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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080116/recognition-memory-for-hue-prototypical-bias-and-the-role-of-labeling
#1
Laura Jane Kelly, Evan Heit
How does the concurrent use of language affect perception and memory for exemplars? Labels cue more general category information than a specific exemplar. Applying labels can affect the resulting memory for an exemplar. Here 3 alternative hypotheses are proposed for the role of labeling an exemplar at encoding: (a) labels distort memory toward the label prototype, (b) labels guide the level of specificity needed in the current context, and (c) labels direct attention to the label's referent among all possible features within a visual scene...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055850/an-end-to-end-trainable-neural-network-for-image-based-sequence-recognition-and-its-application-to-scene-text-recognition
#2
Baoguang Shi, Xiang Bai, Cong Yao
Image-based sequence recognition has been a long-standing research topic in computer vision. In this paper, we investigate the problem of scene text recognition, which is among the most important and challenging tasks in image-based sequence recognition. A novel neural network architecture, which integrates feature extraction, sequence modeling and transcription into a unified framework, is proposed. Compared with previous systems for scene text recognition, the proposed architecture possesses four distinctive properties: (1) It is end-to-end trainable, in contrast to most of the existing algorithms whose components are separately trained and tuned...
December 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044013/contributions-of-low-and-high-level-properties-to-neural-processing-of-visual-scenes-in-the-human-brain
#3
REVIEW
Iris I A Groen, Edward H Silson, Chris I Baker
Visual scene analysis in humans has been characterized by the presence of regions in extrastriate cortex that are selectively responsive to scenes compared with objects or faces. While these regions have often been interpreted as representing high-level properties of scenes (e.g. category), they also exhibit substantial sensitivity to low-level (e.g. spatial frequency) and mid-level (e.g. spatial layout) properties, and it is unclear how these disparate findings can be united in a single framework. In this opinion piece, we suggest that this problem can be resolved by questioning the utility of the classical low- to high-level framework of visual perception for scene processing, and discuss why low- and mid-level properties may be particularly diagnostic for the behavioural goals specific to scene perception as compared to object recognition...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040021/spatially-separating-language-masker-from-target-results-in-spatial-and-linguistic-masking-release
#4
Navin Viswanathan, Kostas Kokkinakis, Brittany T Williams
Several studies demonstrate that in complex auditory scenes, speech recognition is improved when the competing background and target speech differ linguistically. However, such studies typically utilize spatially co-located speech sources which may not fully capture typical listening conditions. Furthermore, co-located presentation may overestimate the observed benefit of linguistic dissimilarity. The current study examines the effect of spatial separation on linguistic release from masking. Results demonstrate that linguistic release from masking does extend to spatially separated sources...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032676/hippocampal-gamma-band-synchrony-and-pupillary-responses-index-memory-during-visual-search
#5
Rodrigo Montefusco-Siegmund, Timothy K Leonard, Kari L Hoffman
Memory for scenes is supported by the hippocampus, among other interconnected structures, but the neural mechanisms related to this process are not well understood. To assess the role of the hippocampus in memory-guided scene search, we recorded local field potentials and multi-unit activity from the hippocampus of macaques as they performed goal-directed search tasks using natural scenes. We additionally measured pupil size during scene presentation, which in humans is modulated by recognition memory. We found that both pupil dilation and search efficiency accompanied scene repetition, thereby indicating memory for scenes...
December 29, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031996/structural-and-functional-neural-correlates-of-spatial-navigation-a-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-functional-connectivity-study
#6
Xin Hao, Yi Huang, Xueting Li, Yiying Song, Xiangzhen Kong, Xu Wang, Zetian Yang, Zonglei Zhen, Jia Liu
INTRODUCTION: Navigation is a fundamental and multidimensional cognitive function that individuals rely on to move around the environment. In this study, we investigated the neural basis of human spatial navigation ability. METHODS: A large cohort of participants (N > 200) was examined on their navigation ability behaviorally and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were then used to explore the corresponding neural basis of spatial navigation...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026041/emerging-therapies-and-challenges-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#7
REVIEW
Michelle A Farrar, Susanna B Park, Steve Vucic, Kate A Carey, Bradley J Turner, Thomas H Gillingwater, Kathryn J Swoboda, Matthew C Kiernan
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease with severity ranging from progressive infantile paralysis and premature death (Type I) to limited motor neuron loss and normal life expectancy (Type IV). Without disease-modifying therapies, the impact is profound for patients and their families. Improved understanding of the molecular basis of SMA, disease pathogenesis, natural history and recognition of the impact of standardized care on outcomes has yielded progress towards the development of novel therapeutic strategies and are summarised...
