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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674250/aspects-of-alcohol-use-disorder-affecting-social-cognition-as-assessed-using-the-mini-social-and-emotional-assessment-mini-sea
#1
Sharon Cox, Maxime Bertoux, John J D Turner, Antony Moss, Kirsty Locker, Kevin Riggs
BACKGROUND: Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is associated with problems with processing complex social scenarios. Little is known about the relationship between distinct AUD-related factors (e.g., years of problematic drinking), aspects of cognitive function and dysfunction in individuals diagnosed with AUD, and the relative impact these may have on social cognition. AIMS: To explore differences in social cognition between a group of participants diagnosed with AUD and controls, using a clinical measure, the Mini Social and Emotional Assessment (mini-SEA)...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671680/the-dark-side-of-context-context-reinstatement-can-distort-memory
#2
Manoj K Doss, Jamila K Picart, David A Gallo
It is widely assumed that context reinstatement benefits memory, but our experiments revealed that context reinstatement can systematically distort memory. Participants viewed pictures of objects superimposed over scenes, and we later tested their ability to differentiate these old objects from similar new objects. Context reinstatement was manipulated by presenting objects on the reinstated or switched scene at test. Not only did context reinstatement increase correct recognition of old objects, but it also consistently increased incorrect recognition of similar objects as old ones...
April 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649114/optimized-multi-spectral-filter-array-based-imaging-of-natural-scenes
#3
Yuqi Li, Aditi Majumder, Hao Zhang, M Gopi
Multi-spectral imaging using a camera with more than three channels is an efficient method to acquire and reconstruct spectral data and is used extensively in tasks like object recognition, relighted rendering, and color constancy. Recently developed methods are used to only guide content-dependent filter selection where the set of spectral reflectances to be recovered are known a priori. We present the first content-independent spectral imaging pipeline that allows optimal selection of multiple channels. We also present algorithms for optimal placement of the channels in the color filter array yielding an efficient demosaicing order resulting in accurate spectral recovery of natural reflectance functions...
April 12, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614289/object-recognition-complexity-of-recognition-strategies
#4
Philippe G Schyns
Primate brains and state-of-the-art convolutional neural networks can recognize many faces, objects and scenes, though how they do so is often mysterious. New research unveils some of the mystery, revealing unexpected complexity in the recognition strategies of rodents.
April 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604671/effects-of-reverberation-and-noise-on-speech-intelligibility-in-normal-hearing-and-aided-hearing-impaired-listeners
#5
Jing Xia, Buye Xu, Shareka Pentony, Jingjing Xu, Jayaganesh Swaminathan
Many hearing-aid wearers have difficulties understanding speech in reverberant noisy environments. This study evaluated the effects of reverberation and noise on speech recognition in normal-hearing listeners and hearing-impaired listeners wearing hearing aids. Sixteen typical acoustic scenes with different amounts of reverberation and various types of noise maskers were simulated using a loudspeaker array in an anechoic chamber. Results showed that, across all listening conditions, speech intelligibility of aided hearing-impaired listeners was poorer than normal-hearing counterparts...
March 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601549/accurate-object-pose-estimation-using-depth-only
#6
Mingyu Li, Koichi Hashimoto
Object recognition and pose estimation is an important task in computer vision. A pose estimation algorithm using only depth information is proposed in this paper. Foreground and background points are distinguished based on their relative positions with boundaries. Model templates are selected using synthetic scenes to make up for the point pair feature algorithm. An accurate and fast pose verification method is introduced to select result poses from thousands of poses. Our algorithm is evaluated against a large number of scenes and proved to be more accurate than algorithms using both color information and depth information...
March 30, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579379/an-mrm-tandem-mass-spectrometry-approach-for-the-identification-of-biological-fluids-on-crime-scene-investigations
#7
Anna Illiano, Valentina Arpino, Gabriella Pinto, Andrea Berti, Vincenzo Verdoliva, Giuseppe Peluso, Pietro Pucci, Angela Amoresano
Knowledge of the nature of biofluids at a crime scene is just as important as DNA test to link the nature of the biofluid, the criminal act and the dynamics of the crime. Identification of methods currently used for each biological fluid (blood, semen, saliva, urine) suffer from several limitations including instability of assayed biomolecules, and low selectivity and specificity; as an example of the latter issue, it is not possible to discriminate between alpha-amylase 1 (present in saliva) and alpha-amylase 2 (present in semen and vaginal secretion...
