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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213920/potato-aphid-macrosiphum-euphorbiae-performance-is-determined-by-aphid-genotype-and-not-mycorrhizal-fungi-or-water-availability
#1
Alison Jane Karley, Matthew Emslie-Smith, Alison Elizabeth Bennett
Intra- and inter-specific variation in plant and insect traits can alter the strength and direction of insect-plant interactions, with outcomes modified by soil biotic and abiotic conditions. We used the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas) feeding on cultivated S. tuberosum and wild S. berthaulti to study the impact of water availability and plant mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on aphid performance and susceptibility to a parasitoid wasp (Aphidius ervi Haliday). Plants were grown under glass with live or sterile AM fungal spores and supplied with sufficient or reduced water supply...
February 18, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206701/differential-responses-of-helicoverpa-armigera-c-type-immunlectin-genes-to-the-endoparasitoid-campoletis-chlorideae
#2
Xiong-Ya Wang, Su-Fen Bai, Xin Li, Shi-Heng An, Xin-Ming Yin, Xian-Chun Li
The C-type lectins mediate nonself recognition in insects. The previous studies focused on host immunlectin response to bacterial infection; however, the molecular basis of immunlectin reactions to endoparasitoids has not been elucidated. The present study investigated the effect of parasitization by Campoletis chlorideae on hemagglutination activity (HA; defined as the ability of lectin to agglutinate erythrocytes or other cells), and transcriptional expression of C-type immunlectin genes in the larval host, Helicoverpa armigera...
February 16, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199361/bombyx-mori-and-aedes-aegypti-form-multi-functional-immune-complexes-that-integrate-pattern-recognition-melanization-coagulants-and-hemocyte-recruitment
#3
Dennis R Phillips, Kevin D Clark
The innate immune system of insects responds to wounding and pathogens by mobilizing multiple pathways that provide both systemic and localized protection. Key localized responses in hemolymph include melanization, coagulation, and hemocyte encapsulation, which synergistically seal wounds and envelop and destroy pathogens. To be effective, these pathways require a targeted deposition of their components to provide protection without compromising the host. Extensive research has identified a large number of the effectors that comprise these responses, but questions remain regarding their post-translational processing, function, and targeting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198464/sublethal-doses-of-imidacloprid-disrupt-sexual-communication-and-host-finding-in-a-parasitoid-wasp
#4
Lars Tappert, Tamara Pokorny, John Hofferberth, Joachim Ruther
Neonicotinoids are widely used insecticides, but their use is subject of debate because of their detrimental effects on pollinators. Little is known about the effect of neonicotinoids on other beneficial insects such as parasitoid wasps, which serve as natural enemies and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. Here we show that sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid impair sexual communication and host finding in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Depending on the dose, treated females were less responsive to the male sex pheromone or unable to use it as a cue at all...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195346/herbivore-induced-plant-volatiles-and-tritrophic-interactions-across-spatial-scales
#5
Yavanna Aartsma, Felix J J A Bianchi, Wopke van der Werf, Erik H Poelman, Marcel Dicke
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are an important cue used in herbivore location by carnivorous arthropods such as parasitoids. The effects of plant volatiles on parasitoids have been well characterised at small spatial scales, but little research has been done on their effects at larger spatial scales. The spatial matrix of volatiles ('volatile mosaic') within which parasitoids locate their hosts is dynamic and heterogeneous. It is shaped by the spatial pattern of HIPV-emitting plants, the concentration, chemical composition and breakdown of the emitted HIPV blends, and by environmental factors such as wind, turbulence and vegetation that affect transport and mixing of odour plumes...
February 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188590/pesticide-stress-on-plants-negatively-affects-parasitoid-fitness-through-a-bypass-of-their-phytophage-hosts
#6
Andries A Kampfraath, Daniel Giesen, Cornelis A M van Gestel, Cécile Le Lann
Pesticides taken up by plants from the soil or interstitial (pore) water can cascade to higher trophic levels, which are expected to be more affected due to cumulative bottom-up effects. Knowledge about the impact of indirect exposure to pesticides on non-target terrestrial trophic chains, however, is still lacking. Therefore, we examined the direct and indirect effects of three concentrations of the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) and an insecticide with a similar molecular structure (1,4-dichlorobenzene, DCB) on the fitness traits of a tritrophic system: the wheat plant Triticum aestivum, the aphid Sitobion avenae and its specialist parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi...
