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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217684/retrieval-demands-adaptively-change-striatal-old-new-signals-and-boost-subsequent-long-term-memory
#1
Nora A Herweg, Tobias Sommer, Nico Bunzeck
The striatum is a central part of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system and contributes both to the encoding and retrieval of long-term memories. In this regard, the co-occurrence of striatal novelty and retrieval success effects in independent studies underlines the structure's double duty and suggests dynamic contextual adaption. To test this hypothesis and further investigate the underlying mechanisms of encoding and retrieval dynamics, human subjects viewed pre-familiarized scene images intermixed with new scenes and classified them as indoor vs...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213188/a-novel-framework-for-intelligent-surveillance-system-based-on-abnormal-human-activity-detection-in-academic-environments
#2
Malek Al-Nawashi, Obaida M Al-Hazaimeh, Mohamad Saraee
Abnormal activity detection plays a crucial role in surveillance applications, and a surveillance system that can perform robustly in an academic environment has become an urgent need. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for an automatic real-time video-based surveillance system which can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment. To develop our system, we have divided the work into three phases: preprocessing phase, abnormal human activity detection phase, and content-based image retrieval phase...
2017: Neural Computing & Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190703/developing-an-eye-tracking-algorithm-as-a-potential-tool-for-early-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children
#3
Natalia I Vargas-Cuentas, Avid Roman-Gonzalez, Robert H Gilman, Franklin Barrientos, James Ting, Daniela Hidalgo, Kelly Jensen, Mirko Zimic
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) currently affects nearly 1 in 160 children worldwide. In over two-thirds of evaluations, no validated diagnostics are used and gold standard diagnostic tools are used in less than 5% of evaluations. Currently, the diagnosis of ASD requires lengthy and expensive tests, in addition to clinical confirmation. Therefore, fast, cheap, portable, and easy-to-administer screening instruments for ASD are required. Several studies have shown that children with ASD have a lower preference for social scenes compared with children without ASD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173455/rapid-identification-information-and-its-influence-on-the-perceived-clues-at-a-crime-scene-an-experimental-study
#4
Madeleine de Gruijter, Claire Nee, Christianne J de Poot
Crime scenes can always be explained in multiple ways. Traces alone do not provide enough information to infer a whole series of events that has taken place; they only provide clues for these inferences. CSIs need additional information to be able to interpret observed traces. In the near future, a new source of information that could help to interpret a crime scene and testing hypotheses will become available with the advent of rapid identification techniques. A previous study with CSIs demonstrated that this information had an influence on the interpretation of the crime scene, yet it is still unknown what exact information was used for this interpretation and for the construction of their scenario...
November 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159798/tasks-determine-what-is-learned-in-visual-statistical-learning
#5
Timothy J Vickery, Su Hyoun Park, Jayesh Gupta, Marian E Berryhill
Visual statistical learning (VSL), the unsupervised learning of statistical contingencies across time and space, may play a key role in efficient and predictive encoding of the perceptual world. How VSL capabilities vary as a function of ongoing task demands is still poorly understood. VSL is modulated by selective attention and faces interference from some secondary tasks, but there is little evidence that the types of contingencies learned in VSL are sensitive to task demands. We found a powerful effect of task on what is learned in VSL...
November 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159664/dual-roles-of-the-hippocampus-and-intraparietal-sulcus-in-network-integration-and-segregation-support-scene-recognition
#6
Xin Hao, Xu Wang, Yiying Song, Xiangzhen Kong, Jia Liu
Effectively recognizing surroundings is a critical ability in human navigation. Previous neuroimaging studies have depicted distributed brain regions underpinning spatial navigation, but little is known about how these regions are formed into the navigation network (NN) supporting scene recognition. In this study, we addressed this issue by using a voxel-based global functional connectivity method to characterize the integration (i.e., within-network connectivity, WNC) of the NN and its segregation (i.e., between-network connectivity, BNC) from non-NN networks...
November 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143795/deep-see-joint-object-detection-tracking-and-recognition-with-application-to-visually-impaired-navigational-assistance
#7
Ruxandra Tapu, Bogdan Mocanu, Titus Zaharia
In this paper, we introduce the so-called DEEP-SEE framework that jointly exploits computer vision algorithms and deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to detect, track and recognize in real time objects encountered during navigation in the outdoor environment. A first feature concerns an object detection technique designed to localize both static and dynamic objects without any a priori knowledge about their position, type or shape. The methodological core of the proposed approach relies on a novel object tracking method based on two convolutional neural networks trained offline...
