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Stephen J Burr, Deborah G McCullough, Therese M Poland
Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding buprestid, has killed hundreds of millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and two Canadian provinces. We evaluated EAB persistence in post-invasion sites and compared EAB adult captures and larval densities in 24 forested sites across an east-west gradient in southern Michigan representing the Core (post-invasion), Crest (high EAB populations), and Cusp (recently infested areas) of the EAB invasion wave...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Heather Grab, Bryan Danforth, Katja Poveda, Greg Loeb
Agricultural intensification resulting in the simplification of agricultural landscapes is known to negatively impact the delivery of key ecosystem services such as the biological control of crop pests. Both conservation and classical biological control may be influenced by the landscape context in which they are deployed; yet studies examining the role of landscape structure in the establishment and success of introduced natural enemies and their interactions with native communities are lacking. In this study, we investigated the relationship between landscape simplification, classical and conservation biological control services and importantly, the outcome of these interactions for crop yield...
January 18, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Ted C J Turlings, Matthias Erb
Tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores, and their natural enemies are an integral part of all terrestrial ecosystems. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) play a key role in these interactions, as they can attract predators and parasitoids to herbivore-attacked plants. Thirty years after this discovery, the ecological importance of the phenomena is widely recognized. However, the primary function of HIPVs is still subject to much debate, as is the possibility of using these plant-produced cues in crop protection...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Jan Hubert, Vaclav Stejskal, Christos G Athanassiou, James E Throne
Insects and mites are common inhabitants and accidental invaders of food, including durable commodities, and their presence can have both direct and indirect effects on human health. The most common direct effect is contamination of food with arthropod fragments and related contaminants, which may be allergenic or even carcinogenic. The most important indirect effect is that their presence can change the storage microenvironment, making durable products suitable for the rapid development of fungi and other microorganisms...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Jeremy C Andersen, Nicholas J Mills
Coevolution may be an important component of the sustainability of importation biological control, but how frequently introduced natural enemies coevolve with their target pests is unclear. Here we explore whether comparative population genetics of the invasive walnut aphid, Chromaphis juglandicola, and its introduced parasitoid, Trioxys pallidus, provide insights into the localized breakdown of biological control services in walnut orchards in California. We found that sampled populations of C. juglandicola exhibited higher estimates of genetic differentiation (FST) than co-occurring populations of T...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Lisa Pfeiffer, Joachim Ruther, John Hofferberth, Johannes Stökl
According to current evolutionary theory, insect pheromones can originate from extant precursor compounds being selected for information transfer. This is exemplified by females of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma whose defensive secretion consisting mainly of (-)-iridomyrmecin has evolved secondary functions as cue to avoid other females during host search and as female sex pheromone. To promote our understanding of pheromone evolution from defensive secretions we studied the chemical ecology of Leptopilina clavipes...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jun-Ce Tian, Xiang-Ping Wang, Yang Chen, Jörg Romeis, Steven E Naranjo, Richard L Hellmich, Ping Wang, Anthony M Shelton
Cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) is an important lepidopteran pest on many vegetable and greenhouse crops, and some field crops. Although there are no commercial transgenic Bt vegetable or greenhouse crops, T. ni is a target of Bollgard II cotton, which produces Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. We expand on previous work that examined the effect of Bt crops on parasitoids using Bt-resistant lepidopteran populations as hosts. Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab-resistant T. ni larvae were used to eliminate host quality effects and to evaluate the direct effects of Bt cotton on the parasitoids Copidosoma floridanum (Ashmead) and Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson)...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elena Rosa, Saskya van Nouhuys, Marjo Saastamoinen
Aggregation can confer advantages in animal foraging, defense, and thermoregulation. There is a tight connection between the evolution of insect sociality and a highly effective immune system, presumably to inhibit rapid disease spread in a crowded environment. This connection is less evident for animals that spend only part of their life cycle in a social environment, such as noneusocial gregarious insects. Our aim was to elucidate the effects of group living by the gregarious larvae of the Glanville fritillary butterfly with respect to individual performance, immunity, and susceptibility to a parasitoid...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Mariana Abarca, John T Lill, Pablo Frank-Bolton
Disrupted biotic interactions are a predicted consequence of anthropogenic climate change when interactants differ in the magnitude or direction of phenological responses. Here, we examined the responses to artificial warming of northern, southern and central populations of the eastern tent caterpillar and its hymenopteran egg parasitoids. We subjected egg masses from each region to the typical conditions they experience in their source locality or to a warmer temperature regime, to quantify the effects of simulated warming on their relative phenology, survival and neonate starvation endurance...
December 28, 2017: Oecologia
Li-Hsin Wu, Matthew P Hill, Linda J Thomson, Ary A Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Understanding interactions between biocontrol agents and their pest hosts under climate change should assist implementation of biocontrol strategies, by identifying appropriate biocontrol agents for release or determining the optimal timing of releases. Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are applied to evaluate the distributions of Trichogramma ostriniae and its native host, Ostrinia furnacalis, in southeastern Asia, and a non-native host, Ostrinia nubilalis, in a novel range, North America, using MAXENT and CLIMEX modelling approaches...
