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Santosh Shrestha, Henrik Bak Topbjerg, Nanna Karkov Ytting, Henrik Skovgård, Birte Boelt
BACKGROUND: Multispectral (MS) imaging system is a non-destructive method that has potential in reducing labour and time required for quality control in the production of beneficial arthropods like the parasitoid Bathyplectus curculionis. In Denmark, a project is focusing on possible use of B. curculionis in augmentative control of Hypera weevil pests in white clover seed production where cocoons of the parasitoid remain as a by-product of seed processing. Only a fraction of the by-product contains live parasitoid larvae and requires an effective method for sorting the live cocoons for later augmentative control of the pest...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Belén Cotes, Mónica González, Emilio Benítez, Eva De Mas, Gemma Clemente-Orta, Mercedes Campos, Estefanía Rodríguez
The promotion of native vegetation as a habitat for natural enemies, which could increase their abundance and fitness, is especially useful in highly simplified settings such as Mediterranean greenhouse landscapes. Spiders as generalist predators may also be involved in intra-guild predation. However, the niche complementarity provided by spiders as a group means that increased spider diversity may facilitate complementary control actions. In this study, the interactions between spiders, the two major horticultural pests, Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis , and their naturally occurring predators and parasitoids were evaluated in a mix of 21 newly planted shrubs selected for habitat management in a highly disturbed horticultural system...
March 14, 2018: Insects
Umberto Bernardo, Francesco Nugnes, Liberata Gualtieri, Rosario Nicoletti, Paola Varricchio, Raffaele Sasso, Gennaro Viggiani
A new gall midge, Asphondylia nepetae sp. n. Viggiani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), causing flower gall on Clinopodium nepeta (L.) Kuntze (Lamiaceae), is described from Europe. The morphological characteristics of adult, larvae, and pupa are described and illustrated. Molecular approach (by sequencing 28S-D2, ITS2, and COI) confirmed that A. nepetae is a distinct species. The development of the gall is always associated with the presence of the fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug.: Fr.) Ces. and De Not. (Botryosphaeriales: Botryosphaeriaceae)...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Maria Luisa Dindo, Satoshi Nakamura
Oviposition strategies and mechanisms of host selection in parasitoids may be crucial for the success of parasitization and parasitoid production. These aspects are far less known in tachinid parasitoids than in hymenopteran parasitoids. Depending on the species, parasitoid flies may adopt direct or indirect oviposition strategies. The 'direct type' females lay eggs on or, in relatively a few species, inside the host body. This review describes cues involved in host selection by tachinid parasitoids and their oviposition strategies and presents 2 case studies in more detail, focusing on Exorista larvarum and Exorista japonica ...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
Natalie Niepoth, Jacintha Ellers, Lee M Henry
BACKGROUND: Facultative symbionts are common in eukaryotes and can provide their hosts with significant fitness benefits. Despite the advantage of carrying these microbes, they are typically only found in a fraction of the individuals within a population and are often non-randomly distributed among host populations. It is currently unclear why facultative symbionts are only found in certain host individuals and populations. Here we provide evidence for a mechanism to help explain this phenomenon: that when symbionts interact with non-native host genotypes it can limit the horizontal transfer of symbionts to particular host lineages and populations of related hosts...
March 12, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Sinue I Morales, Ana M Martínez, Elisa Viñuela, Juan M Chavarrieta, José I Figueroa, Marcela I Schneider, Fernando Tamayo, Samuel Pineda
Lethal and sublethal effects of refined soybean oil, imidacloprid, and abamectin on Tamarixia triozae (Burks; Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were assessed after exposure of the eggs, larvae, and pupae of this parasitoid to three concentrations of these active substances: the LC50 for fourth-instar Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc.; Hemiptera: Triozidae) and 50% and 100% of the minimum field-registered concentration (MiFRC). Soybean oil caused 26-61% mortality in T. triozae eggs and 6-19% in larvae; mortality in both eggs and larvae was ≤19% for imidacloprid and 4-100% for abamectin...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Francisco Infante
Coffee (Coffea arabica and C. canephora) is one of the most widely traded agricultural commodities and the main cash crop in ca. 80 tropical countries. Among the factors that limit coffee production, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) has been considered the main insect pest, causing losses of over US$500 million dollars annually. Control of this pest has been hindered by two main factors: the cryptic nature of the insect (i.e., protected inside the coffee berry), and the availability of coffee berries in the field allowing the survival of the pest from one generation to the next...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hai-Yun Xu, Nian-Wan Yang, Hsin Chi, Guo-Dong Ren, Fang-Hao Wan
BACKGROUND: The autoparasitoid Encarsia sophia and the primary parasitoid Eretmocerus hayati are two important parasitoids against the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, with different reproductive strategies. To incorporate these two parasitoids into a sustainable whitefly control program, it is necessary to evaluate and compare the fitness and biocontrol effectiveness of them under identical experimental conditions. The demographic characteristics, parasitism rate and host feeding rate of En...
March 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Vinicius A D'Ávila, Wagner F Barbosa, Raul N C Guedes, G Christopher Cutler
Insecticides can affect biological control by parasitoids. Here, we examined the lethal and sublethal effects of two conventional insecticides, imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a reduced-risk bioinsecticide, spinosad, on the aphid parasitoid Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Concentration-mortality curves generated from insecticide residue bioassays found that wasps were nearly 20-fold more susceptible to spinosad than imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin. Imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin compromised adult parasitoid longevity, but not as dramatically as spinosad: concentrations >200 ng spinosad/cm2 reduced wasp longevity by half...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Carlos Eduardo Pereira Nunes, Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama, Marianne Azevedo-Silva, Marlies Sazima
Nursery pollination involves pollinators that lay eggs on the flowers they pollinate and have their brood fed on flower parts or developing ovules [1-4]. Active pollination, a ritualistic behavioral sequence shown by nursery pollinators when transferring pollen from anthers to stigmas, is known in only four plant lineages [5-8], including the classical examples of fig trees-fig wasps and yuccas-yucca moths [5, 6]. We report in detail a system in which weevils actively pollinate orchids prior to having their larvae fed on the developing fruits...
