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Optical control

N G Fischer, A Tsujimoto, A G Baruth
OBJECTIVE: Limited information is available on how to polish and finish zirconia surfaces following computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), specifically, how differing application forces and reuse of zirconia polishing systems affect zirconia topography. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of differing, clinically relevant, polishing application forces and multiple usages of polishing burs on the surface topography of CAD/CAM zirconia. METHODS: One hundred twenty 220-grit carbide finished zirconia disks were sintered according to manufacturer's directions and divided into two groups for the study of two coarse polishing bur types...
March 16, 2018: Operative Dentistry
Fei Li, Zhiguo Xia, Caofeng Pan, Yue Gong, Lin Gu, Quanlin Liu, Jin Z Zhang
The unification of tunable band edge (BE) emission and strong Mn2+ doping luminescence in all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) CsPbX3 (X = Cl and Br) is of fundamental importance in fine tuning their optical properties. Herein, we demonstrate that, benefiting from the differentiation of the cation/anion exchange rate, ZnBr2 and preformed CsPb1-xCl3:xMn NCs can be used to obtain high Br content Cs(Pb1-x-zZnz)(ClyBr1-y)3:xMn2+ perovskite NCs with strong Mn2+ emission, and Mn2+ substitution ratio can reach about 22%...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cary Presser, Ashot Nazarian, Amit Millo
Thermochemical characteristics were determined for several National Institute of Standards and Technology standard-reference-material petroleum and biodiesel fuels, using a novel laser-heating calorimetry technique. Measurements focused on the sample thermal behavior, specific heat release rate, and total specific heat release. The experimental apparatus consists of a copper sphere-shaped reactor mounted within a chamber, along with laser-beam-steering optical components, gas-supply manifold, and a computer-controlled data-acquisition system...
February 2018: Fuel
Morgane Dolhen, Masayuki Tanaka, Vincent Couderc, Sébastien Chenu, Gaëlle Delaizir, Tomokatsu Hayakawa, Julie Cornette, François Brisset, Maggy Colas, Philippe Thomas, Jean-René Duclère
We report on the laser emission of the polycrystalline ceramic obtained from the full and congruent crystallization of the parent glass 1Nd3+ :75TeO2 -12.5Bi2 O3 -12.5Nb2 O5 composition. In particular, the current work underlines the importance of carefully controlling the heat treatment in order to solely crystallize the Bi0.8 Nb0.8 Te2.4 O8 cubic phase and consequently avoid the formation of the BiNbTe2 O8 orthorhombic phase that would be detrimental for optical purpose. The structure, microstructure and photoluminescence properties of the resulting transparent tellurite ceramics are characterized...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
K Soelberg, A C Nilsson, C Nielsen, S Jarius, M Reindl, B Wildemann, S T Lillevang, N Asgari
BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammatory optic neuropathy, where the genetic and autoimmune dependency remains poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: To investigate autoimmune and immunogenetic aspects of ON. METHOD: In a prospective population-based cohort 51 patients with ON were included. At follow up 20 patients had progressed to multiple sclerosis (MS-ON). All patients were screened for neuronal and systemic autoantibodies. HLA genotypes and allele and genotype frequencies of the PTPN22 C1858T and the PD-1...
March 7, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Tanya Moutray, Jennifer R Evans, Noemi Lois, David J Armstrong, Tunde Peto, Augusto Azuara-Blanco
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature associated with prolonged hyperglycaemia. Proliferative DR (PDR) is a sight-threatening complication of DR and is characterised by the development of abnormal new vessels in the retina, optic nerve head or anterior segment of the eye. Argon laser photocoagulation has been the gold standard for the treatment of PDR for many years, using regimens evaluated by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS)...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ting Wang, Muchen Dong, Yin Jiang, Shuting Wang, Weiyun Shi
PURPOSE: To observe the pathological changes in dendritic cells (DCs) and inflammatory cells in the corneal epithelium and endothelium using in vivo confocal microscopy during the management of herpetic endotheliitis. METHODS: A total of 110 eyes with herpetic endotheliitis were included. All patients were treated with antiviral agents combined with glucocorticoids. Changes in corneal edema were observed using slit-lamp microscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography...
