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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920752/the-effect-of-emotion-and-reward-contingencies-on-relational-memory-in-major-depression-an-eye-movement-study-with-follow-up
#1
Viola L Nemeth, Gergo Csete, Gergely Drotos, Nora Greminger, Zoltan Janka, Laszlo Vecsei, Anita Must
Background: Episodic memory disturbances were found to constitute a potential trait marker for major depression (MD). The recall of positive or rewarding information in a relational context is specifically impaired. Eye-movement recording constitutes a novel, direct approach to examine implicit memory performance. Here we aimed to assess the effect of emotional context and implicit virtual monetary reward or loss on viewing patterns in association with relational memory in a 6-months follow-up study in MD. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with MD and 30 healthy participants were trained to associate a face (happy/sad/neutral) with a background scene...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913556/how-does-age-related-macular-degeneration-affect-real-world-visual-ability-and-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review
#2
Deanna J Taylor, Angharad E Hobby, Alison M Binns, David P Crabb
OBJECTIVES: To review systematically the evidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affecting real-world visual ability and quality of life (QoL). To explore trends in specific topics within this body of the literature. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: A systematic literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsychARTICLES and Health and Psychosocial Instruments for articles published up to January 2015 for studies including people diagnosed with AMD, assessing real-world visual ability or QoL as an outcome...
December 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902838/peripheral-pooling-is-tuned-to-the-localization-task
#3
Sven Eberhardt, Christoph Zetzsche, Kerstin Schill
The human visual system exhibits substantially different properties between foveal and peripheral vision. Peripheral vision is special in that it has to compress data onto fewer units by reduced visual acuity and larger receptive fields, yielding greatly reduced performance on many tasks such as object recognition. However, here we show that the pooling operations implemented by peripheral vision provide exactly the invariance properties required by a self-localization task. We test the effect of different pooling sizes, as well as acuity reduction, on localization, object recognition, and scene categorization tasks...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898029/data-driven-multiresolution-camera-using-the-foveal-adaptive-pyramid
#4
Martin González, Antonio Sánchez-Pedraza, Rebeca Marfil, Juan A Rodríguez, Antonio Bandera
There exist image processing applications, such as tracking or pattern recognition, that are not necessarily precise enough to maintain the same resolution across the whole image sensor. In fact, they must only keep it as high as possible in a relatively small region, but covering a wide field of view. This is the aim of foveal vision systems. Briefly, they propose to sense a large field of view at a spatially-variant resolution: one relatively small region, the fovea, is mapped at a high resolution, while the rest of the image is captured at a lower resolution...
November 26, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893077/a-general-account-of-peripheral-encoding-also-predicts-scene-perception-performance
#5
Krista A Ehinger, Ruth Rosenholtz
People are good at rapidly extracting the "gist" of a scene at a glance, meaning with a single fixation. It is generally presumed that this performance cannot be mediated by the same encoding that underlies tasks such as visual search, for which researchers have suggested that selective attention may be necessary to bind features from multiple preattentively computed feature maps. This has led to the suggestion that scenes might be special, perhaps utilizing an unlimited capacity channel, perhaps due to brain regions dedicated to this processing...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890325/functional-coupling-between-frontoparietal-and-occipitotemporal-pathways-during-action-and-perception
#6
R Matthew Hutchison, Jason P Gallivan
Several lines of evidence point to areas in the occipitotemporal pathway as being critical in the processes of visual perception and object recognition. Much less appreciated, however, is the role that this pathway plays in object-related processing for the purposes of visually guided action. Here, using functional MRI (fMRI) and functional connectivity (FC) measures, we examined interactions between areas in frontoparietal cortex (FPC) involved in grasping, reaching, eye movements, and tool use and areas in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) involved in object-, face-, scene-, body-, tool-, and motion-related processing, both during the performance of sensorimotor and visual-perceptual tasks, as well as during passive fixation (resting-state)...
November 9, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875222/locally-supervised-deep-hybrid-model-for-scene-recognition
#7
Sheng Guo, Weilin Huang, Limin Wang, Yu Qiao
Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have recently achieved remarkable successes in various image classification and understanding tasks. The deep features obtained at the top fully-connected layer of the CNN (FC-features) exhibit rich global semantic information and are extremely effective in image classification. On the other hand, the convolutional features in the middle layers of the CNN also contain meaningful local information, but are not fully explored for image representation. In this paper, we propose a novel Locally-Supervised Deep Hybrid Model (LS-DHM) that effectively enhances and explores the convolutional features for scene recognition...
