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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340410/development-of-fusogenic-glass-surfaces-that-impart-spatiotemporal-control-over-macrophage-fusion-direct-visualization-of-multinucleated-giant-cell-formation
#1
James J Faust, Wayne Christenson, Kyle Doudrick, Robert Ros, Tatiana P Ugarova
Implantation of synthetic material, including vascular grafts, pacemakers, etc. results in the foreign body reaction and the formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) at the exterior surface of the implant. Despite the long-standing premise that fusion of mononucleated macrophages results in the formation of MGCs, to date, no published study has shown fusion in context with living specimens. This is due to the fact that optical-quality glass, which is required for the majority of live imaging techniques, does not promote macrophage fusion...
March 2, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339615/viable-offspring-after-imaging-of-ca2-oscillations-and-visualization-of-the-cortical-reaction-in-mouse-eggs%C3%A2
#2
Yuhkoh Satouh, Kaori Nozawa, Kazuo Yamagata, Takao Fujimoto, Masahito Ikawa
During mammalian fertilization, egg Ca 2+ oscillations are known to play pivotal roles in triggering downstream events such as resumption of the cell cycle and the establishment of blocks to polyspermy. However, viable offspring have not been obtained after monitoring Ca 2+ oscillations, and their spatiotemporal links to subsequent events are still to be examined. Therefore, the development of imaging methods to avoid phototoxic damage while labeling these events is required. Here, we examined the usefulness of genetically encoded Ca 2+ indicators for optical imaging (GECOs), in combination with spinning-disk confocal imaging...
February 3, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339252/helical-floquet-channels-in-1d-lattices
#3
Jan Carl Budich, Ying Hu, Peter Zoller
We show how dispersionless channels exhibiting perfect spin-momentum locking can arise in a 1D lattice model. While such spectra are forbidden by fermion doubling in static 1D systems, here we demonstrate their appearance in the stroboscopic dynamics of a periodically driven system. Remarkably, this phenomenon does not rely on any adiabatic assumptions, in contrast to the well known Thouless pump and related models of adiabatic spin pumps. The proposed setup is shown to be experimentally feasible with state-of-the-art techniques used to control ultracold alkaline earth atoms in optical lattices...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339244/terahertz-field-induced-large-macroscopic-polarization-and-domain-wall-dynamics-in-an-organic-molecular-dielectric
#4
T Morimoto, T Miyamoto, H Yamakawa, T Terashige, T Ono, N Kida, H Okamoto
A rapid polarization control in paraelectric materials is important for an ultrafast optical switching useful in the future optical communication. In this study, we applied terahertz-pump second-harmonic-generation-probe and optical-reflectivity-probe spectroscopies to the paraelectric neutral phase of an organic molecular dielectric, tetrathiafulvalene-p-chloranil and revealed that a terahertz pulse with the electric-field amplitude of ∼400  kV/cm produces in the subpicosecond time scale a large macroscopic polarization whose magnitude reaches ∼20% of that in the ferroelectric ionic phase...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339224/optical-manipulation-of-a-magnon-photon-hybrid-system
#5
C Braggio, G Carugno, M Guarise, A Ortolan, G Ruoso
We demonstrate an all-optical method for manipulating the magnetization in a 1-mm yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) sphere placed in a ∼0.17  T uniform magnetic field. A harmonic of the frequency comb delivered by a multi-GHz infrared laser source is tuned to the Larmor frequency of the YIG sphere to drive magnetization oscillations, which in turn give rise to a radiation field used to thoroughly investigate the phenomenon. The radiation damping issue that occurs at high frequency and in the presence of highly magnetizated materials has been overcome by exploiting the magnon-photon strong coupling regime in microwave cavities...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339057/gpr143-mutations-in-chinese-patients-with-ocular-albinism-type-1
#6
Xiuhua Jia, Jin Yuan, Xiaoyun Jia, Shiqi Ling, Shiqiang Li, Xiangming Guo
The aim of the present study was to evaluate mutations of the G protein-coupled receptor 143 (GPR143) gene for ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) in Chinese patients. For the current study, 8 patients with OA1 were selected from the database of ocular genetic diseases. Genomic DNA of OA1 was prepared from venous leukocytes collected from the patients. Cycle sequencing was used to analyze the exons and adjacent introns of GPR143. The variation detected was analyzed by bidirectional DNA sequencing and further evaluated in 96 controls using heteroduplex‑single strand conformational polymorphism analysis...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338556/adult-onset-foveomacular-vitelliform-dystrophy-evaluated-by-means-of-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-a-comparison-with-dry-age-related-macular-degeneration-and-healthy-eyes
#7
Lisa Toto, Enrico Borrelli, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Luca Di Antonio, Peter A Mattei, Paolo Carpineto, Leonardo Mastropasqua
PURPOSE: To investigate alterations of superficial and deep retinal vascular densities, as well as of choroidal thickness, in patients affected by adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD). METHODS: A total of 22 eyes (15 patients) affected by AOFVD were recruited in the study. Furthermore, 20 eyes of 20 healthy subjects and 20 eyes of 18 patients affected by intermediate dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were enrolled. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including optical coherence tomography angiography...
