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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636152/dynamics-and-origin-of-cytokinins-involved-in-plant-manipulation-by-a-leaf-mining-insect
#1
Hui Zhang, Antoine Guiguet, Géraldine Dubreuil, Anna Kisiala, Peter Andreas, R J Neil Emery, Elisabeth Huguet, Mélanie Body, David Giron
Several herbivorous insects and plant-associated microorganisms control the phytohormonal balance, thus enabling them to successfully exploit the plant by inhibiting plant defences and withdrawing plant resources for their own benefit. The leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter blancardella modifies the cytokinin (CK) profile of mined leaf-tissues, and the insect symbiotic bacteria Wolbachia is involved in the plant manipulation to the benefit of the insect host. To gain a deeper understanding into the possible origin and dynamics of CKs, we conducted an extensive characterization of CKs in larvae and in infected apple leaves...
June 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632769/combining-omics-and-microscopy-to-visualize-interactions-between-the-asian-citrus-psyllid-vector-and-the-huanglongbing-pathogen-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-in-the-insect-gut
#2
Angela Kruse, Somayeh Fattah-Hosseini, Surya Saha, Richard Johnson, EricaRose Warwick, Kasie Sturgeon, Lukas Mueller, Michael J MacCoss, Robert G Shatters, Michelle Cilia Heck
Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, is an economically devastating bacterial disease of citrus. It is associated with infection by the gram-negative bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). CLas is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP). For insect transmission to occur, CLas must be ingested during feeding on infected phloem sap and cross the gut barrier to gain entry into the insect vector. To investigate the effects of CLas exposure at the gut-pathogen interface, we performed RNAseq and mass spectrometry-based proteomics to analyze the transcriptome and proteome, respectively, of ACP gut tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623959/the-impact-of-wolbachia-infection-on-the-rate-of-vertical-transmission-of-dengue-virus-in-brazilian-aedes-aegypti
#3
Etiene Casagrande Pacidônio, Eric Pearce Caragata, Debora Magalhães Alves, João Trindade Marques, Luciano Andrade Moreira
BACKGROUND: Wolbachia pipientis is a common endosymbiotic bacterium of arthropods that strongly inhibits dengue virus (DENV) infection and transmission in the primary vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. For that reason, Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti are currently being released into the field as part of a novel strategy to reduce DENV transmission. However, there is evidence that DENV can be transmitted vertically from mother to progeny, and this may help the virus persist in nature in the absence of regular human transmission...
June 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618183/effects-of-different-temperature-regimes-on-survival-of-diaphorina-citri-and-its-endosymbiotic-bacterial-communities
#4
Mubasher Hussain, Komivi Senyo Akutse, Keppanan Ravindran, Yongwen Lin, Bamisope Steve Bamisile, Muhammad Qasim, Chandra Kanta Dash, Liande Wang
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is a major pest of citrus and vector of citrus greening (huanglongbing) in Asian. In our field-collected psyllid samples, we discovered that Fuzhou (China) and Faisalabad (Pakistan), populations harbored an obligate primary endosymbiont Candidatus Carsonella (gen. nov.) with a single species, Candidatus Carsonella ruddii (sp. nov.), and a secondary endosymbiont, Wolbachia surface proteins (WSP) which are intracellular endosymbionts residing in the bacteriomes. Responses of these symbionts to different temperatures were examined and their host survival assessed...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617844/wolbachia-elevates-host-methyltransferase-expression-to-block-an-rna-virus-early-during-infection
#5
Tamanash Bhattacharya, Irene L G Newton, Richard W Hardy
Wolbachia pipientis is an intracellular endosymbiont known to confer host resistance against RNA viruses in insects. However, the causal mechanism underlying this antiviral defense remains poorly understood. To this end, we have established a robust arthropod model system to study the tripartite interaction involving Sindbis virus and Wolbachia strain wMel within its native host, Drosophila melanogaster. By leveraging the power of Drosophila genetics and a parallel, highly tractable D. melanogaster derived JW18 cell culture system, we determined that in addition to reducing infectious virus production, Wolbachia negatively influences Sindbis virus particle infectivity...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612849/psyllids-it-s-what-s-on-the-inside-that-counts-community-cross-talk-facilitates-prophage-interactions
#6
COMMENT
Allison K Hansen, Isabel H Skidmore
Despite the availability of massive microbial community data sets (e.g., metagenomes), there is still a lack of knowledge on what molecular mechanisms facilitate cross talk between microbes and prophage within a community context. A study published in mSphere by Jain and colleagues (M. Jain, L. A. Fleites, and D. W. Gabriel, mSphere 2:e00171-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphereDirect.00171-17) reports on an intriguing new twist of how a prophage of the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" may have its lytic cycle suppressed partly because of a protein that is expressed by a cooccurring bacterium, Wolbachia...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611731/the-genomic-architecture-of-novel-simulium-damnosum-wolbachia-prophage-sequence-elements-and-implications-for-onchocerciasis-epidemiology
