keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Parasitoid

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813469/phytoplasma-infection-of-a-tropical-root-crop-triggers-bottom-up-cascades-by-favoring-generalist-over-specialist-herbivores
#1
Kris A G Wyckhuys, Ignazio Graziosi, Dharani Dhar Burra, Abigail Jan Walter
Global interest on plant-microbe-insect interactions is rapidly growing, revealing the multiple ways in which microorganisms mediate plant-herbivore interactions. Phytopathogens regularly alter whole repertoires of plant phenotypic traits, and bring about shifts in key chemical or morphological characteristics of plant hosts. Pathogens can also cause cascading effects on higher trophic levels, and eventually shape entire plant-associated arthropod communities. We tested the hypothesis that a Candidatus Phytoplasma causing cassava witches' broom (CWB) on cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) is altering species composition of invasive herbivores and their associated parasitic hymenopterans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811504/complementarity-among-natural-enemies-enhances-pest-suppression
#2
Matteo Dainese, Gudrun Schneider, Jochen Krauss, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Natural enemies have been shown to be effective agents for controlling insect pests in crops. However, it remains unclear how different natural enemy guilds contribute to the regulation of pests and how this might be modulated by landscape context. In a field exclusion experiment in oilseed rape (OSR), we found that parasitoids and ground-dwelling predators acted in a complementary way to suppress pollen beetles, suggesting that pest control by multiple enemies attacking a pest during different periods of its occurrence in the field improves biological control efficacy...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798310/assessing-the-effects-of-cry1c-rice-and-cry2a-rice-to-pseudogonatopus-flavifemur-a-parasitoid-of-rice-planthoppers
#3
Jun-Ce Tian, Jo Rg Romeis, Kai Liu, Fa-Cheng Zhang, Xu-Song Zheng, Hong-Xing Xu, Gui-Hua Chen, Xiao-Chan He, Zhong-Xian Lu
Transgenic rice producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) could help protect the plants from damage by lepidopteran pests. However, one concern is the potential of Bt rice to harm non-target natural enemies, which play a vital role in pest control. In the present study, the potential effects of Cry1C rice and Cry2A rice on different life-table parameters and population dynamics of Pseudogonatopus flavifemur, a parasitoid of rice planthoppers, were evaluated under laboratory and field condition...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797656/plant-associated-odor-perception-and-processing-in-two-parasitoid-species-with-different-degrees-of-host-specificity-implications-for-host-location-strategies
#4
Prithwiraj Das, Tolulope Morawo, Henry Fadamiro
Microplitis croceipes and Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are parasitoids of lepidopteran larvae with different degrees of host specificity. Both parasitoid species rely on host-related plant volatiles as odor cues to locate their herbivore hosts. To better understand mechanisms of odor processing in parasitoids, we tested responses of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the antennal sensilla placodea of female parasitoids to select plant volatiles and mixtures. The compounds tested include two green leaf volatiles (i...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791805/ecological-factors-influencing-the-beneficial-endosymbionts-of-the-hemlock-woolly-adelgid-hemiptera-adelgidae
#5
Angela M Mech, Sherilyn J Harper, Nathan P Havill, Carol D von Dohlen, Gaelen R Burke
Bacterial endosymbionts of sap-sucking insects provide their host with a number of beneficial qualities, including the supply of nutrition, defense against parasitoids, and protection from heat stress. Damage to these bacterial associates can therefore have a negative impact on the fitness of their insect host. We evaluated observational and experimental factors regarding the non-native hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) to help understand the roles of its three recently identified symbionts, including under heat stress conditions...
August 9, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770687/ecological-specialization-in-diaeretiella-rapae-hymenoptera-braconidae-aphidiinae-on-aphid-species-from-wild-and-cultivated-plants
#6
Y Navasse, S A P Derocles, M Plantegenest, A Le Ralec
Diaeretiella rapae is an aphid parasitoid with potential for use in biological control strategies. However, several recent genetic studies have challenged the long held view that it is a generalist parasitoid. We investigated its ecological specialization and ability to use resources in cultivated and uncultivated areas. Ecological specialization would reduce its ability to exploit the diversity of aphid species, particularly in uncultivated areas, and to control pest aphids. Four D. rapae strains were studied, three reared on pest aphids on Brassicaceae and one strain on a non-pest aphid on Chenopodiaceae...
