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Scene classifier

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774229/web-pages-what-can-you-see-in-a-single-fixation
#1
Ali Jahanian, Shaiyan Keshvari, Ruth Rosenholtz
Research in human vision suggests that in a single fixation, humans can extract a significant amount of information from a natural scene, e.g. the semantic category, spatial layout, and object identities. This ability is useful, for example, for quickly determining location, navigating around obstacles, detecting threats, and guiding eye movements to gather more information. In this paper, we ask a new question: What can we see at a glance at a web page - an artificial yet complex "real world" stimulus? Is it possible to notice the type of website, or where the relevant elements are, with only a glimpse? We find that observers, fixating at the center of a web page shown for only 120 milliseconds, are well above chance at classifying the page into one of ten categories...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774139/line-drawn-scenes-provide-sufficient-information-for-discrimination-of-threat-and-mere-negativity
#2
Jasmine Boshyan, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Nicole Betz, Reginald B Adams, Kestutis Kveraga
Previous work using color photographic scenes has shown that human observers are keenly sensitive to different types of threatening and negative stimuli and reliably classify them by the presence, and spatial and temporal directions of threat. To test whether such distinctions can be extracted from impoverished visual information, we used 500 line drawings made by hand-tracing the original set of photographic scenes. Sixty participants rated the scenes on spatial and temporal dimensions of threat. Based on these ratings, trend analysis revealed five scene categories that were comparable to those identified for the matching color photographic scenes...
January 2018: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757740/learning-based-restoration-of-backlit-images
#3
Zhenhao Li, Xiaolin Wu
Backlighting is a commonly encountered ill illumination condition that can cause serious degradation of image quality. In this paper, we propose a learning-based spatially adaptive technique of optimal tone mapping to restore backlit images. Object surfaces illuminated from behind in a scene are detected by a soft binary classifier that is constructed via supervised learning. Two optimal tone mapping functions, one for backlit regions and the other for the remainder of the image, are used and their outputs are fused to restore illegible surface details in backlit regions and at the same time improve contrast in overexposed regions, if any...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743081/residential-scene-classification-for-gridded-population-sampling-in-developing-countries-using-deep-convolutional-neural-networks-on-satellite-imagery
#4
Robert F Chew, Safaa Amer, Kasey Jones, Jennifer Unangst, James Cajka, Justine Allpress, Mark Bruhn
BACKGROUND: Conducting surveys in low- and middle-income countries is often challenging because many areas lack a complete sampling frame, have outdated census information, or have limited data available for designing and selecting a representative sample. Geosampling is a probability-based, gridded population sampling method that addresses some of these issues by using geographic information system (GIS) tools to create logistically manageable area units for sampling. GIS grid cells are overlaid to partition a country's existing administrative boundaries into area units that vary in size from 50 m × 50 m to 150 m × 150 m...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733954/typical-retinotopic-locations-impact-the-time-course-of-object-coding
#5
Daniel Kaiser, Merle M Moeskops, Radoslaw M Cichy
In everyday visual environments, objects are non-uniformly distributed across visual space. Many objects preferentially occupy particular retinotopic locations: for example, lamps more often fall into the upper visual field, whereas carpets more often fall into the lower visual field. The long-term experience with natural environments prompts the hypothesis that the visual system is tuned to such retinotopic object locations. A key prediction is that typically positioned objects should be coded more efficiently...
May 4, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712782/activity-in-human-auditory-cortex-represents-spatial-separation-between-concurrent-sounds
#6
Martha M Shiell, Lars Hausfeld, Elia Formisano
Primary and posterior auditory cortex (AC) are known for sensitivity to spatial information, but how this information is processed is not yet understood. AC that is sensitive to spatial manipulations is also modulated by the number of auditory streams present in a scene (Smith et al. 2009), suggesting that spatial and non-spatial cues are integrated for stream segregation. We reasoned that if this is the case, then it is the distance between sounds rather than their absolute positions that is essential. To test this hypothesis, we measured human brain activity in response to spatially-separated concurrent sounds with functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla in five men and five women...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707164/outcomes-after-asystole-events-occurring-during-wearable-defibrillator-cardioverter-use
#7
Jackson J Liang, Nicole R Bianco, Daniele Muser, Andres Enriquez, Pasquale Santangeli, Benjamin A D'Souza
AIM: To examine whether wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) alarms for asystole improve patient outcomes and survival. METHODS: All asystole episodes recorded by the WCD in 2013 were retrospectively analyzed from a database of device and medical record documentation and customer call reports. Events were classified as asystole episodes if initial presenting arrhythmia was asystole (< 10 beats/minor ≥ 5 s pause). Survival was defined as recovery at the scene or arrival to a medical facility alive, or not requiring immediate medical attention...