#7
James L Crainey, Jacob Hurst, Poppy H L Lamberton, Robert A Cheke, Claire E Griffin, Michael D Wilson, Cláudia P Mendes de Araújo, María-Gloria Basáñez, Rory J Post
Research interest in Wolbachia is growing as new discoveries and technical advancements reveal the public health importance of both naturally occurring and artificial infections. Improved understanding of the Wolbachia bacteriophages (WOs) WOcauB2 and WOcauB3 [belonging to a sub-group of four WOs encoding serine recombinases group 1 (sr1WOs)], has enhanced the prospect of novel tools for the genetic manipulation of Wolbachia. The basic biology of sr1WOs, including host range and mode of genomic integration is, however, still poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609446/are-sex-ratio-distorting-endosymbionts-responsible-for-mating-system-variation-among-dance-flies-diptera-empidinae
#8
Rosalind L Murray, Elizabeth J Herridge, Rob W Ness, Luc F Bussière
Maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts are common in many arthropod species. Some endosymbionts cause female-biased sex ratio distortion in their hosts that can result in profound changes to a host's mating behaviour and reproductive biology. Dance flies (Diptera: Empidinae) are well known for their unusual reproductive biology, including species with female-specific ornamentation and female-biased lek-like swarming behaviour. The cause of the repeated evolution of female ornaments in these flies remains unknown, but is probably associated with female-biased sex ratios in individual species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608866/a-small-wolbachia-protein-directly-represses-phage-lytic-cycle-genes-in-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-within-psyllids
#9
Mukesh Jain, Laura A Fleites, Dean W Gabriel
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a severe disease of citrus caused by an uncultured alphaproteobacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" and transmitted by Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri). Two prophage genomes, SC1 and SC2, integrated in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" strain UF506 were described previously, and very similar prophages are found resident in the majority of "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" strains described worldwide. The SC1 lytic cycle is marked by upregulation of prophage late genes, including a functional holin (SC1_gp110); these late genes are activated when "Ca...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606944/cytonuclear-epistasis-controls-the-density-of-symbiont-wolbachia-pipientis-in-non-gonadal-tissues-of-mosquito-culex-quinquefasciatus
#10
Kevin J Emerson, Robert L Glaser
Wolbachia pipientis, a bacterial symbiont infecting arthropods and nematodes, is vertically transmitted through the female germline and manipulates its host's reproduction to favor infected females. Wolbachia also infects somatic tissues where it can cause non-reproductive phenotypes in its host, including resistance to viral pathogens. Wolbachia-mediated phenotypes are strongly associated with the density of Wolbachia in host tissues. Little is known, however, about how Wolbachia density is regulated in native or heterologous hosts...
June 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600214/validation-of-onchocerciasis-biomarker-n-acetyltyramine-o-glucuronide-natog
#11
Daniel Globisch, Lisa M Eubanks, Ryan J Shirey, Kenneth M Pfarr, Samuel Wanji, Alexander Y Debrah, Achim Hoerauf, Kim D Janda
The Neglected Tropical Disease onchocerciasis is a parasitic disease. Despite many control programmes by the World Health Organization (WHO), large communities in West and Central Africa are still affected. Besides logistic challenges during biannual mass drug administration, the lack of a robust, point-of-care diagnostic is limiting successful eradication of onchocerciasis. Towards the implementation of a non-invasive and point-of-care diagnostic, we have recently reported the discovery of the biomarker N-acetyltyramine-O-glucuronide (NATOG) in human urine samples using a metabolomics-mining approach...
May 29, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599659/zika-vector-transmission-risk-in-temperate-australia-a-vector-competence-study
#12
Jean-Bernard Duchemin, Peter T Mee, Stacey E Lynch, Ravikiran Vedururu, Lee Trinidad, Prasad Paradkar
BACKGROUND: Zika virus is an emerging pathogen of global importance. It has been responsible for recent outbreaks in the Americas and in the Pacific region. This study assessed five different mosquito species from the temperate climatic zone in Australia and included Aedes albopictus as a potentially invasive species. METHODS: Mosquitoes were orally challenged by membrane feeding with Zika virus strain of Cambodia 2010 origin, belonging to the Asian clade. Virus infection and dissemination were assessed by quantitative PCR on midgut and carcass after dissection...
June 9, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596296/dietary-saccharides-and-sweet-tastants-have-differential-effects-on-colonization-of-drosophila-oocytes-by-wolbachia-endosymbionts
#13
Moises Camacho, Mailin Oliva, Laura R Serbus
Wolbachia bacteria are widespread, maternally transmitted endosymbionts of insects. Maintenance of sufficient Wolbachia titer in maternal germline cells is required for transmission efficacy. The mechanisms that regulate Wolbachia titer are not well understood; however, dietary sucrose was reported to elevate oocyte Wolbachia titer in D. melanogaster whereas dietary yeast decreased oocyte titer. To further investigate how oocyte Wolbachia titer is controlled, this study analyzed the response of wMel Wolbachia to diets enriched in an array of natural sugars and other sweet tastants...
