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Scene classifier

Molly P Jarman, Elliott R Haut, Frank C Curriero, Renan C Castillo
BACKGROUND: Many rural, low income, and historically underrepresented minority communities lack access to trauma center services, including surgical care and injury prevention efforts. Along with features of the built and social environment at injury incident locations, geographic barriers to trauma center services may contribute to injury disparities. This study sought to classify injury event locations based on features of the built and social environment at the injury scene, and to examine patterns in individual patient demographics, injury characteristics, and mortality by location class...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Yoann Altmann, Aurora Maccarone, Aongus McCarthy, Stephen McLaughlin, Gerald S Buller
By illumination of target scenes using a set of different wavelengths, we demonstrate color classification of scenes, as well as depth estimation, in photon-starved images. The spectral signatures are classified with a new advanced statistical image processing method from measurements of the same scene, in this case using combinations of 33, 16, 8 or 4 different wavelengths in the range 500 - 820 nm. This approach makes it possible to perform color classification and depth estimation on images containing as few as one photon per pixel, on average...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Reza Maalek, Derek D Lichti, Janaka Y Ruwanpura
Automated segmentation of planar and linear features of point clouds acquired from construction sites is essential for the automatic extraction of building construction elements such as columns, beams and slabs. However, many planar and linear segmentation methods use scene-dependent similarity thresholds that may not provide generalizable solutions for all environments. In addition, outliers exist in construction site point clouds due to data artefacts caused by moving objects, occlusions and dust. To address these concerns, a novel method for robust classification and segmentation of planar and linear features is proposed...
March 8, 2018: Sensors
Yi Zhao, Jiale Ma, Xiaohui Li, Jie Zhang
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) can provide direct georeferenced imagery, mapping an area with high resolution. So far, the major difficulty in wildfire image classification is the lack of unified identification marks, the fire features of color, shape, texture (smoke, flame, or both) and background can vary significantly from one scene to another. Deep learning (e.g., DCNN for Deep Convolutional Neural Network) is very effective in high-level feature learning, however, a substantial amount of training images dataset is obligatory in optimizing its weights value and coefficients...
February 27, 2018: Sensors
Alexia Roux-Sibilon, Floriane Rutgé, Florent Aptel, Arnaud Attye, Nathalie Guyader, Muriel Boucart, Christophe Chiquet, Carole Peyrin
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) firstly mainly affects peripheral vision. Current behavioral studies support the idea that visual defects of patients with POAG extend into parts of the central visual field classified as normal by static automated perimetry analysis. This is particularly true for visual tasks involving processes of a higher level than mere detection. The purpose of this study was to assess visual abilities of POAG patients in central vision. Patients were assigned to two groups following a visual field examination (Humphrey 24-2 SITA-Standard test)...
2018: PloS One
Emilie Christin, Jean Hiquet, Jonathan Fougas, Olivier Dubourg, Sophie Gromb-Monnoyeur
Suicide is a frequent manner of unnatural death, especially from a forensic point of view. Complex suicide is defined as a recourse to more than one potentially lethal mechanism to deliberately induce death. This paper presents a complex suicide with a novel combination of self-killing methods. A 27 year-old man, working as a butcher, was found dead in his crashed car. The facts were initially in favour of an obvious traffic accident until a knife was discovered penetrating the driver's chest, requiring the police who were on the scene to carry out a criminal investigation...
January 31, 2018: Forensic Science International
S Seinfeld, J Arroyo-Palacios, G Iruretagoyena, R Hortensius, L E Zapata, D Borland, B de Gelder, M Slater, M V Sanchez-Vives
The role of empathy and perspective-taking in preventing aggressive behaviors has been highlighted in several theoretical models. In this study, we used immersive virtual reality to induce a full body ownership illusion that allows offenders to be in the body of a victim of domestic abuse. A group of male domestic violence offenders and a control group without a history of violence experienced a virtual scene of abuse in first-person perspective. During the virtual encounter, the participants' real bodies were replaced with a life-sized virtual female body that moved synchronously with their own real movements...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sean R O'Bryan, Eric Walden, Michael J Serra, Tyler Davis
When weighing evidence for a decision, individuals are continually faced with the choice of whether to gather more information or act on what has already been learned. The present experiment employed a self-paced category learning task and fMRI to examine the neural mechanisms underlying stopping of information search and how they contribute to choice accuracy. Participants learned to classify triads of face, object, and scene cues into one of two categories using a rule based on one of the stimulus dimensions...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Christoph Kapeller, Hiroshi Ogawa, Gerwin Schalk, Naoto Kunii, William Grey Coon, Josef Scharinger, Christoph Guger, Kyousuke Kamada
Several neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the ventral temporal cortex contains specialized regions that process visual stimuli. This study investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of electrocorticographic (ECoG) responses to different types and colors of visual stimulation that were presented to four human participants, and demonstrated a real-time decoder that detects and discriminates responses to untrained natural images. Approach: ECoG signals from the participants were recorded while they were shown colored and greyscale versions of seven types of visual stimuli (images of faces, objects, bodies, line drawings, digits, and kanji and hiragana characters), resulting in 14 classes for discrimination (experiment I)...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Natalie Damaso, Julian Mendel, Maria Mendoza, Eric J von Wettberg, Giri Narasimhan, DeEtta Mills
Soil DNA profiling has potential as a forensic tool to establish a link between soil collected at a crime scene and soil recovered from a suspect. However, a quantitative measure is needed to investigate the spatial/temporal variability across multiple scales prior to their application in forensic science. In this study, soil DNA profiles across Miami-Dade, FL, were generated using length heterogeneity PCR to target four taxa. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess the biogeographical patterns of soils to determine whether soil biota is spatially correlated with geographic location and (ii) evaluate five machine learning algorithms for their predictive ability to recognize biotic patterns which could accurately classify soils at different spatial scales regardless of seasonal collection...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Emily Hurstak, Christopher Rowe, Caitlin Turner, Emily Behar, Rachel Cabugao, Nikolas P Lemos, Phillip Coffin
BACKGROUND: Current opioid overdose mortality surveillance methods do not capture the complexity of the overdose epidemic. Most rely on death certificates, which may underestimate both opioid analgesic and heroin deaths. Categorizing deaths using other characteristics from the death record including route of drug administration may provide useful information to design and evaluate overdose prevention interventions. METHODS: We reviewed California Electronic Death Reporting System records and San Francisco Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) toxicology reports and investigative case narratives for all unintentional opioid overdose deaths in San Francisco County from 2006 to 2012...
