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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934608/chemical-free-fabrication-of-n-p-dual-doped-honeycomb-like-carbon-as-an-efficient-electrocatalyst-for-oxygen-reduction
#1
Lianwen Zhu, Jun Wu, Qiao Zhang, Xiangkui Li, Yiming Li, Xuebo Cao
Heteroatom-doped nanoporous carbons are now emerging as alternatives to platinum and its alloys as electrocatalysts to facilitate oxygen reduction reaction in metal-air batteries and fuel cells. However, the synthesis of nanoporous carbons usually involve in complicated procedures and intensive chemicals, which may dramatically raise their manufacture cost that even surpasses that of precious platinum. Herein, we demonstrate the single-step, chemical-free fabrication of N, P dualdoped honeycomb carbon that has hierarchically porous structure and oxygen electrocatalysis activity close to the benchmark Pt/C...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844121/a-rapid-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-determination-of-moniliformin-and-occurrence-of-this-mycotoxin-in-maize-products-from-the-bavarian-market
#2
Jörg Barthel, Martin Rapp, Heinrich Holtmannspötter, Christoph Gottschalk
A simple LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of moniliformin (MON) in maize and applied for the analysis of samples within the official food surveillance. The homogenized samples were extracted with acetonitrile/water 50/50 (v/v) which proved to have the highest extraction efficiency compared to other tested solvents. The centrifuged extracts were diluted with acetonitrile and were measured after chromatographic separation by HILIC (hydrophobic interaction liquid chromatography)-HPLC without any cleanup (dilute and shoot approach)...
August 26, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819968/popcorn-derived-porous-carbon-flakes-with-an-ultrahigh-specific-surface-area-for-superior-performance-supercapacitors
#3
Jianhua Hou, Kun Jiang, Rui Wei, Muhammad Tahir, Xiaoge Wu, Ming Shen, Xiaozhi Wang, Chuanbao Cao
Popcorn-derived porous carbon flakes have been successfully fabricated from the biomass of maize. Utilizing the "puffing effect", the nubby maize grain turned into materials with an interconnected honeycomb-like porous structure composed of carbon flakes. The following chemical activation method enabled the as-prepared products to possess optimized porous structures for electrochemical energy-storage devices, such as multilayer flake-like structures, ultrahigh specific surface area (SBET: 3301 m(2) g(-1)), and a high content of micropores (microporous surface area of 95%, especially the optimized sub-nanopores with the size of 0...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780587/genotyping-by-sequencing-highlights-original-diversity-patterns-within-a-european-collection-of-1191-maize-flint-lines-as-compared-to-the-maize-usda-genebank
#4
Brigitte Gouesnard, Sandra Negro, Amélie Laffray, Jeff Glaubitz, Albrecht Melchinger, Pedro Revilla, Jesus Moreno-Gonzalez, Delphine Madur, Valérie Combes, Christine Tollon-Cordet, Jacques Laborde, Dominique Kermarrec, Cyril Bauland, Laurence Moreau, Alain Charcosset, Stéphane Nicolas
Genotyping by sequencing is suitable for analysis of global diversity in maize. We showed the distinctiveness of flint maize inbred lines of interest to enrich the diversity of breeding programs. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is a highly cost-effective procedure that permits the analysis of large collections of inbred lines. We used it to characterize diversity in 1191 maize flint inbred lines from the INRA collection, the European Cornfed association panel, and lines recently derived from landraces. We analyzed the properties of GBS data obtained with different imputation methods, through comparison with a 50 K SNP array...
August 5, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768296/dietary-pattern-and-colonic-diverticulosis
#5
Antonio Tursi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. RECENT FINDINGS: High-fiber diet does not prevent diverticulosis occurrence, and results about prevention/treatment of diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still conflicting.No association was seen between nut, corn or popcorn consumption and occurrence of diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686116/clinical-radiological-and-histological-features-and-treatment-outcomes-of-supratentorial-extraventricular-ependymoma-14-cases-from-a-single-center
#6
Shoujia Sun, Junwen Wang, Mingxin Zhu, Rajluxmee Beejadhursing, Pan Gao, Xiaojing Zhang, Liwu Jiao, Wei Jiang, Changshu Ke, Kai Shu
OBJECTIVE Reports on supratentorial extraventricular ependymoma (STE) are relatively rare. The object of this study was to analyze the clinical, radiological, and histological features and treatment outcomes of 14 patients with STE. METHODS Overall, 227 patients with ependymoma underwent surgical treatment in the authors' department between January 2010 and June 2015; 14 of these patients had STE. Data on clinical presentation, radiological studies, histopathological findings, surgical strategies, and treatment outcomes in these 14 cases were retrospectively analyzed...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675759/sensory-and-physical-effects-of-sugar-reduction-in-a-caramel-coating-system
#7
Emily J Mayhew, Shelly J Schmidt, Soo-Yeun Lee
Sugar reduction in processed foods is a pressing and complex problem, as sugars contribute important sensory and physical properties to foods. Composed of sugars and lipids, caramel coating systems, like the coating in caramel popcorns, exemplify this challenge. In order to probe the feasibility and consequences of sugar reduction, both sensory and physical properties were measured for 3 types of caramel coating systems. Four commonly used sugar alcohols, isomalt, maltitol, mannitol, and sorbitol, with different thermal properties and relative sweetness values were chosen to replace sugar in the caramel coating systems at 25% and 50% sugar reduction levels...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671247/genetic-variability-among-elite-popcorn-lines-based-on-molecular-and-morphoagronomic-characteristics
#8
J F Dos Santos, C A Mangolin, M F P S Machado, C A Scapim, W Giordani, L S A Gonçalves
Knowledge of genetic diversity among genotypes and relationships among elite lines is of great importance for the development of breeding programs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate genetic variability based on the morphoagronomic and molecular characterization of 18 elite popcorn (Zea mays var. everta) lines to be used by Universidade Estadual de Maringá breeding programs. We used 31 microsatellite primers (widely distributed in the genome), and 16 morphological descriptors (including the resistance to maize white spot, common rust, polysora rust of maize, cercospora and leaf blights)...
