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Johan P Mackenbach
The persistence of socioeconomic inequalities in health, despite all that has been done to reduce social and economic inequalities in many European countries, is one of the great disappointments of public health. In this paper, I summarize the results of a series of studies into the explanation of variations and trends in inequalities in mortality in three European regions: the Nordic countries with their puzzlingly large inequalities in mortality, Southern European countries with their miraculously small inequalities in mortality and Central & Eastern European countries in which inequalities in mortality have disastrously exploded since the early 1990 s...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
Bing Xu, Xiang-Long Cui, Chan Yang, Xin Wang, Xin-Yuan Shi, Yan-Jiang Qiao
Quality by design (QbD) highlights the concept of "begin with the end", which means to thoroughly understand the target product quality first, and then guide pharmaceutical process development and quality control throughout the whole manufacturing process. In this paper, the Ginkgo biloba granules intermediates were taken as the research object, and the requirements of the tensile strength of tablets were treated as the goals to establish the methods for identification of granules' critical quality attributes (CQAs) and establishment of CQAs' limits...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Ian Painter, Debra Revere, P Joseph Gibson, Janet Baseman
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases can appear and spread rapidly. Timely information about disease patterns and trends allows public health agencies to quickly investigate and efficiently contain those diseases. But disease case reporting to public health has traditionally been paper-based, resulting in somewhat slow, burdensome processes. Fortunately, the expanding use of electronic health records and health information exchanges has created opportunities for more rapid, complete, and easily managed case reporting and investigation...
2017: Online Journal of Public Health Informatics
Martina Štípková
A trend of the shortening duration of pregnancies carried to term has been observed in several countries and represents a growing public health concern. This paper describes the trend in the Czech Republic and shows its relation to the changing demographic structure of mothers and the organisation of maternity care. Data from the birth register are used and supplemented with information about the capacity of maternity care (number of beds at maternity clinics, number of obstetricians and midwives). Logistic regression is used to estimate the odds of 37 to 39 vs 40+ completed weeks of gestation...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Sheik Mohammad Mostakim Fattah, Nak-Myoung Sung, Il-Yeup Ahn, Minwoo Ryu, Jaeseok Yun
An aging population and human longevity is a global trend. Many developed countries are struggling with the yearly increasing healthcare cost that dominantly affects their economy. At the same time, people living with old adults suffering from a progressive brain disorder such as Alzheimer's disease are enduring even more stress and depression than those patients while caring for them. Accordingly, seniors' ability to live independently and comfortably in their current home for as long as possible has been crucial to reduce the societal cost for caregiving and thus give family members peace of mind, called 'aging in place' (AIP)...
October 11, 2017: Sensors
Narel Y Paniagua Zambrana, Rainer W Bussmann, Robbie E Hart, Araceli L Moya Huanca, Gere Ortiz Soria, Milton Ortiz Vaca, David Ortiz Álvarez, Jorge Soria Morán, María Soria Morán, Saúl Chávez, Bertha Chávez Moreno, Gualberto Chávez Moreno, Oscar Roca, Erlin Siripi
BACKGROUND: The Chácobo are a Panoan speaking tribe of about 1000 members (300+ adults) in Beni, Bolivia. Originally nomadic, the Chácabo were relocated to their current main location in the 1960s. Researchers have visited the Chácabo since 1911. A first more detailed anthropological report exists from the late 1960s, and ecological-ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the 1980s and 1990s. The presented work represents a complete ethnobotanical inventory of the entire adult Chácobo population, with interviews and plant collection conducted directly by Chácobo counterparts...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Gilbert G G Donders, Jacques Ravel, Beatrice Vitali, Mihai G Netea, Andres Salumets, Magnus Unemo
The diagnosis of vulvo-vaginal complaints has always been enigmatic in obstetrics and gynecology. Patients with clear, pathognomonic symptoms end up with a proper diagnosis and treatment most of the time, but unfortunately we are now living in a world where women reach out to the Internet and readily get all information as to which disease their symptoms correspond to and also find the appropriate treatment "over-the-counter." Because of this trend, we as specialists are increasingly confronted with patients with complex and combined conditions...
