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Sheng Zhe E, Zhi Qi Yang, Xi Bai Zeng, Ya Nan Wang, Zhao Xia Luo, Jin Hua Yuan, Zong Xian Che
The changing trend of soil available phosphorus (Olsen-P) content in soil and its relationship with soil phosphorus surplus and crop yield are fundamental when making appropriate phosphate fertilizer recommendations. In this paper, the influences of long-term fertilization on crops phosphorus uptake, soil phosphorus surplus, changing trend of soil available phosphorus content and relationships of soil available phosphorus content with soil phosphorus surplus and crop yield were investigated through 34 years (1981-2015) long-term trial in loessial soil region on the Loess Plateau...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Jing Yao, Xing Yuan He, Wei Chen
Ecosystem service flow is the key point and difficulty of ecosystem services research, which is now at the initial stage and show a developing trend of quantity and spatialization. However, the term "ecosystem service flow" is ambiguous. In this paper, we presented two descriptions about the term, and two corresponding theories and methods: the transmission of a service from ecosystems to people and distributed ecosystem model, and the flow of benefits accruing to people as generated by stocks of ecosystem structure and grey/black box theory...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Thomas E Guadamuz, Pimpawun Boonmongkon
BACKGROUND: Crystal methamphetamine (ice) has become the substance of choice among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in urban Thailand. Yet, there is scarce data on this phenomenon, partly due to the difficulty in accessing men who will disclose and openly discuss the social contexts, meanings and risks surrounding ice practice. We present an ethnography of ice parties, critically discussing the in-depth social meanings of ice; the sexual socialities and the secrecy surrounding its use; the transactions between older and younger men; and the role of the Internet and mobile technology...
April 21, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Y J Zhao, Y Wang
In recent years with the rapid development of digital technology for stomatology, the application field, application model, technical features and technical connotation of the chair-side digital technology has got development and change. The open modular system has gradually replaced the traditional closed system, and the application field of digital technology is no longer limited to chair-side dental restoration, it also has been extend to various kinds of chair-side digital treatment-assisted technology...
April 9, 2018: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Jennie Jaribu, Suzanne Penfold, Cathy Green, Fatuma Manzi, Joanna Schellenberg
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe a quality improvement (QI) intervention in primary health facilities providing childbirth care in rural Southern Tanzania. Design/methodology/approach A QI collaborative model involving district managers and health facility staff was piloted for 6 months in 4 health facilities in Mtwara Rural district and implemented for 18 months in 23 primary health facilities in Ruangwa district. The model brings together healthcare providers from different health facilities in interactive workshops by: applying QI methods to generate and test change ideas in their own facilities; using local data to monitor improvement and decision making; and health facility supervision visits by project and district mentors...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
Jonas Alexander Schwenzer, Lucija Rakocevic, Robert Gehlhaar, Tobias Abzieher, Saba Gharibzadeh, Somayeh Moghadamzadeh, Aina Quintilla, Bryce Sydney Richards, Uli Lemmer, Ulrich Wilhelm Paetzold
This paper reports on the impact of outdoor temperature variations on the performance of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) perovskite solar cells (PSCs). It shows that, as expected from the theory for a conventional solar cell, the open-circuit voltage (VOC) of a PSC decreases with increasing temperature. However, in contrast to these expected trends, the current density (JSC) of PSCs is found to decline strongly below 20% of the initial value upon cycling the temperatures from 10 °C to 60 °C and back. This decline in current density is driven by an increasing series resistance and caused by the fast temperature variations as it is not apparent for solar cells exposed to constant temperatures of the same range...
April 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cheng You, Dennis K J Lin, S Stanley Young
In environmental epidemiology, it is often encountered that multiple time series data with a long-term trend, including seasonality, cannot be fully adjusted by the observed covariates. The long-term trend is difficult to separate from abnormal short-term signals of interest. This paper addresses how to estimate the long-term trend in order to recover short-term signals. Our case study demonstrates that the current spline smoothing methods can result in significant positive and negative cross-correlations from the same dataset, depending on how the smoothing parameters are chosen...
2018: PloS One
Lauren Klein, Johanna Moore, Michelle Biros
BACKGROUND: Due to the acuity and time sensitive needs of their clinical condition, patients presenting with certain emergent pathologies may lack capacity to provide meaningful prospective informed consent to participate in clinical research. For these reasons, these populations have often been excluded from research investigations. To mitigate this, regulations allowing Exception from Informed Consent (EFIC) (21 CFR 50.24) or Waiver of Informed Consent (WIC) (45 CFR 46.101) were developed in 1996...
April 21, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Firdaus Hafidz, Tim Ensor, Sandy Tubeuf
BACKGROUND: Limited healthcare resources in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have led policy-makers to improve healthcare efficiency. Therefore, it is essential to understand how efficiency has been measured in the LMIC setting. OBJECTIVE: This paper reviews methodologies used for efficiency studies in health facilities in LMICs. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, EconLit and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses databases to Week 6 in 2018...
April 20, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Violeta Gaveikaite, Dimitris Filos, Helen Schonenberg, Remco van der Heijden, Nicos Maglaveras, Ioanna Chouvarda
Current healthcare systems are struggling with rising costs and unbalanced quality of care. Integrated care (IC) is a worldwide trend in healthcare reforms designed to tackle these problems. ACT@Scale is a partnership of leading European regions, industry and academia which aims to identify, transfer and scale-up existing integrated healthcare practices. In this context, participating programs are applying iterative process improvement cycles using collaborative methodologies. The vision of learning health systems (LHS) is similar to IC, but it focuses on IT means as a change enabler for rapid and continuous knowledge integration into better outcomes...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Edvaldo V Soares Maciel, Ana Lúcia de Toffoli, Fernando Mauro Lanças
The accelerated rising of the world's population increased the consumption of food, thus demanding more rigors in the control of residue and contaminants in food-based products marketed for human consumption. In view of the complexity of most food matrices, including fruits, vegetables, different types of meat, beverages, among others, a sample preparation step is important to provide more reliable results when combined with high performance liquid chromatography separations. An adequate sample preparation step before the chromatographic analysis is mandatory in obtaining higher precision and accuracy in order to improve the extraction of the target analytes, one of the priorities in analytical chemistry...