June 29, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627906/evidence-of-a-goal-directed-process-in-human-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer
#9
Tina Seabrooke, Mike E Le Pelley, Lee Hogarth, Chris J Mitchell
Cues that signal rewards can motivate reward-seeking behaviors, even for outcomes that are not currently desired. Three experiments examined this phenomenon, using an outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) design and an outcome devaluation procedure. In Experiment 1, participants learned to perform one response to earn crisps points and another response to earn popcorn points. One outcome was then devalued by adulterating it to make it taste unpleasant. On test, overall response choice was biased toward the outcome that had not been devalued, indicating goal-directed control...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587783/the-use-of-diacetyl-2-3-butanedione-and-related-flavoring-substances-as-flavorings-added-to-foods-workplace-safety-issues
#10
John B Hallagan
In 2001, staff of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) as a "marker" of exposure in a microwave popcorn manufacturing facility in which workers developed severe respiratory illness. Subsequent investigations identified additional workers in food and flavor manufacturing facilities also with severe respiratory illness. The flavor industry, NIOSH, and federal and state regulators conducted significant programs to address workplace safety concerns related to the manufacture of flavors and foods containing added flavors...
August 1, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537735/improved-superresolution-imaging-using-telegraph-noise-in-organic-semiconductor-nanoparticles
#11
Yifei Jiang, Muskendol Novoa, Teeranan Nongnual, Rhonda Powell, Terri Bruce, Jason McNeill
Small semiconductor structures often exhibit "telegraph noise". If the number of charge carriers is small, then spontaneous changes in the number of carriers can lead to abrupt switching between two or more discrete levels, leading to burst noise or popcorn noise in transistors. We have observed similar behavior in the fluorescence of organic semiconductor nanoparticles, where typical carrier populations are often less than ∼10 carriers per nanoparticle. Spontaneous changes in the number of charges results in abrupt switching between 2 or more fluorescence intensity levels, because the charges act as highly efficient fluorescence quenchers...
June 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530554/simultaneous-determination-of-fumonisins-b1-and-b2-in-different-types-of-maize-by-matrix-solid-phase-dispersion-and-hplc-ms-ms
#12
Gabriel Barros de Oliveira, Carolyne Menezes de Castro Gomes Vieira, Ricardo Mathias Orlando, Adriana Ferreira Faria
This work involved the optimization and validation of a method, according to Directive 2002/657/EC and the Analytical Quality Assurance Manual of Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento, Brazil, for simultaneous extraction and determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in maize. The extraction procedure was based on a matrix solid phase dispersion approach, the optimization of which employed a sequence of different factorial designs. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for determining these analytes using the selected reaction monitoring mode...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528894/the-social-facilitation-of-eating-without-the-presence-of-others-self-reflection-on-eating-makes-food-taste-better-and-people-eat-more
#13
Ryuzaburo Nakata, Nobuyuki Kawai
Food tastes better and people eat more of it when eaten with company than alone. Although several explanations have been proposed for this social facilitation of eating, they share the basic assumption that this phenomenon is achieved by the existence of co-eating others. Here, we demonstrate a similar "social" facilitation of eating in the absence of other individuals. Elderly participants tasted a piece of popcorn alone while in front of a mirror (which reflects the participant themselves eating popcorn) or in front of a wall-reflecting monitor, and were found to eat more popcorn and rate it better tasting in the self-reflecting condition than in the monitor condition...
