing forces to antagonize the inward pulling forces from kinesin-14 or dynein. Accordingly, Kinesin-5 inactivation results in force imbalance leading to monopolar spindle and chromosome segregation failure. In fission yeast, force balance is restored when both kinesin-5 Cut7 and kinesin-14 Pkl1 are deleted, restoring spindle bipolarity. Here we show that the cut7Δpkl1Δ spindle is fully competent for chromosome segregation independently of motor activity, except for kinesin-6 Klp9, which is required for anaphase spindle elongation...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513170/a-phospholipid-biomimetic-fluorescent-mitochondrial-probe-with-ultrahigh-selectivity-enables-in-situ-and-high-fidelity-tissue-imaging
#13
Ruoyao Zhang, Yuming Sun, Minggang Tian, Ge Zhang, Ruiqing Feng, Xuechen Li, Lifang Guo, Xiaoqiang Yu, Jing Zhi Sun, Xiuquan He
In-situ and directly imaging mitochondria in tissues instead of isolated cells can offer more native and accurate information. Particularly, in the clinical diagnose of mitochondrial diseases such as mitochondrial myopathy, it is a routine examination item to directly observe mitochondrial morphology and number in muscle tissues from patients. However, it's still a challenging task because the selectivity of available probes is inadequate for exclusively tissue imaging. Inspired by the chemical structure of amphiphilic phospholipids in mitochondrial inner membrane, we synthesized a phospholipid-biomimetic amphiphilic fluorescent probe (Mito-MOI) by modifying a C18-alkyl chain to the lipophilic side of carbazole-indolenine cation...
May 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513156/quantum-chemical-investigation-on-photochemical-reactions-of-nonanoic-acids-at-air-water-interface
#14
Pin Xiao, Qian Wang, Wei-Hai Fang, Ganglong Cui
Photoinduced chemical reactions of organic compounds at the marine boundary layer have recently attracted significant experimental attention because this kind of photoreactions have been proposed to have substantial impact on local new particle formation (NPF) and their photoproducts could be as a source of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). In this work, we have employed first-principles density functional theory (DFT) method combined with cluster models to systematically explore photochemical reaction pathways of nonanoic acids (NAs) to form volatile saturated and unsaturated C9 and C8 aldehydes at air-water interfaces...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512263/mitochondrial-protein-18-mtp18-plays-a-pro-apoptotic-role-in-chemotherapy-induced-gastric-cancer-cell-apoptosis
#15
Lynn H H Aung, Ruibei Li, Bellur S Prabhakar, Ajay V Maker, Peifeng Li
One of the severe limitations of chemotherapy is the development of drug resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying chemotherapy resistance remain to be elucidated. Mitochondrial mediated apoptosis is a form of cell death induced by chemotherapy. Several chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce mitochondrial fission, and finally activate the apoptosis cascade in various cancer cells. Here, we report that the mitochondrial membrane protein 18 (MTP18) induced mitochondrial fragmentation in gastric cancer cells under doxorubicin (DOX) exposure...
April 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512211/correction-for-bernard-et-al-splicing-factor-spf30-assists-exosome-mediated-gene-silencing-in-fission-yeast
#16
Pascal Bernard, Julie Drogat, Sonia Dheur, Sylvie Genier, Jean-Paul Javerzat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507334/energy-dependent-path-of-dissipation-in-nanomechanical-resonators
#17
Johannes Güttinger, Adrien Noury, Peter Weber, Axel Martin Eriksson, Camille Lagoin, Joel Moser, Christopher Eichler, Andreas Wallraff, Andreas Isacsson, Adrian Bachtold
Energy decay plays a central role in a wide range of phenomena, such as optical emission, nuclear fission, and dissipation in quantum systems. Energy decay is usually described as a system leaking energy irreversibly into an environmental bath. Here, we report on energy decay measurements in nanomechanical systems based on multilayer graphene that cannot be explained by the paradigm of a system directly coupled to a bath. As the energy of a vibrational mode freely decays, the rate of energy decay changes abruptly to a lower value...
May 15, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504877/illuminating-superoxide-anion-and-ph-enhancements-in-apoptosis-of-breast-cancer-cells-induced-by-mitochondrial-hyperfusion-using-a-new-two-photon-fluorescence-probe
#18
Wen Zhang, Xin Wang, Ping Li, Haibin Xiao, Wei Zhang, Hui Wang, Bo Tang
Mitochondrial morphology regulated by fusion and fission processes determines mitochondrial function and cell fate. Some studies showed hyperfused mitochondria could induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but the relevant molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Superoxide (O2•-) and pH play vital roles in mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore if there is an intimate relationship between mitochondrial hyperfusion and simultaneous changes in O2•- and pH levels, which will be helpful to uncover relevant detailed mechanism...
May 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504273/legionella-effector-lpg1137-shuts-down-er-mitochondria-communication-through-cleavage-of-syntaxin-17
#19
Kohei Arasaki, Yumi Mikami, Stephanie R Shames, Hiroki Inoue, Yuichi Wakana, Mitsuo Tagaya
During infection of macrophages, the pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila secretes effector proteins that induce the conversion of the plasma membrane-derived vacuole into an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like replicative vacuole. These ER-like vacuoles are ultimately fused with the ER, where the pathogen replicates. Here we show that the L. pneumophila effector Lpg1137 is a serine protease that targets the mitochondria and their associated membranes. Lpg1137 binds to and cleaves syntaxin 17, a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein that is known to participate in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics through interaction with the mitochondrial fission factor Drp1 in fed cells and in autophagy through interaction with Atg14L and other SNAREs in starved cells...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503736/hydrogen-sulfide-pretreatment-improves-mitochondrial-function-in-myocardial-hypertrophy-via-a-sirt3-dependent-manner
#20
Guoliang Meng, Jieqiong Liu, Shangmin Liu, Qiuyi Song, Lulu Liu, Liping Xie, Yi Han, Yong Ji
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a gaseous signal molecule with anti-oxidative ability. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is closely associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. The study was to investigate whether and how H2 S improved myocardial hypertrophy via a SIRT3-dependent manner. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were pre-treated with NaHS (50 μM) for 4 h followed by angiotensin II (Ang II, 100 nM) for 24 h. SIRT3 was silenced with siRNA technology. SIRT 3 promoter activity and expression, cell surface, hypertrophic gene mRNA expression, mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate and membrane potential were measured...
May 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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