April 20, 2018: Electrophoresis
Anita Spychaj, Edward Pospiech, Ewa Iwańska, Magdalena Montowska
At present, allergic response to food components is an increasing problem all over the world. Therefore it is important to protect people vulnerable to food allergens against accidental and unintended consumption of products containing allergic ingredients. The meat industry commonly uses various allergic additives in production of processed products, i.e. legumes (soy, peas, beans), milk and egg preparations, cereals containing gluten (wheat, rye, barley and oats), and spices (celery and mustard). These meat additives have specific technological properties which help to create a texture, flavour profile or affect the nutritional value, although some of them, such as soy, mustard, milk and egg white proteins can cause severe allergic reactions...
April 19, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Carine Weber Pires, Eloisa Barbieri Soldera, Laura Izabel Lampert Bonzanini, Tathiane Larissa Lenzi, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck Soares, Anelise Fernandes Montagner, Rachel de Oliveira Rocha
PURPOSE: To systematically review the literature on laboratory studies to determine whether the bond strength of adhesives to primary teeth is similar to that to permanent teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA and registered in PROSPERO (CRD42014015160). A comprehensive literature search was conducted considering in vitro studies published up to June 2015 in the PubMed/MEDLINE database, with no limit on year of publication...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
Andrew Snodgrass
This paper addresses the continued association of Richard Hofstadter with consensus history. More specifically, it challenges the view that the origins of this conservative trend in American history can be located within The American Political Tradition . Whilst primarily concerned with reinterpreting Hofstadter's work within its original context, the paper raises questions regarding author intention and both the reception and shifting perceptions of works of history.
2018: Society
Nigar Nargis, Michal Stoklosa, Jeffrey Drope, Geoffrey T Fong, Anne C K Quah, Pete Driezen, Ce Shang, Frank J Chaloupka, A K M Ghulam Hussain
BACKGROUND: The price of tobacco products in relation to the income of tobacco users-affordability-is recognised as a key determinant of tobacco use behaviour. The effectiveness of a price increase as a deterrent to tobacco use depends on how much price increases in relation to the income of the potential users. The aim of this paper is to examine the distribution of and trends in the affordability of tobacco products in Bangladesh. METHOD: Using four waves of International Tobacco Control Survey data on Bangladesh, this study measures affordability of tobacco products at the individual level as the ratio of self-reported price and self-reported income...
April 19, 2018: Tobacco Control
Venkata S V Botlaguduru, Raghava R Kommalapati, Ziaul Huque
The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area of Texas has a history of ozone exceedances and is currently classified under moderate nonattainment status for the 2008 8-hr ozone standard of 75 ppb. The HGB area is characterized by intense solar radiation, high temperature, and humidity, which influence day-to-day variations in ozone concentrations. Long-term air quality trends independent of meteorological influence need to be constructed for ascertaining the effectiveness of air quality management in this area...
April 19, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Angkoon Phinyomark, Giovanni Petri, Esther Ibáñez-Marcelo, Sean T Osis, Reed Ferber
The increasing amount of data in biomechanics research has greatly increased the importance of developing advanced multivariate analysis and machine learning techniques, which are better able to handle "big data". Consequently, advances in data science methods will expand the knowledge for testing new hypotheses about biomechanical risk factors associated with walking and running gait-related musculoskeletal injury. This paper begins with a brief introduction to an automated three-dimensional (3D) biomechanical gait data collection system: 3D GAIT, followed by how the studies in the field of gait biomechanics fit the quantities in the 5 V's definition of big data: volume, velocity, variety, veracity, and value...
2018: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Andre Matthias Müller, Carol A Maher, Corneel Vandelanotte, Melanie Hingle, Anouk Middelweerd, Michael L Lopez, Ann DeSmet, Camille E Short, Nicole Nathan, Melinda J Hutchesson, Louise Poppe, Catherine B Woods, Susan L Williams, Petra A Wark
BACKGROUND: Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) approaches to address low physical activity levels, sedentary behavior, and unhealthy diets have received significant research attention. However, attempts to systematically map the entirety of the research field are lacking. This gap can be filled with a bibliometric study, where publication-specific data such as citations, journals, authors, and keywords are used to provide a systematic overview of a specific field...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Audrey Courtain, Fabienne Glowacz
Young people's romantic relationships can be marked with various forms of dating violence (DV). However, adolescents and emerging adults do not necessarily acknowledge this violence because of their attitudes toward dating violence. Our study aims to study dating violence and attitudes toward this phenomenon through two well-established questionnaires administered jointly in their entirety. Indeed, too many studies report results on some dimensions and items, neglecting the richness of available tools. The Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationship Inventory and the Attitudes Toward Dating Violence Scale were self-administered to 1,014 participants ( M age = 18...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Dafeng Xu
BACKGROUND: Based on single cross-sectional data, prior research finds evidence of "transportation assimilation" among U.S. immigrants: the length of stay in the U.S. is negatively correlated with public transit use. This paper revisits this question by using repeated cross-sectional data, and examines the trend of transportation assimilation over time. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using 1980, 1990, 2000 1% census and 2010 (1%) American Community Survey, I examine the relationship between the length of stay in the U...
2018: PloS One
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