December 27, 2017: Pest Management Science
Clare H Scott Chialvo, Pablo Chialvo, Jeffrey D Holland, Timothy J Anderson, Jesse W Breinholt, Akito Y Kawahara, Xin Zhou, Shanlin Liu, Jennifer M Zaspel
Host species utilize a variety of defenses to deter feeding, including secondary chemicals. Some phytophagous insects have evolved tolerance to these chemical defenses, and can sequester secondary defense compounds for use against their own predators and parasitoids. While numerous studies have examined plant-insect interactions, little is known about lichen-insect interactions. Our study focused on reconstructing the evolution of lichen phenolic sequestration in the tiger moth tribe Lithosiini (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae), the most diverse lineage of lichen-feeding moths, with 3,000 described species...
December 20, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Sarra Bouagga, Alberto Urbaneja, José L Rambla, Víctor Flors, Antonio Granell, Josep A Jaques, Meritxell Pérez-Hedo
BACKGROUND: In addition to their services as predators, mirid predators are able to induce plant defences by phytophagy. However, whether this induction occurs in sweet pepper and whether it could be an additional benefit to their role as biological control agent in this crop remains unknown. Here, these questions are investigated in two model insects, the mirids Nesidiocoris tenuis and Macrolophus pygmaeus. RESULTS: Plant feeding behaviour was observed in both N...
December 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
Pratibha Yadav, Sathish Desireddy, Srinivasan Kasinathan, Jean-Marie Bessière, Renee M Borges
In the fig-fig wasp nursery pollination system, parasitic wasps, such as gallers and parasitoids that oviposit from the exterior into the fig syconium (globular, enclosed inflorescence) are expected to use a variety of chemical cues for successful location of their hidden hosts. Behavioral assays were performed with freshly eclosed naive galler wasps. Syconia with different oviposition histories, i.e. with or without prior oviposition, were presented to wasps in no-choice assays and the time taken to the first oviposition attempt was recorded...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Ralph S Peters, Oliver Niehuis, Simon Gunkel, Marcel Bläser, Christoph Mayer, Lars Podsiadlowski, Alexey Kozlov, Alexander Donath, Simon van Noort, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Bernhard Misof, John Heraty, Lars Krogmann
Chalcidoidea are a megadiverse group of mostly parasitoid wasps of major ecological and economical importance that are omnipresent in almost all extant terrestrial habitats. The timing and pattern of chalcidoid diversification is so far poorly understood and has left many important questions on the evolutionary history of Chalcidoidea unanswered. In this study, we infer the early divergence events within Chalcidoidea and address the question of whether or not ancestral chalcidoids were small egg-parasitoids...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Majid Fallahzadeh, George Japoshvili
An updated checklist of Iranian Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) is presented based on literature records from 1947-2016. The current list includes 159 species representing 48 genera. Parasitoid-host associations in Iran and distributional data are also provided. Twelve encyrtid species (7.55%) are known only from Iran but a high number of species (68 species, 42.77%) are widely distributed in the Palaearctic region. Four species previously listed from Iran, Metaphycus angustifrons Compere, 1957, Homalotylus ephippium (Ruschka, 1923), H...
November 6, 2017: Zootaxa
Charles S Eiseman, Donald R Davis
A sixth species of Macrosaccus (Gracillariidae), M. coursetiae sp. nov., is described. The larvae are leafminers of Coursetia glandulosa (Fabaceae). The parasitoid Chrysocharis walleyi (Eulophidae) has been reared from the leaf mines; a table summarizing the host records for this wasp is presented.
November 29, 2017: Zootaxa
Young-Fa Chen, Chia-Lung Huang, Yu-Feng Hsu
A new species of Hyposoter Foerster, 1869 is discovered based on morphology of adults and cocoons, biology, and DNA barcoding evidence. It is herein described as Hyposoter distriangulum Chen, Huang & Hsu sp. nov. , which is a common parasitoid of a rare zygaenid moth Artona flavipuncta Hampson, 1900. The differences between similar Hyposoter species in Japan and Taiwan are also presented.
October 17, 2017: Zootaxa
Martin Šigut, Martin Kostovčík, Hana Šigutová, Jiří Hulcr, Pavel Drozd, Jan Hrček
Understanding interactions between herbivores and parasitoids is essential for successful biodiversity protection and monitoring and for biological pest control. Morphological identifications employ insect rearing and are complicated by insects' high diversity and crypsis. DNA barcoding has been successfully used in studies of host-parasitoid interactions as it can substantially increase the recovered real host-parasitoid diversity distorted by overlooked species complexes, or by species with slight morphological differences...
2017: PloS One
Alejandro Tena, Eliana Nieves, Julieta Herrero, Alberto Urbaneja
Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug that has become a citrus pest in Europe. This mealybug species causes serious damage because it deforms the fruits. Here, we studied the defensive behavior of D. aberiae when it was attacked by three parasitoid species: Acerophagus angustifrons (Gahan), Anagyrus sp. near pseudoccoci (Girault), and Leptomastix algirica Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Anagyrus sp. near pseudoccoci and L. algirica detected and accepted nymphs and adult females of D...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
V H Beloti, G R Alves, R A Moral, C G B Demétrio, P T Yamamoto
One method for controlling the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of the putative causal agent of Huanglongbing, uses the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). However, the general intensive use of insecticides has reduced the numbers of this parasitoid. This study evaluated the effect of the residual action of 24 insecticides on T. radiata and also determined the differential toxicity of insecticides to D. citri and T. radiata, using three bioassays. In the first, when adults of the parasitoid were exposed to residues of the 24 insecticides, ten were considered short-life (class 1), six slightly persistent (class 2), five moderately persistent (class 3), and three insecticides were considered persistent (class 4), under the IOBC/WPRS classification system...
December 8, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
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