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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141219/preventive-inhibition-of-liver-tumorigenesis-by-systemic-activation-of-innate-immune-functions
#1
Jin Lee, Rui Liao, Gaowei Wang, Bi-Huei Yang, Xiaolin Luo, Nissi M Varki, Shuang-Jian Qiu, Bing Ren, Wenxian Fu, Gen-Sheng Feng
Liver cancer has become the second most deadly malignant disease, with no efficient targeted or immune therapeutic agents available yet. While dissecting the roles of cytoplasmic signaling molecules in hepatocarcinogenesis using an inducible mouse gene targeting system, Mx1-cre, we identified a potent liver tumor-inhibitory effect of synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (pIC), an inducer of the Mx1-cre system. Injection of pIC at the pre-cancer stage robustly suppressed liver tumorigenesis either induced by chemical carcinogens or by Pten loss and associated hepatosteatosis...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141007/escitalopram-and-nht-normalized-stress-induced-anhedonia-and-molecular-neuroadaptations-in-a-mouse-model-of-depression
#2
Or Burstein, Motty Franko, Eyal Gale, Assaf Handelsman, Segev Barak, Shai Motsan, Alon Shamir, Roni Toledano, Omri Simhon, Yafit Hirshler, Gang Chen, Ravid Doron
Anhedonia is defined as a diminished ability to obtain pleasure from otherwise positive stimuli. Anxiety and mood disorders have been previously associated with dysregulation of the reward system, with anhedonia as a core element of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether stress-induced anhedonia could be prevented by treatments with escitalopram or novel herbal treatment (NHT) in an animal model of depression. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) was administered for 4 weeks on ICR outbred mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140814/visual-snow-syndrome-what-we-know-so-far
#3
Francesca Puledda, Christoph Schankin, Kathleen Digre, Peter J Goadsby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of the neurological condition known as visual snow syndrome. Patients affected by this chronic disorder suffer with a pan-field visual disturbance described as tiny flickering dots, which resemble the static noise of an untuned television. RECENT FINDINGS: The term 'visual snow' has only appeared in the medical literature very recently. The clinical features of the syndrome have now been reasonably described and the pathophysiology has begun to be explored...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139560/the-mammalian-circadian-clock-exhibits-chronic-ethanol-tolerance-and-withdrawal-induced-glutamate-hypersensitivity-accompanied-by-changes-in-glutamate-and-trkb-receptor-proteins
#4
Jonathan H Lindsay, Rebecca A Prosser
BACKGROUND: Alcohol tolerance and withdrawal-induced effects are criteria for alcohol use disorders listed by the DSM-V. Although tolerance and withdrawal have been studied over many decades, there is still uncertainty regarding mechanistic distinctions that characterize these different forms of ethanol (EtOH)-induced plasticity. Previously, we demonstrated that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock develops both acute and rapid tolerance to EtOH inhibition of glutamate-induced circadian phase shifts...
November 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139482/opioid-misuse-in-gastroenterology-and-non-opioid-management-of-abdominal-pain
#5
REVIEW
Eva Szigethy, Mitchell Knisely, Douglas Drossman
Opioids were one of the earliest classes of medications used for pain across a variety of conditions, but morbidity and mortality have been increasingly associated with their chronic use. Despite these negative consequences, chronic opioid use is increasing worldwide, with the USA and Canada having the highest rates. Chronic opioid use for noncancer pain can have particularly negative effects in the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems, including opioid-induced constipation, narcotic bowel syndrome, worsening psychopathology and addiction...
November 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138928/mechanisms-of-drug-binding-to-voltage-gated-sodium-channels
#6
M E O'Leary, M Chahine
Voltage-gated sodium (Na(+)) channels are expressed in virtually all electrically excitable tissues and are essential for muscle contraction and the conduction of impulses within the peripheral and central nervous systems. Genetic disorders that disrupt the function of these channels produce an array of Na(+) channelopathies resulting in neuronal impairment, chronic pain, neuromuscular pathologies, and cardiac arrhythmias. Because of their importance to the conduction of electrical signals, Na(+) channels are the target of a wide variety of local anesthetic, antiarrhythmic, anticonvulsant, and antidepressant drugs...
