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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165845/wolbachia-infection-alters-the-relative-abundance-of-resident-bacteria-in-adult-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-but-not-larvae
#1
Michelle D Audsley, Andrei Seleznev, D Albert Joubert, Megan Woolfit, Scott L O'Neill, Elizabeth A McGraw
Insect-symbiont interactions are known to play key roles in host functions and fitness. The common insect endosymbiont Wolbachia can reduce the ability of several human pathogens, including arboviruses and the malaria parasite, to replicate in insect hosts. Wolbachia does not naturally infect Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue virus, but transinfected Ae. aegypti have anti-dengue virus properties and are currently being trialled as a dengue biocontrol strategy. Here, we assess the impact of Wolbachia infection of Ae...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161848/complex-wolbachia-infection-dynamics-in-mosquitoes-with-imperfect-maternal-transmission
#2
Bo Zheng, Wenliang Guo, Linchao Hu, Mugen Huang, Jianshe Yu
Dengue, malaria, and Zika are dangerous diseases primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles stephensi. In the last few years, a new disease control method, besides pesticide spraying to kill mosquitoes, has been developed by releasing mosquitoes carrying bacterium Wolbachia into the natural areas to infect the wild population of mosquitoes and block disease transmission. The bacterium is transmitted by infected mothers and the maternal transmission was assumed to be perfect in virtually all previous models...
April 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160361/phylogeny-of-the-trichogramma-endosymbiont-wolbachia-an-alpha-proteobacteria-rickettsiae
#3
R P Almeida, R Stouthamer
Wolbachia (Hertig) endosymbionts are extensively studied in a wide range of organisms and are known to be transmitted through the egg cytoplasm to the offsping. Wolbachia may cause several types of reproductive modifications in arthropods. In Trichogramma species, parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia bacteria allow females wasps to produce daughters from unfertilized eggs and these bacteria are present in at least 9% of all Trichogramma species. Phylogenetic studies have led to the subdivision of the Wolbachia clade in five supergroups (A, B, C, D and E) and Wolbachia from Trichogramma belong to supergroup B...
November 9, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157676/upregulation-of-aedes-aegypti-vago1-by-wolbachia-and-its-effect-on-dengue-virus-replication
#4
Sultan Asad, Rhys Parry, Sassan Asgari
Dengue infection along with its related disease conditions poses a significant threat to human health. The pathogen responsible for this infection is dengue virus (DENV) which is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Unavailability of a potent vaccine has recently sparked renewed research endeavours aimed at vector control. To date, Wolbachia as an endosymbiotic bacterium has shown promise as a novel biocontrol agent to restrict DENV replication in the vector, although the underlying antiviral mechanism remains elusive...
November 17, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150322/sex-ratios-of-the-tick-ixodes-arboricola-are-strongly-female-biased-but-there-are-no-indications-of-sex-distorting-bacteria
#5
A Raoul Van Oosten, Olivier Duron, Dieter J A Heylen
Studies on sex ratio are of fundamental importance for understanding the biology of populations and biological control of pests and pathogens. In most Ixodes tick species, only females feed in the adult stage and, hence, contribute to pathogen transmission. The tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola infests cavity-nesting birds and has limited dispersal possibilities. It plays an important role in the maintenance of zoonotic disease cycles. Here, we quantified the sex ratio of 718 adult I. arboricola ticks obtained from a laboratory stock at nine distinct periods (cohorts) from 2008 to 2015...
