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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935594/plant-mediated-horizontal-transmission-of-wolbachia-between-whiteflies
#1
Shao-Jian Li, Muhammad Z Ahmed, Ning Lv, Pei-Qiong Shi, Xing-Min Wang, Ji-Lei Huang, Bao-Li Qiu
Maternal transmission is the main transmission pathway of facultative bacterial endosymbionts, but phylogenetically distant insect hosts harbor closely related endosymbionts, suggesting that horizontal transmission occurs in nature. Here we report the first case of plant-mediated horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between infected and uninfected Bemisia tabaci AsiaII7 whiteflies. After infected whiteflies fed on cotton leaves, Wolbachia was visualized, both in the phloem vessels and in some novel 'reservoir' spherules along the phloem by fluorescence in situ hybridization using Wolbachia-specific 16S rRNA probes and transmission electron microscopy...
December 9, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934910/extensive-genetic-diversity-of-rickettsiales-bacteria-in-multiple-mosquito-species
#2
Wen-Ping Guo, Jun-Hua Tian, Xian-Dan Lin, Xue-Bing Ni, Xiao-Ping Chen, Yong Liao, Si-Yuan Yang, J Stephen Dumler, Edward C Holmes, Yong-Zhen Zhang
Rickettsiales are important zoonotic pathogens, causing severe disease in humans globally. Although mosquitoes are an important vector for diverse pathogens, with the exception of members of the genus Wolbachia little is known about their role in the transmission of Rickettsiales. Herein, Rickettsiales were identified by PCR in five species of mosquitoes (Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Cu. tritaeniorhynchus) collected from three Chinese provinces during 2014-2015...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930295/birth-of-a-w-sex-chromosome-by-horizontal-transfer-of-wolbachia-bacterial-symbiont-genome
#3
Sébastien Leclercq, Julien Thézé, Mohamed Amine Chebbi, Isabelle Giraud, Bouziane Moumen, Lise Ernenwein, Pierre Grève, Clément Gilbert, Richard Cordaux
Sex determination is a fundamental developmental pathway governing male and female differentiation, with profound implications for morphology, reproductive strategies, and behavior. In animals, sex differences between males and females are generally determined by genetic factors carried by sex chromosomes. Sex chromosomes are remarkably variable in origin and can differ even between closely related species, indicating that transitions occur frequently and independently in different groups of organisms. The evolutionary causes underlying sex chromosome turnover are poorly understood, however...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920393/detection-of-wolbachia-in-aedes-albopictus-and-their-effects-on-chikungunya-virus
#4
Noor Afizah Ahmad, Indira Vythilingam, Yvonne A L Lim, Nur Zatil Aqmar A Zabari, Han Lim Lee
Wolbachia-based vector control strategies have been proposed as a means to augment the currently existing measures for controlling dengue and chikungunya vectors. Prior to utilizing Wolbachia as a novel vector control strategy, it is crucial to understand the Wolbachia-mosquito interactions. In this study, field surveys were conducted to screen for the infection status of Wolbachia in field-collected Aedes albopictus The effects of Wolbachia in its native host toward the replication and dissemination of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was also studied...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914738/wolbachia-strains-in-cryptic-species-of-the-anastrepha-fraterculus-complex-diptera-tephritidae-along-the-neotropical-region
#5
Leandro F Prezotto, André L P Perondini, Vicente Hernández-Ortiz, Celso L Marino, Denise Selivon
Infection by Wolbachia was described previously in eleven species of Anastrepha fruit flies some of which are important pests of fruticulture. One such species is the nominal Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, which actually comprises a complex of cryptic species. The suggestions of using Wolbachia for the control of these pest species, make imperative a more precise characterization of the existing strains of the bacteria. In this study, population samples of the A. fraterculus complex from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Guatemala and Mexico were analyzed for Wolbachia infection...
