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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468716/estimation-of-age-effect-with-change-points-on-survival-of-cancer-patients
#1
K F Lam, Jiajun Xu, Hongqi Xue
There is a global trend that the average onset age of many human complex diseases is decreasing, and the age of cancer patients becomes more spread out. The age effect on survival is nonlinear in practice and may have one or more important change-points at which the trend of the effect can be very different before and after these threshold ages. Identification of these change-points allows clinical researchers to understand the biologic basis for the complex relation between age and prognosis for optimal prognostic decision...
February 22, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468314/recent-advances-and-trends-in-pediatric-cardiac-imaging
#2
REVIEW
Wadi Mawad, Luc L Mertens
Cardiac imaging is central to today's pediatric cardiology practice not only to diagnose structural congenital defects and delineate cardiac and extracardiac anatomy but also for determining the hemodynamic impact of the structural defects and acquired pediatric diseases. Not so long ago, clinicians had to heavily rely on angiography as the main cardiac imaging modality to visualize the heart. Particularly, the development of echocardiography in the 1970s and 1980s together with the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) resulted in a non-invasive diagnostic revolution with diagnostic catheterization becoming obsolete apart for very specific indications...
February 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468161/big-data-and-dementia-charting-the-route-ahead-for-research-ethics-and-policy
#3
Marcello Ienca, Effy Vayena, Alessandro Blasimme
Emerging trends in pervasive computing and medical informatics are creating the possibility for large-scale collection, sharing, aggregation and analysis of unprecedented volumes of data, a phenomenon commonly known as big data. In this contribution, we review the existing scientific literature on big data approaches to dementia, as well as commercially available mobile-based applications in this domain. Our analysis suggests that big data approaches to dementia research and care hold promise for improving current preventive and predictive models, casting light on the etiology of the disease, enabling earlier diagnosis, optimizing resource allocation, and delivering more tailored treatments to patients with specific disease trajectories...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467996/strategic-approaches-towards-pertussis-control-in-oman
#4
Salah T Al Awaidy
Objectives: Pertussis is a highly contagious disease that causes severe and serious symptoms among infants and young children with fatalities observed in early infancy. The disease is milder among adolescents and adults. In this paper, we describe the progress made towards pertussis control in Oman and the challenges ahead to achieve control and maintain it. Methods: Pertussis data were collected between 1981 and 2015 from various sources including Annual Health Reports, annual Ministry of Health progress reports, and Community Health and Diseases Surveillance Newsletter, which provided information for the calculation of different pertussis indicators...
January 2018: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467058/trends-in-female-authorship-in-research-papers-on-eating-disorders-20-year-bibliometric-study
#5
Mattias Strand, Cynthia M Bulik
BACKGROUND: There is a clear gender gap in scientific authorship. Although the proportions of female authors in medicine and psychiatry have increased over the past decades, women are still underrepresented. Aims To analyse authorship gender trends in eating disorder research. METHOD: First and last author gender in research articles on eating disorders during the period 1997-2016 were assessed in eating disorder specialty journals, high-impact psychiatry journals and high-impact clinical psychology journals...
March 2018: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466242/mindfulness-and-meditation-treating-cognitive-impairment-and-reducing-stress-in-dementia
#6
Jesse Russell-Williams, Wafa Jaroudi, Tania Perich, Siobhan Hoscheidt, Mohamad El Haj, Ahmed A Moustafa
This study investigates the relationship between mindfulness, meditation, cognition and stress in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia, mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline. Accordingly, we explore how the use of meditation as a behavioural intervention can reduce stress and enhance cognition, which in turn ameliorates some dementia symptoms. A narrative review of the literature was conducted with any studies using meditation as an intervention for dementia or dementia-related memory conditions meeting inclusion criteria...
February 21, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465146/vaccine-hesitancy-a-public-health-problem
#7
F Petrelli, C M Contratti, E Tanzi, I Grappasonni
The phenomenon of "vaccine hesitancy" has only been studied for a few years, and this attitude is becoming a serious threat that can frustrate the efforts of recent years that have led to the achievement of relevant scientific advances to human health. The paper analyzes the possible causes, the scope of the phenomenon and its consequences, trying to identify the most effective actions to resolve this trend.
