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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549215/nanowire-mesh-templated-growth-of-out-of-plane-three-dimensional-fuzzy-graphene
#1
Raghav Garg, Sahil Kumar Rastogi, Michael Lamparski, Sergio de la Barrera, Gordon T Pace, Noel T Nuhfer, Benjamin Matthew Hunt, Vincent Meunier, Tzahi Cohen-Karni
Graphene, a honeycomb sp(2) hybridized carbon lattice, is a promising building block for hybrid-nanomaterials due to its electrical, mechanical, and optical properties. Graphene can be readily obtained through mechanical exfoliation, solution-based deposition of reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The resulting graphene films' topology is two-dimensional (2D) surface. Recently a three-dimensional (3D) graphene topology has been demonstrated by various approaches. However, the resulting graphene films are lying flat on the surface hence still exposing a 2D surface topology...
May 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549092/the-effect-of-spectacle-lenses-containing-peripheral-defocus-on-refractive-error-and-horizontal-eye-shape-in-the-guinea-pig
#2
Hannah E Bowrey, Guang Zeng, Dennis Y Tse, Amelia J Leotta, Yi Wu, Chi-Ho To, Christine F Wildsoet, Sally A McFadden
Purpose: It has been proposed that the peripheral retina, responding to local optical defocus, contributes to myopia and associated altered eye growth in humans. To test this hypothesis, we measured the changes in central (on-axis) and peripheral ocular dimensions in guinea pigs wearing a concentric bifocal spectacle lens design with power restricted to the periphery. Methods: Five groups of guinea pigs (n = 83) wore either a unifocal (UF) spectacle lens (-4, 0, or +4 Diopters [D]), or a peripheral defocus (PF) spectacle lens that had a plano center (diameter of 5 mm) with either -4 or +4 D in the surround (-4/0 or +4/0 D)...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549091/regional-retinal-ganglion-cell-axon-loss-in-a-murine-glaucoma-model
#3
Julie A Schaub, Elizabeth C Kimball, Matthew R Steinhart, Cathy Nguyen, Mary E Pease, Ericka N Oglesby, Joan L Jefferys, Harry A Quigley
Purpose: To determine if retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon loss in experimental mouse glaucoma is uniform in the optic nerve. Methods: Experimental glaucoma was induced for 6 weeks with a microbead injection model in CD1 (n = 78) and C57BL/6 (B6, n = 68) mice. From epoxy-embedded sections of optic nerve 1 to 2 mm posterior to the globe, total nerve area and regional axon density (axons/1600 μm2) were measured in superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal zones. Results: Control eyes of CD1 mice have higher axon density and more total RGCs than control B6 mice eyes...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548861/emergent-optical-phononic-modes-upon-nanoscale-mesogenic-phase-transitions
#4
Dima Bolmatov, Mikhail Zhernenkov, Lewis Sharpnack, Dena M Agra-Kooijman, Satyendra Kumar, Alexey Suvorov, Ronald Pindak, Yong Q Cai, Alessandro Cunsolo
The investigation of phononic collective excitations in soft matter systems at the molecular scale has always been challenging due to limitations of experimental techniques in resolving low-energy modes. Recent advances in Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS) enabled the study of such systems with unprecedented spectral contrast at meV excitation energies. In particular, it has become possible to shed light on the low-energy collective motions in materials whose morphology and phase behavior can easily be manipulated, such as mesogenic systems...
May 26, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547132/retinal-oxygen-extraction-in-individuals-with-type-1-diabetes-with-no-or-mild-diabetic-retinopathy
#5
Klemens Fondi, Piotr A Wozniak, Kinga Howorka, Ahmed M Bata, Gerold C Aschinger, Alina Popa-Cherecheanu, Katarzyna J Witkowska, Anton Hommer, Doreen Schmidl, René M Werkmeister, Gerhard Garhöfer, Leopold Schmetterer
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to compare retinal oxygen extraction in individuals with diabetes with no or mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers. METHODS: A total of 24 participants with type 1 diabetes and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers were included in this cross-sectional study. Retinal oxygen extraction was measured by combining total retinal blood flow measurements using a custom-built bi-directional Doppler optical coherence tomography system with measurements of oxygen saturation using spectroscopic reflectometry...