March 23, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338439/stereotactic-radiosurgery-in-the-treatment-of-parasellar-meningiomas-long-term-volumetric-evaluation
#8
Or Cohen-Inbar, Athreya Tata, Shayan Moosa, Cheng-Chia Lee, Jason P Sheehan
OBJECTIVE Parasellar meningiomas tend to invade the suprasellar, cavernous sinus, and petroclival regions, encroaching on adjacent neurovascular structures. As such, they prove difficult to safely and completely resect. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has played a central role in the treatment of parasellar meningiomas. Evaluation of tumor control rates at this location using simplified single-dimension measurements may prove misleading. The authors report the influence of SRS treatment parameters and the timing and volumetric changes of benign WHO Grade I parasellar meningiomas after SRS on long-term outcome...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336962/optomechanically-induced-transparency-of-x-rays-via-optical-control
#9
Wen-Te Liao, Adriana Pálffy
The search for new control methods over light-matter interactions is one of the engines that advances fundamental physics and applied science alike. A specific class of light-matter interaction interfaces are setups coupling photons of distinct frequencies via matter. Such devices, nontrivial in design, could be endowed with multifunctional tasking. Here we envisage for the first time an optomechanical system that bridges optical and robust, high-frequency x-ray photons, which are otherwise notoriously difficult to control...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336281/-optic-disc-changes-by-optical-coherence-tomography-in-optic-disc-edema-in-lom%C3%A3
#10
M A K Santos, K Vonor, D K Ayena, K R Kuaovi, K P Balo
OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of optic disc edema (ODE) on the dimensions of the disc and the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in Lomé. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study which took place in a general ophthalmology office in the city. Twenty-six eyes were examined for ODE (cases) between January 2013 and May 2015, and 26 healthy eyes (control group) were considered in this study. The control group was recruited taking age into account with a variation not exceeding 5 years compared to the ODE cases...
March 20, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335862/modeling-infectious-diseases-in-the-context-of-a-developing-immune-system
#11
Samrah Masud, Vincenzo Torraca, Annemarie H Meijer
Zebrafish has been used for over a decade to study the mechanisms of a wide variety of inflammatory disorders and infections, with models ranging from bacterial, viral, to fungal pathogens. Zebrafish has been especially relevant to study the differentiation, specialization, and polarization of the two main innate immune cell types, the macrophages and the neutrophils. The optical accessibility and the early appearance of myeloid cells that can be tracked with fluorescent labels in zebrafish embryos and the ability to use genetics to selectively ablate or expand immune cell populations have permitted studying the interaction between infection, development, and metabolism...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335747/effects-of-diurnal-lighting-and-angle-of-incidence-variation-on-anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography-as-oct-angle-metrics
#12
Handan Akil, Anna Dastiridou, Kenneth Marion, Brian A Francis, Vikas Chopra
BACKGROUND: First reported study to assess the effect of diurnal variation on anterior chamber angle measurements, as well as, to re-test the effects of lighting and angle-of-incidence variation on anterior chamber angle (ACA) measurements acquired by time-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). METHODS: A total of 30 eyes from 15 healthy, normal subjects underwent anterior chamber imaging using a Visante time-domain AS-OCT according to an IRB-approved protocol...
March 23, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335619/over-expression-of-the-x-linked-inhibitor-of-apoptosis-protects-against-retinal-degeneration-in-a-feline-model-of-retinal-detachment
#13
Sarah Wassmer, Brian Leonard, Stuart Coupland, Adam Baker, John Hamilton, William W Hauswirth, Catherine Tsilfidis
Retinal detachment is an acute disorder in humans that is caused by trauma or disease, and it can often lead to permanent visual deficits that result from the death of photoreceptors in the retina. The final pathway for photoreceptor cell death is apoptosis and necroptosis. The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) has been shown to block both of these cell death pathways. We tested the effects of XIAP on photoreceptor survival in a feline model of retinal detachment. The study was performed in 12 cats, divided into 2 experimental groups...
