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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459238/encoding-of-event-roles-from-visual-scenes-is-rapid-spontaneous-and-interacts-with-higher-level-visual-processing
#1
Alon Hafri, John C Trueswell, Brent Strickland
A crucial component of event recognition is understanding event roles, i.e. who acted on whom: boy hitting girl is different from girl hitting boy. We often categorize Agents (i.e. the actor) and Patients (i.e. the one acted upon) from visual input, but do we rapidly and spontaneously encode such roles even when our attention is otherwise occupied? In three experiments, participants observed a continuous sequence of two-person scenes and had to search for a target actor in each (the male/female or red/blue-shirted actor) by indicating with a button press whether the target appeared on the left or the right...
February 16, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427122/visual-search-for-changes-in-scenes-creates-long-term-incidental-memory-traces
#2
Igor S Utochkin, Jeremy M Wolfe
Humans are very good at remembering large numbers of scenes over substantial periods of time. But how good are they at remembering changes to scenes? In this study, we tested scene memory and change detection two weeks after initial scene learning. In Experiments 1-3, scenes were learned incidentally during visual search for change. In Experiment 4, observers explicitly memorized scenes. At test, after two weeks observers were asked to discriminate old from new scenes, to recall a change that they had detected in the study phase, or to detect a newly introduced change in the memorization experiment...
February 9, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426819/offenders-become-the-victim-in-virtual-reality-impact-of-changing-perspective-in-domestic-violence
#3
S Seinfeld, J Arroyo-Palacios, G Iruretagoyena, R Hortensius, L E Zapata, D Borland, B de Gelder, M Slater, M V Sanchez-Vives
The role of empathy and perspective-taking in preventing aggressive behaviors has been highlighted in several theoretical models. In this study, we used immersive virtual reality to induce a full body ownership illusion that allows offenders to be in the body of a victim of domestic abuse. A group of male domestic violence offenders and a control group without a history of violence experienced a virtual scene of abuse in first-person perspective. During the virtual encounter, the participants' real bodies were replaced with a life-sized virtual female body that moved synchronously with their own real movements...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408262/multi-level-crowding-and-the-paradox-of-object-recognition-in-clutter
#4
REVIEW
Mauro Manassi, David Whitney
In everyday life, we are constantly surrounded by complex and cluttered scenes. In such cluttered environments, visual perception is primarily limited by crowding, the deleterious influence of nearby objects on object recognition. For the past several decades, visual crowding was assumed to occur at a single stage, only between low-level features or object parts, thus dismantling, destroying, or filtering object information. A large and converging body of evidence has demonstrated that this assumption is false: crowding occurs at multiple stages of visual analysis, and information passes through crowding at each of these stages...
February 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402312/perceptions-and-experiences-of-community-first-responders-on-their-role-and-relationships-qualitative-interview-study
#5
Viet-Hai Phung, Ian Trueman, Fiona Togher, Roderick Ørner, Aloysius Niroshan Siriwardena
BACKGROUND: Community First Responders (CFRs) are lay volunteers who respond to medical emergencies. We aimed to explore perceptions and experiences of CFRs in one scheme about their role. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of CFRs during June and July 2016 in a predominantly rural UK county. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the Framework method, supported by NVivo 10. RESULTS: We interviewed four female and 12 male adult CFRs aged 18-65+ years with different levels of expertise and tenures...
February 5, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396751/cue-quality-and-criterion-setting-in-recognition-memory
#6
Christopher Kent, Koen Lamberts, Richard Patton
Previous studies on how people set and modify decision criteria in old-new recognition tasks (in which they have to decide whether or not a stimulus was seen in a study phase) have almost exclusively focused on properties of the study items, such as presentation frequency or study list length. In contrast, in the three studies reported here, we manipulated the quality of the test cues in a scene-recognition task, either by degrading through Gaussian blurring (Experiment 1) or by limiting presentation duration (Experiment 2 and 3)...