March 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Marlène Chirault, Christophe Bressac, Marlène Goubault, Charlotte Lécureuil
Insect reproduction is influenced by various external factors including temperature, a well studied constraint. We investigated to what extent different levels of sperm limitation of males exposed to different heat-stresses (34°C and 36°C) affect females' offspring production and sex allocation in Nasonia vitripennis. In this haplodiploid parasitoid wasp attacking different species of pest flies, we investigated the effect of the quantity of sperm females received and stored in their spermatheca on their sperm use decisions, hence sex allocation, over successive ovipositions...
March 9, 2018: Insect Science
Eiko Arai, Kazuo Ishii, Hiroki Ishii, Shiori Sagawa, Nao Makiyama, Tetsuya Mizutani, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Yasuhisa Kunimi, Maki N Inoue, Madoka Nakai
The family Ascoviridae is a recently described virus family whose members are transmitted by parasitoids and cause chronic and lethal infections in lepidopteran insects. Little is known about the biology and ecology of ascoviruses, and few isolates have been found outside the United States. We report here the isolation of a new ascovirus variant from Spodoptera litura in Japan. Full genome sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that this virus was closely related to variants in Heliothis virescens ascovirus-3a, and it was named HvAV-3j...
March 8, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Nicola Cook, Rebecca A Boulton, Jade Green, Urmi Trivedi, Eran Tauber, Bart A Pannebakker, Michael G Ritchie, David M Shuker
Whole-transcriptome technologies have been widely used in behavioural genetics to identify genes associated with the performance of a behaviour and provide clues to its mechanistic basis. Here, we consider the genetic basis of sex allocation behaviour in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis . Female Nasonia facultatively vary their offspring sex ratio in line with Hamilton's theory of local mate competition (LMC). A single female or 'foundress' laying eggs on a patch will lay just enough sons to fertilize her daughters...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Sana Zouari, Monia Kamel Ben Halima, Mariana Reyes-Prieto, Amparo Latorre, Rosario Gil
Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) can harbor two types of bacterial symbionts. In addition to the obligate endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola Munson, Baumann and Kinsey 1991 (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), several facultative symbiotic bacteria, called secondary (S) symbionts, have been identified among many important pest aphid species. To determine interpopulational diversity of S-symbionts, we carried out a survey in a total of 18 populations of six aphid species collected from six localities in Tunisia, by performing a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction analysis of partial 16S-23S rRNA operon sequences...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Paul S Botch, Ernest S Delfosse
Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) is an egg parasitoid wasp from East Asia. It is considered to be an important natural enemy of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Ongoing efforts to evaluate the physiological host range of this potential classical biological control agent have demonstrated that the wasp can parasitize at least 11 genera of nontarget Pentatomoidea in North America in no-choice tests. However, factors such as host-acceptance behavior that might affect nontarget parasitism in the field are poorly understood...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Samuel K Muchemi, Claus P W Zebitz, Christian Borgemeister, Komivi S Akutse, Caroline N Foba, Sunday Ekesi, Komi K M Fiaboe
Agromyzid Liriomyza leafminer flies are a major threat to horticultural production in East Africa with low natural control reported. The endoparasitoid Chrysocharis flacilla (Walker; Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was introduced from Peru into quarantine facilities at ICIPE in Kenya for a leafminer classical biological control program. Interaction assays with one of the dominant local parasitoids, Diglyphus isaea (Walker; Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), using Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard; Diptera: Agromyzidae) was assessed through sole, simultaneous and sequential releases...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jing Yang, Hong-Xia Liu, Ya-Xiao Li, Zhao-Ming Wei
The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Podagrion sp. (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) is described. The mitogenome was 15,845 bp in size, and contained typical sets of mitochondrial genes. The base composition of the Podagrion sp. mitogenome was also biased toward A + T bases (81.8%). The mitochondrial genome of Podagrion sp. has a weak AT skew (0.07) and a strong GC skew (-0.26). Podagrion sp. exhibits a novel rearrangement compared with the ancestral order, including six protein-coding genes (nad3, cox3, atp6, atp8, cox2 and cox1), which have inverted to the minor strand from the major strand...
March 2, 2018: Genomics
Ayad Masry, John P Cunningham, Anthony R Clarke
Associative learning is well documented in Hymenopteran parasitoids, where it is thought to be an adaptive mechanism for increasing successful host location in complex environments. Based on this learning capacity, it has been suggested that providing pre-release training to parasitoids reared for inundative release may lead to a subsequent increase in their efficacy as biological control agents. Using the fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha krausii we tested this hypothesis in a series of associative learning experiments which involved the parasitoid, two host fruits (tomatoes and nectarine), and one host fly (Bactrocera tryoni)...
March 5, 2018: Insect Science
Carmelo Peter Bonsignore, Umberto Bernardo
The chestnut gall wasp (CGW), Dryocosmus kuriphilus, an invasive pest native to China, has caused severe yield and economic losses to chestnut production in Europe since its arrival in 2002. In Southern Italy, the complex of indigenous parasitoids colonizing CGW was monitored between 2013 and 2015, with the aim of estimating the composition of the indigenous parasitoid complex, its ability to control CGW populations, and the interactions of both factors with several measured environmental parameters. We compared results among three differently managed field types...
March 2, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
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