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Hugo Mathé-Hubert, Dominique Colinet, Emeline Deleury, Maya Belghazi, Marc Ravallec, Julie Poulain, Carole Dossat, Marylène Poirié, Jean-Luc Gatti
Venom composition of parasitoid wasps attracts increasing interest - notably molecules ensuring parasitism success on arthropod pests - but its variation within and among taxa is not yet understood. We have identified here the main venom proteins of two braconid wasps, Psyttalia lounsburyi (two strains from South Africa and Kenya) and P. concolor, olive fruit fly parasitoids that differ in host range. Among the shared abundant proteins, we found a GH1 β-glucosidase and a family of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marie Collet, Chloé Vayssade, Alexandra Auguste, Laurence Mouton, Emmanuel Desouhant, Thibaut Malausa, Xavier Fauvergue
Sex determination is ruled by haplodiploidy in Hymenoptera, with haploid males arising from unfertilized eggs and diploid females from fertilized eggs. However, diploid males with null fitness are produced under complementary sex determination (CSD), when individuals are homozygous for this locus. Diploid males are expected to be more frequent in genetically eroded populations (such as islands and captive populations), as genetic diversity at the csd locus should be low. However, only a few studies have focused on the relation between population size, genetic diversity, and the proportion of diploid males in the field...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
P Glynn Tillman, Ted E Cottrell
Chinavia hilaris (Say), Euschistus servus (Say), Euschistus tristigmus (Say), and Thyanta custator custator (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are serious pests of crops in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning their dispersal from noncrop hosts in woodlands into crops. This 2-yr study was conducted to investigate whether elderberry [Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli] in woodlands serves as a source of stink bugs dispersing into adjacent crops and to examine parasitism of C...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Stefan Schmidt, Andreas Taeger, Jérôme Morinière, Andrew Liston, Stephan M Blank, Katja Kramp, Manfred Kraus, Olga Schmidt, Erik Heibo, Marko Prous, Tommi Nyman, Tobias Malm, Julie Stahlhut
The 'Symphyta' is a paraphyletic assemblage at the base of the order Hymenoptera, comprising 14 families and about 8,750 species. All have phytophagous larvae, except for the Orussidae, which are parasitoids. This study presents and evaluates the results of DNA barcoding of approximately 5,360 specimens of 'Symphyta', mainly adults, and 4,362 sequences covering 1,037 species were deemed of suitable quality for inclusion in the analysis. All extant families are represented, except for the Anaxyelidae. The majority of species and specimens are from Europe, but approximately 38% of the species and 13% of the specimens are of non-European origin...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Marcel D Torode, Kirk L Barnett, Sarah L Facey, Uffe N Nielsen, Sally A Power, Scott N Johnson
Climate change is predicted to result in altered precipitation patterns, which may reshape many grassland ecosystems. Rainfall is expected to change in a number of different ways, ranging from periods of prolonged drought to extreme precipitation events, yet there are few community wide studies to accurately simulate future changes. We aimed to test how above- and below-ground grassland invertebrate populations were affected by contrasting future rainfall scenarios. We subjected a grassland community to potential future rainfall scenarios including ambient, increased amount (+50% of ambient), reduced amount (-50% of ambient), reduced frequency (no water for 21 days, followed by the total ambient rainfall applied in a single application) and summer drought (no rainfall for 13 weeks during the growing season)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
A Wood, E B Haga, V A Costa, M N Rossi
Bruchine beetles are highly host-specific seed feeders during the larval stage. Although some specific parasitoid families have been recorded attacking bruchine beetles, most studies have been done at small spatial scales. Therefore, the current knowledge about the diversity and the geographic distribution of parasitoid species parasitizing bruchines is scarce, especially at a wide geographic area that extends over large distances through a latitudinal cline (i.e. large-scale spatial structure). The present study determined the species richness and evenness of parasitoids attacking the bruchine beetle Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus feeding on Leucaena leucocephala seeds, examined their geographic distribution, and characterized the large-scale spatial structure in parasitoid species composition...
October 21, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
V Savino, M G Luna, N G Salas Gervassio, C E Coviella
Interspecific interactions between two larval parasitoids of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) with partially overlapping host niches were studied: the idiobiont ectoparasitoid Dineulophus phthorimaeae De Santis, and the koinobiont endoparasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck). T. absoluta is an important pest of tomato crops worldwide, and its management could be improved by understanding the competitive interactions and potential coexistence between these two parasitoids. Firstly, a 15-min fixed time laboratory test evaluated the host-searching ability of adult D...
