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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431433/experimental-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-in-diabetic-mice-exhibited-severe-retinal-swelling-associated-with-vegf-elevation
#1
Ming-Hui Sun, Mohammad Ali Shariati, Yaping Joyce Liao
Purpose: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most important risk factors for nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION). In this study, we investigated for the first time the impact of experimental AION in a DM model. Methods: We induced a photochemical thrombosis model of AION after streptozotocin-induced DM and performed serial optical coherence tomography (OCT), morphometric analyses, and VEGF levels in the retina and sera. Results: Compared with non-DM animals, experimental AION in DM mice led to significantly greater retinal swelling on day 1 and worse thinning at week 3 on OCT measurements...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431432/contrast-sensitivity-and-lateral-inhibition-are-enhanced-with-macular-carotenoid-supplementation
#2
James M Stringham, Kevin J O'Brien, Nicole T Stringham
Purpose: Once deposited in the retina, the so-called macular carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and mesozeaxanthin (MZ) have been shown to enhance visual performance. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether increasing macular pigment optical density (MPOD) could enhance lateral inhibitory processes, and thereby improve contrast sensitivity (CS). Methods: A total of 59 young (18-25 years), healthy individuals participated in this 1-year, double-masked, placebo-controlled study...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430372/retinal-nerve-fibre-layer-thickness-is-reduced-in-metabolic-syndrome
#3
R Zarei, P Anvari, Y Eslami, G Fakhraie, M Mohammadi, A Jamali, M Afarideh, A Ghajar, S Heydarzade, A Esteghamati, S Moghimi
AIMS: To investigate retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness in people with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and healthy controls. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed from March 2014 to January 2016. All participants underwent anthropometric and serological biochemical measurements, ophthalmological examination, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Individuals with elevated intraocular pressure, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and other ocular disorders were excluded...
April 21, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430331/factors-influencing-intravitreal-bevacizumab-and-triamcinolone-treatment-in-patients-with-diabetic-macular-edema
#4
Tai K Kim, Hye Y Shin, Su Y Kim, Young C Lee, Mee Y Lee
PURPOSE: To evaluate factors associated with response to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) in diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: Ninety-one eyes of 88 patients diagnosed with DME were enrolled in this retrospective chart review. Group 1 included eyes that showed good response to IVB. Group 2 included eyes that did not respond to IVB but responded to IVTA. Group 3 included eyes that responded to neither. Clinical factors, HbA1c, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings including patterns of macular edema were compared among the 3 groups...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430240/linear-frequency-modulated-continuous-wave-ladar-system-for-synthetic-aperture-imaging
#5
Guangzuo Li, Ran Wang, Ziqi Song, Keshu Zhang, Yirong Wu, Jie Pan
A novel and high-efficiency linear frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) ladar system for synthetic aperture imaging is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. This novel system generates wide-bandwidth linear FMCW ladar signals by employing an electro-optic LiNbO<sub>3</sub>- in-phase and quadrature modulator with an effective bias controller. The effectiveness of the proposed system is experimentally validated. Optical synthetic aperture images are obtained by using two 0.41 cm aperture diameter telescopes at the distance of 1 km...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430232/phase-locking-of-a-mode-locked-titanium-sapphire-laser-based-optical-frequency-comb-to-a-reference-laser-using-a-fast-piezoelectric-actuator
#6
Shuhei Hatanaka, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Masatoshi Mitaki, Masatoshi Misono, Sergey N Slyusarev, Masao Kitano
We phase lock an octave-spanning optical frequency comb, generated using a mode-locked titanium-sapphire laser and a photonic-crystal fiber, to a continuous-wave laser line-narrowed to a reference cavity. To phase lock the pulse-repetition frequency, the cavity length of the mode-locked laser is controlled by using a fast piezoelectric-actuated mirror of a servo bandwidth up to 80 kHz. The residual phase noise is 0.35 rad, and 89% of the power is concentrated to the carrier. To apply the system to optical frequency-ratio measurements and to evaluate the phase locking, a simultaneous frequency measurement of the beat between the other mode of the comb and another laser line-narrowed to a different resonance of the common reference cavity is demonstrated...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429495/moisture-responsive-wrinkling-surfaces-with-tunable-dynamics
#7
Songshan Zeng, Rui Li, Stephan G Freire, Vivian M M Garbellotto, Emily Y Huang, Andrew T Smith, Cong Hu, William R T Tait, Zichao Bian, Guoan Zheng, Dianyun Zhang, Luyi Sun
The wrinkle dynamics (such as reversibility and stability) of human skin are affected by the external stimuli, as well as the skin's structure and mechanical properties. Inspired by these tunable responses, three types of moisture-responsive wrinkle dynamics are achieved, for the first time, through a single film-substrate system. These dynamics include: (1) completely reversible wrinkles formation; (2) irreversible wrinkles formation I: the initially formed wrinkles can be permanently erased and never reappear; and (3) irreversible wrinkles formation II: once the wrinkles form, they can no longer be erased...