December 27, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992431/intrinsic-image-decomposition-via-structure-preserving-image-smoothing-and-material-recognition
#8
Ali Nadian-Ghomsheh, Yassin Hassanian, Keyvan Navi
Decoupling shading and reflectance from complex scene-images is a long-standing problem in computer vision. We introduce a framework for decomposing an image into the product of an illumination component and a reflectance component. Due to the ill-posed nature of the problem, prior information on shading and reflectance is mandatory. The proposed method adopts the premise that pixels in a region with similar chromaticity values should have the same reflectance. This assumption was used to minimize the l2 norm of the local per-pixel reflectance gradients to extract the shading and reflectance components...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942450/impact-of-schizophrenia-on-anterior-and-posterior-hippocampus-during-memory-for-complex-scenes
#9
J D Ragland, E Layher, D E Hannula, T A Niendam, T A Lesh, M Solomon, C S Carter, C Ranganath
OBJECTIVES: Hippocampal dysfunction has been proposed as a mechanism for memory deficits in schizophrenia. Available evidence suggests that the anterior and posterior hippocampus could be differentially affected. Accordingly, we used fMRI to test the hypothesis that activity in posterior hippocampus is disproportionately reduced in schizophrenia, particularly during spatial memory retrieval. METHODS: 26 healthy participants and 24 patients with schizophrenia from the UC Davis Early Psychosis Program were studied while fMRI was acquired on a 3 Tesla Siemens scanner...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939369/hippocampal-structure-predicts-cortical-indices-of-reactivation-of-related-items
#10
John A Walker, Kathy A Low, Mark A Fletcher, Neal J Cohen, Gabriele Gratton, Monica Fabiani
One of the key components of relational memory is the ability to bind together the constituent elements of a memory experience, and this ability is thought to be supported by the hippocampus. Previously we had shown that these relational bindings can be used to reactivate the cortical processors of an absent item in the presence of a relationally bound associate (Walker et al., 2014). Specifically, we recorded the event-related optical signal (EROS) when presenting the scene of a face-scene pair during a preview period immediately preceding a test display, and demonstrated reactivation of a face-processing cortical area (the superior temporal sulcus, STS) for scenes that had been previously paired with faces, relative to scenes that had not...
December 7, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920752/the-effect-of-emotion-and-reward-contingencies-on-relational-memory-in-major-depression-an-eye-movement-study-with-follow-up
#11
Viola L Nemeth, Gergo Csete, Gergely Drotos, Nora Greminger, Zoltan Janka, Laszlo Vecsei, Anita Must
Background: Episodic memory disturbances were found to constitute a potential trait marker for major depression (MD). The recall of positive or rewarding information in a relational context is specifically impaired. Eye-movement recording constitutes a novel, direct approach to examine implicit memory performance. Here we aimed to assess the effect of emotional context and implicit virtual monetary reward or loss on viewing patterns in association with relational memory in a 6-months follow-up study in MD. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with MD and 30 healthy participants were trained to associate a face (happy/sad/neutral) with a background scene...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913556/how-does-age-related-macular-degeneration-affect-real-world-visual-ability-and-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review
#12
Deanna J Taylor, Angharad E Hobby, Alison M Binns, David P Crabb
OBJECTIVES: To review systematically the evidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affecting real-world visual ability and quality of life (QoL). To explore trends in specific topics within this body of the literature. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: A systematic literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsychARTICLES and Health and Psychosocial Instruments for articles published up to January 2015 for studies including people diagnosed with AMD, assessing real-world visual ability or QoL as an outcome...
December 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902838/peripheral-pooling-is-tuned-to-the-localization-task
#13
Sven Eberhardt, Christoph Zetzsche, Kerstin Schill
The human visual system exhibits substantially different properties between foveal and peripheral vision. Peripheral vision is special in that it has to compress data onto fewer units by reduced visual acuity and larger receptive fields, yielding greatly reduced performance on many tasks such as object recognition. However, here we show that the pooling operations implemented by peripheral vision provide exactly the invariance properties required by a self-localization task. We test the effect of different pooling sizes, as well as acuity reduction, on localization, object recognition, and scene categorization tasks...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898029/data-driven-multiresolution-camera-using-the-foveal-adaptive-pyramid
#14
Martin González, Antonio Sánchez-Pedraza, Rebeca Marfil, Juan A Rodríguez, Antonio Bandera
There exist image processing applications, such as tracking or pattern recognition, that are not necessarily precise enough to maintain the same resolution across the whole image sensor. In fact, they must only keep it as high as possible in a relatively small region, but covering a wide field of view. This is the aim of foveal vision systems. Briefly, they propose to sense a large field of view at a spatially-variant resolution: one relatively small region, the fovea, is mapped at a high resolution, while the rest of the image is captured at a lower resolution...