October 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129481/image-processing-strategies-based-on-saliency-segmentation-for-object-recognition-under-simulated-prosthetic-vision
#8
Heng Li, Xiaofan Su, Jing Wang, Han Kan, Tingting Han, Yajie Zeng, Xinyu Chai
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Current retinal prostheses can only generate low-resolution visual percepts constituted of limited phosphenes which are elicited by an electrode array and with uncontrollable color and restricted grayscale. Under this visual perception, prosthetic recipients can just complete some simple visual tasks, but more complex tasks like face identification/object recognition are extremely difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate and apply image processing strategies for optimizing the visual perception of the recipients...
November 9, 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122113/recognition-and-treatment-of-eclampsia-on-a-rural-scene-call-a-case-study-of-coordinated-ground-and-air-emergency-medical-services
#9
Harinder S Dhindsa, Jessica H Burns, Beverly G Harris, Clinton C Schott, Lisa M Dodd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093643/labelling-facial-affect-in-context-in-adults-with-and-without-tbi
#10
Lyn S Turkstra, Sarah G Kraning, Sarah K Riedeman, Bilge Mutlu, Melissa Duff, Sara VanDenHeuvel
Recognition of facial affect has been studied extensively in adults with and without traumatic brain injury (TBI), mostly by asking examinees to match basic emotion words to isolated faces. This method may not capture affect labelling in everyday life when faces are in context and choices are open-ended. To examine effects of context and response format, we asked 148 undergraduate students to label emotions shown on faces either in isolation or in natural visual scenes. Responses were categorised as representing basic emotions, social emotions, cognitive state terms, or appraisals...
March 2017: Brain Impairment: a Multidisciplinary Journal of the Australian Society for the Study of Brain Impairment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083260/are-there-age-differences-in-attention-to-emotional-images-following-a-sad-mood-induction-evidence-from-a-free-viewing-eye-tracking-paradigm
#11
Calandra Speirs, Zorry Belchev, Amanda Fernandez, Stephanie Korol, Christopher Sears
Two experiments examined age differences in the effect of a sad mood induction (MI) on attention to emotional images. Younger and older adults viewed sets of four images while their eye gaze was tracked throughout an 8-s presentation. Images were viewed before and after a sad MI to assess the effect of a sad mood on attention to positive and negative scenes. Younger and older adults exhibited positively biased attention after the sad MI, significantly increasing their attention to positive images, with no evidence of an age difference in either experiment...
October 30, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076459/an-optimized-content-aware-image-retargeting-method-toward-expanding-the-perceived-visual-field-of-the-high-density-retinal-prosthesis-recipients
#12
Heng Li, Yajie Zeng, Zhuofan Lu, Xiaofei Cao, Xiaofan Su, Xiaohong Sui, Jing Wang, Xinyu Chai
Retinal prosthesis devices have shown great value in restoring some sight for individuals with profoundly impaired vision, but the visual acuity and visual field provided by prostheses greatly limit recipients' visual experience. In this paper, we employ computer vision approaches to seek to expand the perceptible visual field in patients implanted potentially with a high-density retinal prosthesis while maintaining visual acuity as much as possible. Approach. We propose an optimized content-aware image retargeting method, by introducing salient object detection based on color and intensity-difference contrast, aiming to remap important information of a scene into a small visual field and preserve their original scale as much as possible...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074582/a-generative-vision-model-that-trains-with-high-data-efficiency-and-breaks-text-based-captchas
#13
D George, W Lehrach, K Kansky, M Lázaro-Gredilla, C Laan, B Marthi, X Lou, Z Meng, Y Liu, H Wang, A Lavin, D S Phoenix
Learning from few examples and generalizing to dramatically different situations are capabilities of human visual intelligence that are yet to be matched by leading machine learning models. By drawing inspiration from systems neuroscience, we introduce a probabilistic generative model for vision in which message-passing based inference handles recognition, segmentation and reasoning in a unified way. The model demonstrates excellent generalization and occlusion-reasoning capabilities, and outperforms deep neural networks on a challenging scene text recognition benchmark while being 300-fold more data efficient...
October 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068358/visual-localization-across-seasons-using-sequence-matching-based-on-multi-feature-combination
#14
Yongliang Qiao
Visual localization is widely used in autonomous navigation system and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). However, visual-based localization in seasonal changing situations is one of the most challenging topics in computer vision and the intelligent vehicle community. The difficulty of this task is related to the strong appearance changes that occur in scenes due to weather or season changes. In this paper, a place recognition based visual localization method is proposed, which realizes the localization by identifying previously visited places using the sequence matching method...