February 2, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382711/differential-sampling-of-visual-space-in-ventral-and-dorsal-early-visual-cortex
#7
Edward H Silson, Richard C Reynolds, Dwight J Kravitz, Chris I Baker
A fundamental feature of cortical visual processing is the separation of visual processing for the upper and lower visual fields. In early visual cortex (EVC), the upper visual field is processed ventrally with the lower visual field processed dorsally. This distinction persists into several category-selective regions of occipitptemporal cortex, with ventral and lateral scene-, face-, and object-selective regions biased for the upper and lower visual fields, respectively. Here, using an elliptical population receptive field (pRF) model, we systematically tested the sampling of visual space within ventral and dorsal divisions of human EVC in both male and female participants...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373761/when-gist-and-familiarity-collide-evidence-from-false-recognition-in-younger-and-older-adults
#8
Nicole D Anderson, Chris B Martin, Julia Czyzo, Stefan Köhler
Objectives: Aging is associated with decreased recollection required to offset misleading effects of familiarity, as well as an increased mnemonic reliance on gist-based over detail-based information. We tested the novel hypothesis that age-related decrements in overriding familiarity can be eliminated under conditions in which gist-based information facilitates retrieval. Method: Twenty-seven younger adults and 27 older adults viewed scenes from two categories in an incidental encoding phase...
January 24, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336708/emergency-dispatcher-stroke-recognition-associations-with-downstream-care
#9
J Adam Oostema, Todd Chassee, Mathew Reeves
OBJECTIVE: As the first point of contact for patients activating emergency medical services (EMS), emergency dispatchers have the earliest opportunity to recognize stroke. We sought to quantify dispatcher stroke recognition and its relationships with EMS stroke recognition and response speed. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of consecutive EMS-transported patients with a dispatcher suspected stroke or a hospital discharge diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)...
January 16, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328116/hybrid-sensing-face-detection-and-registration-for-low-light-and-unconstrained-conditions
#10
Mingyuan Zhou, Haiting Lin, S Susan Young, Jingyi Yu
The capability to track, detect, and identify human targets in highly cluttered scenes under extreme conditions, such as in complete darkness or on the battlefield, has been one of the primary tactical advantages in military operations. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative, multi-spectrum sensing method to achieve face detection and registration under low-light and unconstrained conditions. We design and prototype a novel type of hybrid sensor by combining a pair of near-infrared (NIR) cameras and a thermal camera (a long-wave infrared camera)...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324415/convolutional-sparse-coding-for-rgb-nir-imaging
#11
Xuemei Hu, Felix Heide, Qionghai Dai, Gordon Wetzstein
Emerging sensor designs increasingly rely on novel color filter arrays (CFAs) to sample the incident spectrum in unconventional ways. In particular, capturing a near-infrared (NIR) channel along with conventional RGB color is an exciting new imaging modality. RGB+NIR sensing has broad applications in computational photography, such as low-light denoising, it has applications in computer vision, such as facial recognition and tracking, and it paves the way toward low-cost single-sensor RGB and depth imaging using structured illumination...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316734/superpixel-based-feature-for-aerial-image-scene-recognition
#12
Hongguang Li, Yang Shi, Baochang Zhang, Yufeng Wang
Image scene recognition is a core technology for many aerial remote sensing applications. Different landforms are inputted as different scenes in aerial imaging, and all landform information is regarded as valuable for aerial image scene recognition. However, the conventional features of the Bag-of-Words model are designed using local points or other related information and thus are unable to fully describe landform areas. This limitation cannot be ignored when the aim is to ensure accurate aerial scene recognition...
January 8, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315468/when-do-trauma-patients-lose-temperature-a-prospective-observational-study
#13
S C Eidstuen, O Uleberg, G Vangberg, E Skogvoll
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypothermia in trauma patients is high and rapid recognition is important to prevent further heat loss. Hypothermia is associated with poor patient outcomes and is an independent predictor of increased mortality. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in core body temperature of trauma patients during different treatment phases in the pre-hospital and early in-hospital settings. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study in severely injured patients...
