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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139530/when-droplets-become-stars-charged-dielectric-droplets-beyond-the-rayleigh-limit
#1
Myong In Oh, Anatoly Malevanets, Maxim Paliy, Daan Frenkel, Styliani Consta
When a nano-drop comprising a single spherical central ion and dielectric solvent is charged above a well-defined threshold, it acquires a stable star morphology. In contrast, conducting droplets, will undergo fission. Here we report combined atomistic molecular dynamics and continuum modelling study of star formation of droplets that contain a highly charged ion. We assume that in the continuum model the dielectric response is linear. In this linear continuum model, which is an extension of Rayleigh model, the energy of the drop is comprised of terms analogous to those in Rayleigh model, which are surface energy and electrostatic energy of dielectric droplet charged by a central point charge...
November 15, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138352/fission-and-fusion-of-plant-mitochondria-and-genome-maintenance
#2
Shin-Ichi Arimura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136238/regulation-of-transcriptional-silencing-and-chromodomain-protein-localization-at-centromeric-heterochromatin-by-histone-h3-tyrosine-41-phosphorylation-in-fission-yeast
#3
Bingbing Ren, Hwei Ling Tan, Thi Thuy Trang Nguyen, Ahmed Mahmoud Mohammed Sayed, Ying Li, Yu-Keung Mok, Henry Yang, Ee Sin Chen
Heterochromatin silencing is critical for genomic integrity and cell survival. It is orchestrated by chromodomain (CD)-containing proteins that bind to methylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me), a hallmark of heterochromatin. Here, we show that phosphorylation of tyrosine 41 (H3Y41p)-a novel histone H3 modification-participates in the regulation of heterochromatin in fission yeast. We show that a loss-of-function mutant of H3Y41 can suppress heterochromatin de-silencing in the centromere and subtelomere repeat regions, suggesting a de-silencing role for H3Y41p on heterochromatin...
November 10, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133455/how-causal-analysis-can-reveal-autonomy-in-models-of-biological-systems
#4
William Marshall, Hyunju Kim, Sara I Walker, Giulio Tononi, Larissa Albantakis
Standard techniques for studying biological systems largely focus on their dynamical or, more recently, their informational properties, usually taking either a reductionist or holistic perspective. Yet, studying only individual system elements or the dynamics of the system as a whole disregards the organizational structure of the system-whether there are subsets of elements with joint causes or effects, and whether the system is strongly integrated or composed of several loosely interacting components. Integrated information theory offers a theoretical framework to (1) investigate the compositional cause-effect structure of a system and to (2) identify causal borders of highly integrated elements comprising local maxima of intrinsic cause-effect power...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131445/airyscan-super-resolution-microscopy-of-mitochondrial-morphology-and-dynamics-in-living-tumor-cells
#5
Vladimir L Kolossov, Mayandi Sivaguru, Joseph Huff, Katherine Luby, Kaviamuthan Kanakaraju, H Rex Gaskins
Mitochondrial morphology is regulated by continuous fusion-and-fission events that are essential for maintaining normal function. Despite the prominence of mitochondrial function in energy generation and cell signaling, understanding of processes of fusion and fission dynamics has been hampered by the lack of high-resolution optical systems that accommodate live-cell imaging. We have examined different confocal modalities in terms of resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in a point scanning confocal microscope with Airyscan super-resolution (AS-SR)...
November 13, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129866/determination-of-trace-fission-products-associated-with-thorium-and-hcl-matrix-by-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-after-anion-exchange-separation
#6
Shuhua He, Mumei Chen, Zheng Li, Haixia Cong, Lan Zhang, Qinnuan Li
For the determination of μg-mg L(-1) of FPs in 100 g L(-1) of thorium matrix with HCl medium, a method, including anion-exchange pre-separation, evaporation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurement, was developed. The procedure parameters, such as the matrix effect of thorium, the acidity of separation, the elution curve of thorium and FPs and the temperature of evaporation were optimized by batch equilibration, column elution and evaporation experiments. It was found that the average recovery of the FPs was in the range 80 - 110%, and the RSD values were in the range 2 - 15% utilizing prior anion exchange separation of FPs from thorium samples...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128528/amblyospora-khaliulini-microsporidia-amblyosporidae-investigations-on-its-life-cycle-and-ecology-in-aedes-communis-diptera-culicidae-and-acanthocyclops-vernalis-copepoda-cyclopidae-with-redescription-of-the-species
#7
Theodore G Andreadis, Michael C Thomas, John J Shepard
A multi-year study was conducted to examine the natural ecology of the microsporidium Amblyospora khaliulini and more fully characterize parasite development and histopathology in all stages of its primary mosquito host, Aedes communis and intermediate copepod host, Acanthocyclops vernalis with redescription of the species. A. khaliulini exhibits polymorphic development, produces three morphologically and functionally distinct spores, and is both horizontally and vertically transmitted. Development in A. vernalis is restricted to females, occurs within the ovaries and results in death of the host...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128369/inhibition-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-alters-expression-of-mitochondria-related-genes-in-pc12-cells-relevance-to-mitochondrial-homeostasis-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#8
Grzegorz A Czapski, Magdalena Cieślik, Przemysław L Wencel, Sylwia Wójtowicz, Robert P Strosznajder, Joanna B Strosznajder
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the release of amyloid beta peptides (Aβ) in the form of monomers/oligomers which may lead to oxidative stress, mitochondria dysfunction, synaptic loss, neuroinflammation and, in consequence, to overactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). However, Aβ peptides are also released in the brain ischemia, traumatic injury and in inflammatory response. PARP-1 is suggested to be a promising target in therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. We investigated the impact of PARP-1 inhibition on transcription of mitochondria-related genes in PC12 cells...
