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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521385/-ziziphus-oxyphylla-ethnobotanical-ethnopharmacological-and-phytochemical-review
#1
REVIEW
Rizwan Ahmad, Niyaz Ahmad, Atta Abbas Naqvi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ziziphus oxyphylla (ZO) is distributed mainly in tropic and warm temperate regions in the world. Pakistan owns six (06) indigenous species of genus Ziziphus out of which ZO is widely used for traditional treatment of different ailments such as diabetes, jaundice and liver diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present review aims to provide in-depth and comprehensive literature overview, regarding botanical, chemical and biological characteristics of the plant alongwith phytochemical isolation and mechanistic studies to support its folklore and traditional uses...
May 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515192/study-protocol-for-a-transversal-study-to-develop-a-screening-model-for-excessive-gambling-behaviours-on-a-representative-sample-of-users-of-french-authorised-gambling-websites
#2
Bastien Perrot, Jean-Benoit Hardouin, Jean-Michel Costes, Julie Caillon, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
INTRODUCTION: Since the legalisation of online gambling in France in 2010, gambling operators must implement responsible gambling measures to prevent excessive gambling practices. However, actually there is no screening procedure for identifying problematic gamblers. Although several studies have already been performed using several data sets from online gambling operators, the authors deplored several methodological and clinical limits that prevent scientifically validating the existence of problematic gambling behaviour...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515187/reducing-social-isolation-and-loneliness-in-older-people-a-systematic-review-protocol
#3
Filipa Landeiro, Paige Barrows, Ellen Nuttall Musson, Alastair M Gray, José Leal
INTRODUCTION: Social isolation and loneliness affect approximately one-third to one-half of the elderly population and have a negative impact on their physical and mental health. Group-based interventions where facilitators are well trained and where the elderly are actively engaged in their development seem to be more effective, but conclusions have been limited by weak study designs. We aim to conduct a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of health promotion interventions on social isolation or loneliness in older people...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511991/calculation-of-the-cross-sectional-shape-of-a-fibril-from-equatorial-scattering
#4
Biel Roig-Solvas, Lee Makowski
An alternate formulation of helical diffraction theory is used to generate cross-sectional shapes of fibrous structures from equatorial scattering. We demonstrate this approach with computationally generated scattering intensities and then apply it to scattering data from Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) and in vitro assembled fibrils of Aβ40 peptides. Refining the cross-sectional shape of TMV from SAXS data collected on a 26 mg/ml solution resulted in a circular shape with outer diameter of ∼ 180Å and inner diameter of ∼ 40Å consistent with the known structure of TMV...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511167/gut-microbiota-changes-as-a-risk-factor-for-obesity
#5
Krystyna B Kvit, Natalia V Kharchenko
INTRODUCTION: The number of obese people in recent decades is increasing significantly. Among the many aspects of obesity in the last decade, the role and importance of changes in the gut microbiota (GM) attracts special attention. The aim of the review was to analyze the results of studies, focused on the role of gut microbiota in the obesity development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Screening was conducted on 33 researches, which examined the role of the gut microbiota balance in the development of obesity...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511152/-pathogenetic-substantiation-of-complex-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-steatosis-in-patients-with-pre-diabetes-and-type-2-diabetes
#6
Іван В Чопей, Віталіна В Івачевська, Ксенія І Чубірко, Тарас І Гряділь, Михайло М Гечко
INTRODUCTION: Thesis is devoted to the optimization of complex treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and steatosis in patients with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes by acting on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as providing hepatoprotection. AIM: Optimization of diagnostics and treatment in patients treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and steatosis in patients with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Examination and treatment of 117 patients with NAFLD and pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes was performed...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507524/changing-what-you-see-by-changing-what-you-know-the-role-of-attention
#7
Gary Lupyan
Attending is a cognitive process that incorporates a person's knowledge, goals, and expectations. What we perceive when we attend to one thing is different from what we perceive when we attend to something else. Yet, it is often argued that attentional effects do not count as evidence that perception is influenced by cognition. I investigate two arguments often given to justify excluding attention. The first is arguing that attention is a post-perceptual process reflecting selection between fully constructed perceptual representations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503834/respect-for-autonomy-in-light-of-neuropsychiatry
#8
Sabine Müller
Bioethics needs an elaborated concept of autonomy based on empirical knowledge about the prerequisites of the capacity of autonomy. Whereas Beauchamp and Childress, and many other bioethicists have discussed social influences on the capacity of autonomy in depth, neurobiological influences have received less attention. A comprehensive concept of autonomy should consider both social and biological factors that can diminish the capacity of autonomy. This article focuses on neurobiological influences that can reduce the capacity of autonomy...
June 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503112/athanasios-koukopoulos-psychiatry-the-primacy-of-mania-and-the-limits-of-antidepressants
#9
REVIEW
S Nassir Ghaemi, Paul A Vohringer
BACKGROUND: Athanasios Koukopoulos provided a radical model for understanding depressive and manic conditions. OBJECTIVE: To review, explain, and analyze Koukopoulos' concept of the primacy of mania, with special attention to the role of antidepressants. METHOD: A conceptual review of Koukopoulos' writings and lectures on this topic is given. RESULTS: Koukopoulos held that depressive states are caused by manic states; the former do not occur without the latter...