March 26, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575660/subthreshold-social-cognitive-deficits-may-be-a-key-to-distinguish-22q11-2ds-from-schizophrenia
#8
Elodie Peyroux, Caroline Rigard, Guillaume Saucourt, Alice Poisson, Julien Plasse, Nicolas Franck, Caroline Demily
AIM: Social cognitive impairments are core features in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Indeed, adults with 22q.11.2 DS often have poorer social competence as well as poorer performance on measures of social cognitive skills (emotion recognition and theory of mind, ToM) compared with typically developing people. However, studies comparing specific social cognitive components in 22q11.2DS and SCZ have not yet been widely conducted. METHODS: In this study we compared performances of 22q11...
March 25, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534515/investigating-patterns-for-self-induced-emotion-recognition-from-eeg-signals
#9
Ning Zhuang, Ying Zeng, Kai Yang, Chi Zhang, Li Tong, Bin Yan
Most current approaches to emotion recognition are based on neural signals elicited by affective materials such as images, sounds and videos. However, the application of neural patterns in the recognition of self-induced emotions remains uninvestigated. In this study we inferred the patterns and neural signatures of self-induced emotions from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The EEG signals of 30 participants were recorded while they watched 18 Chinese movie clips which were intended to elicit six discrete emotions, including joy, neutrality, sadness, disgust, anger and fear...
March 12, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510476/pathogen-derived-carbohydrate-recognition-in-molluscs-immune-defense
#10
REVIEW
Weilin Wang, Xiaorui Song, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Self-nonself discrimination is a common theme for all of the organisms in different evolutionary branches, which is also the most fundamental step for host immune protection. Plenty of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) with great diversity have been identified from different organisms to recognize various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in the last two decades, depicting a complicated scene of host-pathogen interaction. However, the detailed mechanism of the complicate PAMPs-PRRs interactions at the contacting interface between pathogens and hosts is still not well understood...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494183/age-differences-in-false-memory-the-importance-of-retrieval-monitoring-processes-and-their-modulation-by-memory-quality
#11
Yana Fandakova, Myriam C Sander, Thomas H Grandy, Roberto Cabeza, Markus Werkle-Bergner, Yee Lee Shing
Older adults are more likely than younger adults to falsely recall past episodes that occurred differently or not at all. We examined whether older adults' propensity for false associative memory is related to declines in postretrieval monitoring processes and their modulation with varying memory representations. Younger (N = 20) and older adults (N = 32) studied and relearned unrelated scene-word pairs, followed by a final cued recall that was used to distribute the pairs for an associative recognition test 24 hours later...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481572/scene-and-human-face-recognition-in-the-central-vision-of-patients-with-glaucoma
#12
Alexia Roux-Sibilon, Floriane Rutgé, Florent Aptel, Arnaud Attye, Nathalie Guyader, Muriel Boucart, Christophe Chiquet, Carole Peyrin
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) firstly mainly affects peripheral vision. Current behavioral studies support the idea that visual defects of patients with POAG extend into parts of the central visual field classified as normal by static automated perimetry analysis. This is particularly true for visual tasks involving processes of a higher level than mere detection. The purpose of this study was to assess visual abilities of POAG patients in central vision. Patients were assigned to two groups following a visual field examination (Humphrey 24-2 SITA-Standard test)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459238/encoding-of-event-roles-from-visual-scenes-is-rapid-spontaneous-and-interacts-with-higher-level-visual-processing
#13
Alon Hafri, John C Trueswell, Brent Strickland
A crucial component of event recognition is understanding event roles, i.e. who acted on whom: boy hitting girl is different from girl hitting boy. We often categorize Agents (i.e. the actor) and Patients (i.e. the one acted upon) from visual input, but do we rapidly and spontaneously encode such roles even when our attention is otherwise occupied? In three experiments, participants observed a continuous sequence of two-person scenes and had to search for a target actor in each (the male/female or red/blue-shirted actor) by indicating with a button press whether the target appeared on the left or the right...
