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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526115/different-life-cycle-strategies-of-the-dinoflagellates-fragilidium-duplocampanaeforme-and-its-prey-dinophysis-acuminata-may-explain-their-different-susceptibilities-to-the-infection-by-the-parasite-parvilucifera-infectans
#1
Bora Lee, Myung Gil Park
Some marine dinoflagellates form ecdysal cyst (=temporary cysts) as part of their life cycle or under unfavorable growth conditions. Whether the dinoflagellates form ecdysal cysts or not may influence susceptibility to parasitism. In this study, parasite prevalence relative to inoculum size of the parasitoid Parvilucifera infectans zoospores for two dinoflagellate hosts (i.e., Fragilidium duplocampanaeforme and Dinophysis acuminata), which have different life cycle strategies, was examined. Further, susceptibility of cysts to parasitism, encystment signal, duration of encystments, and effects of induced encystment on diel periodicity, using ecdysal cyst-forming F...
May 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522853/multitrophic-effects-of-belowground-parasitoid-learning
#2
Denis S Willett, Hans T Alborn, Lukasz L Stelinski
The ability to learn allows organisms to take advantage of dynamic and ephemeral opportunities in their environment. Here we show that learning in belowground entomopathogenic nematodes has cascading multitrophic effects on their hosts, other nematodes, and nematophagous fungal predators. In addition to quantifying these effects, we show that social behavioral plasticity in these belowground parasitoids can amplify signaling by plant defense pathways and results in an almost doubling of insect herbivore infection by entomopathogenic nematodes...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502082/desynchronizations-in-bee-plant-interactions-cause-severe-fitness-losses-in-solitary-bees
#3
Mariela Schenk, Jochen Krauss, Andrea Holzschuh
1.Global warming can disrupt mutualistic interactions between solitary bees and plants when increasing temperature differentially changes the timing of interacting partners. One possible scenario is for insect phenology to advance more rapidly than plant phenology. 2.However, empirical evidence for fitness consequences due to temporal mismatches is lacking for pollinators and it remains unknown if bees have developed strategies to mitigate fitness losses following temporal mismatches. 3.We tested the effect of temporal mismatches on the fitness of three spring-emerging solitary bee species, including one pollen specialist...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498866/cognitive-adaptation-in-asexual-and-sexual-wasps-living-in-contrasted-environments
#4
Lucie Froissart, Martin Giurfa, Sandrine Sauzet, Emmanuel Desouhant
Differences in learning and memory dynamics between populations are suspected to result from differences in ecological constraints such as resource distribution. The two reproductive modes (strains) of the parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens share the same geographical areas but live in contrasting habitats: arrhenotokous wasps live in the wild (generally orchards), whereas thelytokous ones live mostly in stored-products buildings (e.g. granaries). This species thus represents a relevant biological model for understanding the relationship between the ecological constraints faced by a species and its memory and learning ability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493468/insight-into-the-success-of-whitefly-biological-control-using-parasitoids-evidence-from-the-eretmocerus-warrae-trialeurodes-vaporariorum-system
#5
Abdul Hanan, Xiong Z He, Qiao Wang
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms behind the success and failure of whitefly biological control using parasitoids are largely unknown. Here we use the Eretmocerus warrae-greenhouse whitefly system to investigate how fluctuating density of the parasitoid and its host affects three key parasitoid fitness parameters: host searching, host feeding and parasitization, providing critical knowledge for evaluation and development of whitefly biological control programs. This is the first such study in a parasitoid-whitefly system...
May 11, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485823/effects-of-aphidius-gifuensis-on-the-feeding-behavior-and-potato-virus-y-transmission-ability-of-myzus-persicae
#6
Ying-Qin He, Yong-Qiang Zhang, Juan-Ni Chen, Wen-Long Chen, Xian-Yi Zeng, Hai-Tao Chen, Wei Ding
The stylet penetration behavior of aphids when feeding on plants is associated with virus acquisition and inoculation. Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead) is a primary endoparasitoid of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) which is the most efficient vector of plant viruses. Information about the effects of parasitoid on aphid and virus transmission can provide an essential foundation for designing effective biological control strategies. This study aimed to investigate the effects of A. gifuensis on the feeding behavior and Potato virus Y (PVY) transmission ability of M...