June 8, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592678/the-route-of-infection-determines-wolbachia-antibacterial-protection-in-drosophila
#14
Vanika Gupta, Radhakrishnan B Vasanthakrishnan, Jonathon Siva-Jothy, Katy M Monteith, Sam P Brown, Pedro F Vale
Bacterial symbionts are widespread among metazoans and provide a range of beneficial functions. Wolbachia-mediated protection against viral infection has been extensively demonstrated in Drosophila. In mosquitoes that are artificially transinfected with Drosophila melanogaster Wolbachia (wMel), protection from both viral and bacterial infections has been demonstrated. However, no evidence for Wolbachia-mediated antibacterial protection has been demonstrated in Drosophila to date. Here, we show that the route of infection is key for Wolbachia-mediated antibacterial protection...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587661/symbionts-in-waiting-the-dynamics-of-incipient-endosymbiont-complementation-and-replacement-in-minimal-bacterial-communities-of-psyllids
#15
Jennifer L Morrow, Aidan A G Hall, Markus Riegler
BACKGROUND: Obligate bacterial primary (P-) endosymbionts that are maternally inherited and codiverge with hosts are widespread across insect lineages with nutritionally restricted diets. Secondary (S-) endosymbionts are mostly facultative, but in some hosts, they complement P-endosymbiont function and therefore become obligate. Phylogenetic evidence exists for host switching and replacement of S-endosymbionts. The community dynamics that precede endosymbiont replacement and complementation have been little studied across host species, yet they are fundamental to the evolution of endosymbiosis...
June 6, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586142/experimental-hybridization-and-reproductive-isolation-between-two-sympatric-species-of-tephritid-fruit-flies-in-the-anastrepha-fraterculus-species-group
#16
Juan Rull, Eduardo Tadeo, Rodrigo Lasa, Christian L Rodríguez, Alma Altuzar-Molina, Martín Aluja
Among tephritid fruit flies, hybridzation has been found to produce local adaptation and speciation, and in the case of pest species, induce behavioral and ecological alterations that can adversely impact efficient pest management. The fraterculus species group within Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a rapidly radiating aggregate, which includes cryptic species complexes, numerous sister species, and several pest species. Molecular studies have highlighted the possibility of introgression between A. fraterculus and A...
June 6, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579427/infections-of-wolbachia-may-destabilize-mosquito-population-dynamics
#17
Arndt Telschow, Florian Grziwotz, Philip Crain, Takeshi Miki, James W Mains, George Sugihara, Stephen L Dobson, Chih-Hao Hsieh
Recent efforts in controlling mosquito-borne diseases focus on biocontrol strategies that incapacitate pathogens inside mosquitoes by altering the mosquito's microbiome. A case in point is the introduction of Wolbachia into natural mosquito populations in order to eliminate Dengue virus. However, whether this strategy can successfully control vector-borne diseases is debated; particularly, how artificial infection affects population dynamics of hosts remains unclear. Here, we show that natural Wolbachia infections are associated with unstable mosquito population dynamics by contrasting Wolbachia-infected versus uninfected cage populations of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577575/identification-of-sympatric-cryptic-species-of-aedes-albopictus-subgroup-in-vietnam-new-perspectives-in-phylosymbiosis-of-insect-vector
#18
Guillaume Minard, Van Tran Van, Florence Hélène Tran, Christian Melaun, Sven Klimpel, Lisa Katharina Koch, Khanh Ly Huynh Kim, Trang Huynh Thi Thuy, Huu Tran Ngoc, Patrick Potier, Patrick Mavingui, Claire Valiente Moro
BACKGROUND: The Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus subgroup includes 11 cryptic species of which Ae. albopictus is the most widely distributed. Its global expansion associated with a documented vector competence for several emerging arboviruses raise obvious concerns in the recently colonized regions. While several studies have provided important insights regarding medical importance of Ae. albopicus, the investigations of the other sibling species are scarce. In Asia, indigenous populations within the Ae...
June 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573466/wolbachia-spreading-dynamics-in-mosquitoes-with-imperfect-maternal-transmission
#19
Bo Zheng, Moxun Tang, Jianshe Yu, Junxiong Qiu
Mosquitoes are primary vectors of life-threatening diseases such as dengue, malaria, and Zika. A new control method involves releasing mosquitoes carrying bacterium Wolbachia into the natural areas to infect wild mosquitoes and block disease transmission. In this work, we use differential equations to describe Wolbachia spreading dynamics, focusing on the poorly understood effect of imperfect maternal transmission. We establish two useful identities and employ them to prove that the system exhibits monomorphic, bistable, and polymorphic dynamics, and give sufficient and necessary conditions for each case...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570608/the-spread-of-wolbachia-through-mosquito-populations
#20
Francis M Jiggins
In many regions of the world, mosquito-borne viruses pose a growing threat to human health. As an alternative to traditional control measures, the bacterial symbiont Wolbachia has been transferred from Drosophila into the mosquito Aedes aegypti, where it can block the transmission of dengue and Zika viruses. A recent paper has reported large-scale releases of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti in the city of Cairns, Australia. Wolbachia, which is maternally transmitted, invaded and spread through the populations due to a sperm-egg incompatibility called cytoplasmic incompatibility...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
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