November 24, 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905665/multiple-paternity-in-a-wild-population-of-armadillidium-vulgare-influence-of-infection-with-wolbachia
#6
V Valette, S Durand, N Bech, F Grandjean, S Beltran-Bech
Female multiple mating has been extensively studied to understand how nonobvious benefits, generally thought to be of genetic nature, could overcome heavy costs such as an increased risk of infection during mating. However, the impact of infection itself on multiple mating has rarely been addressed. The interaction between the bacterium Wolbachia and its terrestrial crustacean host, Armadillidium vulgare, is a relevant model to investigate this question. In this association, Wolbachia is able to turn genetic males into functional females (i...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902358/wolbachia-suppresses-cell-fusing-agent-virus-in-mosquito-cells
#7
Guagmei Zhang, Kayvan Etebari, Sassan Asgari
The genus Flavivirus contains a large number of positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses. While some are transmitted by mosquitoes or other arthropods and are pathogenic to humans and animals (e.g. dengue and Zika viruses), some are insect-specific and do not replicate in vertebrate cells. These are known as insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs). Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) was the first described ISF, which was detected in an Aedes aegypti cell line, Aag2. Here, we investigated the effect of Wolbachia, a widespread endosymbiont of many insect species, that is known to block replication of several pathogenic flaviviruses, on CFAV...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902186/multigenetic-characterization-of-candidatus-xenohaliotis-californiensis
#8
Francesco Cicala, James D Moore, Jorge Cáceres-Martínez, Miguel A Del Río-Portilla, Mónica Hernández-Rodríguez, Rebeca Vásquez-Yeomans, Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares
"Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis" (or Ca. Xc) is the etiological agent of the withering syndrome (WS), a chronic wasting disease affecting most if not all North American species of abalone, and has been described as a Rickettsiales-like prokaryote. Genetic data about this species is limited to the 16S rRNA gene. The inability to grow it axenically has hindered its genetic and genomic characterization and, in consequence, a thorough analysis of its systematics. Here, we amplified and sequenced five genes (16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, ftsZ, virD4, and virB11) of Ca...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893736/diet-induced-nutritional-stress-and-pathogen-interference-in-wolbachia-infected-aedes-aegypti
#9
Eric Pearce Caragata, Fernanda Oliveira Rezende, Taynãna César Simões, Luciano Andrade Moreira
The pathogen interference phenotype greatly restricts infection with dengue virus (DENV) and other pathogens in Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti, and is a vital component of Wolbachia-based mosquito control. Critically, the phenotype's causal mechanism is complex and poorly understood, with recent evidence suggesting that the cause may be species specific. To better understand this important phenotype, we investigated the role of diet-induced nutritional stress on interference against DENV and the avian malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum in Wolbachia-infected Ae...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881553/stage-specific-transcriptome-and-proteome-analyses-of-the-filarial-parasite-onchocerca-volvulus-and-its-wolbachia-endosymbiont
#10
Sasisekhar Bennuru, James A Cotton, Jose M C Ribeiro, Alexandra Grote, Bhavana Harsha, Nancy Holroyd, Amruta Mhashilkar, Douglas M Molina, Arlo Z Randall, Adam D Shandling, Thomas R Unnasch, Elodie Ghedin, Matthew Berriman, Sara Lustigman, Thomas B Nutman
: Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a neglected tropical disease that has been successfully targeted by mass drug treatment programs in the Americas and small parts of Africa. Achieving the long-term goal of elimination of onchocerciasis, however, requires additional tools, including drugs, vaccines, and biomarkers of infection. Here, we describe the transcriptome and proteome profiles of the major vector and the human host stages (L1, L2, L3, molting L3, L4, adult male, and adult female) of Onchocerca volvulus along with the proteome of each parasitic stage and of its Wolbachia endosymbiont (wOv)...
November 23, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871813/gut-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster-interacts-with-wolbachia-but-does-not-contribute-to-wolbachia-mediated-antiviral-protection
#11
Yixin H Ye, Andrei Seleznev, Heather A Flores, Megan Woolfit, Elizabeth A McGraw
Animals experience near constant infection with microorganisms. A significant proportion of these microbiota reside in the alimentary tract. There is a growing appreciation for the roles gut microbiota play in host biology. The gut microbiota of insects, for example, have been shown to help the host overcome pathogen infection either through direct competition or indirectly by stimulating host immunity. These defenses may also be supplemented by coinfecting maternally inherited microbes such as Wolbachia. The presence of Wolbachia in a host can delay and/or reduce death caused by RNA viruses...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869792/genomic-diversity-in-onchocerca-volvulus-and-its-wolbachia-endosymbiont
#12
Young-Jun Choi, Rahul Tyagi, Samantha N McNulty, Bruce A Rosa, Philip Ozersky, John Martin, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, Thomas R Unnasch, Carmelle T Norice, Thomas B Nutman, Gary J Weil, Peter U Fischer, Makedonka Mitreva
Ongoing elimination efforts have altered the global distribution of Onchocerca volvulus, the agent of river blindness, and further population restructuring is expected as efforts continue. Therefore, a better understanding of population genetic processes and their effect on biogeography is needed to support elimination goals. We describe O. volvulus genome variation in 27 isolates from the early 1990s (before widespread mass treatment) from four distinct locales: Ecuador, Uganda, the West African forest and the West African savanna...
November 21, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869790/the-genome-of-onchocerca-volvulus-agent-of-river-blindness
#13
James A Cotton, Sasisekhar Bennuru, Alexandra Grote, Bhavana Harsha, Alan Tracey, Robin Beech, Stephen R Doyle, Matthew Dunn, Julie C Dunning Hotopp, Nancy Holroyd, Taisei Kikuchi, Olivia Lambert, Amruta Mhashilkar, Prudence Mutowo, Nirvana Nursimulu, Jose M C Ribeiro, Matthew B Rogers, Eleanor Stanley, Lakshmipuram S Swapna, Isheng J Tsai, Thomas R Unnasch, Denis Voronin, John Parkinson, Thomas B Nutman, Elodie Ghedin, Matthew Berriman, Sara Lustigman
Human onchocerciasis is a serious neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that can lead to blindness and chronic disability. Control of the disease relies largely on mass administration of a single drug, and the development of new drugs and vaccines depends on a better knowledge of parasite biology. Here, we describe the chromosomes of O. volvulus and its Wolbachia endosymbiont. We provide the highest-quality sequence assembly for any parasitic nematode to date, giving a glimpse into the evolution of filarial parasite chromosomes and proteomes...
