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Parasitoid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913622/a-venom-serpin-splicing-isoform-of-the-endoparasitoid-wasp-pteromalus-puparum-suppresses-host-prophenoloxidase-cascade-by-forming-complexes-with-host-hemolymph-proteinases
#1
Zhichao Yan, Qi Fang, Yang Liu, Shan Xiao, Lei Yang, Fei Wang, Chunju An, John H Werren, Gongyin Ye
To ensure successful parasitism, parasitoid wasps inject venom along with their eggs into their hosts. The venom serves to suppress host immune responses, including melanization. Venom from Pteromalus puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid, inhibits melanization of host hemolymph in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Using assay guided fractionation, a serpin splicing isoform with phenoloxidase (PO) inhibitory activity was identified as P. puparum serpin-1, venom isoform (PpS1V). This serpin gene has 16 predicted splicing isoforms that differ only in the C-terminal region...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908059/parameter-study-of-time-delay-magnification-in-a-biologically-inspired-mechanically-coupled-acoustic-sensor-array
#2
Ming Yang, Xinlei Zhu, Yaqiong Zhang, Na Ta, Zhushi Rao
Sound source localization uses interaural time difference (ITD) or interaural intensity difference cues, and most of the methods based on ITD are limited by the aperture of array. However, a kind of parasitoid fly called Ormia ochracea with coupled ears has a remarkable ability to localize calling of crickets regardless of the fly's small body size. The structure of fly's ear is generalized, and a multi-dimensional coupled system with an acoustic sensor array is proposed. The magnification factor of the phase difference in this system, which can be used to describe the ITD changes of signals from the coupled system, is chosen as the kernel parameter to measure the effect of coupling...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903323/reproductive-ecology-of-phorid-parasitoids-in-relation-to-the-head-size-of-leaf-cutting-ants-atta-sexdens-forel
#3
C F Farder-Gomes, M A Oliveira, P L Gonçalves, L M Gontijo, J C Zanuncio, M A L Bragança, E M Pires
The leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is one of the most damaging agricultural pests in the Neotropics. Management strategies predominantly rely on the use of general insecticides. What is needed are more species-specific and environmentally friendly options. Parasitioids such as phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae) may be one such option, but a greater understanding of the ecology of the flies and their ant hosts is essential to devise biological control strategies. Here we report parasitism rates, ant host size, parasitoid abundance per host and resultant sex ratios of two phorid species Apocephalus attophilus Borgmeier and Eibesfeldtphora tonhascai Brown parasitizing A...
December 1, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887946/inhibition-of-eicosanoid-signaling-leads-to-increased-lipid-peroxidation-in-a-host-parasitoid-system
#4
Ender Büyükgüzela, Meltem Erdemb, Hasan Tunazc, Ceyhun Küçüka, Utku Can Atılgana, David Stanleyd, Kemal Büyükgüzele
We posed the hypothesis that inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis leads to increased lipid peroxidation in insects. Here we report that rearing the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, on media supplemented with selected inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis throughout the larval, pupal and adult life led to major alterations in selected oxidative and antioxidative parameters of wax moth and its ectoparasitoid, Bracon hebetor. The highest dietary dexamethasone (Dex), esculetin (Esc) and phenidone (Phe)led to increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and to elevated catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in all developmental stages of host larvae...
November 22, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886334/microsatellite-loci-and-genetic-structure-of-artificial-populations-of-cotesia-flavipes-hymenoptera-braconidae
#5
L O S Anjos, R F Peixoto, D M S Chanquinie, L R Pinto, S A Creste, L L Dinardo-Miranda, M G A Landell, E V Tambarussi, R Vencovsky
Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) is a parasitoid wasp used in the biological control of the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis) (Fabr., 1794). Studies on the genetic diversity of C. flavipes are hampered by the lack of highly polymorphic molecular markers. In this report, a set of 11 microsatellite loci were developed from an enriched library of C. flavipes. Four microsatellite loci were polymorphic and were screened in 212 C. flavipes individuals (183 females and 29 males) that were randomly sampled from seven rearing laboratory populations...
November 21, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886136/interactions-between-the-multicolored-asian-lady-beetle-harmonia-axyridis-and-the-parasitoid-dinocampus-coccinellae
#6
Maria Luisa Dindo, Santolo Francati, Alberto Lanzoni, Cinzia di Vitantonio, Elisa Marchetti, Giovanni Burgio, Stefano Maini
Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) has been introduced either intentionally or accidentally in different areas outside its native range, where it is often regarded as invasive. Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank) has been recorded to parasitize H. axyridis in the field, both in the native and introduced areas, Italy included. The percent of parasitism found in our field investigation was low (four percent). The effect of exposure time of H. axyridis to D. coccinellae and the impact of parasitization on host longevity, oviposition capacity and egg fertility were evaluated in the laboratory...