May 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490108/evaluation-of-2-acetyl-1-pyrroline-in-foods-with-an-emphasis-on-rice-flavour
#14
REVIEW
Xuan Wei, Dody D Handoko, Leela Pather, Lisa Methven, J Stephen Elmore
The popcorn-like aroma compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) is a key contributor to the desirable aroma of fragrant rice and is also important in the aroma of other foods, such as pandan leaf, popcorn and Mediterranean sausage. It can be formed enzymatically in the rice grain as it grows and is also formed, as part of the Maillard reaction, when rice is heated. This review examines the formation of 2-AP in rice and other foods, particularly its formation during cooking, focusing on the importance of the Maillard reaction between reducing sugar breakdown products and 1-pyrroline derived from the amino acids proline and ornithine...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449323/in-vitro-comparison-of-renal-stone-laser-treatment-using-fragmentation-and-popcorn-technique
#15
Paul Klaver, Tjeerd de Boorder, Alex I Rem, Tycho M T W Lock, Herke Jan Noordmans
OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of two laser techniques clinically used to fragment renal stones: fragmenting technique (FT) and popcorn technique (PT). METHODS: Phantom stones were placed in a test tube filled with water, mimicking a renal calyx model. A Holmium:YAG laser was used for fragmentation using both techniques. Four series of experiments were performed with two parameters: the technique (FT or PT) and the number of stones in the test tube (one or four)...
September 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444823/dissociable-corticostriatal-circuits-underlie-goal-directed-vs-cue-elicited-habitual-food-seeking-after-satiation-evidence-from-a-multimodal-mri-study
#16
Henk van Steenbergen, Poppy Watson, Reinout W Wiers, Bernhard Hommel, Sanne de Wit
The present multimodal MRI study advances our understanding of the corticostriatal circuits underlying goal-directed vs. cue-driven, habitual food seeking. To this end, we employed a computerized Pavlovian-instrumental transfer paradigm. During the test phase, participants were free to perform learned instrumental responses (left and right key presses) for popcorn and Smarties outcomes. Importantly, prior to this test half of the participants had been sated on popcorn and the other half on Smarties - resulting in a reduced desirability of those outcomes...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416857/compositional-variability-of-nutrients-and-phytochemicals-in-corn-after-processing
#17
P S Prasanthi, N Naveena, M Vishnuvardhana Rao, K Bhaskarachary
The result of various process strategies on the nutrient and phytochemical composition of corn samples were studied. Fresh and cooked baby corn, sweet corn, dent corn and industrially processed and cooked popcorn, corn grits, corn flour and corn flakes were analysed for the determination of proximate, minerals, xanthophylls and phenolic acids content. This study revealed that the proximate composition of popcorn is high compared to the other corn products analyzed while the mineral composition of these maize products showed higher concentration of magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and low concentration of calcium, manganese, zinc, iron, copper, and sodium...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407941/screening-and-identification-of-per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-in-microwave-popcorn-bags
#18
Itsaso Zabaleta, Noelia Negreira, Ekhine Bizkarguenaga, Ailette Prieto, Adrian Covaci, Olatz Zuloaga
Liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) was used for the accurate identification (<10ppm) of different polyfluoroalkylphosphates (PAPs) and their intermediate and end degradation products in popcorn bags. Up to 46 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and precursors were identified. Moreover, an accurate method based on focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) and a clean-up step with Envi-Carb sorbent was validated and applied to the quantification of 24 PFASs in popcorn bags from over twelve European countries, three American countries and two Asian countries...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248570/the-diacetyl-exposed-human-airway-epithelial-secretome-new-insights-into-flavoring-induced-airways-disease
#19
David M Brass, William M Gwinn, Ashlee M Valente, Francine L Kelly, Christie D Brinkley, Andrew E Nagler, M Arthur Moseley, Daniel L Morgan, Scott M Palmer, Matthew W Foster
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is an increasingly important lung disease characterized by fibroproliferative airway lesions and decrements in lung function. Occupational exposure to the artificial food flavoring ingredient diacetyl, commonly used to impart a buttery flavor to microwave popcorn, has been associated with BO development. In the occupational setting, diacetyl vapor is first encountered by the airway epithelium. To better understand the effects of diacetyl vapor on the airway epithelium, we used an unbiased proteomic approach to characterize both the apical and basolateral secretomes of air-liquid interface cultures of primary human airway epithelial cells from four unique donors after exposure to an occupationally relevant concentration (∼1,100 ppm) of diacetyl vapor or phosphate-buffered saline as a control on alternating days...
June 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198509/multivariate-approach-in-popcorn-genotypes-using-the-ward-mlm-strategy-morpho-agronomic-analysis-and-incidence-of-fusarium-spp
#20
R N F Kurosawa, A T do Amaral Junior, F H L Silva, A Dos Santos, M Vivas, S H Kamphorst, G F Pena
The multivariate analyses are useful tools to estimate the genetic variability between accessions. In the breeding programs, the Ward-Modified Location Model (MLM) multivariate method has been a powerful strategy to quantify variability using quantitative and qualitative variables simultaneously. The present study was proposed in view of the dearth of information about popcorn breeding programs under a multivariate approach using the Ward-MLM methodology. The objective of this study was thus to estimate the genetic diversity among 37 genotypes of popcorn aiming to identify divergent groups associated with morpho-agronomic traits and traits related to resistance to Fusarium spp...
February 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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