March 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463013/precision-aliphatic-polyesters-via-segmer-assembly-polymerization
#8
REVIEW
Fu-Rong Zeng, Yang Liang, Zi-Long Li
Precise structure-property relation of a biodegradable polymer (e.g., aliphatic polyester) is anticipated only if monomer units and chiral centers are arranged in a defined primary sequence as a biomacromolecule. An emerging synthetic methodology, namely segmer assembly polymerization (SAP), is introduced in this paper to reveal the latest progress in polyester synthesis. Almost any periodic polyester envisioned can be synthesized via SAP using a programed linear or cyclic monomer. In this context, the macroscopic properties of a biodegradable polymer are fundamentally determined by microstructural information through a bottom-up approach...
February 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462194/enhancing-healthcare-accessibility-measurements-using-gis-a-case-study-in-seoul-korea
#9
Yeeun Kim, Young-Ji Byon, Hwasoo Yeo
With recent aging demographic trends, the needs for enhancing geo-spatial analysis capabilities and monitoring the status of accessibilities of its citizens with healthcare services have increased. The accessibility to healthcare is determined not only by geographic distances to service locations, but also includes travel time, available modes of transportation, and departure time. Having access to the latest and accurate information regarding the healthcare accessibility allows the municipal government to plan for improvements, including expansion of healthcare infrastructure, effective labor distribution, alternative healthcare options for the regions with low accessibilities, and redesigning the public transportation routes and schedules...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461812/molecularly-imprinted-polymer-as-an-antibody-substitution-in-pseudo-immunoassays-for-chemical-contaminants-in-food-and-environmental-samples
#10
Chaochao Chen, Jiaxun Luo, Chenglong Li, Mingfang Ma, Wenbo Yu, Jianzhong Shen, Zhanhui Wang
The chemical contaminants in food and environment are quite harmful to food safety and human health. Rapid, accurate and cheap detection can effectively control the potencial risk derived from these chemical contaminants. Among all detection methods, the immunoassay based on specific interaction of antibodies-analyte is one of the most widely used technique in the field. However, biological antibodies employed in immunoassay usually cannot tolerate extreme conditions, resulting in unstable state in both physical and chemical profiles...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461492/layup-configuration-effect-on-notch-residual-strength-in-composite-laminates
#11
Venkateswaran Santhanakrishnan Balakrishnan, Holger Seidlitz, Sabine Weiß
The current trend shows an increasing demand for composites due to their high stiffness to weight ratio and the recent progress in manufacturing and cost reduction of composites. To combine high strength and stiffness in a cost-effective way, composites are often joined with steel or aluminum. However, joining of thermoset composite materials is challenging because circular holes are often used to join them with their metal counterparts. These design based circular holes induce high stress concentration around the hole...
February 20, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460383/using-permutation-tests-to-enhance-causal-inference-in-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#12
Ariel Linden
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) is an evaluation methodology in which a single treatment unit's outcome is studied serially over time and the intervention is expected to "interrupt" the level and/or trend of that outcome. The internal validity is strengthened considerably when the treated unit is contrasted with a comparable control group. In this paper, we introduce a robustness check based on permutation tests to further improve causal inference...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459303/the-human-skin-as-a-sub-thz-receiver-does-5g-pose-a-danger-to-it-or-not
#13
Noa Betzalel, Paul Ben Ishai, Yuri Feldman
In the interaction of microwave radiation and human beings, the skin is traditionally considered as just an absorbing sponge stratum filled with water. In previous works, we showed that this view is flawed when we demonstrated that the coiled portion of the sweat duct in upper skin layer is regarded as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band. Experimentally we showed that the reflectance of the human skin in the sub-THz region depends on the intensity of perspiration, i.e. sweat duct's conductivity, and correlates with levels of human stress (physical, mental and emotional)...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457895/periodic-trends-in-actinyl-thio-crown-ether-complexes
#14
Shu-Xian Hu, Jing-Jing Liu, John K Gibson, Jun Li
In-cavity complexes and their bonding features between thio-crown (TC) ethers and f-elements are unexplored so far. In this paper, actinyl(VI) (An = U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) complexes of TC ethers have been characterized using relativistic density functional theory. The TC ether ligands include tetrathio-12-crown-4 (12TC4), pentathio-15-crown-5 (15TC5), and hexathio-18-crown-6 (18TC6). On the basis of the calculations, it is found that the "double-decker" sandwich structure of AnO2 (12TC4)2 2+ and "side-on" structure AnO2 (12TC4)2+ are changed to "insertion" structures for AnO2 (15TC5)2+ and AnO2 (18TC6)2+ due to increased size of the TC ether ligands...