November 24, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878384/direct-consumptive-interactions-between-mammalian-herbivores-and-plant-dwelling-invertebrates-prevalence-significance-and-prospectus
#7
REVIEW
Moshe Gish, Matan Ben-Ari, Moshe Inbar
Mammalian herbivores induce changes in the chemical composition, phenology, distribution, and abundance of the plants they feed on. Consequently, invertebrate herbivores (predominantly insects) that depend on those plants, and the predators and parasitoids that are associated with them, may be affected. This plant-mediated indirect interaction between mammals and invertebrates has been extensively studied, but mammalian herbivores may also directly affect plant-dwelling invertebrates (PDI) by incidentally ingesting them while feeding...
November 23, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878378/phonotactic-flight-of-the-parasitoid-fly-emblemasoma-auditrix-diptera-sarcophagidae
#8
Nanina Tron, Reinhard Lakes-Harlan
The parasitoid fly Emblemasoma auditrix locates its hosts using acoustic cues from sound producing males of the cicada Okanagana rimosa. Here, we experimentally analysed the flight path of the phonotaxis from a landmark to the target, a hidden loudspeaker in the field. During flight, the fly showed only small lateral deviations. The vertical flight direction angles were initially negative (directed downwards relative to starting position), grew positive (directed upwards) in the second half of the flight, and finally flattened (directed horizontally or slightly upwards), typically resulting in a landing above the loudspeaker...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878068/genome-methylation-patterns-across-castes-and-generations-in-a-parasitoid-wasp
#9
Roei Shaham, Rachel Ben-Shlomo, Uzi Motro, Tamar Keasar
Environmental influences shape phenotypes within and across generations, often through DNA methylations that modify gene expression. Methylations were proposed to mediate caste and task allocation in some eusocial insects, but how an insect's environment affects DNA methylation in its offspring is yet unknown. We characterized parental effects on methylation profiles in the polyembryonic parasitoid wasp Copidosoma koehleri, as well as methylation patterns associated with its simple caste system. We used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MS-AFLP) to compare methylation patterns, among (1) reproductive and soldier larvae; and (2) offspring (larvae, pupae, and adults) of wasps that were reared at either high or low larval density and mated in the four possible combinations...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875577/heat-stress-affects-facultative-symbiont-mediated-protection-from-a-parasitoid-wasp
#10
Eleanor R Heyworth, Julia Ferrari
Many insects carry facultative bacterial symbionts, which provide benefits including resistance to natural enemies and abiotic stresses. Little is known about how these beneficial phenotypes are affected when biotic or abiotic threats occur simultaneously. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) can host several well-characterized symbiont species. The symbiont known as X-type can protect against both parasitoid wasps and heat stress. Here, we used three pea aphid genotypes that were naturally infected with X-type and the symbiont Spiroplasma sp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871976/developmental-and-reproductive-responses-of-the-spruce-budworm-lepidoptera-tortricidae-parasitoid-tranosema-rostrale-hymenoptera-ichneumonidae-to-temperature
#11
M Lukas Seehausen, Jacques Régnière, Véronique Martel, Sandy M Smith
The temperature-dependent development and survival of immatures, as well as adult longevity and potential fecundity of the endoparasitoid Tranosema rostrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) parasitizing spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions at several constant temperatures ranging from 5 to 30°C. Maximum likelihood modeling approaches were used to estimate thermal responses in development, survival, and longevity. A model describing the effect of temperature on potential fecundity of the parasitoid was also developed taking oogenesis and oosorption into account...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871814/dr-alois-huger-laying-the-foundations-for-an-integrated-insect-pathology
#12
Trevor A Jackson
Dr. rer. nat. Alois M. Huger had a long and distinguished career at the Institut für biologische Schädlingsbekämpfung (Institute for Biological Pest Control) Darmstadt, Germany, where he became one of the world's leading insect pathologists. He applied his experience and understanding of insect tissues and specialist skills in microscopy to diagnosis and elucidation of the pathology of insect diseases. During his career he discovered the Oryctes nudivirus and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis, and was a member of teams unravelling amber disease in scarab beetles and the role of bacteria in parthenogenesis of parasitoids...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870914/transgenic-bt-cotton-does-not-disrupt-the-top-down-forces-regulating-the-cotton-aphid-in-central-china
#13
Yong-Sheng Yao, Peng Han, Chang-Ying Niu, Yong-Cheng Dong, Xi-Wu Gao, Jin-Jie Cui, Nicolas Desneux
Top-down force is referred to arthropod pest management delivered by the organisms from higher trophic levels. In the context of prevalent adoption of transgenic Bt crops that produce insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), it still remains elusive whether the top-down forces are affected by the insect-resistant traits that introduced into the Bt crops. We explored how Bt cotton affect the strength of top-down forces via arthropod natural enemies in regulating a non-target pest species, the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, using a comparative approach (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870041/trophic-interactions-may-reverse-the-demographic-consequences-of-inbreeding
#14
Anaïs Bompard, Isabelle Amat, Xavier Fauvergue, Thierry Spataro
Extinctions have no simple determinism, but rather result from complex interplays between environmental factors and demographic-genetic feedback that occur at small population size. Inbreeding depression has been assumed to be a major trigger of extinction vortices, yet very few models have studied its consequences in dynamic populations with realistic population structure. Here we investigate the impact of Complementary Sex Determination (CSD) on extinction in parasitoid wasps and other insects of the order Hymenoptera...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868159/are-aphid-parasitoids-from-mild-winter-climates-losing-their-winter-diapause
#15
Kévin Tougeron, Cécile Le Lann, Jacques Brodeur, Joan van Baaren
Temperature is both a selective pressure and a modulator of the diapause expression in insects from temperate regions. Thus, with climate warming, an alteration of the response to seasonal changes is expected, either through genetic adaptations to novel climatic conditions or phenotypic plasticity. Since the 1980s in western France, the winter guild of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in cereal fields has been made up of two species: Aphidius rhopalosiphi and Aphidius matricariae. The recent activity of two other species, Aphidius avenae and Aphidius ervi, during the winter months suggests that a modification of aphid parasitoid overwintering strategies has taken place within the guild...