August 3, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770077/different-genetic-structures-revealed-resident-populations-of-a-specialist-parasitoid-wasp-in-contrast-to-its-migratory-host
#7
Shu-Jun Wei, Yuan Zhou, Xu-Lei Fan, Ary A Hoffmann, Li-Jun Cao, Xue-Xin Chen, Zai-Fu Xu
Genetic comparisons of parasitoids and their hosts are expected to reflect ecological and evolutionary processes that influence the interactions between species. The parasitoid wasp, Cotesia vestalis, and its host diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, provide opportunities to test whether the specialist natural enemy migrates seasonally with its host or occurs as resident population. We genotyped 17 microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial genes for 158 female adults of C. vestalis collected from 12 geographical populations, as well as nine microsatellite loci for 127 DBM larvae from six separate sites...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769965/silicon-supplementation-alters-the-composition-of-herbivore-induced-plant-volatiles-and-enhances-attraction-of-parasitoids-to-infested-rice-plants
#8
Jian Liu, Jiwei Zhu, Pengjun Zhang, Liwei Han, Olivia L Reynolds, Rensen Zeng, Jinhong Wu, Yue Shao, Minsheng You, Geoff M Gurr
Silicon (Si) is important in plant defenses that operate in a direct manner against herbivores, and work in rice (Oryza sativa) has established that this is mediated by the jasmonate signaling pathway. Plant defenses also operate indirectly, by the production of herbivore induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that attract predators and parasitoids of herbivores. These indirect defenses too are mediated by the jasmonate pathway but no earlier work has demonstrated an effect of Si on HIPVs. In this study, we tested the effect of Si supplementation versus Si deprivation to rice plants on subsequent HIPV production following feeding by the important pest, rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769725/systematics-and-biology-of-cotesia-typhae-sp-n-hymenoptera-braconidae-microgastrinae-a-potential-biological-control-agent-against-the-noctuid-mediterranean-corn-borer-sesamia-nonagrioides
#9
Laure Kaiser, Jose Fernandez-Triana, Claire Capdevielle-Dulac, Célina Chantre, Matthieu Bodet, Ferial Kaoula, Romain Benoist, Paul-André Calatayud, Stéphane Dupas, Elisabeth A Herniou, Rémi Jeannette, Julius Obonyo, Jean-François Silvain, Bruno Le Ru
Many parasitoid species are subjected to strong selective pressures from their host, and their adaptive response may result in the formation of genetically differentiated populations, called host races. When environmental factors and reproduction traits prevent gene flow, host races become distinct species. Such a process has recently been documented within the Cotesia flavipes species complex, all of which are larval parasitoids of moth species whose larvae are stem borers of Poales. A previous study on the African species C...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765578/selection-of-reference-genes-for-expression-analysis-using-rt-qpcr-in-the-dissemination-system-of-heliothis-virescens-ascovirus-3%C3%A2-h-hvav-3h
#10
Zi-Shu Chen, Ning-Ning Han, Jian-Hong Li, Guo-Hua Huang, Hu Wan
Ascoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that mainly infect noctuid larvae, and are transmitted by the parasitoid wasp Microplitis similis Lyle. Ascovirus-parasitoids wasp-noctuid insects constitute the dissemination system. Selection of suitable reference genes for the dissemination system could play an important role in elucidating the pathogenic molecular mechanisms of ascovirus. Unfortunately, such studies on potential reference genes in the dissemination system of ascoviruses are lacking. In the present study, we evaluated 11 candidate reference genes: β-actin1 (ACT1), β-actin2 (ACT2), elongation factor 1 (EF1), elongation factor 2 (EF2), ribosomal protein L10 (L10), ribosomal protein L17A (L17A), superoxide dismutase (SOD), 28S ribosome (28S), Tubulin (TUB) and 18S ribosome (18S)...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753244/functional-characterization-of-the-transcriptional-regulatory-elements-of-three-highly-expressed-constitutive-genes-in-the-jewel-wasp-nasonia-vitripennis
#11
P D Shirk, R B Furlong, A Dolan, J H Werren
The jewel wasp, Nasonia vitripennis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), is an easily reared parasitoid that is providing an ever increasingly malleable model for examining the biology and genetics of Hymenoptera. Utilizing genomic and transcriptome resources, 5' upstream transcriptional regulatory sequences (TREs) from three highly expressed genes were identified and cloned. Criteria for TRE selection included the presence of an adjacent gene 5' of the translation initiation site. One gene was methylated whereas the other two were nonmethylated...
