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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334278/local-and-landscape-drivers-of-parasitoid-abundance-richness-and-composition-in-urban-gardens
#1
Julia M Burks, Stacy M Philpott
Urbanization negatively affects biodiversity, yet some urban habitat features can support diversity. Parasitoid wasps, an abundant and highly diverse group of arthropods, can inhabit urban areas and do well in areas with higher host abundance, floral resources, or local or landscape complexity. Parasitoids provide biological control services in many agricultural habitats, yet few studies have examined diversity and abundance of parasitoids in urban agroecosystems to understand how to promote conservation and function...
March 8, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334235/establishment-of-parasitoids-of-the-lily-leaf-beetle-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-in-north-america
#2
Lisa Tewksbury, Richard A Casagrande, Naomi Cappuccino, Marc Kenis
Three larval parasitoids were imported from Europe to control the lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii Scopoli (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an accidentally introduced herbivore of native and cultivated lilies in North America. Tetrastichus setifer Thomson (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was introduced in Massachusetts in 1999, and was found to be established there in 2002. Subsequent releases of T. setifer were made and two additional parasitoids, Lemophagus errabundus Szepligeti (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Diaparsis jucunda (Holmgren) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), were introduced...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334180/sugar-diet-affects-odor-reception-but-variation-in-sugar-concentration-plays-minimal-role-in-the-response-of-the-parasitoid-microplitis-croceipes-hymenoptera-braconidae-to-host-related-plant-volatiles
#3
Matthew Burrows, Tolulope Morawo, Henry Fadamiro
Parasitoids utilize various sugar resources in nature, and rely on odor cues from plants to locate their food and hosts. However, lack of sugar in the diet may negatively impact odor reception in parasitoids, thus affecting foraging efficiency. We used Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval endoparasitoid of Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as a model species to test the hypothesis that variation in sugar diet of parasitoids affects their olfactory response to host-related odors...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334137/geographic-variation-of-diapause-induction-rates-in-trichogramma-drendrolimi-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae-in-china
#4
Jun-Jie Zhang, Nicolas Desneux, Giovanni Benelli, Lian-Sheng Zang, Wen-Mei Du, Chang-Chun Ruan
Diapause variation is a key factor affecting the development and success of parasitoids employed as biological control agents. Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura is mass-reared for biocontrol purposes in several countries around the world. Here we investigated the rate of diapause induction in three populations of T. dendrolimi from different regions in China: Heilongjiang (44° 55' N, 128° 26' E; HLJ), Liaoning (40° 18' N, 123° 22' E; LN), and Jiangsu province (32° 30' N, 120° 09' E; JS). We measured the rates of diapause induction for populations from each region when exposed to temperatures of 8, 10, 12, and 14 °C, for periods ranging from 5 to 35 d...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334130/effective-biological-control-depends-on-life-history-strategies-of-both-parasitoid-and-its-host-evidence-from-aphidius-colemani-myzus-persicae-system
#5
Diwas Khatri, Xiong Z He, Qiao Wang
Mechanisms behind the success and failure of aphid biological control using parasitoids are largely unknown, probably because of the lack of knowledge of life history strategies of the insects involved. Here, we measured and compared life history strategies of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), providing essential information for evaluation of the potential of A. colemani to control M. persicae. Our results show that one A...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325980/baby-killers-documentation-and-evolution-of-scuttle-fly-diptera-phoridae-parasitism-of-ant-hymenoptera-formicidae-brood
#6
Brian V Brown, John M Hash, Emily A Hartop, Wendy Porras, Dalton de Souza Amorim
BACKGROUND: Numerous well-documented associations occur among species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), but examples of brood parasitism are rare and the mechanisms of parasitism often remain unsubstantiated. NEW INFORMATION: We present two video-documented examples of ant brood (larvae and pupae) parasitism by scuttle flies. In footage from Estação Biológica de Boracéia in Brazil, adult females of Ceratoconus setipennis Borgmeier can be seen attacking workers of Linepithema humile (Mayr) species group while they are carrying brood, and ovipositing directly onto brood in the nest...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325969/new-world-species-of-the-genus-calliscelio-ashmead-hymenoptera-platygastridae-scelioninae
#7
Hua-Yan Chen, Lubomír Masner, Norman F Johnson