April 26, 2018: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675749/evaluation-of-severe-and-fatal-injuries-in-extreme-and-contact-sports-an-international-multicenter-analysis
#8
Christian D Weber, Klemens Horst, Anthony R Nguyen, Rolf Lefering, Hans-Christoph Pape, Frank Hildebrand
PURPOSE: The participation in extreme and contact sports has grown internationally, despite the significant risk for major and multiple injuries. We conducted this multicenter study to evaluate sport-specific injury patterns and mechanisms, to characterize individuals at risk and to identify possible approaches for prevention. METHODS: We compared demographic data, severity and patterns of injuries; and the pre- and in-hospital management from an international population-based prospective trauma database (TraumaRegister DGU®)...
April 19, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674018/feasibility-of-a-handheld-near-infrared-device-for-the-qualitative-analysis-of-bloodstains
#9
Alvaro Varela Morillas, James Gooch, Nunzianda Frascione
One of the most common tasks in criminal investigation is to determine from which tissue source a biological fluid stain originates. As a result, there are many tests that are frequently used to determine if a stain is blood, semen or saliva by exploiting the properties of certain molecules present within the fluids themselves. These include chemical reagents such as the Kastle-Meyer or Acid Phosphatase tests, as well as other techniques like the use of alternative light sources. However, most of the tests currently available have some major drawbacks...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614778/sky-detection-in-hazy-image
#10
Yingchao Song, Haibo Luo, Junkai Ma, Bin Hui, Zheng Chang
Sky detection plays an essential role in various computer vision applications. Most existing sky detection approaches, being trained on ideal dataset, may lose efficacy when facing unfavorable conditions like the effects of weather and lighting conditions. In this paper, a novel algorithm for sky detection in hazy images is proposed from the perspective of probing the density of haze. We address the problem by an image segmentation and a region-level classification. To characterize the sky of hazy scenes, we unprecedentedly introduce several haze-relevant features that reflect the perceptual hazy density and the scene depth...
April 1, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584473/analysis-of-near-crashes-among-teen-young-adult-and-experienced-adult-drivers-using-the-shrp2-naturalistic-driving-study
#11
Thomas Seacrist, Ethan C Douglas, Elaine Huang, James Megariotis, Abhiti Prabahar, Abyaad Kashem, Ayya Elzarka, Leora Haber, Taryn MacKinney, Helen Loeb
OBJECTIVE: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among young drivers. Though previous research has focused on crash events, near crashes offer additional data to help identify driver errors that could potentially lead to crashes as well as evasive maneuvers used to avoid them. The Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) contains extensive data on real-world driving and offers a reliable methodology to quantify and study near crashes...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581722/a-two-stream-deep-fusion-framework-for-high-resolution-aerial-scene-classification
#12
Yunlong Yu, Fuxian Liu
One of the challenging problems in understanding high-resolution remote sensing images is aerial scene classification. A well-designed feature representation method and classifier can improve classification accuracy. In this paper, we construct a new two-stream deep architecture for aerial scene classification. First, we use two pretrained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as feature extractor to learn deep features from the original aerial image and the processed aerial image through saliency detection, respectively...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561241/signposts-in-the-fog-objects-facilitate-scene-representations-in-left-scene-selective-cortex
#13
Talia Brandman, Marius V Peelen
We internally represent the structure of our surroundings even when there is little layout information available in the visual image, such as when walking through fog or darkness. One way in which we disambiguate such scenes is through object cues; for example, seeing a boat supports the inference that the foggy scene is a lake. Recent studies have investigated the neural mechanisms by which object and scene processing interact to support object perception. The current study examines the reverse interaction by which objects facilitate the neural representation of scene layout...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554641/pre-hospital-ambulance-care-of-patients-following-a-suspected-seizure-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Jon M Dickson, Zahid B Asghar, A Niroshan Siriwardena
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the characteristics of patients presenting to the ambulance service with suspected seizures, the costs of managing these patients and the factors which predicted transport to hospital. METHODS: We employed a cross-sectional design using routine clinical data from a UK regional ambulance service. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of transport to hospital from ambulance response times, demographics, clinical (physiological) findings and treatments...
