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Optical control

Abdulkadir Tunç, Belma Doğan Güngen, Ferhat Evliyaoğlu, Yeşim Güzey Aras, Aysel Kaya Tekeşin
The aim of this study was to investigate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness, macular changes (central subfield thickness (CST), cube average thickness (CAT), cube volume (CV) in patients with migraine using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to assess if there was any correlation with white matter lesions (WML). In this prospective case-control study, RNFL, GCL thickness and macular changes of 19 migraine patients with aura (MA), 41 migraine without aura (MO) and 60 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were measured using OCT device...
October 21, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Xinbo Gao, Wenbin Huang, Wei Wang, Minwen Zhou, Jiawei Wang, Shaolin Du, Shida Chen, Xiulan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To characterize and compare the topographic profile of choroid in eyes after acute primary angle-closure (APAC) and in normal controls. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective observational study was conducted. Forty-four consecutive patients who had experienced unilateral APAC that was resolved by treatment were recruited. Seventy age- and sex-matched normal individuals were recruited as controls. METHODS: Enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography was used to measure choroidal thickness (CT) in 9 diffuse locations of macular region...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Søren Ulstrup, Jyoti Katoch, Roland J Koch, Daniel Schwarz, Simranjeet Singh, Kathleen M McCreary, Hyang Keun Yoo, Jinsong Xu, Berend T Jonker, Roland K Kawakami, Aaron Bostwick, Eli Rotenberg, Chris Jozwiak
There is a substantial interest in the heterostructures of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) amongst each other or with arbitrary materials, through which the control of the chemical, structural, electronic, spintronic, and optical properties can lead to a change in device paradigms. A critical need is to understand the interface between TMDCs and insulating substrates, for example high-κ dielectrics, which can strongly impact the electronic properties such as the optical gap. Here we show that the chemical and electronic properties of the single-layer (SL) TMDC, WS2, can be transferred onto high-κ transition metal oxide substrates TiO2 and SrTiO3...
October 21, 2016: ACS Nano
Anthony E Felder, Justin Wanek, Norman P Blair, Charlotte E Joslin, Katherine C Brewer, Felix Y Chau, Jennifer I Lim, Yannek I Leiderman, Mahnaz Shahidi
Purpose: We determined the effects of light flicker and diabetic retinopathy (DR) stage on retinal vascular diameter (D), oxygen saturation (SO2), and inner retinal oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). Methods: Subjects were categorized as nondiabetic control (NC, n = 42), diabetic with no clinical DR (NDR; n = 32), nonproliferative DR (NPDR; n = 42), or proliferative DR (PDR; n = 14). Our customized optical imaging system simultaneously measured arterial and venous D (DA, DV) and SO2 (SO2A, SO2V) before and during light flicker...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Swarupa Kancherla, William J Kohler, Yolandi van der Merwe, Kevin C Chan
Visual function has been shown to deteriorate prior to the onset of retinopathy in some diabetic patients and experimental animal models. This suggests the involvement of the brain's visual system in the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by examining the integrity of the visual pathway in a diabetic rat model using in vivo multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an experimental diabetic group by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in 0...