March 23, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335321/two-dimensional-semiconductor-optoelectronics-based-on-van-der-waals-heterostructures
#14
REVIEW
Jae Yoon Lee, Jun-Hwan Shin, Gwan-Hyoung Lee, Chul-Ho Lee
Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and black phosphorous have drawn tremendous attention as an emerging optical material due to their unique and remarkable optical properties. In addition, the ability to create the atomically-controlled van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures enables realizing novel optoelectronic devices that are distinct from conventional bulk counterparts. In this short review, we first present the atomic and electronic structures of 2D semiconducting TMDCs and their exceptional optical properties, and further discuss the fabrication and distinctive features of vdW heterostructures assembled from different kinds of 2D materials with various physical properties...
October 27, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335278/recent-prospects-in-the-inline-monitoring-of-nanocomposites-and-nanocoatings-by-optical-technologies
#15
REVIEW
Elodie Bugnicourt, Timothy Kehoe, Marcos Latorre, Cristina Serrano, Séverine Philippe, Markus Schmid
Nanostructured materials have emerged as a key research field in order to confer materials with unique or enhanced properties. The performance of nanocomposites depends on a number of parameters, but the suitable dispersion of nanoparticles remains the key in order to obtain the full nanocomposites' potential in terms of, e.g., flame retardance, mechanical, barrier, thermal properties, etc. Likewise, the performance of nanocoatings to obtain, for example, tailored surface affinity with selected liquids (e.g...
August 19, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335236/complex-morphology-metal-based-nanostructures-fabrication-characterization-and-applications
#16
REVIEW
Antonella Gentile, Francesco Ruffino, Maria Grazia Grimaldi
Due to their peculiar qualities, metal-based nanostructures have been extensively used in applications such as catalysis, electronics, photography, and information storage, among others. New applications for metals in areas such as photonics, sensing, imaging, and medicine are also being developed. Significantly, most of these applications require the use of metals in the form of nanostructures with specific controlled properties. The properties of nanoscale metals are determined by a set of physical parameters that include size, shape, composition, and structure...
June 6, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335216/investigation-of-the-structural-electrical-and-optical-properties-of-the-nano-scale-gzo-thin-films-on-glass-and-flexible-polyimide-substrates
#17
Fang-Hsing Wang, Kun-Neng Chen, Chao-Ming Hsu, Min-Chu Liu, Cheng-Fu Yang
In this study, Ga₂O₃-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films were deposited on glass and flexible polyimide (PI) substrates at room temperature (300 K), 373 K, and 473 K by the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. After finding the deposition rate, all the GZO thin films with a nano-scale thickness of about 150 ± 10 nm were controlled by the deposition time. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the GZO thin films were not amorphous and all exhibited the (002) peak, and field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that only nano-scale particles were observed...
May 10, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334692/sers-active-liposome-ag-au-nanocomposite-for-nir-light-driven-drug-release
#18
Yangyang Zhao, Jing Zhao, Guiye Shan, Dongmei Yan, Yanwei Chen, Yichun Liu
It is important to control drug release and detect the distribution of drug molecules before and after release. In this work, liposome@AgAu nanocomposite is prepared for drug delivery, which not only can control drug release by near infrared laser irradiation but also can monitor drug molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence signal during the release process. The liposome@AgAu core/shell nanocomposite prepared by the galvanic replacement reaction (GRR) shows tunable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peaks from visible to near-infrared region and good biocompatibility...
March 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334689/design-characterization-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-linalool-loaded-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-as-potent-tool-in-cancer-therapy
#19
Boris Rodenak-Kladniew, German A Islan, Margarita G de Bravo, Nelson Durán, Guillermo R Castro
Linalool (LN) is a monoterpene found in essential oils of plants and herbs that produces multiple effects on the mevalonate pathway and interesting antiproliferative activity in cancer cells. However, due to its poor aqueous solubility, an efficient vehicle is needed to improve its administration and bioavailability in physiological media. LN encapsulation in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) with different compositions was explored and in vitro tested in two cancer cell lines. SLN of myristyl myristate (MM), cetyl esters (SS) and cetyl palmitate (CP) were prepared by sonication in the presence of Pluronic(®)F68 as surfactant...
March 9, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334509/disturbed-testicular-expression-of-the-estrogen-metabolizing-enzymes-cyp1a1-and-comt-in-infertile-men-with-primary-spermatogenic-failure-possible-negative-implications-on-sertoli-cells
#20
A Parada-Bustamante, C Molina, C Valencia, M Flórez, M C Lardone, F Argandoña, A Piottante, M Ebensperguer, P A Orihuela, A Castro
Estradiol (E2 ) is normally metabolized to hydroxyestradiols and methoxyestradiols by CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT. However, an altered production of these metabolites by a disturbed expression of these enzymes is associated with reproductive and non-reproductive pathologies. In vitro studies suggest that increased hydroxyestradiols and methoxyestradiols intratesticular generation is related to male infertility, but no studies have explored whether infertile men have a disturbed testicular expression of the enzymes that generate these E2 metabolites...
March 23, 2017: Andrology
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