March 14, 2018: Cornea
Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Alessandro Arrigo, Robert E MacLaren, Emanuela Aragona, Lisa Toto, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Maria Pia Manitto, Francesco Bandello
PURPOSE: Choroideremia is a rare degenerative retinal disease that causes incurable blindness. It occurs as a result of the deficiency of the X-linked CHM gene, which encodes the Rab escort protein 1 (REP1). Gene therapy has been developed to treat CHM using adeno-associated viral vectors and is currently undergoing clinical trials. Expression of the CHM gene is ubiquitous throughout the retina, and it is therefore important to identify which retinal layers are affected in the disease process...
March 14, 2018: Retina
Akshay S Thomas, Angel L Hatef, Sandra S Stinnett, Robert T Keenan, Glenn J Jaffe
PURPOSE: In this study, we hypothesized that thickening along the major arcade vessels is a noninvasive marker of inflammation in eyes with birdshot retinochoroiditis (BRC). METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study, patients with BRC were identified. Perivascular thickening was categorized as mild, moderate, or severe, based on a set of standard reference retinal thickness maps derived from representative spectral domain optical coherence tomography volume scans...
March 14, 2018: Retina
Cristina Rodríguez-Seco, Lydia Cabau, Anton Vidal-Ferran, Emilio Palomares
Over hundreds of new organic semiconductor molecules have been synthesized as hole transport materials (HTMs) for perovskite solar cells. However, to date, the well-known N2 , N2 , N2' , N2' , N7 , N7 , N7' , octakis-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9,9-spirobi-[9,9'-spirobi[9 H-fluorene]-2,2',7,7'-tetramine (spiro-OMeTAD) is still the best choice for the best perovskite device performance. Nevertheless, there is a consensus that spiro-OMeTAD by itself is not stable enough for long-term stable devices, and its market price makes its use in large-scale production costly...
March 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Guoxuan Zhu, Yuanhui Wen, Xiong Wu, Yujie Chen, Jie Liu, Siyuan Yu
A high speed free-space optical communication system capable of self-bending signal transmission around line-of-sight obstacles is proposed and demonstrated. Airy beams are generated and controlled to achieve different propagating trajectories, and the signal transmission characteristics of these beams around the obstacle are investigated. Our results confirm that, by optimizing their ballistic trajectories, Airy beams are able to bypass obstacles with more signal energy and thus improve the communication performance compared with normal Gaussian beams...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Michael Kolano, Benedict Gräf, Stefan Weber, Daniel Molter, Georg von Freymann
We demonstrate a polarization-multiplexed, single-laser system for terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy without an external delay line. The fiber laser emits two pulse trains with independently adjustable repetition rates, utilizing only one laser-active section and one pump diode. With a standard fiber-coupled THz setup and a polarization-multiplexed optical amplifier, we are able to measure transients with a spectral bandwidth of 1.5 THz and a dynamic range of 50 dB in a measurement time of 1 s. Based on the novel laser architecture, we call this new approach single-laser polarization-controlled optical sampling, or SLAPCOPS...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
N P Pashtaev, N A Pozdeeva, V V Zotov, M V Sinitsyn, M A Shcheglova
AIM: to conduct a comparative experimental study of the effect of the use of intracorneal implants during femtosecond laser-assisted intrastromal pocket (IP) and intrastromal tunnel (IT) formation on the strength properties of the cornea. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The experimental study was performed on 24 corneas of 12 rabbit eyes enucleated 1 month after slaughtering. All eyes were divided into 6 groups according to the method of operation. IP and IT were created with IntraLase FS 60 kHz femtolaser...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Myungho Lee, Gerd Bruder, Tobias Hollerer, Greg Welch
In this paper, we investigate factors and issues related to human locomotion behavior and proxemics in the presence of a real or virtual human in augmented reality (AR). First, we discuss a unique issue with current-state optical see-through head-mounted displays, namely the mismatch between a small augmented visual field and a large unaugmented periphery, and its potential impact on locomotion behavior in close proximity of virtual content. We discuss a potential simple solution based on restricting the field of view to the central region, and we present the results of a controlled human-subject study...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Xiaoou Zhang, Wen-Yu Shan, Di Xiao