2016: PloS One
Takeshi Suzuki, Rohan Singh, Manfred Bayer, Arne Ludwig, Andreas D Wieck, Steven T Cundiff
Coherent control of a strongly inhomogeneously broadened system, namely, InAs self-assembled quantum dots, is demonstrated. To circumvent the deleterious effects of the inhomogeneous broadening, which usually masks the results of coherent manipulation, we use prepulse two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to provide a size-selective readout of the ground, exciton, and biexciton states. The dependence on the timing of the prepulse is due to the dynamics of the coherently generated populations. To further validate the results, we performed prepulse polarization dependent measurements and confirmed the behavior expected from selection rules...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
R Stannarius, K Harth
Disclinations in liquid crystals bear striking analogies to defect structures in a wide variety of physical systems, and their straightforward optical observability makes them excellent models to study fundamental properties of defect interactions. We employ freely suspended smectic-C films, which behave as quasi-two-dimensional polar nematics. A procedure to capture high-strength disclinations in localized spots is introduced. These disclinations are released in a controlled way, and the motion of the mutually repelling topological charges with strength +1 is studied quantitatively...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Guanchao Yin, Min Song, Shengkai Duan, Phillip Manley, Dieter Greiner, Christian A Kaufmann, Martina Schmid
Ultrathin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells pose challenges of incomplete absorption and back contact recombination. In this work, we applied the simple collodial nanosphere lithography and fabricated 2D SiO2 nanomeshes (NMs), which simultaneously benefit ultrathin CIGSe solar cells electrically and optically. Electrically, the NMs are capable of passivating the back contact recombination, and increasing the minimum bandgap of absorbers. Optically, the parasitic absorption in Mo as a main optical loss is reduced...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Szu-I Yeh, Wei-Feng Fang, Chao-Jyun Huang, Tzu-Ming Wang, Jing-Tang Yang
A simple and visual method to detect multi-nucleotide polymorphism (MNP) was performed on a pneumatic droplet manipulation platform on an open surface. This approach to colorimetric DNA detection was based on the hybridization-mediated growth of gold nanoparticle probes (AuNP probes). The growth size and configuration of the AuNP are dominated by the number of DNA samples hybridized with the probes. Based on the specific size- and shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles, the number of mismatches in a sample DNA fragment to the probes is able to be discriminated...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Gaigai Yu, Hiroyuki Onodera, Yuki Aono, Fuun Kawano, Yoshibumi Ueda, Akihiro Furuya, Hideyuki Suzuki, Moritoshi Sato
Alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gα) are involved in a variety of cellular functions. Here we report an optogenetic strategy to spatially and temporally manipulate Gα in living cells. More specifically, we applied the blue light-induced dimerization system, known as the Magnet system, and an alternative red light-induced dimerization system consisting of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochrome B (PhyB) and phytochrome-interacting factor 6 (PIF6) to optically control the activation of two different classes of Gα (Gαq and Gαs)...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Li, H E Muñoz, A Schmidt, B Guo, C Lei, K Goda, D Di Carlo
Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis) has recently been attracting attention as a potential renewable source for the production of biofuels, livestock feed, cosmetics, and dietary supplements. Research has focused on strain isolation, productivity improvement, nutrient and resource allocation, and co-product production, key steps that ultimately determine the economic viability and compatibility of the biomass produced. To achieve these characteristics, approaches to select E. gracilis mutants with desirable properties, such as high wax ester content, high growth rate, and high environmental tolerance for biodiesel and biomass production, are needed...
October 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Doğu Ömür Dede, Gözlem Ceylan, Burak Yilmaz
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Resin cements are available in various shades from different manufacturers. However, there is no standard for the optical properties of these cements, which may result in differences in the color of translucent ceramic restorations. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different shades and brands of resin cements on the color of a lithium disilicate ceramic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten ceramic disks (11×1...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Fahima Syeda, Andrew P Holmes, Ting Y Yu, Samantha Tull, Stefan Michael Kuhlmann, Davor Pavlovic, Daniel Betney, Genna Riley, Jan P Kucera, Florian Jousset, Joris R de Groot, Stephan Rohr, Nigel A Brown, Larissa Fabritz, Paulus Kirchhof
BACKGROUND: Antiarrhythmic drugs are widely used to treat patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the mechanisms conveying their variable effectiveness are not known. Recent data suggested that paired like homeodomain-2 transcription factor (PITX2) might play an important role in regulating gene expression and electrical function of the adult left atrium (LA). OBJECTIVES: After determining LA PITX2 expression in AF patients requiring rhythm control therapy, the authors assessed the effects of Pitx2c on LA electrophysiology and the effect of antiarrhythmic drugs...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Xuemin Cheng, Yikang Yang, Qun Hao
The thermal environment is an important factor in the design of optical systems. This study investigated the thermal analysis technology of optical systems for navigation guidance and control in supersonic aircraft by developing empirical equations for the front temperature gradient and rear thermal diffusion distance, and for basic factors such as flying parameters and the structure of the optical system. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to study the relationship between flying and front dome parameters and the system temperature field...
