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Humberto Rocha, Joana Dias, Tiago Ventura, Brígida Ferreira, Maria do Carmo Lopes
PURPOSE: The inverse planning of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment requires decisions regarding the angles used for radiation incidence, even when arcs are used. The possibility of improving the quality of treatment plans by an optimized selection of the beam angle incidences-beam angle optimization (BAO)-is seldom done in clinical practice. The inclusion of noncoplanar beam incidences in an automated optimization routine is even more unusual. However, for some tumor sites, the advantage of considering noncoplanar beam incidences is well known...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Jianfeng Zhang, Jinyang Hu, Lvwen Huang, Zhiyong Zhang, Yimian Ma
Precision agriculture is the trend of modern agriculture, and it is also one of the important ways to realize the sustainable development of agriculture. In order to meet the production requirements of precision agriculture-efficient use of agricultural resources, and improving the crop yields and quality-some necessary field information in crop growth environment needs to be collected and monitored. In this paper, a farmland information collection system is developed, which includes a portable farmland information collection device based on STM32 (a 32-bit comprehensive range of microcontrollers based on ARM Crotex-M3), a remote server and a mobile phone APP...
October 22, 2016: Sensors
Aslihan Tece Bayrak, Burkhard Wünsche, Christof Lutteroth
Exercise gaming has been receiving a significant interest from both consumers and researchers. Be it for the purposes of weight loss, physical fitness or even just enjoyment, the potential of games to support rehabilitation has also been under investigation for a while. Due to our aging society, game based therapies could be a solution for optimizing resources and reducing rehabilitation costs. This paper aims to discuss the potential capacity of games as systems to enhance the relation of physical exercise and cognition for the rehabilitation of Parkinson Disease...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Guy H Walker, Paul M Salmon, Melissa Bedinger, Neville A Stanton
A paradigm is an accepted world view. If we do not continually question our paradigm then wider trends and movements will overtake the discipline leaving it ill adapted to future challenges. This Special Issue is an opportunity to keep systems thinking at the forefront of ergonomics theory and practice. Systems thinking prompts us to ask whether ergonomics, as a discipline, has been too timid? Too preoccupied with the resolution of immediate problems with industrial-age methods when, approaching fast, are developments which could render these operating assumptions an irrelevance...
October 26, 2016: Ergonomics
Daniel Zacarias, Luis Mauricio Bini, Rafael Loyola
BACKGROUND: In this paper we review the conservation genetics of African savannah elephants, aiming to understand the spatio-temporal research trends and their underlying factors. As such, we explore three questions associated to the conservation genetics and molecular ecology of these elephants: (1) what are the research trends concerning the conservation genetics of Loxodonta africana? (2) Do richer countries conduct more research on the genetics of African elephants? (3) Which attributes influence where scholars conduct their research? MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined available peer-reviewed publications from 1993 to 2014 in complementary online databases, including the ISI/Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar (GS), and searched for publications in scientific journals as well as in the reference section of these publications...
2016: PeerJ
Payman Salamati, Faramarz Soheili
PURPOSE: The social network analysis (SNA) is a paradigm for analyzing structural patterns in social re- lations, testing knowledge sharing process and identifying bottlenecks of information flow. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of research in the fleld of violence in Iran using SNA. METHODS: Research population included all the papers with at least one Iranian affiliation published in violence fleld indexed in SCIE, PubMed and Scopus databases...
October 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
H Lu, K B Lua, Y J Lee, T T Lim, K S Yeo
This paper reports the results of combined experimental and numerical studies on the ground effect on a pair of three-dimensional (3D) hovering wings. Parameters investigated include hovering kinematics, wing shapes, and Reynolds numbers (Re). The results are consistent with the observation by another study (Gao and Lu, 2008 Phys. Fluids, 20 087101) which shows that the cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces generated by two-dimensional (2D) wings in close proximity to the ground can be broadly categorized into three regimes with respect to the ground clearance; force enhancement, force reduction, and force recovery...
October 25, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P Czarkowski
PURPOSE of the STUDY: The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Melanie Wright, Joshua Adams, Kwang Yang, Paul McManus, Astrid Jacobson, Aniket Gade, Joan McLean, David Britt, Anne Anderson
Nanoparticle (NPs) containing essential metals are being considered in formulations of fertilizers to boost plant nutrition in soils with low metal bioavailability. This paper addresses whether colonization of wheat roots by the bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6), protected roots from the reduced elongation caused by CuO NPs. There was a trend for slightly elongated roots when seedlings with roots colonized by PcO6 were grown with CuO NPs; the density of bacterial cells on the root surface was not altered by the NPs...
2016: PloS One
Zsuzsa Győrffy, Zsuzsanna Szél, Edmond Girasek
INTRODUCTION: The aging population and the aging physician society is an important challenge of the New Millenium. Despite this, very few publications are dealing with the older generations' physical and mental well-being, quality of life and working conditions. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the retired physicians populations' (n = 2112) demographic data, work status, income and health status. METHOD: Data of this representative, cross-sectional epidemiological study was obtained from online and paper-based questionnaires completed by 2112 retired physicians...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Kirsten Vallmuur, Rob Eley, Angela Watson
OBJECTIVE: To examine national ladder-related fall injury patterns and trends, and compare the changes over time in occupational and non-occupational falls across age groups. METHODS: Analysis of national hospital morbidity data to examine trends over time and differences between groups. RESULTS: There were 41,092 hospitalised falls from ladders in Australia over the ten year period from July 2002 to June 2012, rising from 3,374 hospitalisations in 2002/03 to 4,945 hospitalisations in 2011/12...