October 10, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
Daniel C Moreira, Marcus F Oliveira, Lara Liz-Guimarães, Nilda Diniz-Rojas, Élida G Campos, Marcelo Hermes-Lima
Survival under stress, such as exposure to hypoxia, anoxia, freezing, dehydration, air exposure of water breathing organisms, and estivation, is commonly associated to enhanced endogenous antioxidants, a phenomenon coined "preparation for oxidative stress" (POS). The regulation of free radical metabolism seems to be crucial under these selective pressures, since this response is widespread among animals. A hypothesis of how POS works at the molecular level was recently proposed and relies on two main processes: increased reactive species production under hypoxia, and activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and signaling pathways, increasing the expression of antioxidants...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Michelle Scollo, Megan Bayly, Sarah White, Kylie Lindorff, Melanie Wakefield
This paper aimed to identify continued and emerging trends in the Australian tobacco market following plain packaging implementation, over a period of substantial increases in tobacco taxes. Since 2012, our surveillance activities (including review of trade product and price lists, ingredient reports submitted by tobacco companies to government and monitoring of the retail environment) found several trends in the factory-made cigarette market. These include the continued release of extra-long and slim cigarettes and packs with bonus cigarettes, particularly in the mainstream and premium market segments; new menthol capsule products; other novel flavourings in cigarettes; filter innovations including recessed and firm filters; continued use of evocative and descriptive product names; the proliferation of the new super-value market segment; and umbrella branding, where new products are introduced within established brand families...
October 9, 2017: Tobacco Control
Guangqin Li, Qiao He, Shuai Shao, Jianhua Cao
Environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) play an increasingly important role in the process of urban environmental governance, especially in some developing countries such as China. However, existing studies pay little attention to such an issue in China. In this paper, we consider 113 cities in China from the pollution information transparency index (PITI) list released by ENGOs as the treatment group and some other cities as the control group, and use the difference-in-differences (DID) model and propensity score matching DID (PSM-DID) model to explore the role of ENGOs in China's urban environmental governance...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Karen R Ryberg
Attribution of the causes of trends in nutrient loading is often limited to correlation, qualitative reasoning, or references to the work of others. This paper represents efforts to improve causal attribution of water-quality changes. The Red River of the North basin provides a regional test case because of international interest in the reduction of total phosphorus loads and the availability of long-term total phosphorus data and ancillary geospatial data with the potential to explain changes in water quality over time...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Sven Anders, Christiane Schroeter
After decades-old efforts to nudge consumers towards healthier lifestyles through dietary guidelines, diet-related diseases are on the rise. In addition, a growing share of U.S. consumers proactively chooses nutritional supplements as an alternative preventative way of maintaining good health, a $25.5 billion industry in the United States. This paper investigates possible linkages between the economics of consumer supplement choices and the relationship to important dietary and health outcomes. We use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data to estimate the impact of nutritional supplements intake on respondent's body weight outcomes, controlling for diet quality...
2017: PloS One
Gregg Joseph Montalto, Fredrick K Sawe, Argwings Miruka, Jonah Maswai, Ignatius Kiptoo, Appolonia Aoko, Chrispine Oreyo, Eunice Obiero, Sheila Korir, Stephen K Bii, Katherine X Song, Anjali N Kunz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Emphasis on adolescent HIV has increased worldwide as antiretroviral treatment has greatly extended life expectancies of HIV-positive children. Few evidence-based guidelines exist on the optimal time to disclose to an adolescent living with HIV (ALHIV); little is known about the medical effects of disclosure. This study looked to determine whether disclosure is associated with improved medical outcomes in ALHIV. Prior work has tended to be qualitative, cross-sectional, and with an emphasis on psychosocial outcomes...