February 16, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427122/visual-search-for-changes-in-scenes-creates-long-term-incidental-memory-traces
#14
Igor S Utochkin, Jeremy M Wolfe
Humans are very good at remembering large numbers of scenes over substantial periods of time. But how good are they at remembering changes to scenes? In this study, we tested scene memory and change detection two weeks after initial scene learning. In Experiments 1-3, scenes were learned incidentally during visual search for change. In Experiment 4, observers explicitly memorized scenes. At test, after two weeks observers were asked to discriminate old from new scenes, to recall a change that they had detected in the study phase, or to detect a newly introduced change in the memorization experiment...
February 9, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426819/offenders-become-the-victim-in-virtual-reality-impact-of-changing-perspective-in-domestic-violence
#15
S Seinfeld, J Arroyo-Palacios, G Iruretagoyena, R Hortensius, L E Zapata, D Borland, B de Gelder, M Slater, M V Sanchez-Vives
The role of empathy and perspective-taking in preventing aggressive behaviors has been highlighted in several theoretical models. In this study, we used immersive virtual reality to induce a full body ownership illusion that allows offenders to be in the body of a victim of domestic abuse. A group of male domestic violence offenders and a control group without a history of violence experienced a virtual scene of abuse in first-person perspective. During the virtual encounter, the participants' real bodies were replaced with a life-sized virtual female body that moved synchronously with their own real movements...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408262/multi-level-crowding-and-the-paradox-of-object-recognition-in-clutter
#16
REVIEW
Mauro Manassi, David Whitney
In everyday life, we are constantly surrounded by complex and cluttered scenes. In such cluttered environments, visual perception is primarily limited by crowding, the deleterious influence of nearby objects on object recognition. For the past several decades, visual crowding was assumed to occur at a single stage, only between low-level features or object parts, thus dismantling, destroying, or filtering object information. A large and converging body of evidence has demonstrated that this assumption is false: crowding occurs at multiple stages of visual analysis, and information passes through crowding at each of these stages...
February 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402312/perceptions-and-experiences-of-community-first-responders-on-their-role-and-relationships-qualitative-interview-study
#17
Viet-Hai Phung, Ian Trueman, Fiona Togher, Roderick Ørner, Aloysius Niroshan Siriwardena
BACKGROUND: Community First Responders (CFRs) are lay volunteers who respond to medical emergencies. We aimed to explore perceptions and experiences of CFRs in one scheme about their role. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of CFRs during June and July 2016 in a predominantly rural UK county. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the Framework method, supported by NVivo 10. RESULTS: We interviewed four female and 12 male adult CFRs aged 18-65+ years with different levels of expertise and tenures...
February 5, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396751/cue-quality-and-criterion-setting-in-recognition-memory
#18
Christopher Kent, Koen Lamberts, Richard Patton
Previous studies on how people set and modify decision criteria in old-new recognition tasks (in which they have to decide whether or not a stimulus was seen in a study phase) have almost exclusively focused on properties of the study items, such as presentation frequency or study list length. In contrast, in the three studies reported here, we manipulated the quality of the test cues in a scene-recognition task, either by degrading through Gaussian blurring (Experiment 1) or by limiting presentation duration (Experiment 2 and 3)...
February 2, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382711/differential-sampling-of-visual-space-in-ventral-and-dorsal-early-visual-cortex
#19
Edward H Silson, Richard C Reynolds, Dwight J Kravitz, Chris I Baker
A fundamental feature of cortical visual processing is the separation of visual processing for the upper and lower visual fields. In early visual cortex (EVC), the upper visual field is processed ventrally with the lower visual field processed dorsally. This distinction persists into several category-selective regions of occipitptemporal cortex, with ventral and lateral scene-, face-, and object-selective regions biased for the upper and lower visual fields, respectively. Here, using an elliptical population receptive field (pRF) model, we systematically tested the sampling of visual space within ventral and dorsal divisions of human EVC in both male and female participants...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373761/when-gist-and-familiarity-collide-evidence-from-false-recognition-in-younger-and-older-adults
#20
Nicole D Anderson, Chris B Martin, Julia Czyzo, Stefan Köhler
Objectives: Aging is associated with decreased recollection required to offset misleading effects of familiarity, as well as an increased mnemonic reliance on gist-based over detail-based information. We tested the novel hypothesis that age-related decrements in overriding familiarity can be eliminated under conditions in which gist-based information facilitates retrieval. Method: Twenty-seven younger adults and 27 older adults viewed scenes from two categories in an incidental encoding phase...
January 24, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
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