March 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300141/exercise-induced-physiological-arousal-biases-attention-toward-threatening-scene-details
#14
Tad T Brunyé, Caroline R Mahoney
The present experiment examined whether physiological arousal induced by acute bouts of aerobic exercise would influence attention and memory for scenes depicting or not depicting weapons. In a repeated-measures design, participants exercised at either low or high exertion levels. During exercise, they were presented with images, some of which depicted weapons; immediately following exercise, they completed a recognition test for portions of central and peripheral scene regions. Two primary results emerged...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280734/interactions-between-stimulus-and-response-types-are-more-strongly-represented-in-the-entorhinal-cortex-than-in-its-upstream-regions-in-rats
#15
Eun-Hye Park, Jae-Rong Ahn, Inah Lee
Previously we reported results which suggested that response types are critical in dissociating the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) from the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) in a scene memory task (Yoo and Lee, 2017). Here, we investigated whether the perirhinal cortex (PER) and postrhinal cortex (POR), the upstream regions of the LEC and MEC, respectively, could be dissociated similarly. We conducted four tasks by combining different stimulus and response types. Our results suggest that the PER is important whenever object recognition is required and, together with prior findings, imply that PER-LEC networks are essential in goal-directed interactions with objects...
December 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259573/a-developmental-approach-to-machine-learning
#16
Linda B Smith, Lauren K Slone
Visual learning depends on both the algorithms and the training material. This essay considers the natural statistics of infant- and toddler-egocentric vision. These natural training sets for human visual object recognition are very different from the training data fed into machine vision systems. Rather than equal experiences with all kinds of things, toddlers experience extremely skewed distributions with many repeated occurrences of a very few things. And though highly variable when considered as a whole, individual views of things are experienced in a specific order - with slow, smooth visual changes moment-to-moment, and developmentally ordered transitions in scene content...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238406/real-time-field-sports-scene-classification-using-colour-and-frequency-space-decompositions
#17
Rafal Kapela, Kevin McGuinness, Noel E O'Connor
This paper presents a novel approach to recognize a scene presented in an image with specific application to scene classification in field sports video. We propose different variants of the algorithm ranging from bags of visual words to the simplified real-time implementation, that takes only the most important areas of similar colour into account. All the variants feature similar accuracy which is comparable to very well-known image indexing techniques like SIFT or HoGs. For the comparison purposes, we also developed a specific database which is now available online...
2017: Journal of Real-Time Image Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217684/retrieval-demands-adaptively-change-striatal-old-new-signals-and-boost-subsequent-long-term-memory
#18
Nora A Herweg, Tobias Sommer, Nico Bunzeck
The striatum is a central part of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system and contributes both to the encoding and retrieval of long-term memories. In this regard, the co-occurrence of striatal novelty and retrieval success effects in independent studies underlines the structure's double duty and suggests dynamic contextual adaption. To test this hypothesis and further investigate the underlying mechanisms of encoding and retrieval dynamics, human subjects viewed pre-familiarized scene images intermixed with new scenes and classified them as indoor vs...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213188/a-novel-framework-for-intelligent-surveillance-system-based-on-abnormal-human-activity-detection-in-academic-environments
#19
Malek Al-Nawashi, Obaida M Al-Hazaimeh, Mohamad Saraee
Abnormal activity detection plays a crucial role in surveillance applications, and a surveillance system that can perform robustly in an academic environment has become an urgent need. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for an automatic real-time video-based surveillance system which can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment. To develop our system, we have divided the work into three phases: preprocessing phase, abnormal human activity detection phase, and content-based image retrieval phase...
2017: Neural Computing & Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190703/developing-an-eye-tracking-algorithm-as-a-potential-tool-for-early-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children
#20
Natalia I Vargas-Cuentas, Avid Roman-Gonzalez, Robert H Gilman, Franklin Barrientos, James Ting, Daniela Hidalgo, Kelly Jensen, Mirko Zimic
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) currently affects nearly 1 in 160 children worldwide. In over two-thirds of evaluations, no validated diagnostics are used and gold standard diagnostic tools are used in less than 5% of evaluations. Currently, the diagnosis of ASD requires lengthy and expensive tests, in addition to clinical confirmation. Therefore, fast, cheap, portable, and easy-to-administer screening instruments for ASD are required. Several studies have shown that children with ASD have a lower preference for social scenes compared with children without ASD...
2017: PloS One
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