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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150973/characterization-of-the-parasitic-dinoflagellate-amoebophrya-sp-infecting-akashiwo-sanguinea-in-coastal-waters-of-china
#1
Tiantian Chen, Yun Liu, Shuqun Song, Caiwen Li
The endoparasitic dinoflagellate Amoebophrya infects a number of free-living marine dinoflagellates, including harmful algal bloom species. The parasitoid eventually kills its host and has been proposed to be a significant loss factor for dinoflagellate blooms in restricted coastal waters. For several decades, the difficulties of culturing host-parasitoid systems have been a great obstacle for further research on the biology of Amoebophrya. Here, we established an Akashiwo sanguinea-Amoebophrya sp. co-culture from Chinese coastal waters and studied the parasitoid's generation time, dinospore survival and infectivity, as well as its host specificity...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147019/identification-and-characterization-of-serine-protease-inhibitors-in-a-parasitic-wasp-pteromalus-puparum
#2
Lei Yang, Yaotian Mei, Qi Fang, Jiale Wang, Zhichao Yan, Qisheng Song, Zhe Lin, Gongyin Ye
Serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) regulate protease-mediated activities by inactivating their cognate proteinases, and are involved in multiple physiological processes. SPIs have been extensively studied in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, little SPI information is available in parasitoids. Herein, we identified 57 SPI genes in total through the genome of a parasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum. Gene structure analyses revealed that these SPIs contain 7 SPI domains. Depending on their mode of action, these SPIs can be categorized into serpins, canonical inhibitors and alpha-2-macroglobulins (A2Ms)...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144440/field-monitoring-of-drosophila-suzukii-and-associated-communities-in-south-eastern-france-as-a-pre-requisite-for-classical-biological-control
#3
Laurent Kremmer, Marcel Thaon, Nicolas Borowiec, Jean David, Marylène Poirié, Jean-Luc Gatti, Nicolas Ris
The spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Ds), became a major economic pest for fruit production since its establishment in Europe and America. Among potential control methods, only classical biological control appears to be a mean of sustainably regulating Ds in both cultivated and natural habitats. In the frame of risk assessment, pre-release surveys were carried out in a restricted but highly heterogeneous area in the south-east of France using traps and deliberate field exposures of Ds and D. melanogaster larvae/pupae...
November 16, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138416/plant-to-plant-communication-triggered-by-systemin-primes-anti-herbivore-resistance-in-tomato
#4
Mariangela Coppola, Pasquale Cascone, Valentina Madonna, Ilaria Di Lelio, Francesco Esposito, Concetta Avitabile, Alessandra Romanelli, Emilio Guerrieri, Alessia Vitiello, Francesco Pennacchio, Rosa Rao, Giandomenico Corrado
Plants actively respond to herbivory by inducing various defense mechanisms in both damaged (locally) and non-damaged tissues (systemically). In addition, it is currently widely accepted that plant-to-plant communication allows specific neighbors to be warned of likely incoming stress (defense priming). Systemin is a plant peptide hormone promoting the systemic response to herbivory in tomato. This 18-aa peptide is also able to induce the release of bioactive Volatile Organic Compounds, thus also promoting the interaction between the tomato and the third trophic level (e...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134006/cecidonius-pampeanus-gen-et-sp-n-an-overlooked-and-rare-new-gall-inducing-micromoth-associated-with-schinus-in-southern-brazil-lepidoptera-cecidosidae
#5
Gilson R P Moreira, Rodrigo P Eltz, Ramoim B Pase, Gabriela T Silva, Sérgio A L Bordignon, Wolfram Mey, Gislene L Gonçalves
Galls induced by the larval stage of cecidosids (Lepidoptera: Cecidosidae) are complex, multi-trophic systems, still poorly studied. They may be associated with other insect feeding guilds, including inquilines, kleptoparasites, cecidophages, parasitoids, and predators. By causing death of the gall inducer early in life and altering the gall phenotype, inquilines may lead to misidentification of the true gall inducers. Here, we describe through light and scanning electron microscopy Cecidonius pampeanus, a new genus and species of cecidosid moth, from the Pampa biome, south Brazil...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133829/differential-responses-of-body-growth-to-artificial-warming-between-parasitoids-and-hosts-and-the-consequences-for-plant-seed-damage
#6
Xinqiang Xi, Yangheshan Yang, Xiaocheng Yang, Sören Nylin, Nico Eisenhauer, Shucun Sun
Temperature increase may disrupt trophic interactions by differentially changing body growth of the species involved. In this study, we tested whether the response of body growth to artificial warming (~2.2 °C) of a solitary koinobiont endo-parasitoid wasp (Pteromalus albipennis, Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) differed from its main host tephritid fly (Tephritis femoralis, Diptera: Tephritidae; pre-dispersal seed predator), and whether the plant seed damage caused by wasp-parasitized and unparasitized maggots (larval flies) were altered by warming...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129280/daily-temperature-variation-and-extreme-high-temperatures-drive-performance-and-biotic-interactions-in-a-warming-world
#7
REVIEW