January 17, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Hans Kristian Moe, Kent Gøran Moen, Toril Skandsen, Kjell Arne Kvistad, Steven Laureys, Asta Kristine Håberg, Anne Vik
The aim of this study was to investigate how traumatic axonal injury (TAI) lesions in the thalamus, basal ganglia and brain stem on clinical brain MRI are associated with level of consciousness in the acute phase in patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). 158 patients with moderate-severe TBI (7-70 years) with early 1.5T MRI (median 7 days, range 0-35) without mass lesion were prospectively included. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores were registered before intubation or at admission. TAI lesions were identified in T2*gradient echo (GRE), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scans...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Pier-Olivier Tremblay, Thierry Duchesne, Steven G Cumming
Factors affecting wildland-fire size distribution include weather, fuels, and fire suppression activities. We present a novel application of survival analysis to quantify the effects of these factors on a sample of sizes of lightning-caused fires from Alberta, Canada. Two events were observed for each fire: the size at initial assessment (by the first fire fighters to arrive at the scene) and the size at "being held" (a state when no further increase in size is expected). We developed a statistical classifier to try to predict cases where there will be a growth in fire size (i...
2018: PloS One
F Jeane Gerard, Kate C Whitfield, Kevin D Browne
This study explores modeling crime-scene characteristics of juvenile homicide in the French-speaking part of Belgium. Multidimensional scaling analysis was carried out on crime-scene characteristics derived from the court files of 67 individuals under 22 years old, who had been charged with murder or attempted murder (1995-2009). Three thematic regions (Expressive: multiple offenders; Instrumental: theft; Instrumental: sex/forensic awareness) distinguished types of aggression displayed during the offense. These themes reaffirm that the expressive-instrumental differentiation found in general homicide studies is valuable when attempting to discriminate juvenile homicides...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Signy Sheldon, Nadim El-Asmar
Constructing mental representations is critical for many cognitive tasks, yet it is unclear if forming different representations relies on distinct cognitive processes. We tested how episodic memory contributes to constructing scene and event-based mental scenarios as well as the effects of two types of imagery ability (object and spatial imagery) on this contribution. Forty participants were given a series of scenario cues that were classified as scenes (e.g., a beach) or events (e.g., a family meal) by independent raters...
December 27, 2017: Memory
Nora A Herweg, Tobias Sommer, Nico Bunzeck
The striatum is a central part of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system and contributes both to the encoding and retrieval of long-term memories. In this regard, the co-occurrence of striatal novelty and retrieval success effects in independent studies underlines the structure's double duty and suggests dynamic contextual adaptation. To test this hypothesis and further investigate the underlying mechanisms of encoding and retrieval dynamics, human subjects viewed pre-familiarized scene images intermixed with new scenes and classified them as indoor versus outdoor (encoding task) or old versus new (retrieval task), while fMRI and eye tracking data were recorded...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Malek Al-Nawashi, Obaida M Al-Hazaimeh, Mohamad Saraee
Abnormal activity detection plays a crucial role in surveillance applications, and a surveillance system that can perform robustly in an academic environment has become an urgent need. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for an automatic real-time video-based surveillance system which can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment. To develop our system, we have divided the work into three phases: preprocessing phase, abnormal human activity detection phase, and content-based image retrieval phase...
2017: Neural Computing & Applications
Chao Ma, Ngo Thanh Trung, Hideaki Uchiyama, Hajime Nagahara, Atsushi Shimada, Rin-Ichiro Taniguchi
A thermal camera captures the temperature distribution of a scene as a thermal image. In thermal images, facial appearances of different people under different lighting conditions are similar. This is because facial temperature distribution is generally constant and not affected by lighting condition. This similarity in face appearances is advantageous for face detection. To detect faces in thermal images, cascade classifiers with Haar-like features are generally used. However, there are few studies exploring the local features for face detection in thermal images...
November 27, 2017: Sensors
Salim Malek, Farid Melgani, Mohamed Lamine Mekhalfi, Yakoub Bazi
This paper describes three coarse image description strategies, which are meant to promote a rough perception of surrounding objects for visually impaired individuals, with application to indoor spaces. The described algorithms operate on images (grabbed by the user, by means of a chest-mounted camera), and provide in output a list of objects that likely exist in his context across the indoor scene. In this regard, first, different colour, texture, and shape-based feature extractors are generated, followed by a feature learning step by means of AutoEncoder (AE) models...
November 16, 2017: Sensors
Fan Li, Sirou Zhang, Xiaoya Qiao
In recent years, visual object tracking has been widely used in military guidance, human-computer interaction, road traffic, scene monitoring and many other fields. The tracking algorithms based on correlation filters have shown good performance in terms of accuracy and tracking speed. However, their performance is not satisfactory in scenes with scale variation, deformation, and occlusion. In this paper, we propose a scene-aware adaptive updating mechanism for visual tracking via a kernel correlation filter (KCF)...
November 15, 2017: Sensors
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