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scene recognition

Oliver Baumann, Joyce M G Vromen, Adam C Boddy, Eloise Crawshaw, Michael S Humphreys
Global matching models have provided an important theoretical framework for recognition memory. Key predictions of this class of models are that (1) increasing the number of occurrences in a study list of some items affects the performance on other items (list-strength effect) and that (2) adding new items results in a deterioration of performance on the other items (list-length effect). Experimental confirmation of these predictions has been difficult, and the results have been inconsistent. A review of the existing literature, however, suggests that robust length and strength effects do occur when sufficiently similar hard-to-label items are used...
June 21, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Agnieszka Szarkowska, Olivia Gerber-Morón
People watch subtitled audiovisual materials more than ever before. With the proliferation of subtitled content, we are also witnessing an increase in subtitle speeds. However, there is an ongoing controversy about what optimum subtitle speeds should be. This study looks into whether viewers can keep up with increasingly fast subtitles and whether the way people cope with subtitled content depends on their familiarity with subtitling and on their knowledge of the language of the film soundtrack. We tested 74 English, Polish and Spanish viewers watching films subtitled at different speeds (12, 16 and 20 characters per second)...
2018: PloS One
Barbara Falatová, Marta Ferreiro-González, Carlos Martín-Alberca, Danica Kačíková, Štefan Galla, Miguel Palma, Carmelo G Barroso
In arson attacks the detection of ignitable liquid residues (ILRs) at fire scenes provides key evidence since ignitable liquids, such as gasoline, are commonly used to initiate the fire. In most forensic laboratories gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is employed for the analysis of ILRs. When a fire occurs, suppression agents are used to extinguish the fire and, before the scene is investigated, the samples at the scene are subjected to a variety of processes such as weathering, which can significantly modify the chemical composition and thus lead to erroneous conclusions...
June 14, 2018: Sensors
Huafeng Wang, Wenfeng Song, Wanquan Liu, Ning Song, Yuehai Wang, Haixia Pan
Face recognition/verification has received great attention in both theory and application for the past two decades. Deep learning has been considered as a very powerful tool for improving the performance of face recognition/verification recently. With large labeled training datasets, the features obtained from deep learning networks can achieve higher accuracy in comparison with shallow networks. However, many reported face recognition/verification approaches rely heavily on the large size and complete representative of the training set, and most of them tend to suffer serious performance drop or even fail to work if fewer training samples per person are available...
June 11, 2018: Sensors
Jing Ren, Natasha de Gunten, Alexander S Konstantinov, Fredric V Vencl, Siqin Ge, David L Hu
Camouflaged objects are harder to detect if the background itself is more heterogeneous, and search becomes increasingly inefficient when the scene contains multiple items resembling the target. Some adult leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) with highly specialized habits make holes on host plant leaves while feeding. We propose that leaf beetles camouflage themselves with their feeding holes. The presence of holes makes predators' visual search harder, thus giving beetles more time to escape from the leaf surface either by jumping (Galerucinae: Alticini) or rolling (rest of Chrysomelidae)...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Xin Shen, Hee-Seung Kim, Komatsu Satoru, Adam Markman, Bahram Javidi
We present spatial-temporal human gesture recognition in degraded conditions including low light levels and occlusions using passive sensing three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging (InIm) system and 3D correlation filters. The 4D (lateral, longitudinal, and temporal) reconstructed data is processed using a variety of algorithms including linear and non-linear distortion-invariant filters; and compared with previously reported space-time interest points (STIP) feature detector, 3D histogram of oriented gradients (3D HOG) feature descriptor, with a standard bag-of-features support vector machine (SVM) framework, etc...
May 28, 2018: Optics Express
Jian-An Liang, Xia Wang, Yu-Jie Fang, Jing-Jing Zhou, Si He, Wei-Qi Jin
Targeting star-like water surface clutter, a clutter suppression method based on infrared polarization information is proposed. First, the clutter is suppressed from a global perspective using infrared polarization imaging technology, and a basic clutter-suppressed image is obtained. Then, using the Reed-Xiaoli anomaly detection algorithm, the remaining clutter positions in the basic image are determined from the polarization intensity image and basic image. Finally, an image filtering algorithm is utilized to further suppress the remaining clutter in the basic image...
June 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Liang-Jian Deng, Gemine Vivone, Weihong Guo, Mauro Dalla Mura, Jocelyn Chanussot
Pansharpening is an important application in remote sensing image processing. It can increase the spatial-resolution of a multispectral image by fusing it with a high spatial-resolution panchromatic image in the same scene, which brings great favor for subsequent processing such as recognition, detection, etc. In this paper, we propose a continuous modeling and sparse optimization based method for the fusion of a panchromatic image and a multispectral image. The proposed model is mainly based on reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) and approximated Heaviside function (AHF)...
September 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
George L Malcolm, Edward H Silson, Jennifer R Henry, Chris I Baker
We can understand viewed scenes and extract task-relevant information within a few hundred milliseconds. This process is generally supported by three cortical regions that show selectivity for scene images: parahippocampal place area (PPA), medial place area (MPA) and occipital place area (OPA). Prior studies have focused on the visual information each region is responsive to, usually within the context of recognition or navigation. Here, we move beyond these tasks to investigate gaze allocation during scene viewing...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Francesca Pistoia, Massimiliano Conson, Antonio Carolei, Maria G Dema, Alessandra Splendiani, Giuseppe Curcio, Simona Sacco
After a natural disaster like an earthquake about 15% of the population experience a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, even those without a diagnosis of PTSD can suffer from disorders of the affective sphere, including anxiety, depression and alteration of emotion recognition. The objective of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological and emotional profile of students living in the earthquake-affected areas of L'Aquila, Italy. A group of students living in L'Aquila at the time of the 2009 earthquake was recruited, and compared to a control group of students not living in any earthquake-affected areas...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Kathryn E Atherton, Nicola Filippini, Adam Z J Zeman, Anna C Nobre, Christopher R Butler
The accelerated forgetting of newly learned information is common amongst patients with epilepsy and, in particular, in the syndrome of transient epileptic amnesia (TEA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying accelerated forgetting are poorly understood. It has been hypothesised that interictal epileptiform activity during longer retention intervals disrupts normally established memory traces. Here, we tested a distinct hypothesis-that accelerated forgetting relates to the abnormal encoding of memories...