November 21, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866981/multiple-coexistence-equilibria-in-a-two-parasitoid-one-host-model
#16
Ferdinand Pfab, Odo Diekmann, Souvik Bhattacharya, Andrea Pugliese
Briggs et al. (1993) introduced a host-parasitoid model for the dynamics of a system with two parasitoids that attack different juvenile stages of a common host. Their main result was that coexistence of the parasitoids is only possible when there is sufficient variability in the maturation delays of the host juvenile stages. Here, we analyze the phenomenon of coexistence in that model more deeply. We show that with some distribution families for the maturation delays, the coexistence equilibrium is unique, while with other distributions multiple coexistence equilibria can be found...
November 17, 2016: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862568/aggregation-and-a-strong-allee-effect-in-a-cooperative-outbreak-insect
#17
D W Goodsman, D Koch, C Whitehouse, M L Evenden, B J Cooke, M A Lewis
Most species that are negatively impacted when their densities are low aggregate to minimize this effect. Aggregation has the potential to change how Allee effects are expressed at the population level. We studied the interplay between aggregation and Allee effects in the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), an irruptive bark beetle that aggregates to overcome tree defenses. By cooperating to surpass a critical number of attacks per tree, the mountain pine beetle is able to breach host defenses, oviposit, and reproduce...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859175/bacterial-endosymbionts-protect-aphids-in-the-field-and-alter-parasitoid-community-composition
#18
Lukas Rothacher, Mar Ferrer-Suay, Christoph Vorburger
It has become increasingly evident that many organisms rely on microbial symbionts for defense against natural enemies, but the ecological importance of defensive symbionts for natural communities still needs to be investigated. A well-known example is Hamiltonella defensa, a heritable endosymbiotic bacterium commonly found in aphids. Laboratory experiments have shown that H. defensa strongly protects aphids against parasitic wasps (parasitoids), although this protection is not equally effective against different species of parasitoids, or even different genotypes of the same species...
July 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859031/non-random-food-web-assembly-at-habitat-edges-increases-connectivity-and-functional-redundancy
#19
Guadalupe Peralta, Carol M Frost, Raphael K Didham, Tatyana A Rand, Jason M Tylianakis
Habitat fragmentation dramatically alters the spatial configuration of landscapes, with the creation of artificial edges affecting community structure and dynamics. Despite this, it is not known how the different food webs in adjacent habitats assemble at their boundaries. Here we demonstrate that the composition and structure of herbivore-parasitoid food webs across edges between native and plantation forests are not randomly assembled from those of the adjacent communities. Rather, elevated proportions of abundant, interaction-generalist parasitoid species at habitat edges allowed considerable interaction rewiring, which led to higher linkage density and less modular networks, with higher parasitoid functional redundancy...
November 14, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852167/global-dynamics-and-bifurcation-analysis-of-a-host-parasitoid-model-with-strong-allee-effect
#20
Abdul Qadeer Khan, Jiying Ma, Dongmei Xiao
In this paper, we study the global dynamics and bifurcations of a two-dimensional discrete time host-parasitoid model with strong Allee effect. The existence of fixed points and their stability are analysed in all allowed parametric region. The bifurcation analysis shows that the model can undergo fold bifurcation and Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. As the parameters vary in a small neighbourhood of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation condition, the unique positive fixed point changes its stability and an invariant closed circle bifurcates from the positive fixed point...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Dynamics
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