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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334388/bacterial-endosymbionts-of-the-psyllid-cacopsylla-pyricola-hemiptera-psyllidae-in-the-pacific-northwestern-united-states
#1
W Rodney Cooper, Stephen F Garczynski, David R Horton, Thomas R Unruh, Elizabeth H Beers, W Shearer Peter, Richard J Hilton
Insects often have facultative associations with bacterial endosymbionts, which can alter the insects' susceptibility to parasitism, pathogens, plant defenses, and certain classes of insecticides. We collected pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from pear orchards in Washington and Oregon, and surveyed them for the presence of bacterial endosymbionts. Adult psyllids were collected on multiple dates to allow us to assay specimens of both the summer ("summerform") and the overwintering ("winterform") morphotypes...
March 3, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332822/screening-of-wolbachia-endosymbiont-infection-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-using-attenuated-total-reflection-mid-infrared-spectroscopy
#2
Aazam Khoshmanesh, Dale Christensen, David Perez-Guaita, Iñaki Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Scott L O'Neill, Don McNaughton, Bayden R Wood
Dengue fever is the most common mosquito transmitted viral infection afflicting humans, estimated to generate around 390 million infections each year in over 100 countries. The introduction of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes has the potential to greatly reduce the public health burden of the disease. This approach requires extensive PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) testing of the Wolbachia-infection status of mosquitoes in areas where Wolbachia-A. aegypti are released. Here we report the first example of small organism mid-infrared spectroscopy where we have applied Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and multivariate modelling methods to determine sex, age and the presence of Wolbachia (wMel strain) in laboratory mosquitoes and sex and age in field mosquitoes...
March 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303186/incidence-of-wolbachia-in-aquatic-insects
#3
Eric J Sazama, Michael J Bosch, Carmelita S Shouldis, Scot P Ouellette, Jeff S Wesner
Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular bacteria typically found within the reproductive systems of insects that manipulates those systems of their hosts. While current estimates of Wolbachia incidence suggest that it infects approximately half of all arthropod species, these estimates are based almost entirely on terrestrial insects. No systematic survey of Wolbachia in aquatic insects has been performed. To estimate Wolbachia incidence among aquatic insect species, we combined field-collected samples from the Missouri River (251 samples from 58 species) with a global database from previously published surveys...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303006/short-course-high-dose-rifampicin-achieves-wolbachia-depletion-predictive-of-curative-outcomes-in-preclinical-models-of-lymphatic-filariasis-and-onchocerciasis
#4
Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Hayley E Tyrer, Louise Ford, Hanna Sjoberg, Nicolas Pionnier, David Waterhouse, Jill Davies, Joanne Gamble, Haelly Metugene, Darren A N Cook, Andrew Steven, Raman Sharma, Ana F Guimaraes, Rachel H Clare, Andrew Cassidy, Kelly L Johnston, Laura Myhill, Laura Hayward, Samuel Wanji, Joseph D Turner, Mark J Taylor, Stephen A Ward
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis are priority neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination. The only safe drug treatment with substantial curative activity against the filarial nematodes responsible for LF (Brugia malayi, Wuchereria bancrofti) or onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus) is doxycycline. The target of doxycycline is the essential endosymbiont, Wolbachia. Four to six weeks doxycycline therapy achieves >90% depletion of Wolbachia in worm tissues leading to blockade of embryogenesis, adult sterility and premature death 18-24 months post-treatment...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299861/patterns-and-mechanisms-in-instances-of-endosymbiont-induced-parthenogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Wen-Juan Ma, Tanja Schwander
Female-producing parthenogenesis can be induced by endosymbionts that increase their transmission by manipulating host reproduction. Our literature survey indicates that such endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis is known or suspected in 124 host species from seven different arthropod taxa, with Wolbachia as the most frequent endosymbiont (in 56-75% of host species). Most host species (81%, 100 out of 124) are characterized by haplo-diploid sex determination, but a strong ascertainment bias likely underestimates the frequency of endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in hosts with other sex determination systems...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291780/removing-the-needle-from-the-haystack-enrichment-of-wolbachia-endosymbiont-transcripts-from-host-nematode-rna-by-cappable-seq%C3%A2
#6
Ashley N Luck, Barton E Slatko, Jeremy M Foster