We show that the exciton optical selection rule in gapped chiral fermion systems is governed by their winding number w, a topological quantity of the Bloch bands. Specifically, in a C_{N}-invariant chiral fermion system, the angular momentum of bright exciton states is given by w±1+nN with n being an integer. We demonstrate our theory by proposing two chiral fermion systems capable of hosting dark s-like excitons: gapped surface states of a topological crystalline insulator with C_{4} rotational symmetry and biased 3R-stacked MoS_{2} bilayers...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Yan Zhan, Yingliang Liu, Hongru Zu, Yanxian Guo, Shuangshuang Wu, Haiyao Yang, Zhiming Liu, Bingfu Lei, Jianle Zhuang, Xuejie Zhang, Di Huang, Chaofan Hu
Different from their bulk counterparts, plasmonic molybdenum oxide nanomaterials display superior optical and electronic properties, but unfortunately, phase-controlled synthesis of molybdenum oxide nanomaterials with multifunctional performances still remains a challenge. To actualize this, a surfactant-free solvothermal strategy was proposed to fabricate molybdenum oxide nanomaterials with a tunable phase. Encouragingly, the as-prepared molybdenum dioxide nanoparticles (MoO2 NPs) exhibit intense near-infrared (NIR) absorption attributed to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect, which results in their application as a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to detect trace amounts of molecular species including Rhodamine 6G (R6G), crystal violet (CV), IR-780 iodide (IR780) and methylene blue (MB)...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Shi-Hao Zhang, Bang-Gui Liu
We propose through first-principles investigation that the GaTeCl monolayer is an excellent two-dimensional (2D) multiferroic with giant mechanical anisotropy. The calculated phonon spectrum, molecular dynamic simulations, and elastic moduli confirm its dynamic and mechanical stability, and our cleavage energy analysis shows that exfoliating one GaTeCl monolayer from the existing GaTeCl bulk is feasible. The calculated in-plane ferroelectric polarization reaches 578 pC m-1 . The energy barriers per formula unit of the ferroelastic 90° rotational and ferroelectric reversal transitions are 476 meV and 754 meV, respectively, being the greatest in the 2D multiferroics family so far...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Jinzhao Song, Vikram Pandian, Michael G Mauk, Haim H Bau, Sara Cherry, Laurence C Tisi, Changchun Liu
Rapid and quantitative molecular diagnostics in the field, at home, and at remote clinics is essential for evidence-based disease management, control, and prevention. Conventional molecular diagnostics requires extensive sample preparation, complex instruments, and skilled personnel, restricting its use to centralized laboratories. To overcome these limitations, we designed a simple, inexpensive, hand-held, smartphone-based mobile detection platform, dubbed "smart-connected cup" (SCC), for rapid, connected and quantitative molecular diagnostics...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Qinjun Sun, Shaolong Zhou, Xiaolei Shi, Xiaochun Wang, Liyan Gao, Zhanfeng Li, Yuying Hao
CuO nanowires (NWs) with the diameters ranging from 130 to 275 nm have been successfully prepared by electrospinning and calcination technique, followed by a calcination process. Inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with the structure of ITO/CuO NWs/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3/PCBM/Bphen/Ag were designed, achieving a best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.87% , which is 21% improvement compared with that of the control PSCs without CuO NWs. By the characterizations of optical microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), it is found that CuO NWs have uniform morphology and orderly arrangement...
March 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhikai Zhao, Ran Liu, Dirk Mayer, Maristella Coppola, Lu Sun, Youngsang Kim, Chuankui Wang, Lifa Ni, Xing Chen, Maoning Wang, Zongliang Li, Takhee Lee, Dong Xiang
A straightforward method to generate both atomic-scale sharp and atomic-scale planar electrodes is reported. The atomic-scale sharp electrodes are generated by precisely stretching a suspended nanowire, while the atomic-scale planar electrodes are obtained via mechanically controllable interelectrodes compression followed by a thermal-driven atom migration process. Notably, the gap size between the electrodes can be precisely controlled at subangstrom accuracy with this method. These two types of electrodes are subsequently employed to investigate the properties of single molecular junctions...
March 15, 2018: Small
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