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Xianghong Zhang, Sanyi Tang, Qiyong Liu, Robert A Cheke, Huaiping Zhu
The introduction of endosymbiont Wolbachia into laboratory-reared mosquito populations, which are then released to mix with natural populations to prevent the mosquito vectors from reproducing and thus break the transmission cycle of dengue disease, is an innovative new technology. Field trials of Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes have now been implemented in many countries where there have been the outbreaks of dengue disease. A mathematical model is proposed to investigate the effects of non-identical sex ratio releases of Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes on the control of dengue transmission...
March 9, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Michael Turelli, Brandon S Cooper, Kelly M Richardson, Paul S Ginsberg, Brooke Peckenpaugh, Chenling X Antelope, Kevin J Kim, Michael R May, Antoine Abrieux, Derek A Wilson, Michael J Bronski, Brian R Moore, Jian-Jun Gao, Michael B Eisen, Joanna C Chiu, William R Conner, Ary A Hoffmann
Maternally transmitted Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, and Cardinium bacteria are common in insects [1], but their interspecific spread is poorly understood. Endosymbionts can spread rapidly within host species by manipulating host reproduction, as typified by the global spread of wRi Wolbachia observed in Drosophila simulans [2, 3]. However, because Wolbachia cannot survive outside host cells, spread between distantly related host species requires horizontal transfers that are presumably rare [4-7]. Here, we document spread of wRi-like Wolbachia among eight highly diverged Drosophila hosts (10-50 million years) over only about 14,000 years (5,000-27,000)...
March 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Luke Woodford, Giovanni Bianco, Yoana Ivanova, Maeve Dale, Kathryn Elmer, Fiona Rae, Stephen D Larcombe, Barbara Helm, Heather M Ferguson, Francesco Baldini
Artificial infection of mosquitoes with the endosymbiont bacteria Wolbachia can interfere with malaria parasite development. Therefore, the release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes has been proposed as a malaria control strategy. However, Wolbachia effects on vector competence are only partly understood, as indicated by inconsistent effects on malaria infection reported under laboratory conditions. Studies of naturally-occurring Wolbachia infections in wild vector populations could be useful to identify the ecological and evolutionary conditions under which these endosymbionts can block malaria transmission...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Juntra Wattanamethanont, Morakot Kaewthamasorn, Sonthaya Tiawsirisup
Ixodid ticks are important vectors of tick-borne disease agents affecting humans and animals, with wildlife often serving as important reservoirs. This study examined protozoal and bacterial infection in questing ticks in forest habitats in Chonburi Province, Thailand in 2015, using PCR and DNA sequencing techniques. A total of 12,184 ticks were morphologically identified to species and a subset of ticks were confirmed by PCR, targeting the tick mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Tick species collected included Haemaphysalis lagrangei (92...
March 5, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Anna Michalik, Jacek Szwedo, Adam Stroiński, Dariusz Świerczewski, Teresa Szklarzewicz
In contrast to Cicadomorpha, in which numerous symbiotic bacteria have been identified and characterized, the symbionts of fulgoromorphans are poorly known. Here, we present the results of histological, ultrastructural, and molecular analyses of the symbiotic system of the planthopper Ommatidiotus dissimilis. Amplification, cloning, and sequencing of bacterial 16S RNA genes have revealed that O. dissimilis is host to five types of bacteria. Apart from bacteria Sulcia and Vidania, which are regarded as ancestral symbionts of Fulgoromorpha, three additional types of bacteria belonging to the genera Sodalis, Wolbachia, and Rickettsia have been detected...