November 11, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150304/are-the-estrogenic-hormonal-effects-of-environmental-toxins-affecting-small-intestinal-bacterial-and-microfilaria-overgrowth
#6
Edward Lichten
The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146940/development-and-physiological-effects-of-an-artificial-diet-for-wolbachia-infected-aedes-aegypti
#7
Heverton Leandro Carneiro Dutra, Silvia Lomeu Rodrigues, Simone Brutman Mansur, Sofia Pimenta de Oliveira, Eric Pearce Caragata, Luciano Andrade Moreira
The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia spreads rapidly through populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and strongly inhibits infection with key human pathogens including the dengue and Zika viruses. Mosquito control programs aimed at limiting transmission of these viruses are ongoing in multiple countries, yet there is a dearth of mass rearing infrastructure specific to Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. One example is the lack of a blood meal substitute, which accounts for the Wolbachia-specific physiological changes in infected mosquitoes, that allows the bacterium to spread, and block viral infections...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143669/considerations-for-using-minocycline-vs-doxycycline-for-treatment-of-canine-heartworm-disease
#8
Mark G Papich
BACKGROUND: Doxycycline has been considered the first drug of choice for treating Wolbachia, a member of the Rickettsiaceae, which has a symbiotic relationship with filarial worms, including heartworms. Wolbachia, is susceptible to tetracyclines, which have been used as adjunctive treatments for heartworm disease. Treatment with doxycycline reduces Wolbachia numbers in all stages of heartworms and improves outcomes and decreased microfilaremia in dogs treated for heartworm disease. The American Heartworm Society recommends treatment with doxycycline in dogs diagnosed with heartworm disease at a dose of 10 mg/kg twice daily for 28 days...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143657/clinical-benefits-of-incorporating-doxycycline-into-a-canine-heartworm-treatment-protocol
#9
C Thomas Nelson, Elizabeth S Myrick, Thomas A Nelson
BACKGROUND: The objective of heartworm treatment is to improve the clinical condition of the patient and to eliminate pre-cardiac, juvenile, and adult worm stages with minimal complications. Pulmonary thromboembolisms are an inevitable consequence of worm death and can result in severe pulmonary reactions and even death of the patient. To minimize these reactions, various treatment protocols involving melarsomine, the only adulticidal drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA), in conjunction with macrocyclic lactone heartworm preventives and glucocorticosteroids have been advocated...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141766/molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-wolbachia-pipientis-from-culex-quinquefasciatus-collected-from-lahore-pakistan
#10
Muhammad Sajjad Sarwar, Nusrat Jahan, Fatima Shahbaz
The gram-negative, pleomorphic endosymbiont Wolbachia is known to infect a large number of insects and other arthropods naturally. This bacterium modifies the host biology, mainly causing reproductive alterations including feminization, death of male, parthenogenesis, and importantly cytoplasmic incompatibility. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility results in nonviable offspring and vector population suppression. In addition, this bacterium rapidly spreads and propagates within the host population...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132425/establishment-of-a-medium-scale-mosquito-facility-optimization-of-the-larval-mass-rearing-unit-for-aedes-albopictus-diptera-culicidae
#11
Dongjing Zhang, Meichun Zhang, Yu Wu, Jeremie R L Gilles, Hanano Yamada, Zhongdao Wu, Zhiyong Xi, Xiaoying Zheng
BACKGROUND: Standardized larval rearing units for mosquito production are essential for the establishment of a mass-rearing facility. Two larval rearing units, developed respectively by the Guangzhou Wolbaki Biotech Co. Ltd. (Wolbaki) and Insect Pest Control Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (FAO/IAEA-IPCL), are tested to assess their potential uses to mass-rear the larval stages of Aedes albopictus in support of the establishment of a medium-scale mosquito facility for the application of mosquito genetic control strategies...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125253/first-report-of-the-endobacteria-wolbachia-in-natural-populations-of-culex-pipiens-in-morocco
#12
F Z Tmimi, M Bkhache, K Mounaji, A B Failloux, M Sarih
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122518/lipids-and-pathogen-blocking-by-wolbachia
#13
Francesca D Frentiu
Mosquito-borne viruses are major human pathogens. Introducing Wolbachia into mosquitoes could reduce disease burdens because these bacteria block virus transmission. How Wolbachia does this is unclear, but new data show that modulation of host-cell lipids is critical.
November 6, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116011/the-impact-of-temperature-and-wolbachia-infection-on-vector-competence-of-potential-dengue-vectors-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus-in-the-transmission-of-dengue-virus-serotype-1-in-southern-taiwan
#14
Cheng-Hui Tsai, Tien-Huang Chen, Cheo Lin, Pei-Yun Shu, Chien-Ling Su, Hwa-Jen Teng
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the impact of temperature and Wolbachia infection on vector competence of the local Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations of southern Taiwan in the laboratory. RESULTS: After oral infection with dengue serotype 1 virus (DENV-1), female mosquitoes were incubated at temperatures of 10, 16, 22, 28 and 34 °C. Subsequently, salivary gland, head, and thorax-abdomen samples were analyzed for their virus titer at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days post-infection (dpi) by real-time RT-PCR...