May 9, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480013/egg-limitation-and-individual-variation-in-parasitization-risk-among-hosts-in-host-parasitoid-dynamics
#7
Toshinori Okuyama
Egg limitation is known to destabilize host-parasitoid dynamics. This study reexamines the effect of egg limitation in light of the individual variation in parasitization risk among hosts (e.g., some hosts are more likely to be parasitized than others). Previous studies have considered egg limitation (predicted as a destabilizing factor) and individual variation among hosts (predicted as a stabilizing factor) in isolation; however, their interaction is not known. An individual-based model was used to examine the effects of each factor and their interaction...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475289/trichoderma-harzianum-enhances-tomato-indirect-defense-against-aphids
#8
Mariangela Coppola, Pasquale Cascone, Maria Luisa Chiusano, Chiara Colantuono, Matteo Lorito, Francesco Pennacchio, Rosa Rao, Sheridan Lois Woo, Emilio Guerrieri, Maria Cristina Digilio
Many fungal root symbionts of the genus Trichoderma are well-known for their beneficial effects on agronomic performance and protection against plant pathogens; moreover, they may enhance protection from insect pests, by triggering plant resistance mechanisms. Defense barriers against insects are induced by the activation of metabolic pathways involved in the production of defense-related plant compounds, either directly active against herbivore insects, or exerting an indirect effect, by increasing the attraction of herbivore natural enemies...
May 5, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474328/biology-and-thermal-requirements-of-fopius-arisanus-sonan-1932-hymenoptera-braconidae-reared-on-ceratitis-capitata-eggs-wiedemann-diptera-tephritidae
#9
M Z Groth, A E Loeck, S D Nornberg, D Bernardi, D E Nava
Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is a solitary parasitoid of eggs and the first instar larvae of Tephritidae. Due to the occurrence of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in various regions and under several climatic conditions, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different temperatures on the embryonic development (egg-adult) and determine thermal requirements and the number of annual generations F. arisanus on eggs of C. capitata. In the laboratory, eggs of C. capitata (24 h) were submitted to parasitism of F. arisanus during 6 h...
May 4, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465546/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-venom-glands-from-cotesia-vestalis-and-diadromus-collaris-two-endoparasitoids-of-the-host-plutella-xylostella
#10
Wei Zhao, Min Shi, Xi-Qian Ye, Fei Li, Xiao-Wei Wang, Xue-Xin Chen
Venoms secreted by the venom gland (VG) of parasitoid wasp help ensure successful parasitism by host immune suppression and developmental regulation. Cotesia vestalis, a larval endoparasitoid, and Diadromus collaris, a pupal endoparasitoid, parasitize the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. To explore and compare the venom components of two endoparasitoids, we sequenced transcriptomes of the VGs and wasp bodies without VGs (BWVGs) of the two endoparasitoids. Statistically enriched GO terms and KEGG pathways of the two VGs compared to respective whole-body background were similar and reflected active protein biosynthesis activities in the two VGs...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465512/lipidomics-and-rna-seq-study-of-lipid-regulation-in-aphis-gossypii-parasitized-by-lysiphlebia-japonica
#11
Gao XueKe, Zhang Shuai, Luo JunYu, Lü LiMin, Zhang LiJuan, Cui JinJie
The cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a major insect pest worldwide. Lysiphlebia japonica (Ashmead) is an obligate parasitic wasp of A. gossypii, and has the ability to regulate lipid metabolism of the cotton-melon aphid. Lipids are known to play critical roles in energy homeostasis, membrane structure, and signaling. However, the parasitoid genes that regulate fat metabolism and lipid composition in aphids are not known. 34 glycerolipids and 248 glycerophospholipids were identified in this study...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464964/bactrocera-oleae-induced-olive-vocs-routing-mate-searching-in-psyttalia-concolor-males-impact-of-associative-learning
#12
G Giunti, G Benelli, V Palmeri, A Canale
Olfaction is a key sense routing foraging behaviour in parasitoids. Preferences for food, mate and host stimuli can be innate in parasitic wasps. Alternatively, learning-mediated mechanisms play a crucial role. Females of the braconid parasitoid Psyttalia concolor exploit olfactory cues arising from tephritid hosts and related microhabitats. However, little is known on the olfactory stimuli routing males searching for mates. In this study, we focused on the attractiveness of Bactrocera oleae-induced olive volatiles towards P...
May 3, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459960/diversity-of-platygastridae-in-leaf-litter-and-understory-layers-of-tropical-rainforests-of-the-western-ghats-biodiversity-hotspot-india
#13
K Manoj, T P Rajesh, U Prashanth Ballullaya, K M Meharabi, V K Shibil, K Rajmohana, Palatty Allesh Sinu
Platygastridae is the third largest family of parasitic Hymenoptera in the world. It includes important egg and larval parasitoids of insects and spiders. Therefore, Platygastridae is functionally important in maintaining the stability of tropical rainforests and agroecosystems. Although the diversity of Platygastridae is relatively well-known in agroecosystems, we know little about their diversity in tropical rainforests, and particularly about that of the leaf litter layer. Here, we address the importance of monitoring Platygastridae in tropical rainforests, using data from the relic primary forests of the sacred groves of the Western Ghats...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459128/functional-characterization-of-a-niemann-pick-type-c2-protein-in-the-parasitoid-wasp-microplitis-mediator
#14
Yao Zheng, Shan-Ning Wang, Yong Peng, Zi-Yun Lu, Shuang Shan, Ye-Qing Yang, Rui-Jun Li, Yong-Jun Zhang, Yu-Yuan Guo
Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) is a type of small soluble protein involved in lipid metabolism and triglyceride accumulation in vertebrates and arthropods. Recent studies have determined that NPC2 also participates in chemical communication of arthropods. In this work, two novel NPC2 proteins (MmedNPC2a and MmedNPC2b) in Microplitis mediator were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that MmedNPC2a was expressed more higher in the antennae than in other tissues of adult wasps compared with MmedNPC2b...