November 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128361/involvement-of-mitochondrial-fission-in-calcium-sensing-receptor-mediated-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-during-hypertension
#9
Xin Zhang, Wenjia Chen, Jiawen Li, Shuhan Qi, Siting Hong, Ying Wang, Lei Gao, Zhiyu Shi, Yue Liu, Wenxiu Liu, Yinyu Chi, Chunnan Liu, Yu Fu, Xinhua Yin
Hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Proper mitochondrial fission and fusion is involved with VSMC function. However, the role and mechanism of mitochondrial morphological changes in VSMC proliferation are not well understood. Here, we found that calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) was increased in the aortas from spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) compared with age-matched Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. There was also an increase in mitochondrial fission and VSMC proliferation, which was attenuated by Calhex231...
November 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126853/absorption-metabolism-distribution-and-excretion-of-epicatechin-a-review-of-recent-findings
#10
REVIEW
Gina Borges, Javier I Ottaviani, Justin J J van der Hooft, Hagen Schroeter, Alan Crozier
This paper reviews pioneering human studies, their limitations and recent investigations on the absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion (aka bioavailability) of (-)-epicatechin. Progress has been made possible by improvements in mass spectrometric detection when coupled to high performance liquid chromatography and through the increasing availability of authentic reference compounds of in vivo metabolites of (-)-epicatechin. Studies have shown that [2-(14)C](-)-epicatechin is absorbed in the small intestine with the 12 structural-related (-)-epicatechin metabolites (SREMs), mainly in the form of (-)-epicatechin-3'-O-glucuronide, 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-5-sulfate and (-)-epicatechin-3'-sulfate, attaining sub-μmol/L peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) ∼1 h after ingestion...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126644/radionuclide-concentration-processes-in-marine-organisms-a-comprehensive-review
#11
Fernando P Carvalho
The first measurements made of artificial radionuclides released into the marine environment did reveal that radionuclides are concentrated by marine biological species. The need to report radionuclide accumulation in biota in different conditions and geographical areas prompted the use of concentration factors as a convenient way to describe the accumulation of radionuclides in biota relative to radionuclide concentrations in seawater. Later, concentration factors became a tool in modelling radionuclide distribution and transfer in aquatic environments and to predicting radioactivity in organisms...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125939/regulation-of-microbial-growth-by-turgor-pressure
#12
REVIEW
Enrique R Rojas, Kerwyn Casey Huang
Rapid changes in environmental osmolarity are a natural aspect of microbial lifestyles. The change in turgor pressure resulting from an osmotic shock alters the mechanical forces within the cell envelope, and can impact cell growth across a range of timescales, through a variety of mechanical mechanisms. Here, we first summarize measurements of turgor pressure in various organisms. We then review how the combination of microfluidic flow cells and quantitative image analysis has driven discovery of the diverse ways in which turgor pressure mechanically regulates bacterial growth, independent of the effect of cytoplasmic crowding...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123917/the-telomere-bouquet-facilitates-meiotic-prophase-progression-and-exit-in-fission-yeast
#13
Vera Moiseeva, Hanna Amelina, Laura C Collopy, Christine A Armstrong, Siân R Pearson, Kazunori Tomita
During meiotic prophase, chromosome arrangement and oscillation promote the pairing of homologous chromosomes for meiotic recombination. This dramatic movement involves clustering of telomeres at the nuclear membrane to form the so-called telomere bouquet. In fission yeast, the telomere bouquet is formed near the spindle pole body (SPB), which is the microtubule organising centre, functionally equivalent to the metazoan centrosome. Disruption of bouquet configuration impedes homologous chromosome pairing, meiotic recombination and spindle formation...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123480/impairment-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-dynamics-involved-in-isoniazid-induced-apoptosis-of-hepg2-cells-was-alleviated-by-p38-mapk-pathway
#14
Tianguang Zhang, Takashi Ikejima, Lizhong Li, Ruiqin Wu, Xiaoyan Yuan, Jun Zhao, Yimei Wang, Shuangqing Peng
Isoniazid (INH), a widely used first-line antitubercular drug, has been noted to be associated with hepatotoxicity. In spite of extensive researches over many decades, the mechanism of INH-induced hepatotoxicity still remains poorly understood. Recently, mitochondrial toxicity has been emerging as a new paradigm for INH-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we showed that INH impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. INH reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and induced mitochondria swelling...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122971/poly-a-site-choice-and-pol2-ctd-serine-5-status-govern-lncrna-control-of-phosphate-responsive-tgp1-gene-expression-in-fission-yeast
#15
Ana M Sanchez, Stewart Shuman, Beate Schwer
Expression of fission yeast glycerophosphate transporter Tgp1 is repressed in phosphate-rich medium and induced during phosphate starvation. Repression is enforced by transcription of the nc-tgp1 locus upstream of tgp1 to produce a long noncoding (lnc) RNA. Here we identify two essential elements of the nc-tgp1 promoter: a TATA box (-30)TATATATA(-23) and a HomolD box (-64)CAGTCACA(-57), mutations of which inactivate the nc-tgp1 promoter and de-repress the downstream tgp1 promoter under phosphate-replete conditions...