May 25, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546934/foveal-thickness-reduction-after-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-treatment-in-chronic-diabetic-macular-edema
#6
Gabriel Willmann, Antonio Brunno Nepomuceno, Katharina Messias, Leticia Barroso, Ingrid U Scott, André Messias, Rodrigo Jorge
AIM: To report foveal thickness reduction in eyes with resolution of macular edema and recovery of a foveal depression after one-year of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy for center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: Foveal thickness was assessed with optical coherence tomography to determine the central subfield foveal thickness (CSFT) and macular volume in 42 eyes with DME (CSFT>275 µm). Evaluations also included measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and were performed at baseline, and upon foveal depression recovery achieved after 12 monthly intravitreal injections of either 1...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545680/a-role-for-tropomyosins-in-activity-dependent-bulk-endocytosis
#7
REVIEW
R S Gormal, N Valmas, T Fath, F A Meunier
Bulk endocytosis allows stimulated neurons to take up a large portion of the presynaptic plasma membrane in order to regenerate synaptic vesicle pools. Actin, one of the most abundant proteins in eukaryotic cells, plays an important role in this process, but a detailed mechanistic understanding of the involvement of the cortical actin network is still lacking, in part due to the relatively small size of nerve terminals and the limitation of optical microscopy. We recently discovered that neurosecretory cells display a similar, albeit much larger, form of bulk endocytosis in response to secretagogue stimulation...
May 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545121/measurement-of-macular-structure-function-relationships-using-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-sd-oct-and-pattern-electroretinograms-perg
#8
Keunheung Park, Jinmi Kim, Jiwoong Lee
BACKGROUND: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is a common cause of loss of vision during glaucoma. Pattern electroretinogram (PERG) is an objective measure of the central retinal function that correlates with macular GCL thickness. The aim of this study is to determine possible relationships between the N95 amplitude of pattern electroretinogram (PERGamp) and macular ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPLT). METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a retrospective and comparative study including 74 glaucoma patients (44 early stage and 30 advanced stage cases) and 66 normal control subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544454/flexible-nanowire-cluster-as-a-wearable-colorimetric-humidity-sensor
#9
Zhiqiang Wei, Zhang-Kai Zhou, Qiuyu Li, Jiancai Xue, Andrea Di Falco, Zhongjian Yang, Jianhua Zhou, Xuehua Wang
Wearable plasmonic devices combine the advantages of high flexibility, ultrathinness, light weight, and excellent integration with the optical benefits mediated by plasmon-enhanced electric fields. However, two obstacles severely hinder further developments and applications of a wearable plasmonic device. One is the lack of efficient approach to obtaining devices with robust antimotion-interference property, i.e., the devices can work independently on the morphology changes of their working structures caused by arbitrary wearing conditions...
May 22, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544415/inertial-microfluidic-cell-stretcher-imcs-fully-automated-high-throughput-and-near-real-time-cell-mechanotyping
#10
Yanxiang Deng, Steven P Davis, Fan Yang, Kevin S Paulsen, Maneesh Kumar, Rebecca Sinnott DeVaux, Xianhui Wang, Douglas S Conklin, Assad Oberai, Jason I Herschkowitz, Aram J Chung
Mechanical biomarkers associated with cytoskeletal structures have been reported as powerful label-free cell state identifiers. In order to measure cell mechanical properties, traditional biophysical (e.g., atomic force microscopy, micropipette aspiration, optical stretchers) and microfluidic approaches were mainly employed; however, they critically suffer from low-throughput, low-sensitivity, and/or time-consuming and labor-intensive processes, not allowing techniques to be practically used for cell biology research applications...