May 17, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Walid Al-Atabany, Musa Al Yaman, Patrick Degenaar
Retinal prosthesis is steadily improving as a clinical treatment for blindness caused by retinitis pigmentosa. However, despite the continued exciting progress, the level of visual return is still very poor. It is also unlikely that those utilising these devices will stop being legally blind in the near future. Therefore, it is important to develop methods to maximise the transfer of useful information extracted from the visual scene. Such an approach can be achieved by digitally suppressing less important visual features and textures within the scene...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Kyoko Hine, Yuji Itoh
Our memories are quite fragile. We sometimes recognize something unseen as something seen before. This error often causes serious problems, such as the misidentification of composite faces in a criminal investigation. In such a scene, people occasionally claim to have seen a face that is actually a composite face consisting of facial parts separately seen before; this error is called the memory conjunction error. Although the likelihood of the memory conjunction error increases over time, previous studies suggest that it could be suppressed by the number of response options, which are expected to affect the criterion for the "Old" response...
May 30, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
A novel demon-based architecture is introduced to elucidate brain functions such as pattern recognition during human perception and mental interpretation of visual scenes. Starting from the topological concepts of invariance and persistence, we introduce a Selfridge pandemonium variant of brain activity that takes into account a novel feature, namely, demons that recognize short straight-line segments, curved lines and scene shapes, such as shape interior, density and texture. Low-level representations of objects can be mapped to higher-level views (our mental interpretations): a series of transformations can be gradually applied to a pattern in a visual scene, without affecting its invariant properties...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Mathias Weymar, Margaret M Bradley, Christopher T Sege, Peter J Lang
Stimulus repetition elicits either enhancement or suppression in neural activity, and a recent fMRI meta-analysis of repetition effects for visual stimuli (Kim, 2017) reported cross-stimulus repetition enhancement in medial and lateral parietal cortex, as well as regions of prefrontal, temporal, and posterior cingulate cortex. Repetition enhancement was assessed here for repeated and novel scenes presented in the context of either an explicit episodic recognition task or an implicit judgment task, in order to study the role of spontaneous retrieval of episodic memories...
May 6, 2018: Psychophysiology
Fei Guo, Yuan Yang, Yong Gao
Visual prosthesis applying electrical stimulation to restore visual function for the blind has promising prospects. However, due to the low resolution, limited visual field, and the low dynamic range of the visual perception, huge loss of information occurred when presenting daily scenes. The ability of object recognition in real-life scenarios is severely restricted for prosthetic users. To overcome the limitations, optimizing the visual information in the simulated prosthetic vision has been the focus of research...
2018: International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
Samantha Audrain, Mary P McAndrews
While we know that hippocampal dysfunction is responsible for the memory deficits that patients with temporal lobe epilepsy exhibit at relatively short study-test delays, the role of this region in accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is not yet clear. In the present study, we probed the role of the hippocampus in ALF by directly comparing memory for associations to memory that could be supported by item recognition during a forced choice recognition task over delays ranging from 15-min to 72-h. We additionally examined resting-state functional connectivity between the hippocampus and cortical regions known to be involved in processing these types of stimuli, as well as the relationship between ALF and various clinical variables including structural abnormality in the hippocampus, lateralization of epileptic focus, presence of seizures across the retention period, and standardized composite memory scores...
March 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
M Steyn, M Pretorius, N Briers, N Bacci, A Johnson, T M R Houlton
Forensic facial comparison (FFC) is a scientific technique used to link suspects to a crime scene based on the analysis of photos or video recordings from that scene. While basic guidelines on practice and training are provided by the Facial Identification Scientific Working Group, details of how these are applied across the world are scarce. FFC is frequently used in South Africa, with more than 700 comparisons conducted in the last two years alone. In this paper the standards of practice are outlined, with new proposed levels of agreement/conclusions...
June 2018: Forensic Science International
Aleksandra Mańkowska, Michał Harciarek, John B Williamson, Kenneth M Heilman
OBJECTIVES: Several studies have reported that positive emotions are primarily mediated by the left hemisphere and negative emotions by the right hemisphere. Since each hemisphere primarily allocates attention toward the contralateral hemispace, we wanted to learn how inducing a spatial attentional orienting bias to right and left egocentric hemispace might influence the recognition and perception of visually presented emotional scenes. METHOD: Participants were 42 healthy, right-handed young adults...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Sharon Cox, Maxime Bertoux, John J D Turner, Antony Moss, Kirsty Locker, Kevin Riggs
BACKGROUND: Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is associated with problems with processing complex social scenarios. Little is known about the relationship between distinct AUD-related factors (e.g., years of problematic drinking), aspects of cognitive function and dysfunction in individuals diagnosed with AUD, and the relative impact these may have on social cognition. AIMS: To explore differences in social cognition between a group of participants diagnosed with AUD and controls, using a clinical measure, the Mini Social and Emotional Assessment (mini-SEA)...
June 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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