April 29, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453570/contrasting-effects-of-heat-pulses-on-different-trophic-levels-an-experiment-with-a-herbivore-parasitoid-model-system
#15
Stijn J J Schreven, Enric Frago, Annemiek Stens, Peter W de Jong, Joop J A van Loon
Under predicted global climate change, species will be gradually exposed to warmer temperatures, and to a more variable climate including more intense and more frequent heatwaves. Increased climatic variability is expected to have different effects on species and ecosystems than gradual warming. A key challenge to predict the impact of climate change is to understand how temperature changes will affect species interactions. Herbivorous insects and their natural enemies belong to some of the largest groups of terrestrial animals, and thus they have a great impact on the functioning of ecosystems and on the services these ecosystems provide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449654/inter-and-intra-species-variation-in-genome-wide-gene-expression-of-drosophila-in-response-to-parasitoid-wasp-attack
#16
Laura Salazar-Jaramillo, Kirsten M Jalvingh, Ammerins de Haan, Ken Kraaijeveld, Henk Buermans, Bregje Wertheim
BACKGROUND: Parasitoid resistance in Drosophila varies considerably, among and within species. An immune response, lamellocyte-mediated encapsulation, evolved in a subclade of Drosophila and was subsequently lost in at least one species within this subclade. While the mechanisms of resistance are fairly well documented in D. melanogaster, much less is known for closely related species. Here, we studied the inter- and intra-species variation in gene expression after parasitoid attack in Drosophila...
April 27, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439681/side-effects-of-pesticides-used-in-irrigated-rice-areas-on-telenomus-podisi-ashmead-hymenoptera-platygastridae
#17
Juliano de Bastos Pazini, Rafael Antonio Pasini, Enio Júnior Seidel, Matheus Rakes, José Francisco da Silva Martins, Anderson Dionei Grützmacher
Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is an important agent for the biological control of stink bug eggs in irrigated rice areas and the best strategy for its preservation is the use of selective pesticides. The aim of this study was to know the side-effects of pesticides used in Brazilian irrigated rice areas on egg parasitoid T. podisi. We evaluated, under laboratory conditions, 13 insecticides, 11 fungicides, 11 herbicides, and a control (distilled water) in choice and no-choice tests. In the no-choice tests, the pesticides were sprayed at pre and post-parasitism stages (egg and larval stages of T...
April 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436049/elevated-carbon-dioxide-reduces-emission-of-herbivore-induced-volatiles-in-zea-mays
#18
Anna Block, Martha M Vaughan, Shawn A Christensen, Hans T Alborn, James H Tumlinson
Terpene volatiles produced by sweet corn (Zea mays) upon infestation with pests such as beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) function as part of an indirect defense mechanism by attracting parasitoid wasps; yet little is known about the impact of climate change on this form of plant defense. To investigate how a central component of climate change affects indirect defense, we measured herbivore induced volatile emissions in plants grown under elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ). We found that S. exigua infested or elicitor treated Z...
April 23, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434411/direct-and-indirect-resistance-of-sugarcane-to-diatraea-saccharalis-induced-by-jasmonic-acid
#19
P A Sanches, F Santos, M F G V Peñaflor, J M S Bento
Treating plants with synthetic jasmonic acid (JA) induces a defensive response similar to herbivore attack, and is a potential strategy for integrated pest management. Despite the importance of sugarcane, its JA-induced defences have not yet been studied. We investigated the effects of JA treatment on the direct and indirect resistance of sugarcane to the key-pest and specialist herbivore Diatraea saccharalis and the generalist Spodoptera frugiperda. Indirect defences were examined by testing the attraction of Cotesia flavipes, a sugarcane-borer parasitoid, to JA-induced volatile...
April 24, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432783/gene-structure-and-expression-characteristic-of-a-novel-odorant-receptor-gene-cluster-in-the-parasitoid-wasp-microplitis-mediator-hymenoptera-braconidae
#20
S-N Wang, S Shan, Y Zheng, Y Peng, Z-Y Lu, Y-Q Yang, R-J Li, Y-J Zhang, Y-Y Guo
Odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in the antennae of parasitoid wasps are responsible for detection of various lipophilic airborne molecules. In the present study, 107 novel OR genes were identified from Microplitis mediator antennal transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis of the set of OR genes from M. mediator and Microplitis demolitor revealed that M. mediator OR (MmedOR) genes can be classified into different subfamilies, and the majority of MmedORs in each subfamily shared high sequence identities and clear orthologous relationships to M...
April 22, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
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