November 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114401/aligner-optimization-increases-accuracy-and-decreases-compute-times-in-multi-species-sequence-data
#15
Kelly M Robinson, Aziah S Hawkins, Ivette Santana-Cruz, Ricky S Adkins, Amol C Shetty, Sushma Nagaraj, Lisa Sadzewicz, Luke J Tallon, David A Rasko, Claire M Fraser, Anup Mahurkar, Joana C Silva, Julie C Dunning Hotopp
As sequencing technologies have evolved, the tools to analyze these sequences have made similar advances. However, for multi-species samples, we observed important and adverse differences in alignment specificity and computation time for bwa- mem (Burrows-Wheeler aligner-maximum exact matches) relative to bwa-aln. Therefore, we sought to optimize bwa-mem for alignment of data from multi-species samples in order to reduce alignment time and increase the specificity of alignments. In the multi-species cases examined, there was one majority member (i...
September 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114059/effect-of-naturally-occurring-wolbachia-in-anopheles-gambiae-s-l-mosquitoes-from-mali-on-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-transmission
#16
Fabio M Gomes, Bretta L Hixson, Miles D W Tyner, Jose Luis Ramirez, Gaspar E Canepa, Thiago Luiz Alves E Silva, Alvaro Molina-Cruz, Moussa Keita, Fouseyni Kane, Boïssé Traoré, Nafomon Sogoba, Carolina Barillas-Mury
A naturally occurring Wolbachia strain (wAnga-Mali) was identified in mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex collected in the Malian villages of Dangassa and Kenieroba. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of two 16S rRNA regions showed that wAnga-Mali clusters with Wolbachia strains from supergroup A and has the highest homology to a Wolbachia strain isolated from cat fleas (Ctenocephalides). wAnga-Mali is different from two Wolbachia strains previously reported in A. gambiae from Burkina Faso (wAnga_VK5_STP and wAnga_VK5_3...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106651/target-pathogen-a-structural-bioinformatic-approach-to-prioritize-drug-targets-in-pathogens
#17
Ezequiel J Sosa, Germán Burguener, Esteban Lanzarotti, Lucas Defelipe, Leandro Radusky, Agustín M Pardo, Marcelo Marti, Adrián G Turjanski, Darío Fernández Do Porto
Available genomic data for pathogens has created new opportunities for drug discovery and development to fight them, including new resistant and multiresistant strains. In particular structural data must be integrated with both, gene information and experimental results. In this sense, there is a lack of an online resource that allows genome wide-based data consolidation from diverse sources together with thorough bioinformatic analysis that allows easy filtering and scoring for fast target selection for drug discovery...
November 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099918/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-wolbachia-endosymbiont-of-wuchereriabancroftiwwb
#18
Matthew Chung, Scott T Small, David Serre, Peter A Zimmerman, Julie C Dunning Hotopp
The draft genome assembly of the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Wuchereria bancrofti (wWb) genome consists of 1,060,850 bp in 100 contigs and contains 961 ORFs, with a single copy of the 5S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and 23S rRNA and each of the 34 tRNA genes. Phylogenetic core genome analyses show wWb to cluster with other strains in supergroup D of the Wolbachia phylogeny, while being most closely related to the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi strain TRS (wBm). The wWb and wBm genomes share 779 orthologous clusters with wWb having 101 unclustered genes and wBm having 23 unclustered genes...
November 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099491/the-bacterium-wolbachia-exploits-host-innate-immunity-to-establish-a-symbiotic-relationship-with-the-dengue-vector-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#19
Xiaoling Pan, Andrew Pike, Deepak Joshi, Guowu Bian, Michael J McFadden, Peng Lu, Xiao Liang, Fengrui Zhang, Alexander S Raikhel, Zhiyong Xi
A host's immune system plays a central role in shaping the composition of the microbiota and, in return, resident microbes influence immune responses. Symbiotic associations of the maternally transmitted bacterium Wolbachia occur with a wide range of arthropods. It is, however, absent from the dengue and Zika vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in nature. When Wolbachia is artificially forced to form symbiosis with this new mosquito host, it boosts the basal immune response and enhances the mosquito's resistance to pathogens, including dengue, Zika virus and malaria parasites...
November 3, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095113/strong-responses-of-drosophila-melanogaster-microbiota-to-developmental-temperature
#20
Neda N Moghadam, Pia Mai Thorshauge, Torsten N Kristensen, Nadieh de Jonge, Simon Bahrndorff, Henrik Kjeldal, Jeppe Lund Nielsen
Physiological responses to changes in environmental conditions such as temperature may partly arise from the resident microbial community that integrates a wide range of bio-physiological aspects of the host. In the present study, we assessed the effect of developmental temperature on the thermal tolerance and microbial community of Drosophila melanogaster. We also developed a bacterial transplantation protocol in order to examine the possibility of reshaping the host bacterial composition and assessed its influence on the thermotolerance phenotype...
November 2, 2017: Fly
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