Robby Stoks, Julie Verheyen, Marie Van Dievel, Nedim Tüzün
We review the major patterns on the effects of daily temperature variation (DTV) and extreme high temperatures (EXT) on performance traits and the resulting outcome of biotic interactions in insects. EXT profoundly affects the outcome of all types of biotic interactions: competitive, predator-prey, herbivore-plant, host-pathogen/parasitoid and symbiotic interactions. Studies investigating effects of DTV on biotic interactions are few but also show strong effects on competitive and host-pathogen/parasitoid interactions...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127793/pest-management-under-climate-change-the-importance-of-understanding-tritrophic-relations
#8
REVIEW
V Castex, M Beniston, P Calanca, D Fleury, J Moreau
Plants and insects depend on climatic factors (temperature, solar radiation, precipitations, relative humidity and CO2) for their development. Current knowledge suggests that climate change can alter plants and insects development and affect their interactions. Shifts in tritrophic relations are of particular concern for Integrated Pest Management (IPM), because responses at the highest trophic level (natural enemies) are highly sensitive to warmer temperature. It is expected that natural enemies could benefit from better conditions for their development in northern latitudes and IPM could be facilitated by a longer period of overlap...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126157/a-survey-of-the-species-of-squash-bug-hemiptera-coreidae-egg-parasitoids-in-virginia-and-their-distribution
#9
James M Wilson, Thomas P Kuhar
Squash bug, Anasa tristis DeGeer (Hemiptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of squash and pumpkins in the United States. In order to better understand the importance of natural egg parasitism of this species in Virginia, we conducted a 2-yr statewide survey. In total, 1,127 squash bug egg masses (~20,000 total eggs) were sampled from squash and pumpkins from 43 counties in Virginia from 2014 to 2015. Egg masses were brought back to the lab to record levels of squash bug nymphal emergence or adult parasitoid eclosion and identification...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124633/an-update-of-the-worldwide-integrated-assessment-wia-on-systemic-insecticides-part-2-impacts-on-organisms-and-ecosystems
#10
Lennard Pisa, Dave Goulson, En-Cheng Yang, David Gibbons, Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Edward Mitchell, Alexandre Aebi, Jeroen van der Sluijs, Chris J K MacQuarrie, Chiara Giorio, Elizabeth Yim Long, Melanie McField, Maarten Bijleveld van Lexmond, Jean-Marc Bonmatin
New information on the lethal and sublethal effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on organisms is presented in this review, complementing the previous Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) in 2015. The high toxicity of these systemic insecticides to invertebrates has been confirmed and expanded to include more species and compounds. Most of the recent research has focused on bees and the sublethal and ecological impacts these insecticides have on pollinators. Toxic effects on other invertebrate taxa also covered predatory and parasitoid natural enemies and aquatic arthropods...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120298/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-nyamiviridae
#11
Ralf G Dietzgen, Elodie Ghedin, Dàohóng Jiāng, Jens H Kuhn, Timothy Song, Nikos Vasilakis, David Wang, Ictv Report Consortium
The Nyamiviridae is a family of viruses with unsegmented, negative-sense RNA genomes of 11.3-12.2 kb that produce enveloped, spherical virions. Viruses of the genus Nyavirus are tick-borne and some also infect birds. Other nyamiviruses infecting parasitoid wasps and plant parasitic nematodes have been classified into the genera Peropuvirus and Socyvirus, respectively. This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Nyamiviridae, which is available at www...
November 9, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099965/cost-of-production-of-telenomus-remus-hymenoptera-platygastridae-grown-in-natural-and-alternative-hosts
#12
Natalia F Vieira, Aline Pomari-Fernandes, Amanda A F Lemes, Alessandra M Vacari, Sergio A De Bortoli, Adeney de Freitas Bueno
The study of the technical and economic aspects of rearing natural enemies is essential for its effective use as a biological control agent in the field. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of production of the parasitoid, Telenomus remus (Nixon; Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), reared in eggs of its natural host, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and the alternative host, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The insects were reared in accordance with their respective methodologies of laboratory rearing...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099782/can-flowering-greencover-crops-promote-biological-control-in-german-vineyards
#13
Christoph Hoffmann, Janine Köckerling, Sandra Biancu, Thomas Gramm, Gertraud Michl, Martin H Entling
Greencover crops are widely recommended to provide predators and parasitoids with floral resources for improved pest control. We studied parasitism and predation of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) eggs and pupae as well as predatory mite abundances in an experimental vineyard with either one or two sowings of greencover crops compared to spontaneous vegetation. The co-occurrence between greencover flowering time and parasitoid activity differed greatly between the two study years. Parasitism was much higher when flowering and parasitoid activity coincided...