February 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456565/prevalence-of-peptic-ulcer-in-iran-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-methods
#15
REVIEW
Kourosh Sayehmiri, Ghobad Abangah, Gholamreza Kalvandi, Hamed Tavan, Sanaz Aazami
Background: Peptic ulcer is a prevalent problem and symptoms include epigastria pain and heartburn. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and causes of peptic ulcers in Iran using systematic review and meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Eleven Iranian papers published from 2002 to 2016 are selected using valid keywords in the SID, Goggle scholar, PubMed and Elsevier databases. Results of studies pooled using random effects model in meta-analysis. The heterogeneity of the sample was checked using Q test and I 2 index...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455759/a-national-collaborative-for-building-the-field-of-childhood-obesity-research
#16
(no author information available yet)
Rising rates of childhood obesity over the past 2 decades have spurred a number of public- and private-sector initiatives aimed at halting or even reversing this trend. Recognizing common interests in this issue, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NIH, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation began conversations about creating a formal collaboration aimed at accelerating efforts to address childhood obesity by coordinating research agendas and providing support for evidence-building activities. The National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) was launched in February 2009, and the U...
March 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449753/do-younger-sleeping-beauties-prefer-a-technological-prince
#17
Anthony F J van Raan, Jos J Winnink
In this paper we investigate recent Sleeping Beauties cited in patents (SB-SNPRs). We find that the increasing trend of the relative number of SBs stopped around 1998. Moreover, we find that the time lag between the publication year of the SB-SNPRs and their first citation in a patent is becoming shorter in recent years. Our observations also suggest that, on average, in the more recent years SBs are awakened increasingly earlier by a 'technological prince' rather than by a 'scientific prince'. These observations suggest that SBs with technological importance are 'discovered' earlier in an application-oriented context...
2018: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449105/comparing-cryptomarkets-for-drugs-a-characterisation-of-sellers-and-buyers-over-time
#18
Meropi Tzanetakis
INTRODUCTION: Cryptomarkets operating on the darknet are a recent phenomenon that has gained importance only over the last couple of years (Barratt, 2012). However, they now constitute an evolving part of illicit drug markets. Although selling and buying a variety of psychoactive substances on the Internet has a long history, new technological developments enable systematic drug trading on the net.These technological innovations on the Internet allow users to proceed with (illicit) drug transactions with almost completely anonymous identities and locations...
February 12, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448972/bullying-and-sexual-harassment-of-junior-doctors-in-new-south-wales-australia-rate-and-reporting-outcomes
#19
Anthony Llewellyn, Aspasia Karageorge, Louise Nash, Wenlong Li, Dennis Neuen
Objective The aim of this study was to describe rates of exposure to bullying and sexual harassment in junior doctors in first- or second-year prevocational medical training (PGY1 or PGY2 respectively) positions in New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), and to explore the types of actions taken in response. Methods A cross-sectional survey of junior doctors in PGY1 or PGY2 positions was undertaken in 2015 and 2016 (n=374 and 440 respectively). Thematic analysis was undertaken on free-text responses to describe the reporting process and outcomes in more depth...
February 16, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448326/characterization-of-maximally-random-jammed-sphere-packings-iii-transport-and-electromagnetic-properties-via-correlation-functions
#20
Michael A Klatt, Salvatore Torquato
In the first two papers of this series, we characterized the structure of maximally random jammed (MRJ) sphere packings across length scales by computing a variety of different correlation functions, spectral functions, hole probabilities, and local density fluctuations. From the remarkable structural features of the MRJ packings, especially its disordered hyperuniformity, exceptional physical properties can be expected. Here we employ these structural descriptors to estimate effective transport and electromagnetic properties via rigorous bounds, exact expansions, and accurate analytical approximation formulas...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
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