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Erika Castrignanò, Zhugen Yang, Richard Bade, Jose A Baz-Lomba, Sara Castiglioni, Ana Causanilles, Adrian Covaci, Emma Gracia-Lor, Felix Hernandez, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Kevin V Thomas, Pim de Voogt, Ettore Zuccato, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context of their consumption vs direct disposal as well as their synthetic production routes. Spatial variations in amphetamine loads were observed with higher use in Northern European cities. Enantioselective analysis showed a general enrichment of amphetamine with the R-(-)-enantiomer in wastewater indicating its abuse...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
Michaela Poplová, Pavel Sovka, Michal Cifra
Photonic signals are broadly exploited in communication and sensing and they typically exhibit Poisson-like statistics. In a common scenario where the intensity of the photonic signals is low and one needs to remove a nonstationary trend of the signals for any further analysis, one faces an obstacle: due to the dependence between the mean and variance typical for a Poisson-like process, information about the trend remains in the variance even after the trend has been subtracted, possibly yielding artifactual results in further analyses...
2017: PloS One
Hafiz T A Khan, Shereen Hussein, John Deane
Population ageing is a phenomenon affecting the whole world. The countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) are no exception but transitions in population ageing are still in the early stages of the process. With current demographic dividends experienced by the GCC and the rest of the Middle-East, the pace of population ageing will be faster than that experienced by many European countries. The purpose of this paper is to explore the population ageing experience of different GCC countries while situating this within a context of social policies that still at the very early stages of acknowledging such change...
2017: Ageing International
Nicola Bernabò, Rosa Ciccarelli, Luana Greco, Alessandra Ordinelli, Mauro Mattioli, Barbara Barboni
The exposure to Non-Ionizing-Electromagnetic Fields (NI-EMFs) is often indicated as a cofactor responsible for the fertility reduction, which has been described in recent years. Despite the great interest in this topic and the research effort in exploring it, to date, there are no reliable data. Therefore, we carried out a scientometric analysis of the scientific literature published in peer reviewed Journals concerning this topic to better understand the reasons of this partial failure. To this aim, we identified and analysed 104 papers, published in last 26 years in peer-reviewed Journals, present in ISI Web of Knowledge Core Collection...
2017: PloS One
Jacob Dee, Jesus M Garcia Calleja, Kimberly Marsh, Irum Zaidi, Christopher Murrill, Mahesh Swaminathan
Since the late 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sentinel serosurveillance among pregnant women attending select antenatal clinics (ANCs) based on unlinked anonymous testing (UAT) has provided invaluable information for tracking HIV prevalence and trends and informing global and national HIV models in most countries with generalized HIV epidemics. However, increased coverage of HIV testing, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), and antiretroviral therapy has heightened ethical concerns about UAT...
December 5, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Karl Philipp Puchner, Sandra Parisi, Eva-Maria Schwienhorst-Stich, Christa Kasang, Mohamed Salah, Emile Tanyous
Background: This paper analyzes the trends of key indicators reflecting the epidemiological situation of leprosy in nine different states of the Republic of the Sudan after the introduction of a systematic contact screening in 2010. Methods: The routinely assessed data from the leprosy control program from 2010 to 2016 were analyzed. Results: Despite, intense contact screening, the overall number of new cases detected showed a decreasing trend...
December 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Abdulrahman Alassi, Mohieddine Benammar, Dan Brett
Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensors are actively being implemented in various fields due to their compatibility with different operating conditions in gaseous/liquid mediums for a wide range of measurements. This trend has been matched by the parallel advancement in tailored electronic interfacing systems for QCM sensors. That is, selecting the appropriate electronic circuit is vital for accurate sensor measurements. Many techniques were developed over time to cover the expanding measurement requirements (e...
December 5, 2017: Sensors
Shijie Deng, Peng Wang, Xinglong Yu
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is an optical sensing technique that is capable of performing real-time, label-free and high-sensitivity monitoring of molecular interactions. SPR biosensors can be divided according to their operating principles into angle-, wavelength-, intensity- and phase-interrogated devices. With their complex optical configurations, phase-interrogated SPR sensors generally provide higher sensitivity and throughput, and have thus recently emerged as prominent biosensing devices. To date, several methods have been developed for SPR phase interrogation, including heterodyne detection, polarimetry, shear interferometry, spatial phase modulation interferometry and temporal phase modulation interferometry...
December 5, 2017: Sensors
Ricardo Campos, Enric Novella
In this paper, we study the ideological bases of mental hygiene, understood as racial and moral hygiene, during the first years of Franco's regime and their evolution until 1960. First, we discuss the conceptualization of mental hygiene in the 1940s and its role as a tool for the legitimization of dictatorship, revealing the involvement of orthodox Catholicism and its links with moral and racial hygiene. Second, we assess the transformation of mental hygiene during the 1950s towards modernization and a stronger linkage with the dominant trends of contemporary psychiatry without ever leaving the ideological background of Catholicism...
2017: Dynamis
J Gallagher, J C Field
This position paper outlines the areas of competence and learning outcomes of "The Graduating European Dentist" that specifically relates to Dentistry in Society. In addition to treating individual patients, a Dentist must be able to focus on promoting health, monitoring interventions and implementing effective strategies of care at community and population levels. This necessarily involves understanding population demography and health trends, engaging with health policy and promoting health. A Dentist must also understand population demography and health trends, in the context of the healthcare system within which they work...