March 7, 2018: Protoplasma
Jie Bi, Amita Sehgal, Julie A Williams, Yu-Feng Wang
Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria present in a wide range of insects. Although their dramatic effects on host reproductive biology have been well studied, the effects of Wolbachia on sleep behavior of insect hosts are not well documented. In this study, we report that Wolbachia infection caused an increase of total sleep time in both male and female Drosophila melanogaster. The increase in sleep was associated with an increase in the number of nighttime sleep bouts or episodes, but not in sleep bout duration...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Tahseen Raza Hashmi, Salam Rita Devi, Naresh M Meshram, Ram Prasad
Endosymbionts are vital factor for arthropod ecology. The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex composed of more than 34 putative species. Moreover to the primary endosymbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum , six secondary endosymbionts Cardinium , Arsenophonus , Rickettsia , Wolbachia, Hamiltonella and Fritschea are known in B . tabaci . Here, we tested four of the six secondary endosymbiont lineages (excluding Fritschea and Hamiltonella ) from 180 whitely individuals collected from six host plants belonging to families Solanaceae (Brinjal, Tomato and Potato) and Fabaceae (Soyabean, Mungbean and Subabool)...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Saijo Thomas, Jiyoti Verma, Megan Woolfit, Scott L O'Neill
Wolbachia is currently being developed as a novel tool to block the transmission of dengue viruses (DENV) by Aedes aegypti. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the DENV-blocking phenotype in mosquitoes, including competition for fatty acids like cholesterol, manipulation of host miRNAs and upregulation of innate immune pathways in the mosquito. We examined the various stages in the DENV infection process to better understand the mechanism of Wolbachia-mediated virus blocking (WMVB). Our results suggest that infection with Wolbachia does not inhibit DENV binding or cell entry, but reduces virus replication...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Ebru L Aydogan, Gerald Moser, Christoph Müller, Peter Kämpfer, Stefanie P Glaeser
Global warming is currently a much discussed topic with as yet largely unexplored consequences for agro-ecosystems. Little is known about the warming effect on the bacterial microbiota inhabiting the plant surface (phyllosphere), which can have a strong impact on plant growth and health, as well as on plant diseases and colonization by human pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate surface warming on the diversity and composition of the bacterial leaf microbiota of the herbaceous plant Galium album ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
João Silveira Moledo Gesto, Alejandra Saori Araki, Eric Pearce Caragata, Caroline Dantas de Oliveira, Ademir Jesus Martins, Rafaela Vieira Bruno, Luciano Andrade Moreira
BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne diseases are rapidly spreading to vast territories, putting at risk most of the world's population. A key player in this scenario is Aedes aegypti, a hematophagous species which hosts and transmits viruses causing dengue and other serious illnesses. Since vector control strategies relying only on insecticides have proven unsustainable, an alternative method involving the release of Wolbachia-harboring individuals has emerged. Its successful implementation vastly depends on how fit the released individuals are in the natural habitat, being able to mate with wild populations and to spread Wolbachia to subsequent generations...
February 22, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Manuela Oliveira Ramalho, Alexsandro Santana Vieira, Mayara Cristina Pereira, Corrie Saux Moreau, Odair Correa Bueno
Camponotus is a hyper-diverse ant genus that is associated with the obligate endosymbiont Blochmannia, and often also with Wolbachia, but morphological studies on the location of these bacteria in the queen's ovaries during oogenesis remain limited. In the present study, we used the Neotropical weaver ant Camponotus textor to characterize the ovary using histology (HE) techniques, and to document the location of Blochmannia and Wolbachia during oogenesis through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This is the first morphological report of these two bacteria in the same host with polytrophic meroistic ovaries and reveals that Blochmannia is found inside late-stage oocytes and Wolbachia is associated with the nuclei of the nurse cells...
February 21, 2018: Current Microbiology
Heinrich Zu Dohna, Carine Houry, Zakaria Kambris
The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia infects a wide range of arthropods and their relatives. It is an intracellular parasite transmitted through the egg from mother to offspring. Wolbachia can spread and persist through various means of host reproductive manipulation. How these different mechanisms of host manipulation evolved in Wolbachia is unclear. Which host reproductive phenotype is most likely to be ancestral and whether evolutionary transitions between some host phenotypes are more common than others remain unanswered questions...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Ajit D Kamath, Mark A Deehan, Horacio M Frydman
Bacteria are critical partners in the development and evolution of vertebrates and invertebrates. A large fraction of insects harbor Wolbachia , a bacterial endosymbiont that manipulate host reproduction to favor their spreading. Since they are maternally inherited, Wolbachia are under selective pressure to reach the female germline and infect the offspring. However, Wolbachia infection is not limited to the germline. Somatic cell types, including stem cell niches, have higher Wolbachia loads compared to the surrounding tissue...