November 26, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893077/a-general-account-of-peripheral-encoding-also-predicts-scene-perception-performance
#15
Krista A Ehinger, Ruth Rosenholtz
People are good at rapidly extracting the "gist" of a scene at a glance, meaning with a single fixation. It is generally presumed that this performance cannot be mediated by the same encoding that underlies tasks such as visual search, for which researchers have suggested that selective attention may be necessary to bind features from multiple preattentively computed feature maps. This has led to the suggestion that scenes might be special, perhaps utilizing an unlimited capacity channel, perhaps due to brain regions dedicated to this processing...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890325/functional-coupling-between-frontoparietal-and-occipitotemporal-pathways-during-action-and-perception
#16
R Matthew Hutchison, Jason P Gallivan
Several lines of evidence point to areas in the occipitotemporal pathway as being critical in the processes of visual perception and object recognition. Much less appreciated, however, is the role that this pathway plays in object-related processing for the purposes of visually guided action. Here, using functional MRI (fMRI) and functional connectivity (FC) measures, we examined interactions between areas in frontoparietal cortex (FPC) involved in grasping, reaching, eye movements, and tool use and areas in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) involved in object-, face-, scene-, body-, tool-, and motion-related processing, both during the performance of sensorimotor and visual-perceptual tasks, as well as during passive fixation (resting-state)...
November 9, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875222/locally-supervised-deep-hybrid-model-for-scene-recognition
#17
Sheng Guo, Weilin Huang, Limin Wang, Yu Qiao
Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have recently achieved remarkable successes in various image classification and understanding tasks. The deep features obtained at the top fully-connected layer of the CNN (FC-features) exhibit rich global semantic information and are extremely effective in image classification. On the other hand, the convolutional features in the middle layers of the CNN also contain meaningful local information, but are not fully explored for image representation. In this paper, we propose a novel Locally-Supervised Deep Hybrid Model (LS-DHM) that effectively enhances and explores the convolutional features for scene recognition...
November 16, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859925/material-specificity-drives-medial-temporal-lobe-familiarity-but-not-hippocampal-recollection
#18
Alex Kafkas, Ellen M Migo, Robin G Morris, Michael D Kopelman, Daniela Montaldi, Andrew R Mayes
The specific role of the perirhinal (PRC), entorhinal (ERC) and parahippocampal cortices (PHC) in supporting familiarity-based recognition remains unknown. An fMRI study explored whether these medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures responded in the same way or differentially to familiarity as a function of stimulus type at recognition. A secondary aim was to explore whether the hippocampus responds in the same way to equally strong familiarity and recollection and whether this is influenced by the kind of stimulus involved...
November 16, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859515/characterizing-human-expertise-using-computational-metrics-of-feature-diagnosticity-in-a-pattern-matching-task
#19
Thomas Busey, Dimitar Nikolov, Chen Yu, Brandi Emerick, John Vanderkolk
Forensic evidence often involves an evaluation of whether two impressions were made by the same source, such as whether a fingerprint from a crime scene has detail in agreement with an impression taken from a suspect. Human experts currently outperform computer-based comparison systems, but the strength of the evidence exemplified by the observed detail in agreement must be evaluated against the possibility that some other individual may have created the crime scene impression. Therefore, the strongest evidence comes from features in agreement that are also not shared with other impressions from other individuals...
November 10, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858867/child-protection-medical-service-demonstration-centers-in-approaching-child-abuse-and-neglect-in-taiwan
#20
Yu-Ching Chang, Jing-Long Huang, Shao-Hsuan Hsia, Kuang-Lin Lin, En-Pei Lee, I-Jun Chou, Yi-Chen Hsin, Fu-Song Lo, Chang-Teng Wu, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Han-Ping Wu
Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development, or dignity. In Taiwan, the Child Protection Medical Service Demonstration Center (CPMSDC) was established to protect children from abuse and neglect. We further analyzed and compared the trends and clinical characteristics of cases reported by CPMSDC to evaluate the function of CPMSDC in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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