2017: PloS One
XianMei Cao, HuiYan Sun, ChunGe Wang, XiaoJia Ren, HongFei Liu, ZuJian Zhang
BACKGROUND: With the rapid development of modern agriculture, high-quality rice production and consumption has become the current urgent demand for the development of rice production. RESULT: In this paper, the effects of late-stage nitrogen fertilizer application on rice quality were studied under the same genetic background, Wx near-isogenic lines were used as test materials to study the starch composition, amylopectin structure, and cooking quality of rice. Results showed that rice amylose content and gel consistency significantly differed when different Wx genes were tranformed into waxy rice, the law of apparent amylose content in rice is Wx(a) >Wx(in) >Wx(b) >wx at the same nitrogen level, while the trend of gel consistency was opposite to that of apparent amylose content, presenting obvious characteristics of Indica and Japonica varieties...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Wenzhi Wang, David Wang, Hongmei Liu, Haixin Sun, Bin Jiang, Xiaojuan Ru, Dongling Sun, Zhenghong Chen, Yongjun Wang
INTRODUCTION: There is a downward trend of stroke-related mortality in the USA. By reviewing all published articles on stroke mortality in China, we analysed its trend and possible factors that have influenced the trend. METHODS: Both English and Chinese literatures were searched on the mortality of stroke or cerebrovascular diseases in China. Potential papers related to this topic were identified from PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Wanfang Database, SINOMED and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases...
September 2017: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
Gunnar Sæbø, Janne Scheffels
The rationale for 'denormalization' of smoking in tobacco policies has been challenged by the emergence of e-cigarettes and the need to regulate e-cigarette use and promotion. Our aim is to assess the research status on e-cigarettes' contribution to 'renormalization' of smoking and to clarify how renormalization of smoking can be appraised at the conceptual and empirical level. Combining conceptual analysis and narrative review, the paper brings out three dimensions of denormalization/renormalization of smoking ('unacceptability/acceptability'; 'invisibility/visibility'; 'phasing out behaviour/maintaining behaviour') and an inherent duality of the e-cigarette as a smoking-like device and a smoking alternative...
October 5, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Aydan Mehralizade, Shayna Schor, Chad M Coleman, Claire E Oppenheim, Christy A Denckla, Christina Pc Borba, David C Henderson, James Wolff, Sarah Crane, Pamela Nettles-Gomez, Avik Pal, Snezana Milanovic
This paper explores the potential benefits of the use of mobile health (mHealth) apps in obstetrician-gynecologist (OB-GYN)-embedded psychiatric clinics in the United States. First, we highlight the increasing trend of integrating mental health care within the OB-GYN context. Second, we provide examples of successful uses of mHealth in the global health context and highlight the dearth of available research in the United States. Finally, we provide a summary of the shortcomings of currently available apps and describe the upcoming trial of a novel app currently underway at the Mother-Child Wellness Clinical and Research Center at Boston Medical Center...
October 6, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Sarah D Chamberlain, Peter G Wells, Bertrum H MacDonald
The Gulfwatch Contaminants Monitoring Program is part of the Canada-US, Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment (GOMC). Programs monitoring legacy toxic substances, i.e., chemical contaminants, such as Gulfwatch, collect and analyse environmental samples (e.g., blue mussels), interpret the data, and report on chemical levels and trends (spatial and temporal) in coastal waters. This study explored the extent to which its extensive information (data, reports, papers) has been used broadly and by Nova Scotia, a GOMC member...
October 3, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Carisa M Cooney, Charalampos Siotos, Jeffrey W Aston, Ricardo J Bello, Stella M Seal, Damon S Cooney, Jaimie T Shores, Gerald Brandacher, W P Andrew Lee
PURPOSE: We conducted a systematic review to document ethical concerns regarding human upper extremity (UE) allotransplantation and how these concerns have changed over time. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of 5 databases to find manuscripts addressing ethical concerns related to UE allotransplantation. Inclusion criteria were papers that were on the topic of UE allotransplantation, and related ethical concerns, written in English. We extracted and categorized ethical themes under the 4 principles of bioethics: Autonomy, Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, and Justice...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
Selamawit Yilma Bedada, Kathleen Gallagher, Aron Kassahun Aregay, Bashir Mohammed, Mohammed Adem Maalin, Hassen Abdisemed Hassen, Yusuf Mohammed Ali, Fiona Braka, Pierre M'pele Kilebou
INTRODUCTION: Communication is key for the successful implementation of polio vaccination campaigns. The purpose of this study is to review and analyse the sources of information utilized by caregivers during polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in Somali, Ethiopia in 2014 and 2015. METHODS: Data on sources of information about the polio campaign were collected post campaign from caregivers by trained data collectors as part of house to house independent monitoring...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
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