February 21, 2018: Development
Shruti Yadav, Joanna Frazer, Ashima Banga, Katherine Pruitt, Sneh Harsh, John Jaenike, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and their hosts represent a complex ecosystem within organisms ranging from humans to protozoa. Drosophila species are known to naturally harbor Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts, which play a protective role against certain microbial infections. Here, we investigated whether the presence or absence of endosymbionts affects the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster larvae to infection by Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes carrying or lacking their mutualistic Gram-negative bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila (symbiotic or axenic nematodes, respectively)...
2018: PloS One
Nicholas P Jewell, Suzanne Dufault, Zoe Cutcher, Cameron P Simmons, Katherine L Anders
Intervention trials of vector control methods often require community level randomization with appropriate inferential methods. For many interventions, the possibility of confounding due to the effects of health-care seeking behavior on disease ascertainment remains a concern. The test-negative design, a variant of the case-control method, was introduced to mitigate this issue in the assessment of the efficacy of influenza vaccination (measured at an individual level) on influenza infection. Here, we introduce a cluster-randomized test-negative design that includes randomization of the intervention at a group level...
February 12, 2018: Biostatistics
Flore Zélé, Mylène Weill, Sara Magalhães
Spider mites of the genus Tetranychidae are severe crop pests. In the Mediterranean a few species coexist, but they are difficult to identify based on morphological characters. Additionally, spider mites often harbour several species of endosymbiotic bacteria, which may affect the biology of their hosts. Here, we propose novel, cost-effective, multiplex diagnostic methods allowing a quick identification of spider-mite species as well as of the endosymbionts they carry. First, we developed, and successfully multiplexed in a single PCR, primers to identify Tetranychus urticae, T...
February 12, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Yan-Kai Zhang, Kun Yang, Yu-Xi Zhu, Xiao-Yue Hong
Double infections of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma are frequent in natural populations of Tetranychus truncatus, a polyphagous mite species that has been a dominant species in China since 2009. However, little is known about the causes and ecological importance of such coexistences. In this study, we established T. truncatus strains with different infection types and then inferred the impact of the two endosymbionts on host reproduction and fitness. Double infection induced cytoplasmic incompatibility, which was demonstrated by reduction in egg hatchability of incompatible crosses...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Doris E Campo-Duarte, Olga Vasilieva, Daiver Cardona-Salgado, Mikhail Svinin
Wolbachia-based biocontrol has recently emerged as a potential method for prevention and control of dengue and other vector-borne diseases. Major vector species, such as Aedes aegypti females, when deliberately infected with Wolbachia become less capable of getting viral infections and transmitting the virus to human hosts. In this paper, we propose an explicit sex-structured population model that describes an interaction of uninfected (wild) male and female mosquitoes and those deliberately infected with wMelPop strain of Wolbachia in the same locality...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Ranjit Kumar Sahoo, David J Lohman, Niklas Wahlberg, Chris J Müller, Oskar Brattström, Steve C Collins, Djunijanti Peggie, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah
Hypolimnas butterflies (Nymphalidae), commonly known as eggflies, are a popular model system for studying a wide range of ecological questions including mimicry, polymorphism, wing pattern evolution, and Wolbachia-host interactions. The lack of a time-calibrated phylogeny for this group has precluded understanding its evolutionary history. We reconstruct a species-level phylogeny using a nine gene dataset and estimate species divergence times. Based on the resulting tree, we investigate the taxon's historical biogeography, examine the evolution of host plant preferences, and test the hypothesis that the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia mediates gene transfer between species...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Scott A Ritchie, Andrew F van den Hurk, Michael J Smout, Kyran M Staunton, Ary A Hoffmann
Historically, sustained control of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika viruses, has been largely ineffective. Subsequently, two novel 'rear and release' control strategies utilizing mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia are currently being developed and deployed widely. In the incompatible insect technique, male Aedes mosquitoes, infected with Wolbachia, suppress populations through unproductive mating. In the transinfection strategy, both male and female Wolbachia-infected Ae...
January 4, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
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