February 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187618/a-new-species-of-i-jomine-i-graf-kumagai-hymenoptera-ichneumonidae-%C3%A2-campopleginae-from-brazil
#7
Andres Fabian Herrera-Florez, Mariana Geraldo, Manoel Martins Dias Filho, Angelica Penteado-Dias
The genus Jomine Graf-Kumagai has two described species known only from Brazil. A new species, J. paulista Herrera-Florez sp. n. is described and its host is given here. The material used in this work was obtained during a survey of the Geometridae larvae and their parasitoids in an understory at São Paulo, Brazil. An identification key to the species of Jomine is provided.
January 26, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187598/a-new-species-of-i-phanerotoma-i-wesmael-hymenoptera-braconidae-cheloninae-parasitoid-of-the-carob-moth-in-south-africa
#8
Cornelis VAN Achterberg, Sean R Thackeray, Martin P Hill
A new species, Phanerotoma carobivora van Achterberg & Thackeray, sp. nov. is described from South Africa. It is a common endoparasitoid of the carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Pyralidae) on pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) and citrus fruits in South Africa. Mean percentage of parasitism varied 2-30% between host plants and sampled localities.
January 31, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187245/molecular-phylogeny-and-ultrastructure-of-aphelidium-desmodesmi-a-new-species-in-aphelida-opisthosporidia
#9
Peter M Letcher, Martha J Powell, Philip A Lee, Salvador Lopez, Micheal Burnett
Aphelids are a diverse group of intracellular parasitoids of algae and diatoms, and are sister to true fungi. Included in four genera, the 14 described species utilize phagocytosis as their mode of nutrition, and the life cycles of these taxa are remarkably similar. However, their putative specificity of host, morphological and ultrastructural features, and genetic divergence have been considered in taxon delineation. Here we examine the host specificity, morphology, ultrastructure, and molecular 18S gene sequence of a new species in Aphelida, Aphelidium desmodesmi sp...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183831/ecological-and-evolutionary-consequences-of-tri-trophic-interactions-spatial-variation-and-effects-of-plant-density
#10
Luis Abdala-Roberts, Víctor Parra-Tabla, Xoaquín Moreira, José Ramos-Zapata
PREMISE OF STUDY: The factors driving variation in species interactions are often unknown, and few studies have made a link between changes in interactions and the strength of selection. METHODS: We report on spatial variation in functional responses by a seed predator (SP) and its parasitic wasps associated with the herb Ruellia nudiflora. We assessed the influence of plant density on consumer responses and determined whether density effects and spatial variation in functional responses altered natural selection by these consumers on the plant...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28172869/decay-of-sexual-trait-genes-in-an-asexual-parasitoid-wasp
#11
Ken Kraaijeveld, Seyed Yahya Anvar, Jeroen Frank, Arnoud Schmitz, Jens Bast, Jeanne Wilbrandt, Malte Petersen, Tanja Ziesmann, Oliver Niehuis, Peter de Knijff, Johan T den Dunnen, Jacintha Ellers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168034/tracing-the-history-and-ecological-context-of-wolbachia-double-infection-in-a-specialist-host-urophora-cardui-parasitoid-eurytoma-serratulae-system
#12
Jes Johannesen
The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia is the most widespread bacteria in insects, yet the ecology of novel acquisitions in natural host populations is poorly understood. Using temporal data separated by 12 years, I tested the hypothesis that immigration of a parasitoid wasp led to transmission of its Wolbachia strain to its dipteran host, resulting in double-strain infection, and I used geographic and community surveys to explore the history of transmission in fly and parasitoid. Double infection in the fly host was present before immigration of the parasitoid...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168032/no-inbreeding-depression-in-laboratory-reared-individuals-of-the-parasitoid-wasp-allotropa-burrelli
#13
Bastien Quaglietti, Lucie Tamisier, Géraldine Groussier, Alexandre Fleisch, Isabelle Le Goff, Nicolas Ris, Philippe Kreiter, Xavier Fauvergue, Thibaut Malausa
Inbreeding depression is a major concern in almost all human activities relating to plant and animal breeding. The biological control of pests with natural enemies is no exception, because populations of biocontrol agents experience a series of bottlenecks during importation, rearing, and introduction. A classical biological control program for the Comstock mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was initiated in France in 2008, based on the introduction of an exotic parasitoid, Allotropa burrelli Mues...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159793/aphid-heritable-symbiont-exploits-defensive-mutualism
#14
Matthew R Doremus, Kerry M Oliver
: Insects and other animals commonly form symbioses with heritable bacteria, which can exert large influences on host biology and ecology. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is a model for studying effects of infection with heritable facultative symbionts (HFS) and each of its seven common HFS species have been reported to provide resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. However, one common HFS, called X-type, rarely occurs as a single infection in field populations and instead typically superinfects individual aphids with Hamiltonella defensa, another HFS that protects aphids against attack by parasitic wasps...