July 28, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743321/disturbance-induced-dynamics-of-a-tritrophic-novel-ecosystem
#12
K T Lakatos, Z László, B Tóthmérész
Novel ecosystems formed by invasive plants provide a good opportunity to get insight into early dynamics and pattern formation of these ecosystems. The invasive black locust as host plant, Bruchophagus robiniae as host-specific seed predator and its parasitoids were the components of the studied tritrophic system. To investigate disturbance-driven dynamics of this system we created seed-vacated host plant patches in a field experiment. We removed all pods from selected patches of black locust resulting in an induced local extinction of seed predators and their parasitoids...
July 26, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742131/biochemical-characterization-and-comparison-of-aspartylglucosaminidases-secreted-in-venom-of-the-parasitoid-wasps-asobara-tabida-and-leptopilina-heterotoma
#13
Quentin Coulette, Séverine Lemauf, Dominique Colinet, Geneviève Prévost, Caroline Anselme, Marylène Poirié, Jean-Luc Gatti
Aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA) is a low-abundance intracellular enzyme that plays a key role in the last stage of glycoproteins degradation, and whose deficiency leads to human aspartylglucosaminuria, a lysosomal storage disease. Surprisingly, high amounts of AGA-like proteins are secreted in the venom of two phylogenetically distant hymenopteran parasitoid wasp species, Asobara tabida (Braconidae) and Leptopilina heterotoma (Cynipidae). These venom AGAs have a similar domain organization as mammalian AGAs. They share with them key residues for autocatalysis and activity, and the mature α- and β-subunits also form an (αβ)2 structure in solution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740172/bottom-up-effects-on-herbivore-induced-plant-defences-a-case-study-based-on-compositional-patterns-of-rhizosphere-microbial-communities
#14
Emilio Benítez, Daniel Paredes, Estefanía Rodríguez, Diana Aldana, Mónica González, Rogelio Nogales, Mercedes Campos, Beatriz Moreno
Below-ground soil microorganisms can modulate above-ground plant-insect interactions. It still needs to be determined whether this is a direct effect of single species or an indirect effect of shifts in soil microbial community assemblages. Evaluation of the soil microbiome as a whole is critical for understanding multi-trophic interactions, including those mediated by volatiles involving plants, herbivorous insects, predators/parasitoids and microorganisms. We implemented a regulated system comprising Nerium oleander plants grown in soil initially containing a sterile/non sterile inoculum, herbivore Aphis nerii and predator Chrysoperla carnea...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736043/infectious-agents-trigger-trophic-cascades
#15
REVIEW
Julia C Buck, William J Ripple
Most demonstrated trophic cascades originate with predators, but infectious agents can also cause top-down indirect effects in ecosystems. Here we synthesize the literature on trophic cascades initiated by infectious agents including parasitoids, pathogens, parasitic castrators, macroparasites, and trophically transmitted parasites. Like predators, infectious agents can cause density-mediated and trait-mediated indirect effects through their direct consumptive and nonconsumptive effects respectively. Unlike most predators, however, infectious agents are not fully and immediately lethal to their victims, so their consumptive effects can also trigger trait-mediated indirect effects...