Efficient transcriptomic sequencing of microbial mRNA derived from host-microbe associations is often compromised by the much lower relative abundance of microbial RNA in the mixed total RNA sample. One solution to this problem is to perform extensive sequencing until an acceptable level of transcriptome coverage is obtained. More cost-effective methods include use of prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic rRNA depletion strategies, sometimes in conjunction with depletion of polyadenylated eukaryotic mRNA. Here, we report use of Cappable-seq™ to specifically enrich, in a single step, Wolbachia endobacterial mRNA transcripts from total RNA prepared from the parasitic filarial nematode, Brugia malayi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288761/pulmonary-hypertension-in-dogs-with-heartworm-before-and-after-the-adulticide-protocol-recommended-by-the-american-heartworm-society
#7
B Serrano-Parreño, E Carretón, A Caro-Vadillo, S Falcón-Cordón, Y Falcón-Cordón, J A Montoya-Alonso
Pulmonary hypertension (pH) is a frequent and severe phenomenon in heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis). There is a lack of studies assessing the evolution of the proliferative endarteritis and pH caused by D. immitis after the death of the parasites, so this study evaluated the influence that the elimination of the worms exerts over the pulmonary pressure and therefore evolution of the endarteritis, through the evaluation of the Right Pulmonary Artery Distensibility (RPAD) Index and other echocardiographic measurements in 2D mode, M-mode and Doppler echocardiography in 34 dogs naturally infected by D...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286698/-i-aedes-aegypti-i-control-through-modernized-integrated-vector-management
#8
Laith Yakob, Sebastian Funk, Anton Camacho, Oliver Brady, W John Edmunds
INTRODUCTION: In the context of the ongoing, unprecedented Zika virus outbreak in the Americas, the World Health Organization has expressed its support for developing and up-scaling three novel approaches to controlling the Aedes aegypti mosquito: the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), the Release of Insects carrying Dominant Lethal genes (RIDL) and the release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. Whereas the former two approaches are temporary insect population suppression strategies, Wolbachia infection is a self-sustaining, invasive strategy that uses inherited endosymbiotic bacteria to render natural mosquito populations arbovirus resistant...
January 30, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286343/symbiosis-wolbachia-s-matchmaking-secret-revealed
#9
Ursula Hofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267749/the-microbiome-composition-of-aedes-aegypti-is-not-critical-for-wolbachia-mediated-inhibition-of-dengue-virus
#10
Michelle D Audsley, Yixin H Ye, Elizabeth A McGraw
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) is primarily vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, and is estimated to cause 390 million human infections annually. A novel method for DENV control involves stable transinfection of Ae. aegypti with the common insect endosymbiont Wolbachia, which mediates an antiviral effect. However, the mechanism by which Wolbachia reduces the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to DENV is not fully understood. In this study we assessed the potential of resident microbiota, which can play important roles in insect physiology and immune responses, to affect Wolbachia-mediated DENV blocking...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266601/incomplete-removal-of-wolbachia-with-tetracycline-has-two-edged-reproductive-effects-in-the-thelytokous-wasp-encarsia-formosa-hymenoptera-aphelinidae
#11
Xiao-Xiang Wang, Lan-Da Qi, Rui Jiang, Yu-Zhou Du, Yuan-Xi Li
Wolbachia pipientis are intracellular endosymbionts that induce parthenogenesis in the parasitoid Encarsia formosa. Previous studies that focused on effects of Wolbachia on the wasp usually used tetracycline to remove Wolbachia without concern for the joint influences of tetracycline and Wolbachia. Here we treated the wasps (F0 lines) with tetracycline to produce offspring (F1 lines) which were not fed tetracycline to avoid antibiotic influence. The quantitative data and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that Wolbachia titers were reduced but not totally removed...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262718/the-rnai-pathway-plays-a-small-part-in-wolbachia-mediated-blocking-of-dengue-virus-in-mosquito-cells
#12
Gerard Terradas, D Albert Joubert, Elizabeth A McGraw
Wolbachia pipientis is an insect endosymbiont known to limit the replication of viruses including dengue and Zika in their primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. Wolbachia is being released into mosquito populations globally in a bid to control the diseases caused by these viruses. It is theorized that Wolbachia's priming of the insect immune system may confer protection against subsequent viral infection. Other hypotheses posit a role for competition between Wolbachia and viruses for host cellular resources...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261755/intracellular-symbiotic-bacteria-of-camponotus-textor-forel-hymenoptera-formicidae
#13
Manuela O Ramalho, Cintia Martins, Larissa M R Silva, Vanderlei G Martins, Odair C Bueno
This study focuses on the weaver ant, Camponotus textor, Forel which occurs in some areas of the Brazilian Cerrado and Atlantic Forest, and its symbionts: Blochmannia, an obligate symbiont of Camponotus, and Wolbachia, known for causing reproductive alterations in their hosts. The main goal of this study was to investigate the presence, frequency of occurrence, and diversity of Wolbachia and Blochmannia strains in C. textor colonies. We found high infection rates (100%) and the occurrence of at least two distinct strains of Blochmannia (H_1 or H_7) in the same species...