The genus Calliscelio Ashmead is presumed to be a diverse group of parasitoids of the eggs of crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). A least one species has been found to be an important factor in depressing cricket pest populations. The New World species of Calliscelio are revised. Forty-two species are recognized, 3 are redescribed: Calliscelio bisulcatus (Kieffer), Calliscelio laticinctus Ashmead, Calliscelio rubriclavus (Ashmead), comb. n.; and 38 are described as new: Calliscelio absconditum Chen & Johnson, sp...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325964/a-review-of-insect-parasitoids-associated-with-lobesia-botrana-denis-schifferm%C3%A3-ller-1775-in-italy-1-dipteratachinidae-and-hymenopterabraconidae-lepidoptera-tortricidae
#8
Pier Luigi Scaramozzino, Augusto Loni, Andrea Lucchi
This paper is aimed to summarize the information available on the parasitoid complex of the European Grapevine Moth (EGVM), Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) in Italy. The list is the result of the consultation of a vast bibliography published in Italy for almost two hundred years, from 1828 to date. This allowed the clarification and correction of misunderstandings and mistakes on the taxonomic position of each species listed. In Italy the complex of parasitoids detected on EGVM includes approximately 90 species belonging to ten families of Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Trichogrammatidae, and Bethylidae) and one family of Diptera (Tachinidae)...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325169/a-new-substitute-host-and-its-effects-on-some-biological-properties-of-ooencyrtus-kuvanae
#9
Hilal Tunca, Marine Venard, Etty-Ambre Colombel, Elisabeth Tabone
Lymantia dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), commonly known as the gypsy moth, is a serious forest pest, and beneficial insects are particularly important for reducing its population numbers. Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an arrhenotokous, solitary egg parasitoid of L. dispar. In this study, we evaluated a new substitute host, Philosamia ricini (Danovan) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) for O. kuvanae. We investigated some of the biological effects of O. kuvanae on P. ricini eggs. In this context, the importance of the age of the female parasitoid (1, 3 or 5 days old), host age (1-2 and 3-4 days old) and host number (40, 60 and 80 host eggs) were examined under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity and a 16 : 8 h photoperiod [light : dark])...
March 22, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321365/testing-the-habituation-assumption-underlying-models-of-parasitoid-foraging-behavior
#10
Paul K Abram, Antonino Cusumano, Katrina Abram, Stefano Colazza, Ezio Peri
BACKGROUND: Habituation, a form of non-associative learning, has several well-defined characteristics that apply to a wide range of physiological and behavioral responses in many organisms. In classic patch time allocation models, habituation is considered to be a major mechanistic component of parasitoid behavioral strategies. However, parasitoid behavioral responses to host cues have not previously been tested for the known, specific characteristics of habituation. METHODS: In the laboratory, we tested whether the foraging behavior of the egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis shows specific characteristics of habituation in response to consecutive encounters with patches of host (Nezara viridula) chemical contact cues (footprints), in particular: (i) a training interval-dependent decline in response intensity, and (ii) a training interval-dependent recovery of the response...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317226/decreased-losses-of-woody-plant-foliage-to-insects-in-large-urban-areas-are-explained-by-bird-predation
#11
Mikhail V Kozlov, Vojtěch Lanta, Vitali Zverev, Kalle Rainio, Mikhail A Kunavin, Elena L Zvereva
Despite the increasing rate of urbanisation, the consequences of this process on biotic interactions remain insufficiently studied. Our aims were to identify the general pattern of urbanisation impact on background insect herbivory, to explore variations in this impact related to characteristics of both urban areas and insect-plant systems, and to uncover the factors governing urbanisation impacts on insect herbivory. We compared the foliar damage inflicted on the most common trees by defoliating, leafmining and gall-forming insects in rural and urban habitats associated with 16 European cities...
March 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316286/brassica-aphid-hemiptera-aphididae-populations-are-conditioned-by-climatic-variables-and-parasitism-level-a-study-case-of-tri%C3%A3-ngulo-mineiro-brazil
#12
M V Sampaio, A P Korndörfer, J Pujade-Villar, J E A Hubaide, S E Ferreira, S O Arantes, D M Bortoletto, C M Guimarães, J A Sánchez-Espigares, B Caballero-López
Cosmopolitan pests such as Brevicoryne brassicae, Lipaphis pseudobrassicae, and Myzus persicae (Aphididae) cause significant damage to Brassicaceae crops. Assessment of the important biotic and abiotic factors that regulate these pests is an essential step in the development of effective Integrated Pest Management programs for these aphids. This study evaluated the influence of leaf position, precipitation, temperature, and parasitism on populations of L. pseudobrassicae, M. persicae, and B. brassicae in collard greens fields in the Triângulo Mineiro region (Minas Gerais state), Brazil...