July 18, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731514/with-or-without-you-effects-of-the-concurrent-range-expansion-of-an-herbivore-and-its-natural-enemy-on-native-species-interactions
#16
David Carrasco, Gaylord A Desurmont, Diane Laplanche, Magali Proffit, Rieta Gols, Paul G Becher, Mattias C Larsson, Ted C J Turlings, Peter Anderson
Global climatic changes may lead to the arrival of multiple range-expanding species from different trophic levels into new habitats, either simultaneously or in quick succession, potentially causing the introduction of manifold novel interactions into native food webs. Unraveling the complex biotic interactions between native and range-expanding species is critical to understand the impact of climate change on community ecology, but experimental evidence is lacking. In a series of laboratory experiments that simulated direct and indirect species interactions, we investigated the effects of the concurrent arrival of a range-expanding insect herbivore in Europe, Spodoptera littoralis, and its associated parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris, on the native herbivore Mamestra brassicae, and its associated parasitoid M...
July 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725368/prospects-of-herbivore-egg-killing-plant-defenses-for-sustainable-crop-protection
#17
REVIEW
Nina E Fatouros, Antonino Cusumano, Etienne G J Danchin, Stefano Colazza
Due to a growing demand of food production worldwide, new strategies are suggested to allow for sustainable production of food with minimal effects on natural resources. A promising alternative to the application of chemical pesticides is the implementation of crops resistant to insect pests. Plants produce compounds that are harmful to a wide range of attackers, including insect pests; thus, exploitation of their natural defense system can be the key for the development of pest-resistant crops. Interestingly, some plants possess a unique first line of defense that eliminates the enemy before it becomes destructive: egg-killing...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721609/susceptibility-of-diaphorina-citri-hemiptera-liviidae-and-its-parasitoid-tamarixia-radiata-hymenoptera-eulophidae-to-entomopathogenic-fungi-under-laboratory-conditions
#18
K H Ibarra-Cortés, A W Guzmán-Franco, H González-Hernández, L D Ortega-Arenas, J A Villanueva-Jiménez, A Robles-Bermúdez
Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) is a global pest of citrus that transmits the bacteria associated with the disease, Huanglongbing. Entomopathogenic fungi and the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) are important biological control agents of this pest and likely to interact in D. citri populations. As a basis for interaction studies, we determined the susceptibility of nymphs and adults of D. citri and adults of the parasitoid T. radiata to six fungal isolates from the species Beauveria bassiana s.l. (Bals...
July 18, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718835/do-refuge-plants-favour-natural-pest-control-in-maize-crops
#19
Reinaldo Quispe, Marina Mazón, Alexander Rodríguez-Berrío
The use of non-crop plants to provide the resources that herbivorous crop pests' natural enemies need is being increasingly incorporated into integrated pest management programs. We evaluated insect functional groups found on three refuges consisting of five different plant species each, planted next to a maize crop in Lima, Peru, to investigate which refuge favoured natural control of herbivores considered as pests of maize in Peru, and which refuge plant traits were more attractive to those desirable enemies...
July 18, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713658/morphological-variation-of-aphidius-ervi-haliday-hymenoptera-braconidae-associated-with-different-aphid-hosts
#20
Cinthya M Villegas, Vladimir Žikić, Saša S Stanković, Sebastián A Ortiz-Martínez, Ainara Peñalver-Cruz, Blas Lavandero
BACKGROUND: Parasitoids are frequently used in biological control due to the fact that they are considered host specific and highly efficient at attacking their hosts. As they spend a significant part of their life cycle within their hosts, feeding habits and life history of their host can promote specialization via host-race formation (sequential radiation). The specialized host races from different hosts can vary morphologically, behaviorally and genetically. However, these variations are sometimes inconspicuous and require more powerful tools in order to detect variation such as geometric morphometrics analysis...
2017: PeerJ
keyword
keyword
102344
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"