November 21, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863487/analyses-of-density-dependent-effects-are-needed-to-understand-how-and-when-wolbachia-can-control-dengue-vectors
#14
Robert A Cheke
Releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes have been shown to be an effective method of controlling Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue fever, in Australia. A study in BMC Biology from Penelope Hancock and others shows that incorporation of density-dependent effects into population models can provide major improvements in understanding how and when the infected populations can become established.See research article: https://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12915-016-0319-5 .
November 18, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863033/dna-barcoding-of-crickets-katydids-and-grasshoppers-orthoptera-from-central-europe-with-focus-on-austria-germany-and-switzerland
#15
O Hawlitschek, J Morinière, G U C Lehmann, A W Lehmann, M Kropf, A Dunz, F Glaw, M Detcharoen, S Schmidt, A Hausmann, N U Szucsich, S A Caetano-Wyler, G Haszprunar
We present a DNA barcoding study on the insect order Orthoptera that was generated in collaboration between four barcoding projects in three countries, viz. Barcoding Fauna Bavarica (Germany), German Barcode of Life, Austrian Barcode of Life, and Swiss Barcode of Life. Our dataset includes 748 COI sequences from 127 of the 162 taxa (78.4%) recorded in the three countries involved. 93 of these 122 species (76.2%, including all Ensifera), can be reliably identified using DNA barcodes. The remaining 26 caeliferan species (families Acrididae and Tetrigidae) form ten clusters that share barcodes among up to five species, in three cases even across different genera, and in six cases even sharing individual barcodes...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862998/sex-ratio-of-mirid-populations-shifts-in-response-to-hostplant-co-infestation-or-altered-cytokinin-signaling
#16
Nora Adam, Theresa Erler, Mario Kallenbach, Martin Kaltenpoth, Grit Kunert, Ian T Baldwin, Meredith C Schuman
Herbivore species sharing a host plant often compete. In this study, we show that host plant-mediated interaction between two insect herbivores - a generalist and a specialist - results in a sex ratio shift of the specialist's offspring. We studied demographic parameters of the specialist Tupiocoris notatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) when co-infesting the host plant Nicotiana attenuata (Solanaceae) with the generalist leafhopper Empoasca sp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). We show that the usually female-biased sex ratio of T...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859964/artificial-selection-on-ant-female-caste-ratio-uncovers-a-link-between-female-biased-sex-ratios-and-infection-by-wolbachia-endosymbionts
#17
Luigi Pontieri, Anna M Schmidt, Rohini Singh, Jes Søe Pedersen, Timothy A Linksvayer
Social insect sex and caste ratios are well-studied targets of evolutionary conflicts, but the heritable factors affecting these traits remain unknown. To elucidate these factors, we carried out a short-term artificial selection study on female caste ratio in the ant Monomorium pharaonis. Across three generations of bidirectional selection, we observed no response for caste ratio, but sex ratios rapidly became more female-biased in the two replicate high selection lines and less female-biased in the two replicate low selection lines...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855218/wolbachia-based-dengue-virus-inhibition-is-not-tissue-specific-in-aedes-aegypti
#18
Hilaria E Amuzu, Elizabeth A McGraw
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever, caused by the dengue virus (DENV), is now the most common arbovirus transmitted disease globally. One novel approach to control DENV is to use the endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia pipientis, to limit DENV replication inside the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. Wolbachia that is naturally present in a range of insects reduces the capacity for viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi to replicate inside insects. Wolbachia's mode of action is not well understood but may involve components of immune activation or competition with pathogens for limited host resources...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849636/the-potential-role-of-wolbachia-in-controlling-the-transmission-of-emerging-human-arboviral-infections
#19
Joseph Kamtchum-Tatuene, Benjamin L Makepeace, Laura Benjamin, Matthew Baylis, Tom Solomon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Wolbachia is a genus of Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that is naturally found in more than half of all arthropod species. These bacteria cannot only reduce the fitness and the reproductive capacities of arthropod vectors, but also increase their resistance to arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). This article reviews the evidence supporting a Wolbachia-based strategy for controlling the transmission of dengue and other arboviral infections. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies conducted 1 year after the field release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes in Australia have demonstrated the suppression of dengue virus (DENV) replication in and dissemination by mosquitoes...
November 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843186/wolbachia-the-selfish-trojan-horse-in-dengue-control
#20
REVIEW
M S Mustafa, V Rastogi, R K Gupta, S Jain, P M P Singh, A Gupta
Dengue fever has re-emerged as a major public health challenge. Of late, several promising attempts have been made to control the disease with limited success. An innovative method of biological control of dengue is the use of the bacterium Wolbachia. Selected strains of Wolbachia have been introduced into Aedes aegypti to prevent transmission of dengue viruses by the vector. Wolbachia prevents dengue transmission by either directly blocking the virus or by decreasing the lifespan of the vector. The mechanism by which it causes these effects is not clearly understood...
October 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
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