November 16, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859925/material-specificity-drives-medial-temporal-lobe-familiarity-but-not-hippocampal-recollection
#8
Alex Kafkas, Ellen M Migo, Robin G Morris, Michael D Kopelman, Daniela Montaldi, Andrew R Mayes
The specific role of the perirhinal (PRC), entorhinal (ERC) and parahippocampal cortices (PHC) in supporting familiarity-based recognition remains unknown. An fMRI study explored whether these medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures responded in the same way or differentially to familiarity as a function of stimulus type at recognition. A secondary aim was to explore whether the hippocampus responds in the same way to equally strong familiarity and recollection and whether this is influenced by the kind of stimulus involved...
November 16, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859515/characterizing-human-expertise-using-computational-metrics-of-feature-diagnosticity-in-a-pattern-matching-task
#9
Thomas Busey, Dimitar Nikolov, Chen Yu, Brandi Emerick, John Vanderkolk
Forensic evidence often involves an evaluation of whether two impressions were made by the same source, such as whether a fingerprint from a crime scene has detail in agreement with an impression taken from a suspect. Human experts currently outperform computer-based comparison systems, but the strength of the evidence exemplified by the observed detail in agreement must be evaluated against the possibility that some other individual may have created the crime scene impression. Therefore, the strongest evidence comes from features in agreement that are also not shared with other impressions from other individuals...
November 10, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858867/child-protection-medical-service-demonstration-centers-in-approaching-child-abuse-and-neglect-in-taiwan
#10
Yu-Ching Chang, Jing-Long Huang, Shao-Hsuan Hsia, Kuang-Lin Lin, En-Pei Lee, I-Jun Chou, Yi-Chen Hsin, Fu-Song Lo, Chang-Teng Wu, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Han-Ping Wu
Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development, or dignity. In Taiwan, the Child Protection Medical Service Demonstration Center (CPMSDC) was established to protect children from abuse and neglect. We further analyzed and compared the trends and clinical characteristics of cases reported by CPMSDC to evaluate the function of CPMSDC in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858379/effects-of-varying-presentation-time-on-long-term-recognition-memory-for-scenes-verbatim-and-gist-representations
#11
Fahad N Ahmad, Morris Moscovitch, William E Hockley
Konkle, Brady, Alvarez and Oliva (Psychological Science, 21, 1551-1556, 2010) showed that participants have an exceptional long-term memory (LTM) for photographs of scenes. We examined to what extent participants' exceptional LTM for scenes is determined by presentation time during encoding. In addition, at retrieval, we varied the nature of the lures in a forced-choice recognition task so that they resembled the target in gist (i.e., global or categorical) information, but were distinct in verbatim information (e...
November 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849541/stereo-object-proposals
#12
Shao Huang, Weiqiang Wang, Shengfeng He, Rynson W H Lau
Object proposal detection is an effective way of accelerating object recognition. Existing proposal methods are mostly based on detecting object boundaries, which may not be effective for cluttered backgrounds. In this paper, we leverage stereopsis as a robust and effective solution for generating object proposals. We first obtain a set of candidate bounding boxes through adaptive transformation, which fits the bounding boxes tightly to object boundaries detected by rough depth and color information. A two-level hierarchy composed of proposal and cluster levels is then constructed to estimate object locations in an efficient and accurate manner...
November 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849539/affine-covariant-features-for-fisheye-distortion-local-modelling
#13
Antonino Furnari, Giovanni Farinella, Arcangelo Bruna, Sebastiano Battiato
Perspective cameras are the most popular imaging sensors used in Computer Vision. However, many application fields including automotive, surveillance and robotics, require the use of wide angle cameras (e.g., fisheye), which allow to acquire a larger portion of the scene using a single device at the cost of the introduction of noticeable radial distortion in the images. Affine covariant feature detectors have proven successful in a variety of Computer Vision applications including object recognition, image registration and visual search...
November 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849132/a-benefit-of-context-reinstatement-to-recognition-memory-in-aging-the-role-of-familiarity-processes
#14
Emma V Ward, Elizabeth A Maylor, Marie Poirier, Malgorzata Korko, Jens C M Ruud
Reinstatement of encoding context facilitates memory for targets in young and older individuals (e.g., a word studied on a particular background scene is more likely to be remembered later if it is presented on the same rather than a different scene or no scene), yet older adults are typically inferior at recalling and recognizing target-context pairings. This study examined the mechanisms of the context effect in normal aging. Age differences in word recognition by context condition (original, switched, none, new), and the ability to explicitly remember target-context pairings were investigated using word-scene pairs (Experiment 1) and word-word pairs (Experiment 2)...