November 3, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098754/bottom-up-vs-top-down-effects-on-terrestrial-insect-herbivores-a-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Mayra C Vidal, Shannon M Murphy
Primary consumers are under strong selection from resource ('bottom-up') and consumer ('top-down') controls, but the relative importance of these selective forces is unknown. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the strength of top-down and bottom-up forces on consumer fitness, considering multiple predictors that can modulate these effects: diet breadth, feeding guild, habitat/environment, type of bottom-up effects, type of top-down effects and how consumer fitness effects are measured. We focused our analyses on the most diverse group of primary consumers, herbivorous insects, and found that in general top-down forces were stronger than bottom-up forces...
November 2, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093227/culture-of-an-aphid-heritable-symbiont-demonstrates-its-direct-role-in-defence-against-parasitoids
#15
Jayce W Brandt, Germain Chevignon, Kerry M Oliver, Michael R Strand
Heritable symbionts are common in insects with many contributing to host defence. Hamiltonella defensa is a facultative, bacterial symbiont of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum that provides protection against the endoparasitoid wasp Aphidius ervi Protection levels vary among strains of H. defensa that are differentially infected by bacteriophages named APSEs. By contrast, little is known about mechanism(s) of resistance owing to the intractability of host-restricted microbes for functional study. Here, we developed methods for culturing strains of H...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090867/predation-pressure-in-maize-across-europe-and-in-argentina-an-intercontinental-comparison
#16
Marco Ferrante, Gábor L Lövei, Serena Magagnoli, Lenka Minarcikova, Elena Larisa Tomescu, Giovanni Burgio, Ludovit Cagan, Mihael Cristin Ichim
Humankind draws important benefits from large-scale ecological processes, termed ecosystem services yet the status of several of them is declining. Reliable monitoring methods are essential for tracking the status of ecosystem services. Predation is the mainstay of natural pest control, a key ecosystem service. We used green plasticine caterpillars to monitor predation pressure, and to obtain baseline data on predator activity in transgenic Bt vs. non-Bt maize fields in Old and New World countries. Predation pressure was measured at ground and canopy levels using an identical, small-plot experimental design in four European countries (Denmark, Slovakia, Romania, Italy) and Argentina...
November 1, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080538/investigation-of-the-lethal-and-behavioral-effects-of-commercial-insecticides-on-the-parasitoid-wasp-copidosoma-truncatellum
#17
Rodrigo S Ramos, Vitor C R de Araújo, Renata R Pereira, Júlio C Martins, Obiratanea S Queiroz, Ricardo S Silva, Marcelo C Picanço
Copidosoma truncatellum (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an important parasitoid wasp of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens, but its effectiveness can be severely curtailed by the application of certain insecticides. Therefore, to identify insecticides that are potentially compatible with C. truncatellum, the lethal and behavioral effects of nine chemicals used to control the soybean looper were evaluated for their toxicity to the wasp. Chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, flubendiamide, and indoxacarb were the least toxic insecticides to the parasitoid, resulting in mortalities of less than 25%...
October 25, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075473/climate-variation-alters-the-synchrony-of-host-parasitoid-interactions
#18
Miles T Wetherington, David E Jennings, Paula M Shrewsbury, Jian J Duan
Observed changes in mean temperature and increased frequency of extreme climate events have already impacted the distributions and phenologies of various organisms, including insects. Although some research has examined how parasitoids will respond to colder temperatures or experimental warming, we know relatively little about how increased variation in temperature and humidity could affect interactions between parasitoids and their hosts. Using a study system consisting of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and its egg parasitoid Oobius agrili, we conducted environmentally controlled laboratory experiments to investigate how increased seasonal climate variation affected the synchrony of host-parasitoid interactions...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075452/survival-of-a-specialist-natural-enemy-experiencing-resource-competition-with-an-omnivorous-predator-when-sharing-the-invasive-prey-tuta-absoluta
#19
Anaïs Chailleux, Anthony Droui, Philippe Bearez, Nicolas Desneux
Can specialist natural enemies persist in ecosystems when competing with omnivorous natural enemies for their shared prey? The consequences of omnivory have been studied theoretically, but empirical studies are still lacking. Omnivory is nevertheless common in nature and omnivorous predators coexist with specialists in many ecosystems, even when they are intraguild predators. This type of association is also common in agroecosystems in which biological control strategies are used. Our study provides an example of the outcome of such an association in the context of biological control of the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera) in a tomato agroecosystem...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071450/parasitoid-wasps-exposure-to-host-infested-plant-volatiles-affects-their-olfactory-cognition-of-host-infested-plants
#20
Kinuyo Yoneya, Masayoshi Uefune, Junji Takabayashi
Using Cotesia vestalis, a parasitoid wasp of diamondback moth larvae and three crucifer plant species (cabbage, komatsuna, and Japanese radish), we examined the effects of exposure to host-infested plant volatiles from one plant species on a newly emerged wasp's subsequent olfactory cognition of host-infested plant volatiles from the same or different plant species. The preference of C. vestalis between infested and uninfested plant volatiles was tested in a choice chamber. Volatile-inexperienced wasps significantly preferred infested cabbage and infested radish volatiles, but not infested komatsuna volatiles...
October 25, 2017: Animal Cognition
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