November 15, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138863/therapeutic-effect-of-ulinastatin-on-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-downregulation-of-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-1-tnf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-and-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#7
Dejun Li, Hongsheng Ji, Bao Zhao, Chunyang Xu, Wenjun Xia, Lihui Han, Dongqing Yu, Yuanrong Ju, Changjun Jin
Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive, lethal lung disease characterized by alveolar cell necrosis and dysplasia of interstitial fibrotic tissue, resulting in loss of lung function and eventual respiratory failure. Previously, glucocorticoid drugs were used to treat this lung disorder. However, positive responses were recorded in less than half of treated patients and the cytotoxicity caused by high dosage treatment is still a concern. The present study investigated whether ulinastatin, a typical urinary trypsin inhibitor that mitigates numerous inflammatory responses, could be a treatment option for lung fibrosis...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138813/reduced-mirna%C3%A2-214-expression-in-oral-mucosa-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-oral-lichen-planus-by-targeting-cd44
#8
Haiyan Zheng, Shaohui Li
The present study aimed to investigate the role of miRNAs during the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus (OLP). OLP is a chronic inflammatory disorder, which involves T‑cell mediated autoimmunity and affects the skin, scalp, nails and mucosa. Abundant T lymphocytes have been demonstrated to infiltrate the oral mucosa, in which the activated T cells trigger apoptosis of oral epithelial cells. Overexpression of osteopontin (OPN) and CD44 has been observed in the mucosa of patients with OLP, and it has been confirmed that OPN suppresses the apoptosis of activated CD8+ T cells via CD44...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138622/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-penicillium-amestolkiae-elv609-extract-treated-cotton-fabric-for-diabetic-wound-care
#9
Nur Amiera Syuhada Binti Rozman, Nurhanis Syafiqah Binti Mohd Nor Hamin, Leong Chean Ring, Tan Wen Nee, Mahfuzah Binti Mustapha, Tong Woei Yenn
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder which affects millions of population worldwide. Global estimates published in 2010 reported the world diabetic prevalence as 6.4%, affecting 285 million adults. Foot ulceration and wound infection are major forms of disabilities arising from diabetic diseases. This study was aimed to develop a natural antimicrobial finishing on medical grade textile that meets American Association of Textiles Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) standard. The textile samples were finished with the ethanolic extract of Penicillium amestolkiae elv609, an endophytic fungus isolated from Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (common name: cat's whiskers)...
September 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138358/epileptic-pilocarpine-treated-rats-exhibit-aberrant-hippocampal-epsp-spike-potentiation-but-retain-long-term-potentiation
#10
Ezekiel Carpenter-Hyland, Edyta K Bichler, Mathew Smith, Robert S Sloviter, Morris Benveniste
Hippocampal neuron plasticity is strongly associated with learning, memory, and cognition. In addition to modification of synaptic function and connectivity, the capacity of hippocampal neurons to undergo plasticity involves the ability to change nonsynaptic excitability. This includes altering the probability that EPSPs will generate action potentials (E-S plasticity). Epilepsy is a prevalent neurological disorder commonly associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and cognitive dysfunction. We examined E-S plasticity in chronically epileptic Sprague-Dawley rats 3-10 weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices were assayed by whole-cell current clamp to measure EPSPs evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138116/in-silico-identification-of-genes-involved-in-chronic-metabolic-acidosis
#11
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Adeel Malik, Sameera F M AlBasri, Mohd A Beg
AIMS: Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) refers to increased plasma acidity due to disturbed acid-base equilibrium in human body. CMA leads to many dysfunctions including disorders of intestinal metabolism and barrier functions. The human body responds to these intestinal dysfunctions by creating a compensatory mechanism at genomic level in intestinal epithelial cells. This study was to identify the molecular pathways involved in metabolic dysfunction and compensatory adaptations in intestinal epithelium during CMA...
November 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138047/antibacterial-effect-and-dna-delivery-using-a-combination-of-an-arsonium-containing-lipophosphoramide-with-an-n-heterocyclic-carbene-silver-complex-potential-benefits-for-cystic-fibrosis-lung-gene-therapy
#12
Angélique Mottais, Mathieu Berchel, Yann Sibiril, Véronique Laurent, Deborah Gill, Stephen Hyde, Paul-Alain Jaffrès, Tristan Montier, Tony Le Gall
Cystic Fibrosis (CF), the most common chronic genetic disorder among the Caucasian population, is a life-threatening disease mainly due to respiratory failures resulting from chronic infections and inflammation. Although research in the pharmacological field has recently made significant progress, gene therapy still remains a promising strategy to cure CF, especially because it should be applicable to any patient whatever the mutation profile. Until now, little attention has been paid to bacterial lung infections with regard to gene delivery to the airways; yet, this could greatly impact on the success of gene therapy...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138020/moyamoya-syndrome-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-congenital-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection-resulting-in-intracranial-hemorrhage
#13
Junko Yamanaka, Ikuma Nozaki, Mizue Tanaka, Hideko Uryuu, Noriko Sato, Takeji Matsushita, Hiroyuki Shichino
In the era of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection affected children can expect a better prognosis, the importance of careful follow up of pediatric HIV-1 cases for neurological complications has been growing. We present a case of hemorrhagic Moyamoya syndrome in a child with congenital HIV-1 infection. A 10-year-old girl was referred to our hospital for the treatment of Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP: Pneumocystis pneumonia). Her HIV-1 control was poor and Moyamoya syndrome was found during the opportunistic infection screening at admission...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137916/analysis-on-the-risk-factors-of-medication-overuse-headache-in-chinese-patients
#14
Junxia Li, Chunfu Chen, Ligong Zhang, Xiaochen Cui, Chuanqiao Wei, Xiaojun Diao
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the risk factors of medication-overuse headache in patients with chronic migraine in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 157 patients who were diagnosed as chronic migraine were chosen from headache outpatients of Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University. Based on a standardized questionnaire, a database was developed and analyzed with 45 indexes. RESULTS: The independent risk factors of medication-overuse headache identified in this study included the frequency of medicine overuse (OR = 9...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137841/using-ecological-momentary-assessment-to-assess-the-temporal-relationship-between-sleep-quality-and-cravings-in-individuals-recovering-from-substance-use-disorders
#15
Lindsey K Freeman, Nisha C Gottfredson
INTRODUCTION: The causal direction of the relationship between sleep disturbance and drug cravings is unknown. Based on resource depletion literature, we hypothesized that sleep difficulties lead to cravings. We tested whether sleep quality predicts craving at the within- or between-person level, with perceived willpower as a multilevel mediator. METHODS: We used ecological momentary assessments (EMA) to compare two models of temporal precedence. Participants in addiction treatment (N=122) were sent four surveys each day for three weeks...