November 16, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842639/elevated-international-normalised-ratios-correlate-with-severity-of-injury-and-outcome
#15
M A Noorbhai, H M Cassimjee, B Sartorius, D J J Muckart
BACKGROUND: Haemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of preventable early deaths from trauma. Acute coagulopathy on admission to a trauma unit is associated with worse outcomes. The relationship of haemorrhage to early mortality remains consistent regardless of mechanism of injury. Haemorrhage and haemorrhagic shock are increasingly amenable to interventions that result in reductions in morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of coagulopathy in patients admitted to the level 1 trauma unit at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Durban, South Africa, and correlate it with in-hospital mortality...
November 2, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827860/pixel-level-and-robust-vibration-source-sensing-in-high-frame-rate-video-analysis
#16
Mingjun Jiang, Tadayoshi Aoyama, Takeshi Takaki, Idaku Ishii
We investigate the effect of appearance variations on the detectability of vibration feature extraction with pixel-level digital filters for high-frame-rate videos. In particular, we consider robust vibrating object tracking, which is clearly different from conventional appearance-based object tracking with spatial pattern recognition in a high-quality image region of a certain size. For 512 × 512 videos of a rotating fan located at different positions and orientations and captured at 2000 frames per second with different lens settings, we verify how many pixels are extracted as vibrating regions with pixel-level digital filters...
November 2, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824585/shape-distributions-of-nonlinear-dynamical-systems-for-video-based-inference
#17
Vinay Venkataraman, Pavan Turaga
This paper presents a shape-theoretic framework for dynamical analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems which appear frequently in several video-based inference tasks. Traditional approaches to dynamical modeling have included linear and nonlinear methods with their respective drawbacks. A novel approach we propose is the use of descriptors of the shape of the dynamical attractor as a feature representation of nature of dynamics. The proposed framework has two main advantages over traditional approaches: a) representation of the dynamical system is derived directly from the observational data, without any inherent assumptions, and b) the proposed features show stability under different time-series lengths where traditional dynamical invariants fail...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824581/dynamic-scene-recognition-with-complementary-spatiotemporal-features
#18
Christoph Feichtenhofer, Axel Pinz, Richard P Wildes
This paper presents Dynamically Pooled Complementary Features (DPCF), a unified approach to dynamic scene recognition that analyzes a short video clip in terms of its spatial, temporal and color properties. The complementarity of these properties is preserved through all main steps of processing, including primitive feature extraction, coding and pooling. In the feature extraction step, spatial orientations capture static appearance, spatiotemporal oriented energies capture image dynamics and color statistics capture chromatic information...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807174/consistency-of-border-ownership-cells-across-artificial-stimuli-natural-stimuli-and-stimuli-with-ambiguous-contours
#19
Janis K Hesse, Doris Y Tsao
: Segmentation and recognition of objects in a visual scene are two problems that are hard to solve separately from each other. When segmenting an ambiguous scene, it is helpful to already know the present objects and their shapes. However, for recognizing an object in clutter, one would like to consider its isolated segment alone to avoid confounds from features of other objects. Border-ownership cells (Zhou et al., 2000) appear to play an important role in segmentation, as they signal the side-of-figure of artificial stimuli...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802226/music-perception-in-dementia
#20
Hannah L Golden, Camilla N Clark, Jennifer M Nicholas, Miriam H Cohen, Catherine F Slattery, Ross W Paterson, Alexander J M Foulkes, Jonathan M Schott, Catherine J Mummery, Sebastian J Crutch, Jason D Warren
Despite much recent interest in music and dementia, music perception has not been widely studied across dementia syndromes using an information processing approach. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 30 patients representing major dementia syndromes of typical Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 16), logopenic aphasia (LPA, an Alzheimer variant syndrome; n = 5), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 9) in relation to 19 healthy age-matched individuals. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery to assess perception of musical patterns in the dimensions of pitch and temporal information (requiring detection of notes that deviated from the established pattern based on local or global sequence features) and musical scene analysis (requiring detection of a familiar tune within polyphonic harmony)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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