May 23, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544131/sclerocorneal-graft-and-sequential-removal-of-melted-cornea-after-severe-corneal-burn-with-perforation
#11
Anja Viestenz, Berthold Seitz, Hans-Gert Struck, Arne Viestenz
INTRODUCTION: Corneal burn grade IV usually leads to blindness. Several different surgical techniques remain challenging owing to the extensive tissue damage. Here, we introduce a novel technique with a 15 mm corneoscleral and limbal homologous graft combined with sequential autologous corneal removal ab interno, with a vitrectomy probe to save the anterior chamber angle. In vivo anatomy with optical coherence tomography is the surgical key. METHOD: A large 15 mm sclerocorneal graft is sutured on top of the remainder of the destroyed cornea and sclera after removal of the epithelium and conjunctiva, with anterior synechiolysis if necessary, peripheral iridectomy and conjunctivoplasty...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543331/integration-of-optical-applicator-with-balloon-catheter-for-photothermal-treatment-of-biliary-stricture
#12
Jinoh Bak, Jieun Hwang, Suhyun Park, Hyun W Kang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bile duct stricture is an uncommon disease in gastroenterology resulting from postoperative trauma. In spite of non-surgical treatments, clinical outcomes for the biliary strictures still encounter high restenosis and stent migration. The objective of the current study was to investigate the feasible application of a balloon catheter-integrated diffing applicator to thermally treat the bile duct stricture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 400-μm optical fibers were micro-machined and then integrated with an inflatable balloon catheter...
May 25, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542311/18f-fdg-pet-ct-based-early-treatment-response-evaluation-of-nanoparticle-assisted-photothermal-cancer-therapy
#13
Kamilla Norregaard, Jesper T Jørgensen, Marina Simón, Fredrik Melander, Lotte K Kristensen, Pól M Bendix, Thomas L Andresen, Lene B Oddershede, Andreas Kjaer
Within the field of nanoparticle-assisted photothermal cancer therapy, focus has mostly been on developing novel heat-generating nanoparticles with the right optical and dimensional properties. Comparison and evaluation of their performance in tumor-bearing animals are commonly assessed by changes in tumor volume; however, this is usually a late-occurring event. This study implements 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography imaging to perform early evaluation of the treatment outcome of photothermal therapy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542084/effects-of-diquafosol-ophthalmic-solution-on-quality-of-life-in-dry-eye-assessed-using-the-dry-eye-related-quality-of-life-score-questionnaire-effectiveness-in-patients-while-reading-and-using-visual-display-terminals
#14
Tsugiaki Utsunomiya, Atsushi Kawahara, Kazuomi Hanada, Akitoshi Yoshida
PURPOSE: Diquafosol ophthalmic solution improves objective findings in the ocular surface and subjective symptoms in patients with dry eye. The Dry Eye-Related Quality-of-Life Score (DEQS) questionnaire was developed to assess dry eye symptoms and their effects on quality of life. However, because little research using the DEQS has been reported, we evaluated the effects of diquafosol ophthalmic solution on ocular surface findings and quality of life using the DEQS in patients with dry eye...
May 23, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542000/ketamine-and-etomidate-down-regulate-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-an-endotoxemic-mouse-model
#15
Emmanuel Besnier, Thomas Clavier, Marie-Christine Tonon, Jean Selim, Antoine Lefevre-Scelles, Fabrice Morin, Fabienne Tamion, Bertrand Dureuil, Hélène Castel, Vincent Compere
BACKGROUND: We compared the effects of etomidate and ketamine on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during sepsis. METHODS: Mice (n = 5/group) were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (10 mg/kg) and 6 h later randomized to receive ketamine (100 mg/kg), etomidate (30 mg/kg), or saline. At two time points (12 and 48 h), messenger RNA levels of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone, pituitary proopiomelanocortin, and four adrenal enzymes (P450 side-chain cleavage, 3β-hydroxysteroid deshydrogenase, 21-hydroxylase, and 11β-hydroxylase) were measured by in situ hybridization (results are presented as optical density), and plasma levels of corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin hormones were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (mean ± SD)...