November 11, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137553/relationship-between-pregnancy-complications-and-psychiatric-disorders-a-population-based-study-with-a-matched-control-group
#16
Christina D Kang-Yi, Sara L Kornfield, C Neill Epperson, David S Mandell
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify whether pregnancy complications differ between women with and without a psychiatric disorder diagnosis prior to pregnancy. METHODS: Women who gave birth between 2007 and 2009 in Pennsylvania and were enrolled in Medicaid from one year prior to their pregnancy until their delivery were included (N=9,930); those with psychiatric disorders were compared with a matched control group (N=4,965 for each). Logistic regression analysis estimated the odds of having a pregnancy complication among those with a psychiatric diagnosis prior to pregnancy, adjusting for demographic characteristics and chronic general medical conditions...
November 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137224/role-of-the-inflammasome-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#17
Chiara Colarusso, Michela Terlizzi, Antonio Molino, Aldo Pinto, Rosalinda Sorrentino
Inflammation is central to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a pulmonary disorder characterized by chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, emphysema, associated to progressive and irreversible decline of lung function. Emerging genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests that IL-1-like cytokines are highly detected in the sputum and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) of COPD patients, implying the involvement of the multiprotein complex inflammasome. So far, scientific evidence has focused on nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a specialized inflammatory signaling platform that governs the maturation and secretion of IL-1-like cytokines through the regulation of caspase-1-dependent proteolytic processing...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137006/definition-of-persistent-vomiting-in-current-medical-literature-a-systematic-review
#18
Mostafa Ebraheem Morra, Abdelrahman Elshafay, Aswin Ratna Kansakar, Ghaleb Muhammad Mehyar, Nguyen Phan Hoang Dang, Omar Mohamed Mattar, Somia Iqtadar, Mostafa Reda Mostafa, Vu Ngoc Hai, Tran Le-Huy Vu, Ahmed Abdelmotaleb Ghazy, Fatima Kaboub, Nguyen Tien Huy, Kenji Hirayama
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Persistent vomiting is mentioned as a symptom of a large variety of systemic disorders. It is commonly used interchangeably with chronic, recurrent, or intractable vomiting and widely used as a warning sign of severe illness in dengue infection. However, it has been poorly defined in the medical literature. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review a definition of persistent vomiting in the medical literature. METHODS: A systematic search was done through; PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, VHL, WHO-GHL, Grey Literature Report, POPLINE, and SIGLE for the last 10 years...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136618/hepcidin-in-iron-homeostasis-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-implications-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#19
Sintayehu Ambachew, Belete Biadgo
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in epidemic proportions worldwide. Evidence suggests body iron overload is frequently linked and observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Body iron metabolism is based on iron conservation and recycling by which only a part of the daily need is replaced by duodenal absorption. The principal liver-produced peptide called hepcidin plays a fundamental role in iron metabolism. It directly binds to ferroportin, the sole iron exporter, resulting in the internalization and degradation of ferroportin...
November 15, 2017: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136587/management-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-and-celiac-disease
#20
REVIEW
Rok Seon Choung, Jeffrey A Alexander, David A Katzka, Joseph A Murray
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and celiac disease (CeD) are chronic immune mediated gastrointestinal disorders characterized by mucosal inflammation, both of which are related to food antigens, but with differences in clinical and histopathological features. When untreated, both diseases lead to destruction of the epithelium. While a strict gluten-free diet is the only effective therapy for CeD, several therapeutic options, such as proton pump inhibitors, topical steroids and diet elimination therapy are available for EoE...
November 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
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