October 24, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Siyuan Zhang, Zhiwei Cui, Tianqi Xu, Pan Liu, Dapeng Li, Shaoqiang Shang, Ranxiang Xu, Yujin Zong, Gang Niu, Supin Wang, Xijing He, Mingxi Wan
This paper compared the effects of flowing phase-shift nanodroplets (NDs) and lipid-shelled microbubbles (MBs) on subsequent cavitation during focused ultrasound (FUS) exposures. The cavitation activity was monitored using a passive cavitation detection method as solutions of either phase-shift NDs or lipid-shelled MBs flowed at varying velocities through a 5-mm diameter wall-less vessel in a transparent tissue-mimicking phantom when exposed to FUS. The intensity of cavitation for the phase-shift NDs showed an upward trend with time and cavitation for the lipid-shelled MBs grew to a maximum at the outset of the FUS exposure followed by a trend of decreases when they were static in the vessel...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
A Azzellino, S Airoldi, S Gaspari, C Lanfredi, A Moulins, M Podestà, M Rosso, P Tepsich
This paper provides a summary of 25 years of research on Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) in the western Ligurian Sea. Seasonal variations in abundance, distribution and habitat use were observed. Photographic mark-recapture methods provided a population size estimate for the period from 1998 to 2012, of about 100 individuals (95% CI of 60-220 individuals). The same methods detected a decline in population size from an average of about 120-150 from 2000 to 2005, to an average of 70-100 during 2010 to 2014...
2016: Advances in Marine Biology
Marleen Kunneman, Victor M Montori, Ana Castaneda-Guarderas, Erik P Hess
Both the practice of medicine and the expectations of patients regarding their care are changing. A point of confluence is in the need for medicine to be more patient centered, and in the need for patients to be more involved in their care.(1,2) This confluence is particularly pertinent when more than one reasonable approach is available to manage the patient's situation, and when those approaches differ in ways that matter to patients.(3) In shared decision-making (SDM), clinicians and patients work together to understand the patient's situation and to determine how best to address it...
October 21, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Denis Querleu, Jacques Meurette, Emile Daraï, Philippe Morice, François Planchamp
Surgery has evolved as a mainstay of the management of ovarian cancer since evidence of the major benefit of complete surgery, i.e. achieving complete resection of the disease without visible macroscopic residue in a comprehensively explored abdominal cavity, has been made available. This objective may be difficult to complete in case of advanced ovarian cancer, as it requires the use of advanced techniques of peritoneal and visceral surgery, in the setting of adapted perioperative care, generally in institutions where the caseload is sufficient to ensure an appropriate surgical experience, and where specifically trained surgeons are available...
October 18, 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
Wang Wei, Zhang Wei-Sheng, Alayi Ahan, Yan Ci, Zhang Wei-Wen, Cao Ming-Qin
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to find out epidemiologic characteristic of tuberculosis (TB) cases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive cases among TB patients (TB/HIV co-infection) through demographic, temporal, and spatial study in Urumqi. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied to identify the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic. All addresses of each TB case, TB/HIV co-infection case, and administrative street were transformed into geographical coordinate...
2016: PloS One
Thais Gimenez, Beatriz Albuquerque Bispo, Daniela Pereira Souza, Maria Eduarda Viganó, Marcia Turolla Wanderley, Fausto Medeiros Mendes, Marcelo Bönecker, Mariana Minatel Braga
OBJECTIVE: To carry out a systematic review with meta-analysis of prevalence of caries in Latin America and Caribbean children considering studies performed in this new century. METHODS: Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, LILACS and governmental databases through May 2016 to identify papers published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Studies in those countries performed with 5-6 or 11-13 year-old children and that presented separate prevalence figures from primary and permanent teeth were selected...
2016: PloS One
Elizabeth Watts, Uwe Hossfeld, Irina Tolstikova, Georgy S Levit
This paper provides a detailed look at how creationism originated in the United States and then explores how this evangelical trend was exported to Russia by American missionaries following the fall of the USSR. The comparison between these two countries is particularly interesting since the rivalry between the US and the USSR during the race to space caused both countries to revamp their science education. Yet, while political interests led both governments to focus on science education, creationist activities were simultaneously focused on diminishing the coverage of evolution in science classrooms...
October 20, 2016: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
Y Amerlinck, W De Keyser, G Urchegui, I Nopens
At wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) aeration is the largest energy consumer. This high energy consumption requires an accurate assessment in view of plant optimization. Despite the ever increasing detail in process models, models for energy production still lack detail to enable a global optimization of WWTPs. A new dynamic model for a more accurate prediction of aeration energy costs in activated sludge systems, equipped with submerged air distributing diffusers (producing coarse or fine bubbles) connected via piping to blowers, has been developed and demonstrated...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Zhao Chenhui, Wei Yi
BACKGROUND: Despite great advances in treatment of Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), yet, a consensus as to the most optimal timing of surgery has not been reached. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for English-language studies published up to May 2015. Before conducting the meta-analysis, the studies were evaluated for publication bias and heterogeneity. Fixed and random effect models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
December 7, 2015: Turkish Neurosurgery
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