May 25, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541267/choroidal-melanoma-sector-melanocytosis-and-retinal-pigment-epithelial-microdetachments-in-birt-hogg-dub%C3%A3-syndrome
#16
Charlotte L Marous, Molly R Marous, R Joel Welch, Jerry A Shields, Carol L Shields
PURPOSE: Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHDS) is a rare autosomal dominant condition that can predispose patients to numerous cutaneous fibrofolliculomas and other cutaneous lesions, pulmonary cysts with spontaneous pneumothorax, and multifocal renal tumors and cancer. The genetic mutations responsible for BHDS are related to tumor suppression and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Previous reports of the ocular findings in BHDS include eyelid fibrofolliculomas, "flecked chorioretinopathy," and one report of choroidal melanoma...
May 22, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540967/voxel-resolution-in-the-directed-self-assembly-of-liquid-crystal-polymer-networks-and-elastomers
#17
Benjamin A Kowalski, Vincent P Tondiglia, Tyler Guin, Timothy J White
Monomeric mixtures formulated to prepare a liquid crystal polymer network (LCN) or elastomer (LCE) can be "programmed" by surface alignment to retain complex and arbitrary spatial distributions of the director orientation upon polymerization. The localized control of orientation in a given volume (voxel) within these materials is the subject of intense research, currently motivated by the prospect of distinctive mechanical responses (both active and passive). Here, we report on a rapid and scalable photopatterning method to prepare alignment surfaces with a throughput of 10 mm(2) s(-1), using a commercial spatial light modulator and projection optics...
May 25, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540959/self-assembled-indium-tin-oxide-nanoball-embedded-omnidirectional-reflectors-for-high-photon-extraction-efficiency-in-iii-nitride-ultraviolet-emitters
#18
Semi Oh, Kwang Jae Lee, Sang-Jo Kim, Kab Ha, Jongyeul Jeong, Dongjun Kim, Kyoung-Kook Kim, Seong-Ju Park
The control of the refractive index and electrical conductivity in the dielectric layer of omnidirectional reflectors (ODRs) is essential to improve the low efficiency of AlGaN-based UV emitters. Here, we report self-assembled indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoball-embedded omnidirectional reflectors (NODRs) for use in high-efficiency AlGaN-based UV emitters at 365 nm. These NODRs consisted of a reflective Al layer, a self-assembled conducting ITO nanoball layer for current injection and spreading, and nanovoids that provided a low refractive index to achieve highly efficient UV emitters...
May 25, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540772/management-of-glaucoma-as-a-neurodegenerative-disease
#19
Gurjeet Jutley, Sheila Mh Luk, Mohammad H Dehabadi, M Francesca Cordeiro
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease with an estimated prevalence of 60 million people, and the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The mainstay of treatment has been aimed at lowering intraocular pressure, currently the only modifiable risk factor. Unfortunately, despite adequate pressure control, many patients go on to suffer irreversible visual loss. We first briefly examine currently established intraocular pressure lowering-treatments, with a discussion of their roles in neuroprotection as demonstrated by both animal and clinical studies...
April 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540717/imaging-laser-triggered-drug-release-from-gold-nanocages-with-transient-absorption-lifetime-microscopy-talm
#20
Yongkui Xu, Qi Liu, Ruoyu He, Xianchong Miao, Minbiao Ji
Nanoparticles have shown promise in loading and delivering drugs for targeted therapy. Many progresses have been made in the design, synthesis and modification of nanoparticles to fulfill such goals. However, realizing targeted intracellular delivery and controlled release of drugs remain challenging, partly due to the lack of reliable tools to detect the drug releasing process. In this paper, we applied femtosecond laser pulses to trigger the explosion of gold nanocages (AuNCs) and controlled the intracellular release of loaded AlPcS molecules for photodynamic therapy (PDT)...
May 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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