April 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429427/the-assessment-of-optical-coherence-tomographic-parameters-in-subjects-with-a-positive-family-history-of-glaucoma
#8
Omer Karti, Bora Yuksel, Umut Duygu Uzunel, Eyyup Karahan, Mehmet Ozgur Zengin, Tuncay Kusbeci
PURPOSE: The aim was to compare the optical coherence tomographic (OCT) parameters of subjects with and without a family history of glaucoma to determine whether positive family history has an impact on retinal nerve fibre layer and ganglion cell complex analyses. METHODS: Forty eyes of 40 normal subjects with a proven positive family history (first-degree relatives) for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) (study group) and age-matched 40 eyes of 40 control subjects without a family history for glaucoma (control group) were enrolled...
April 20, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429124/how-bumblebees-use-lateral-and-ventral-optic-flow-cues-for-position-control-in-environments-of-different-proximity
#9
Nellie Linander, Emily Baird, Marie Dacke
Flying insects frequently navigate through environments of different complexity. In this study, buff-tailed bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) were trained to fly along tunnels of different widths, from 60 to 240 cm. In tunnel widths of 60 and 120 cm, bumblebees control their lateral position by balancing the magnitude of translational optic flow experienced in the lateral visual field of each eye. In wider tunnels, bumblebees use translational optic flow cues in the ventral visual field to control their lateral position and to steer along straight tracks...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429003/electrochemical-plasmonic-metamaterials-towards-fast-electro-tuneable-reflecting-nanoshutters
#10
Debabrata Sikdar, Alwin Bucher, Cristian Zagar, Alexei A Kornyshev
Self-assembling arrays of metallic nanoparticles at liquid|liquid or liquid|solid interfaces could deliver new platforms for tuneable optical systems. Such systems can switch between very-high and very-low reflectance states upon assembly and disassembly of nanoparticles at the interface, respectively. This encourages creation of electro-variably reversible mirror/window nanoplasmonic devices. However, the response time of these systems is usually limited by the rate-of-diffusion of the nanoparticles in the liquid, towards the interface and back...
April 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427098/opa1-in-lipid-metabolism-function-of-opa1-in-lipolysis-and-thermogenesis-of-adipocytes
#11
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao, Kjetil Taskén
OPA1 (Optic Atrophy 1) is a mitochondrial GTPase known to regulate fission of mitochondria. It was recently also shown to locate on lipid droplets in adipocytes where it functions as an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) that mediates adrenergic control of lipolysis by facilitating PKA phosphorylation of perilipin (Plin1). In brown adipocytes indirect evidence support the notion that OPA1 regulation of fission serves to increase thermogenesis, which thereby contributes to dissipation of energy. In white adipocytes, OPA1 located on lipid droplets serves as a gatekeeper to control lipolysis induced by adrenergic agonists...
April 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426630/outer-nuclear-layer-thinning-in-pachychoroid-pigment-epitheliopathy
#12
M Giray Ersoz, Murat Karacorlu, Serra Arf, Mumin Hocaoglu, Isil Sayman Muslubas
PURPOSE: To compare the average thicknesses of central inner retinal layers in eyes with pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy (PPE), with uncomplicated pachychoroid (UCP), and of healthy subjects. METHODS: Medical records of patients with PPE and UCP were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-nine eyes with foveal PPE, 30 eyes with UCP, and 29 eyes of healthy subjects were included. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging was used for all optical coherence tomography scans...
April 19, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426624/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-control-pilot-study-of-eplerenone-for-the-treatment-of-central-serous-chorioretinopathy-ecselsior
#13
Ehsan Rahimy, John D Pitcher, Jason Hsu, Murtaza K Adam, Abtin Shahlaee, Wasim A Samara, James F Vander, Richard S Kaiser, Allen Chiang, Marc J Spirn, Mitchell S Fineman
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and effects of oral eplerenone in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. METHODS: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-control study at a tertiary referral academic private practice. For a diagnosis of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy, patients must have had at least 3 months clinical follow-up demonstrating persistent symptoms, subfoveal fluid on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and <50% reduction in fluid thickness...