October 17, 2016: Sensors
Cherie Walker, Peter Sinclair, Kenneth Graham, Stephen Cobley
Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) may offer an ecologically valid, reliable, and practical method for biomechanical performance analysis. With such potential in mind, Part 1 of this study examined the accuracy of IMUs gyroscopes with an optical system (Cortex 3.3). A calibration formula standardised the IMUs angular velocity output with the optical system. The percentage differences between the two measures = 0.5% (p < 0.05), suggest IMU's efficacy for application. In Part 2, the aim was to examine and understand how dive flight angular velocity time series plots change and increase according to dive degree of difficulty...
October 20, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
M Garg, M Zhan, T T Luu, H Lakhotia, T Klostermann, A Guggenmos, E Goulielmakis
The frequency of electric currents associated with charge carriers moving in the electronic bands of solids determines the speed limit of electronics and thereby that of information and signal processing. The use of light fields to drive electrons promises access to vastly higher frequencies than conventionally used, as electric currents can be induced and manipulated on timescales faster than that of the quantum dephasing of charge carriers in solids. This forms the basis of terahertz (10(12) hertz) electronics in artificial superlattices, and has enabled light-based switches and sampling of currents extending in frequency up to a few hundred terahertz...
October 19, 2016: Nature
Zhancheng Li, Wenwei Liu, Hua Cheng, Jieying Liu, Shuqi Chen, Jianguo Tian
Optical metasurfaces consisting of single-layer nanostructures have immensely promising applications in wavefront control because they can be used to arbitrarily manipulate wave phase, and polarization. However, anomalous refraction and reflection waves have not yet been simultaneously and asymmetrically generated, and the limited efficiency and bandwidth of pre-existing single-layer metasurfaces hinder their practical applications. Here, a few-layer anisotropic metasurface is presented for simultaneously generating high-efficiency broadband asymmetric anomalous refraction and reflection waves...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
David S Freedman, Joseph B Schroeder, Gregory I Telian, Zhengyang Zhang, Smrithi Sunil, Jason T Ritt
OBJECTIVE: Behavioral neuroscience studies in freely moving rodents require small, light-weight implants to facilitate neural recording and stimulation. Our goal was to develop an integrated package of 3D printed parts and assembly aids for labs to rapidly fabricate, with minimal training, an implant that combines individually positionable microelectrodes, an optical fiber, zero insertion force (ZIF-clip) headstage connection, and secondary recording electrodes, e.g. for electromyography (EMG)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Matthias Lehmann, Philipp Maier, Matthias Grüne, Markus Hügel
The molecular design of crowded hexasubstituted star mesogens based on a benzene core and alternating substitution with oligo(phenylenevinylene) arms and aryl units generates free space between the conjugated arm scaffolds. Various arylcarboxy building blocks, decorated with alkoxy chains have been incorporated in the void by mixing, hydrogen bonding or covalent bonds to the aryl groups. The mesogens assemble in columnar stacks ranging from soft crystals to rectangular and hexagonal columnar liquid crystals, revealed by polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray scattering and modelling...
October 20, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Zixin Yong, Po-Jang Hsieh, Dan Milea
Acquired auditory-visual synesthesia (AVS) is a rare neurological sign, in which specific auditory stimulation triggers visual experience. In this study, we used event-related fMRI to explore the brain regions correlated with acquired monocular sound-induced phosphenes, which occurred 2 months after unilateral visual loss due to an ischemic optic neuropathy. During the fMRI session, 1-s pure tones at various pitches were presented to the patient, who was asked to report occurrence of sound-induced phosphenes by pressing one of the two buttons (yes/no)...
October 19, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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