March 8, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538227/mapping-areas-with-concentrated-risk-of-trauma-mortality-a-first-step-toward-mitigating-geographic-and-socioeconomic-disparities-in-trauma
#15
Molly P Jarman, Elliott R Haut, Frank C Curriero, Renan C Castillo
BACKGROUND: Many rural, low income, and historically underrepresented minority communities lack access to trauma center services, including surgical care and injury prevention efforts. Along with features of the built and social environment at injury incident locations, geographic barriers to trauma center services may contribute to injury disparities. This study sought to classify injury event locations based on features of the built and social environment at the injury scene, and to examine patterns in individual patient demographics, injury characteristics, and mortality by location class...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529755/spectral-classification-of-sparse-photon-depth-images
#16
Yoann Altmann, Aurora Maccarone, Aongus McCarthy, Stephen McLaughlin, Gerald S Buller
By illumination of target scenes using a set of different wavelengths, we demonstrate color classification of scenes, as well as depth estimation, in photon-starved images. The spectral signatures are classified with a new advanced statistical image processing method from measurements of the same scene, in this case using combinations of 33, 16, 8 or 4 different wavelengths in the range 500 - 820 nm. This approach makes it possible to perform color classification and depth estimation on images containing as few as one photon per pixel, on average...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518062/robust-segmentation-of-planar-and-linear-features-of-terrestrial-laser-scanner-point-clouds-acquired-from-construction-sites
#17
Reza Maalek, Derek D Lichti, Janaka Y Ruwanpura
Automated segmentation of planar and linear features of point clouds acquired from construction sites is essential for the automatic extraction of building construction elements such as columns, beams and slabs. However, many planar and linear segmentation methods use scene-dependent similarity thresholds that may not provide generalizable solutions for all environments. In addition, outliers exist in construction site point clouds due to data artefacts caused by moving objects, occlusions and dust. To address these concerns, a novel method for robust classification and segmentation of planar and linear features is proposed...
March 8, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495504/saliency-detection-and-deep-learning-based-wildfire-identification-in-uav-imagery
#18
Yi Zhao, Jiale Ma, Xiaohui Li, Jie Zhang
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) can provide direct georeferenced imagery, mapping an area with high resolution. So far, the major difficulty in wildfire image classification is the lack of unified identification marks, the fire features of color, shape, texture (smoke, flame, or both) and background can vary significantly from one scene to another. Deep learning (e.g., DCNN for Deep Convolutional Neural Network) is very effective in high-level feature learning, however, a substantial amount of training images dataset is obligatory in optimizing its weights value and coefficients...
February 27, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481572/scene-and-human-face-recognition-in-the-central-vision-of-patients-with-glaucoma
#19
Alexia Roux-Sibilon, Floriane Rutgé, Florent Aptel, Arnaud Attye, Nathalie Guyader, Muriel Boucart, Christophe Chiquet, Carole Peyrin
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) firstly mainly affects peripheral vision. Current behavioral studies support the idea that visual defects of patients with POAG extend into parts of the central visual field classified as normal by static automated perimetry analysis. This is particularly true for visual tasks involving processes of a higher level than mere detection. The purpose of this study was to assess visual abilities of POAG patients in central vision. Patients were assigned to two groups following a visual field examination (Humphrey 24-2 SITA-Standard test)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428776/a-planned-complex-suicide-by-self-stabbing-and-vehicular-crash-an-original-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Emilie Christin, Jean Hiquet, Jonathan Fougas, Olivier Dubourg, Sophie Gromb-Monnoyeur
Suicide is a frequent manner of unnatural death, especially from a forensic point of view. Complex suicide is defined as a recourse to more than one potentially lethal mechanism to deliberately induce death. This paper presents a complex suicide with a novel combination of self-killing methods. A 27 year-old man, working as a butcher, was found dead in his crashed car. The facts were initially in favour of an obvious traffic accident until a knife was discovered penetrating the driver's chest, requiring the police who were on the scene to carry out a criminal investigation...
April 2018: Forensic Science International
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