April 19, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426225/quantum-design-of-%C3%AF-electron-ring-currents-in-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-parallel-and-antiparallel-ring-currents-in-naphthalene
#14
Hirobumi Mineo, Yuichi Fujimura
Control of π-electrons in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is one of the fundamental issues in optoelectronics for ultrafast optical switching devices. We have proposed an effective scenario for design of the generation of coherent ring currents in naphthalene (D2h), which is the smallest unit of planar PAHs. It has been demonstrated by using quantum chemical calculations and quantum optimal control (QOC) simulations that two types of ring currents, parallel and antiparallel ones, can be generated by resonance excitations by two linearly polarized lasers...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426069/gradual-modification-of-ito-particle-s-crystal-structure-and-optical-properties-by-pulsed-uv-laser-irradiation-in-a-free-liquid-jet
#15
Marcus Lau, Thomas Straube, A Vikas Aggarwal, Ulrich Hagemann, Bernardo de Oliveira Viestel, Nils Hartmann, Torsten Textor, Harald Lutz, Jochen S Gutmann, Stephan Barcikowski
Indium tin oxide (ITO) particle coatings are known for high transparency in the visible, good conductive properties and near-infrared absorption. These properties depend on ITO particle's stoichiometric composition, defects and size. Here we present a method to gradually change ITO particle's optical properties by a simple and controlled laser irradiation process. The defined irradiation process and controlled energy dose input allows one to engineer the absorption and transmission of coatings made from these particles...
April 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425681/schedules-of-controlled-substances-temporary-placement-of-six-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adb-5f-amb-5f-apinaca-adb-fubinaca-mdmb-chmica-and-mdmb-fubinaca-into-schedule-i-temporary-scheduling-order
#16
(no author information available yet)
The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule six synthetic cannabinoids: methyl 2-(1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate [5F-ADB; 5F-MDMB-PINACA]; methyl 2-(1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3-methylbutanoate [5F-AMB]; N-(adamantan-1-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide [5F-APINACA, 5F-AKB48]; N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide [ADB-FUBINACA]; methyl 2-(1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate [MDMB-CHMICA, MMB-CHMINACA] and methyl 2-(1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate [MDMB-FUBINACA], and their optical, positional, and geometric isomers, salts, and salts of isomers into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act...
April 10, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425553/structural-control-of-side-chain-chromophores-to-achieve-highly-efficient-electro-optic-activity
#17
Yuhui Yang, Zhuo Chen, Jialei Liu, Hongyan Xiao, Zhen Zhen, Xinhou Liu, Guohua Jiang
A series of chromophores J1-J4 have been synthesized based on julolidine donors modified with different rigid steric hindrance groups. Compared with the chromophore (J1) without the isolation group, chromophores J2, J3 and J4 show better stability. Structural analysis and photophysical property measurements were carried out to compare the molecular mobility and steric hindrance effect of the different donor-modified chromophores. All of these chromophores with isolation groups showed superb thermal stabilities with high thermal decomposition temperatures above 250 °C...
April 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425487/persimmon-leaves-diospyros-kaki-extract-protects-optic-nerve-crush-induced-retinal-degeneration
#18
Hong Ryul Ahn, Kyung-A Kim, Suk Woo Kang, Joo Young Lee, Tae-Jin Kim, Sang Hoon Jung
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is part of many retinal diseases. Here, we report that the ethanol extract of Diospyros kaki (EEDK) exhibits protective properties against retinal degeneration, both in vitro and in vivo. Upon exposure to cytotoxic compounds, RGC-5 cells showed approximately 40% cell viability versus the control, while pre-treatment with EEDK markedly increased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Further studies revealed that cell survival induced by EEDK was associated with decreased levels of apoptotic proteins, such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, p53, and cleaved caspase-3...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424583/a-rodent-model-of-dynamic-facial-reanimation-using-functional-electrical-stimulation
#19
Mark A Attiah, Julius de Vries, Andrew G Richardson, Timothy H Lucas
Facial paralysis can be a devastating condition, causing disfiguring facial droop, slurred speech, eye dryness, scarring and blindness. This study investigated the utility of closed-loop functional electric stimulation (FES) for reanimating paralyzed facial muscles in a quantitative rodent model. The right buccal and marginal mandibular branches of the rat facial nerve were transected for selective, unilateral paralysis of whisker muscles. Microwire electrodes were implanted bilaterally into the facial musculature for FES and electromyographic (EMG) recording...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424493/regulation-of-intraocular-pressure-by-microrna-cluster-mir-143-145
#20
Xinyu Li, Fangkun Zhao, Mei Xin, Guorong Li, Coralia Luna, Guigang Li, Qinbo Zhou, Yuguang He, Bo Yu, Eric Olson, Pedro Gonzalez, Shusheng Wang
Glaucoma is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which causes optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell death, is the primary risk factor for blindness in glaucoma patients. IOP is controlled by the balance between aqueous humor secretion from the ciliary body (CB) and its drainage through the trabecular meshwork (TM). How microRNAs (miRs) regulate IOP and glaucoma in vivo is largely unknown. Here we show that miR-143 and miR-145 expression is enriched in the smooth muscle and trabecular meshwork in the eye...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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