October 21, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Luis Abdala-Roberts, Johnattan Hernández-Cumplido, Luis Chel-Guerrero, David Betancur-Ancona, Betty Benrey, Xoaquín Moreira
PREMISE OF STUDY: Although there is increasing recognition of the effects of plant intraspecific diversity on consumers, the mechanisms by which such effects cascade-up to higher trophic levels remain elusive. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of plant (lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus) intraspecific diversity on a suite of insect herbivores (leaf-chewers, aphids, and seed-eating beetles) and their third trophic-level associates (parasitoids and aphid-tending ants)...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Botany
Hannes Schuler, Peter Kern, Wolfgang Arthofer, Heidrun Vogt, Maximilian Fischer, Christian Stauffer, Markus Riegler
The eastern cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest of cherries in North America. In 1983 it was first reported in Europe where it shares its ecological niche with the native European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi L. (Diptera: Tephritidae). Their coexistence in Europe led to the recent horizontal transmission of the Wolbachia strain wCer1 from R. cerasi to R. cingulata Horizontal Wolbachia transmission is mediated by either sharing of ecological niches or by interacting species such as parasitoids...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Mary L Cornelius, Christine Dieckhoff, Bryan T Vinyard, Kim A Hoelmer
We conducted a survey to examine parasitism, predation, and the species composition of native parasitoids attacking sentinel egg masses of the invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), in bell pepper, squash, and tomato. A 2-yr survey was conducted for each crop. The species composition of parasitoids was determined for parasitoids that successfully emerged from eggs, parasitoids that were identified from dissections, and parasitoids that were found attending egg masses at the time of collection...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Q L Wang, T-X Liu
Insect growth regulators (IGRs) disrupt the normal activity of the endocrine or hormone system of insects, affecting the development, reproduction, or metamorphosis of the target insects, and normally causing less detrimental effects to beneficial insects. The effects of three IGRs (pyriproxyfen, fenoxycarb, and buprofezin) on Encarsia formosa Gahan, an endoparasitoid of whiteflies, were determined using B. tabaci as a host. We assessed the effects of the IGRs on parasitoid's larval development, pupation, emergence, and contact effects of the dry residues on plant leaf and glass vial surface on adult mortality and parasitism...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
María G Luna, Nicolas Desneux, Marcela I Schneider
Endoparasitoids can be killed by host encapsulation, a cellular-mediated host immunological response against parasitism that involves hemocytes aggregation. As a counteracting strategy, many parasitoids can evade this host response through self-superparasitism. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) early immature stages (egg and larva) encapsulation by the host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and 2) to determine the occurrence of self-superparasitism and the rate of escaping to encapsulation of this parasitoid...
2016: PloS One
M Constanza Mannino, Máximo Rivarola, Alejandra C Scannapieco, Sergio González, Marisa Farber, Jorge L Cladera, Silvia B Lanzavecchia
BACKGROUND: Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary parasitoid of Tephritidae (Diptera) fruit flies of economic importance currently being mass-reared in bio-factories and successfully used worldwide. A peculiar biological aspect of Hymenoptera is its haplo-diploid life cycle, where females (diploid) develop from fertilized eggs and males (haploid) from unfertilized eggs. Diploid males were described in many species and recently evidenced in D. longicaudata by mean of inbreeding studies...
October 12, 2016: BMC Genomics
Tolulope Morawo, Henry Fadamiro
Herbivores emit plant-associated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) after feeding on plants. These plant-associated VOCs can be used by parasitoids to locate their hosts. It is hypothesized that certain compounds play key roles in the attractiveness of host-associated odor blends. The larval parasitoid, Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its herbivore host, Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a major pest of cotton plant were used as model species to identify key compounds mediating attraction of parasitoids to hosts...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jessica Dittmer, Edward J van Opstal, J Dylan Shropshire, Seth R Bordenstein, Gregory D D Hurst, Robert M Brucker
The parasitoid wasp genus Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) is a well-established model organism for insect development, evolutionary genetics, speciation, and symbiosis. The host-microbiota assemblage which constitutes the Nasonia holobiont (a host together with all of its associated microbes) consists of viruses, two heritable bacterial symbionts and a bacterial community dominated in abundance by a few taxa in the gut. In the wild, all four Nasonia species are systematically infected with the obligate intracellular bacterium Wolbachia and can additionally be co-infected with Arsenophonus nasoniae...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Apostolos Kapranas, Charles J P Snart, Huw Williams, Ian C W Hardy, David A Barrett
Metabolomics studies of low-biomass organisms, such as small insects, have previously relied on the pooling of biological samples to overcome detection limits, particularly using NMR. We show that the differentiation of metabolite profiles of individual 1 mg parasitoid wasps of different ages is possible when using a modified sample preparation and a combination of untargeted NMR and LC-MS based metabolomics. Changes were observed between newly emerged and older wasps in glycerolipids, amino acids and circulatory sugars...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Saskya van Nouhuys, Minna Kohonen, Anne Duplouy
The success of maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacteria, such as Wolbachia, is directly linked to their host reproduction but in direct conflict with other parasites that kill the host before it reaches reproductive maturity. Therefore, symbionts that have evolved strategies to increase their host's ability to evade lethal parasites may have high penetrance, while detrimental symbionts would be selected against, leading to lower penetrance or extinction from the host population. In a natural population of the parasitoid wasp Hyposoter horticola in the Åland Islands (Finland), the Wolbachia strain wHho persists at an intermediate prevalence (∼50%)...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
T N Wittman, K A Miller, B H King
Cues from emergence sites may be predictive of mating opportunities if potential mates are slow to disperse after emergence, and particularly if emergence sites are clumped, as in the solitary parasitoid wasp Urolepis rufipes Ashmead. Males emerge before females, and the present study suggests that males may use emergence sites of conspecific males to locate mates. In choice experiments, virgin males spent more time on a male-emerged host (a host from which a male had recently emerged) than on a female-emerged host...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Seraina Klopfstein
The Australian insect fauna is among the least-well studied in the world, and conservative estimates state that 75% of the species still await description. In the more species-rich groups, this percentage might be even larger, which is certainly the case in parasitoid wasps which have received very little attention by taxonomists. The genus Pristomerus of the family Ichneumonidae is distributed worldwide, with most species found in the tropics. Its members attack concealed larvae of small Lepidoptera, and several species are used in biocontrol...
September 15, 2016: Zootaxa
Azusa Kageyama, Shinji Sugiura
Caterpillar hairs are thought to act as a physical barrier against natural enemies, including parasitoids. However, very few studies have experimentally demonstrated how hairs protect caterpillars from parasitoid oviposition. To clarify the importance of caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence, we observed the generalist endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking both smooth and hairy caterpillars under laboratory conditions. A female Meteorus pulchricornis uses its ovipositor to inject venom and lay a single egg inside host larvae...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
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