November 9, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121537/permethrin-drastically-affects-the-developmental-cycle-of-the-non-target-slime-mould-dictyostelium-discoideum
#16
Andrea Amaroli, Lorenzo Gallus, Sara Ferrando
The use of pyrethroids has increased throughout the world over the past few decades, as organophosphate, carbamate and organochlorine insecticides are being phased out. Permethrin is widely used in the USA for crops treatment, at concentrations around 750 × 10(3) μg/L. In our study 3.6 μg/L permethrin decreases the fission-rate and the fruiting bodies formation of slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. Whereas 3.6 × 10(4) μg/L kills the 100% of amoebae, showing a 24 h-LC50 = 96.6 μg/L. This concentration induces an increase in the pseudocholinesterase activity as well as in both butyrylcholinesterase and heat-shock-protein 70 presence...
October 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121084/fission-yeast-strains-with-circular-chromosomes-require-the-9-1-1-checkpoint-complex-for-the-viability-in-response-to-the-anti-cancer-drug-5-fluorodeoxyuridine
#17
Hossain Mohammad Shamim, Yukako Minami, Daiki Tanaka, Shinobu Ukimori, Johanne M Murray, Masaru Ueno
Thymidine kinase converts 5-fluorodeoxyuridine to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate, which causes disruption of deoxynucleotide triphosphate ratios. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe does not express endogenous thymidine kinase but 5-fluorodeoxyuridine inhibits growth when exogenous thymidine kinase is expressed. Unexpectedly, we found that 5-fluorodeoxyuridine causes S phase arrest even without thymidine kinase expression. DNA damage checkpoint proteins such as the 9-1-1 complex were required for viability in the presence of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119945/mechanical-force-induces-mitochondrial-fission
#18
Sebastian Carsten Johannes Helle, Qian Feng, Mathias J Aebersold, Luca Hirt, Raphael R Grüter, Afshin Vahid, Andrea Sirianni, Serge Mostowy, Jess G Snedeker, Anđela Šarić, Timon Idema, Tomaso Zambelli, Benoît Kornmann
Eukaryotic cells are densely packed with macromolecular complexes and intertwining organelles, continually transported and reshaped. Intriguingly, organelles avoid clashing and entangling with each other in such limited space. Mitochondria form extensive networks constantly remodeled by fission and fusion. Here, we show that mitochondrial fission is triggered by mechanical forces. Mechano-stimulation of mitochondria - via encounter with motile intracellular pathogens, via external pressure applied by an atomic force microscope, or via cell migration across uneven microsurfaces - results in the recruitment of the mitochondrial fission machinery, and subsequent division...
November 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117528/ensembles-of-bidirectional-kinesin-cin8-produce-additive-forces-in-both-directions-of-movement
#19
Todd Fallesen, Johanna Roostalu, Christian Duellberg, Gunnar Pruessner, Thomas Surrey
Most kinesin motors move in only one direction along microtubules. Members of the kinesin-5 subfamily were initially described as unidirectional plus-end-directed motors and shown to produce piconewton forces. However, some fungal kinesin-5 motors are bidirectional. The force production of a bidirectional kinesin-5 has not yet been measured. Therefore, it remains unknown whether the mechanism of the unconventional minus-end-directed motility differs fundamentally from that of plus-end-directed stepping. Using force spectroscopy, we have measured here the forces that ensembles of purified budding yeast kinesin-5 Cin8 produce in microtubule gliding assays in both plus- and minus-end direction...
November 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114019/native-elongating-transcript-sequencing-reveals-global-anti-correlation-between-sense-and-antisense-nascent-transcription-in-fission-yeast
#20
Maxime Wery, Camille Gautier, Marc Descrimes, Mayuko Yoda, Hervé Vennin-Rendos, Valérie Migeot, Daniel Gautheret, Damien Hermand, Antonin Morillon
Antisense transcription can regulate sense gene expression. However, previous annotations of antisense transcription units have been based on detection of mature antisense long non-coding (aslnc)RNAs by RNA-Seq and/or micro-arrays, only giving a partial view of the antisense transcription landscape and incomplete molecular bases for antisense-mediated regulation. Here, we used Native Elongating Transcript sequencing to map genome-wide nascent antisense transcription in fission yeast. Strikingly, antisense transcription was detected for most protein-coding genes, correlating with low sense transcription, especially when overlapping the mRNA start site...
November 7, 2017: RNA
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