March 6, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248294/a-wolbachia-deubiquitylating-enzyme-induces-cytoplasmic-incompatibility
#14
John F Beckmann, Judith A Ronau, Mark Hochstrasser
Wolbachia are obligate intracellular bacteria(1) that infect arthropods, including approximately two-thirds of insect species(2). Wolbachia manipulate insect reproduction by enhancing their inheritance through the female germline. The most common alteration is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)(3-5), where eggs from uninfected females fail to develop when fertilized by sperm from Wolbachia-infected males. By contrast, if female and male partners are both infected, embryos are viable. CI is a gene-drive mechanism impacting population structure(6) and causing reproductive isolation(7), but its molecular mechanism has remained unknown...
March 1, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245239/comparative-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-of-mosquito-communities-in-central-illinois
#15
Ephantus J Muturi, Jose L Ramirez, Alejandro P Rooney, Chang-Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: The composition and structure of microbial communities that inhabit the mosquito midguts are poorly understood despite their well-documented potential to impede pathogen transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the bacterial communities of field-collected populations of 12 mosquito species. After quality filtering and rarefaction, the remaining sequences were assigned to 181 operational taxonomic units (OTUs)...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241782/molecular-detection-and-identification-of-wolbachia-in-three-species-of-the-genus-lutzomyia-on-the-colombian-caribbean-coast
#16
Rafael José Vivero, Gloria Cadavid-Restrepo, Claudia Ximena Moreno Herrera, Sandra I Uribe Soto
BACKGROUND: The hematophagous habits of insects belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae), as well as their role as biological vectors of Leishmania species, make their presence an indication of infection risk. In the present study, seven species of Lutzomyia were identified and screened for natural infections with Wolbachia. METHODS: Collection of sand flies was done in an endemic focus of leishmaniasis on the Colombian Caribbean coast (Department of Sucre, Ovejas municipality)...
February 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241146/prophage-wo-genes-recapitulate-and-enhance-wolbachia-induced-cytoplasmic-incompatibility
#17
Daniel P LePage, Jason A Metcalf, Sarah R Bordenstein, Jungmin On, Jessamyn I Perlmutter, J Dylan Shropshire, Emily M Layton, Lisa J Funkhouser-Jones, John F Beckmann, Seth R Bordenstein
The genus Wolbachia is an archetype of maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect the germline of numerous invertebrate species worldwide. They can selfishly alter arthropod sex ratios and reproductive strategies to increase the proportion of the infected matriline in the population. The most common reproductive manipulation is cytoplasmic incompatibility, which results in embryonic lethality in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. Females infected with the same Wolbachia strain rescue this lethality...
March 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235879/experimental-manipulation-shows-a-greater-influence-of-population-than-dietary-perturbation-on-the-microbiome-of-tyrophagus-putrescentiae
#18
Tomas Erban, Ondrej Ledvinka, Marta Nesvorna, Jan Hubert
Tyrophagus putrescentiae (TP) is inhabited by bacteria that differ among mite populations (strains) and diets. Here, we investigated how the microbiome and fitness of TP are altered by dietary perturbations and mite populations. Four TP populations, referred to as Dog, Koppert, Laboratory and Phillips, underwent a perturbation, i.e., a dietary switch from a rearing diet to two experimental diets. The microbiome was investigated by sequencing the V1-V3 portion of the 16S rRNA gene, and selected bacterial taxa were quantified by qPCR using group/taxa-specific primers...
February 24, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208639/biological-control-strategies-for-mosquito-vectors-of-arboviruses
#19
REVIEW
Yan-Jang S Huang, Stephen Higgs, Dana L Vanlandingham
Historically, biological control utilizes predatory species and pathogenic microorganisms to reduce the population of mosquitoes as disease vectors. This is particularly important for the control of mosquito-borne arboviruses, which normally do not have specific antiviral therapies available. Although development of resistance is likely, the advantages of biological control are that the resources used are typically biodegradable and ecologically friendly. Over the past decade, the advancement of molecular biology has enabled optimization by the manipulation of genetic materials associated with biological control agents...
February 10, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201740/how-long-does-wolbachia-remain-on-board
#20
Marc Bailly-Bechet, Patricia Martins-Simões, Gergely Szöllősi, Gladys Mialdea, Marie-France Sagot, Sylvain Charlat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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