February 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158280/proximate-mechanism-of-behavioral-manipulation-of-an-orb-weaver-spider-host-by-a-parasitoid-wasp
#15
Thiago Gechel Kloss, Marcelo Oliveira Gonzaga, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Carlos Frankl Sperber
Some ichneumonid wasps induce modifications in the web building behavior of their spider hosts to produce resistant "cocoon" webs. These structures hold and protect the wasp's cocoon during pupa development. The mechanism responsible for host manipulation probably involves the inoculation of psychotropic chemicals by the parasitoid larva during a specific developmental period. Recent studies indicate that some spiders build cocoon webs similar to those normally built immediately before ecdysis, suggesting that this substance might be a molting hormone or a precursor chemical of this hormone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149691/brood-size-and-sex-ratio-in-response-to-host-quality-and-wasp-traits-in-the-gregarious-parasitoid-oomyzus-sokolowskii-hymenoptera-eulophidae
#16
Xianwei Li, Liangting Zhu, Ling Meng, Baoping Li
This laboratory study investigated whether the larval-pupal parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii females adjust their brood size and sex ratio in response to body size and stage of Plutella xylostella larval hosts, as well as to their own body size and the order of oviposition. These factors were analyzed using multiple regression with simultaneous entry of them and their two-way interactions. Parasitoids brood size tended to increase with host body size at parasitism when the 4th instar larval host was attacked, but did not change when the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae were attacked...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146561/at-lunch-with-a-killer-the-effect-of-weaver-ants-on-host-parasitoid-interactions-on-mango
#17
Valentina Migani, Sunday Ekesi, Katharina Merkel, Thomas Hoffmeister
Predator-prey interactions can affect the behaviour of the species involved, with consequences for population distribution and competitive interactions. Under predation pressure, potential prey may adopt evasive strategies. These responses can be costly and could impact population growth. As some prey species may be more affected than others, predation pressure could also alter the dynamics among species within communities. In field cages and small observation cages, we studied the interactions between a generalist predator, the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda, two species of fruit flies that are primary pests of mango fruits, Ceratitis cosyra and Bactrocera dorsalis, and their two exotic parasitoids, Fopius arisanus and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144803/effect-of-petroleum-derived-substances-on-life-history-traits-of-black-bean-aphid-aphis-fabae-scop-and-on-the-growth-and-chemical-composition-of-broad-bean
#18
Milena Rusin, Janina Gospodarek, Aleksandra Nadgórska-Socha, Gabriela Barczyk
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various petroleum-derived substances, namely petrol, diesel fuel and spent engine oil, on life history traits and population dynamics of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. and on growth and chemical composition of its host plant Vicia faba L. Each substance was tested separately, using two concentrations (9 g kg(-1) and 18 g kg(-1)). The experiment was conducted in four replications (four pots with five plants in each pot per treatment). Plants were cultivated in both control and contaminated soils...
January 31, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144185/terminal-instar-larval-systematics-and-biology-of-west-european-species-of-ormyridae-associated-with-insect-galls-hymenoptera-chalcidoidea
#19
Jose F Gómez, María Hernández Nieves, Severiano F Gayubo, Jose Luis Nieves-Aldrey
A systematic study of the genus Ormyrus (Chalcidoidea, Ormyridae) was conducted based on the morphology and biology of the terminal-instar larvae of ten west European species that are parasitoids of gall wasps and gallflies of the families Cynipidae, Eurytomidae and Tephritidae. The first detailed descriptions are provided of the terminal-instar larvae of these ten species using SEM images to illustrate diagnostic characters with systematic values. A key is provided for the identification of ormyrid larvae associated with galls in Europe, which is based particularly on characters of the head, mouthparts and mandibles...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127857/superparasitism-immune-response-and-optimum-progeny-yield-in-the-gregarious-parasitoid-palmisticus-elaeisis
#20
Kleber de S Pereira, Nelsa Maria P Guedes, José E Serrão, José C Zanuncio, Raul Narciso C Guedes
BACKGROUND: The subsequent deposition of an egg clutch by a female parasitoid into a host already parasitized either by itself or a conspecific (i.e., superparasitism) is a counter-intuitive adaptive strategy particularly considering the female parasitoid's ability to recognize the parasitized hosts. Such scenario is suggestive that the adaptive value of superparasitism depends on the number of clutches laid in the same host, with consequences for parasitoid progeny yield. Here we tested if such is the case for the gregarious parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis and explored its underlying basis...
January 27, 2017: Pest Management Science
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