March 20, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316099/patterns-of-temporal-and-enemy-niche-use-by-a-community-of-leaf-cone-moths-caloptilia-coexisting-on-maples-acer-as-revealed-by-metabarcoding
#13
Ryosuke Nakadai, Atsushi Kawakita
The diversity of herbivorous insects is often considered a function of host plant diversity. However, recent research has uncovered many examples of closely related herbivores using the same host plant(s), suggesting that partitioning of host plants is not the only mechanism generating diversity. Herbivores sharing hosts may utilize different parts of the same plant, but such resource partitioning is often not apparent; hence, the factors that allow closely related herbivores to coexist are still largely undetermined...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299894/insights-on-food-webs-associated-with-the-south-american-tomato-pinworm
#14
Mario Naselli, Antonio Biondi, Giovanna Tropea Garzia, Nicolas Desneux, Agatino Russo, Gaetano Siscaro, Lucia Zappalà
BACKGROUND: Complexity of both natural and managed ecosystems involves various forms of interaction among organisms. Two or more species that exploit the same resource can engage in competitive behaviors, usually referred to as intra-guild interactions. These can be direct, i.e. one species feeds directly upon the competitor (intra-guild predation) or indirect, e.g. when the dominant organism competes for a food source which another organism is feeding on (kleptoparasitism). We investigated the potential for such interactions in a biological model composed by the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta, and three of its newly associated natural enemies: the zoophytophagous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis, and two idiobiont ectoparasitoids Bracon nigricans, and Necremnus tutae...
March 16, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296161/passive-vectoring-of-entomopathogenic-fungus-beauveria-bassiana-among-the-wax-moth-galleria-mellonella-larvae-by-the-ectoparasitoid-habrobracon-hebetor-females
#15
Vadim Yu Kryukov, Natalia A Kryukova, Maksim V Tyurin, Olga N Yaroslavtseva, Viktor V Glupov
Females of the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor attack and envenomate numerous host individuals during oviposition. The vectoring of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana during the adhesion stage by ectoparasitoid females among the wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella was explored under laboratory conditions. Vectoring occurred both from infected parasitoids to wax moth larvae and from infected to healthy wax moth larvae by parasitoids. The efficacy of vectoring in both cases was dose dependent. Parasitoid females were unable to recognize infected larvae in a labyrinth test...
March 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289202/intensified-agriculture-favors-evolved-resistance-to-biological-control
#16
Federico Tomasetto, Jason M Tylianakis, Marco Reale, Steve Wratten, Stephen L Goldson
Increased regulation of chemical pesticides and rapid evolution of pesticide resistance have increased calls for sustainable pest management. Biological control offers sustainable pest suppression, partly because evolution of resistance to predators and parasitoids is prevented by several factors (e.g., spatial or temporal refuges from attacks, reciprocal evolution by control agents, and contrasting selection pressures from other enemy species). However, evolution of resistance may become more probable as agricultural intensification reduces the availability of refuges and diversity of enemy species, or if control agents have genetic barriers to evolution...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288208/correction-proximate-mechanism-of-behavioral-manipulation-of-an-orb-weaver-spider-host-by-a-parasitoid-wasp
#17
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171336.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287118/the-invasive-pest-drosophila-suzukii-uses-trans-generational-medication-to-resist-parasitoid-attack
#18
M Poyet, P Eslin, O Chabrerie, S M Prud'homme, E Desouhant, P Gibert
Animal medication is a behavioral strategy to resist enemies based on the use of substances from the environment. While it has been observed in several animals, whether invasive species can use medication to resist new enemies during its expansion is unknown. Here, we show that the worldwide invasive pest Drosophila suzukii performs trans-generational prophylactic medication by adapting its oviposition behavior in the presence of enemies. We find that flies preferentially lay their eggs on media containing atropine - an entomotoxic alkaloid - in the presence of parasitoids...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278298/a-novel-negative-stranded-rna-virus-mediates-sex-ratio-in-its-parasitoid-host
#19
Fei Wang, Qi Fang, Beibei Wang, Zhichao Yan, Jian Hong, Yiming Bao, Jens H Kuhn, John H Werren, Qisheng Song, Gongyin Ye
Parasitoid wasps are important natural enemies of arthropod hosts in natural and agricultural ecosystems and are often associated with viruses or virion-like particles. Here, we report a novel negative-stranded RNA virus from a parasitoid wasp (Pteromalus puparum). The complete viral genome is 12,230 nucleotides in length, containing five non-overlapping, linearly arranged open reading frames. Phylogenetically, the virus clusters with and is a novel member of the mononegaviral family Nyamiviridae, here designated as Pteromalus puparum negative-strand RNA virus 1 (PpNSRV-1)...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266601/incomplete-removal-of-wolbachia-with-tetracycline-has-two-edged-reproductive-effects-in-the-thelytokous-wasp-encarsia-formosa-hymenoptera-aphelinidae
#20
Xiao-Xiang Wang, Lan-Da Qi, Rui Jiang, Yu-Zhou Du, Yuan-Xi Li
Wolbachia pipientis are intracellular endosymbionts that induce parthenogenesis in the parasitoid Encarsia formosa. Previous studies that focused on effects of Wolbachia on the wasp usually used tetracycline to remove Wolbachia without concern for the joint influences of tetracycline and Wolbachia. Here we treated the wasps (F0 lines) with tetracycline to produce offspring (F1 lines) which were not fed tetracycline to avoid antibiotic influence. The quantitative data and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that Wolbachia titers were reduced but not totally removed...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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