October 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067286/recognition-of-a-virtual-scene-via-simulated-prosthetic-vision
#15
Ying Zhao, Xiulin Geng, Qi Li, Guangqi Jiang, Yu Gu, Xiaoqi Lv
In order to effectively aid the blind with optimal low-resolution vision and visual recovery training, pathfinding and recognition tests were performed using a simulated visual prosthetic scene. Simple and complex virtual scenes were built using 3DMAX and Unity, and pixelated to three different resolutions (32 × 32, 64 × 64, and 128 × 128) for real-time pixel processing. Twenty subjects were recruited to complete the pathfinding and object recognition tasks within the scene. The recognition accuracy and time required were recorded and analyzed after the trials...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061475/characterization-of-organic-aromatic-compounds-in-soils-affected-by-an-uncontrolled-tire-landfill-fire-through-the-use-of-comprehensive-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#16
J Escobar-Arnanz, S Mekni, G Blanco, E Eljarrat, D Barceló, L Ramos
Discarded vehicle tires have become an increasing concern worldwide due to the enormous amount of wastes generated and the increasing evidence of health problems associated to their disposal and accidental combustion. Previous studies conducted involving either simulated or open uncontrolled tire fires have identified aromatics belonging to two main classes, volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs), as the most relevant chemicals generated in these burning processes. As a consequence, and due to their recognized toxicity, most studies reported up to now have mainly focused on these two categories of compounds being information concerning the possible occurrence of other aromatic classes rather limited...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047710/intrinsic-decomposition-from-a-single-spectral-image
#17
Xi Chen, Weixin Zhu, Yang Zhao, Yao Yu, Yu Zhou, Tao Yue, Sidan Du, Xun Cao
In this paper, we present a spectral intrinsic image decomposition (SIID) model, which is dedicated to resolve a natural scene into its purely independent intrinsic components: illumination, shading, and reflectance. By introducing spectral information, our work can solve many challenging cases, such as scenes with metameric effects, which are hard to tackle for trichromatic intrinsic image decomposition (IID), and thus offers potential benefits to many higher-level vision tasks, e.g., materials classification and recognition, shape-from-shading, and spectral image relighting...
July 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020848/concussion-alters-the-functional-brain-processes-of-visual-attention-and-working-memory
#18
Priyanka Shah-Basak, Charline Urbain, Simeon Wong, Leodante Da Costa, Elizabeth W Pang, Benjamin Dunkley, Margot Taylor
Millions of North Americans suffer a concussion or a mild traumatic brain injury annually and are at risk of cognitive, emotional and physical sequelae. While fMRI studies have provided an initial framework for examining functional deficits induced by concussion, particularly working memory and attention, the temporal dynamics underlying these deficits are not well understood. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG), a modality with millisecond temporal resolution, in conjunction with a 1-back visual working memory (VWM) paradigm using scenes from everyday life to characterize spatiotemporal functional differences at specific VWM stages, in adults who did or did not suffer a recent concussion...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984525/brain-networks-related-to-beta-oscillatory-activity-during-episodic-memory-retrieval
#19
Erika Nyhus
Evidence from fMRI has consistently located a widespread network of frontal, parietal, and temporal lobe regions during episodic retrieval. However, the temporal limitations of the fMRI methodology have made it difficult to assess the transient network dynamics by which these distributed regions coordinate activity. Recent evidence suggests that beta oscillations (17-20 Hz) are important for top-down control for memory suppression. However, the spatial limitations of the EEG methodology make it difficult to assess the relationship between these oscillatory signals and the distributed networks identified with fMRI...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961443/eye-tracking-to-evaluate-evidence-recognition-in-crime-scene-investigations
#20
Renuka Devi Watalingam, Nicole Richetelli, Jeff B Pelz, Jacqueline A Speir
Crime scene analysts are the core of criminal investigations; decisions made at the scene greatly affect the speed of analysis and the quality of conclusions, thereby directly impacting the successful resolution of a case. If an examiner fails to recognize the pertinence of an item on scene, the analyst's theory regarding the crime will be limited. Conversely, unselective evidence collection will most likely include irrelevant material, thus increasing a forensic laboratory's backlog and potentially sending the investigation into an unproductive and costly direction...
August 23, 2017: Forensic Science International
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