December 2017: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
Christopher J Mansfield, Katherine Jones, Satomi Imai
BACKGROUND Death rates for white, middle-aged Americans are increasing after decades of steady decline. In this paper, mortality and health behavior trends are examined for midlife North Carolinians.METHODS Mortality rates were calculated for midlife whites from 2000 to 2013 for the state as a whole and in counties grouped by level of economic distress. Trend lines were used to estimate future death rates, and comparisons were made to rates for nonwhites. Current and past health risk behaviors were also analyzed...
November 2017: North Carolina Medical Journal
Helen Loeb, Jinyong Kim, Kristy Arbogast, Jonny Kuo, Sjaan Koppel, Suzanne Cross, Judith Charlton
INTRODUCTION: Child occupant safety in motor-vehicle crashes is evaluated using Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) seated in optimal positions. However, child occupants often assume suboptimal positions during real-world driving trips. Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children (Bohman et al., 2011). There is therefore a need to understand the interaction of children with the Child Restraint System to optimize protection...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
Zlatan Dragisic, Valentina Ivanova, Huanyu Li, Patrick Lambrix
BACKGROUND: One of the longest running tracks in the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative is the Anatomy track which focuses on aligning two anatomy ontologies. The Anatomy track was started in 2005. In 2005 and 2006 the task in this track was to align the Foundational Model of Anatomy and the OpenGalen Anatomy Model. Since 2007 the ontologies used in the track are the Adult Mouse Anatomy and a part of the NCI Thesaurus. Since 2015 the data in the Anatomy track is also used in the Interactive track of the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
Ana Cárcaba, Eduardo González, Juan Ventura
This paper proposes a methodology for the assessment of social progress in the biggest Spanish municipalities between years 2001 and 2011. We follow recent descriptions of QoL to elaborate a measurement framework composed of eight dimensions, for which 16 subindicators are elaborated from information collected using different data sources. Weight constrained Data Envelopment Analysis is used to estimate QoL composite indicators in both periods and to compute a Malmquist index of social progress, which assesses the evolution of the indicators during the decade...
2017: Applied Research in Quality of Life
Mona Zamanian Azodi, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, Afsaneh Arefi Oskouie, Mostafa Hamdieh, Mohammad Kamran Derakhshan, Alireza Ahmadzadeh, Farid Zayeri, Naser Nejadi, Majid Rezaei Tavirani, Vahid Mansouri, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Reza Vafaee
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is one of the most common mental conditions. Proteome profiling may help identifying important proteins and finally shed lights to complexity of OCD underlying mechanisms. Here, by the application gel-based proteomic approach the proteome profile of patients with washing subtype of OCD before and after treatment with Fluoxetine (positive responders) are compared to healthy matched controls. However, only one of the differentially expressed proteins is examined and introduced in this paper...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Shobhit Jain, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Rajesh Sagar
Psychiatric research has increased remarkably over recent decades to help in understanding the current trends and better therapeutic options for illness. On the other hand, there is also a trend toward higher rates of retraction of published papers in the recent years. Ethics is required to maintain and increase the overall quality and morality of research. Psychiatric research faces several unique ethical challenges. Ethical guidelines are very important tool of research which safeguards participants; however, there is a dearth of such guidelines in India...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Joseph Tay Wee Teck, Mark McCann
BACKGROUND: There is a perception that the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is increasing in the UK, with consequent individual and public health risks. Nevertheless, there is a lack of real-time surveillance data to support the development of effective policy. This paper explores the potential of Google Trends to complement existing surveillance methods by analysing user generated search term data. METHODS: The Google Trends web tool was used to identify patterns of UK online interest in 15 AAS from January 2011 to December 2015, with 10 ultimately suitable for further analysis...
November 30, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Erjia Yan, Yongjun Zhu
Up to this point, research on written scholarly communication has focused primarily on syntactic, rather than semantic, analyses. Consequently, we have yet to understand semantic change as it applies to disciplinary discourse. The objective of this study is to illustrate word semantic change in biomedical literature. To that end, we identify a set of representative words in biomedical literature based on word frequency and word-topic probability distributions. A word2vec language model is then applied to the identified words in order to measure word- and topic-level semantic changes...
January 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Timothée Baudequin, Maryam Tabrizian
There is a growing interest in the regeneration of tissue in interfacial regions, where biological, physical, and chemical attributes vary across tissue type. The simultaneous use of distinct cell lineages can help in developing in vitro structures, analogous to native composite tissues. This literature review gathers the recent reports that have investigated multiple cell types of various sources and lineages in a coculture system for tissue-engineered constructs. Such studies aim at mimicking the native organization of tissues and their interfaces, and/or to improve the development of complex tissue substitutes...
November 28, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Richard Lakeman, Luke Molloy
In this paper, we propose that mental health nursing has become a zombie category, at least in the Australian context. Mental health nursing is a concept that has lost any real explanatory or conceptual power, yet nevertheless persists in public discourse and the collective imagination. In recent decades, powerful forces have contributed to the zombification of the mental health nursing workforce and the academy. An increase in medical hegemony, the ascendancy of allied health in mental health service provision, the need for uncritical and servile workers, protocol-driven work practices, and a failure of leadership to mobilize any substantial resistance to these trends have enabled the infection to spread...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
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