April 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500361/-live-animals-and-staged-nature-drawing-and-photography-in-german-popular-zoology-between-1860-and-1910
#10
Alexander Gall
It is the central thesis of this paper that the "biological perspective" (Lynn Nyhart) typical for Germany, with its interest in living animals, not only influenced natural history practices in many ways during the second half of the 19th century, rather also shaped the illustrations of popular zoology publications, as for example those in Brehms Thierleben. The illustrators of this period preferred to use live animals as models, which they studied in zoos. These animals were often depicted in their "natural" habitats...
May 12, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498174/adult-women-s-experiences-of-urinary-incontinence-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#11
Adilson Mendes, Luiza Hoga, Bruna Gonçalves, Pâmela Silva, Priscilla Pereira
BACKGROUND: Women are affected dramatically by urinary incontinence (UI). This disease is currently considered as epidemic. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to identify, through the best available evidence, how women experience UI worldwide. INCLUSION CRITERIA TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: The current review included studies of adult women who had experienced UI. PHENOMENA OF INTEREST: Women with UI from various social and cultural settings were included in this review...
May 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497354/farmer-suicide-in-india-debating-the-role-of-biotechnology
#12
Gigesh Thomas, Johan De Tavernier
Indian Biotech opponents have attributed the increase of suicides to the monopolization of GM seeds, centering on patent control, application of terminator technology, marketing strategy, and increased production costs. The contentions of the biotech opponents, however, have been criticized for a lack of transparency in their modus operandi i.e. the use of methodology in their argumentation. The fact is, however, that with the intention of getting the attention of those capable of determining the future of GM cotton in India, opponents resorted to generating controversies...
December 2017: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495845/edmund-goodwyn-and-the-first-description-of-diving-bradycardia
#13
Jose L Vega
Diving bradycardia is a primordial oxygen-conserving reflex by which the heart rate of air-breathing vertebrates, including humans, slows down in response to water immersion. Its discovery is attributed to Paul Bert whose seminal observation was published in 1870 as part of a series of experiments that examined physiological adaptations to asphyxia in ducks and other animals. However, Edmund Goodwyn, a British physician who studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh had already published descriptions of this reflex in his doctoral thesis, which was originally published in Latin in 1786, and again in English in 1788...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495480/-fabien-arcelin-1876-1942-or-how-to-become-a-radiation-oncologist-when-born-an-archeologist
#14
N Foray
Fabien Arcelin, physician working in Lyon, pioneer of radiology and radiotherapy, was both mentored by Destot (one of the fathers of the French radiology for his thesis of medicine) and by his own father Adrien Arcelin (one of the two codiscoverers of the prehistorical site of the Roche-de-Solutré in Burgundy) for archeological works. Hence, radiologist in Lyon during the week and archeologist during the weekend, Fabien Arcelin made significant advances in both radiation research and archeology. He was notably the discoverer of the first tombs of Aurignacian men...
May 8, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492610/nasal-cytology-in-children-scraping-or-swabbing
#15
C Pipolo, S Bianchini, S Barberi, M Landi, S D'auria, E Fuccillo, M Gaffuri, P Marchisio, C Rosazza, A M Saibene, M Gelardi, S Torretta
Nasal cytology has become a valuable tool in the assessment of a multitude of nasal pathologies in children. Collection methods differ significantly and even though the use of the nasal curette is regarded as the most reliable in adults, most practitioners use the nasal swab in children. However, no studies have validated the reliability and supposed better tolerability of the latter. We have compared these two sampling methods regarding their tolerability and analysed the diagnostic accuracy of the cotton nasal swab (NSW) to identify nasal cytotypes and rhinitis phenotypes, using nasal scraping (NSC) for comparison...
May 10, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487118/pittosporum-viridiflorum-sims-pittosporaceae-a-review-on-a-useful-medicinal-plant-native-to-south-africa-and-tropical-africa
#16
REVIEW
B Madikizela, L J McGaw
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims, a Pittosporaceae species, is used extensively in African traditional medicine (ATM) by various tribes. This review is an appraisal of the information concerning the description, distribution, conservation status, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this species with the aim of reconciling it with its traditional use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A wide-ranging literature search was conducted using database platforms such as Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, PubMed and books including local reports and thesis submissions...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485670/hermeneutic-caring-conversations-in-forensic-psychiatric-caring
#17
Kenneth Rydenlund, Unni Å Lindström, Arne Rehnsfeldt
BACKGROUND: In forensic psychiatric care, a hermeneutic caring conversation between caregivers and patients can improve health outcomes. The hermeneutic approach entails starting from the whole and involves openness for what is shown as well as paying attention to the different parts. One way to deepen these conversations is to take advantage of both the caregivers' and the patients' life experiences. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: The purpose of the study is to discuss and reflect on what hermeneutic caring conversations can mean for a deepened understanding of the movement in the health processes of patients in forensic care, patients who are in deep suffering...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480881/dynamic-molecular-oxygen-production-in-cometary-comae
#18
Yunxi Yao, Konstantinos P Giapis
Abundant molecular oxygen was discovered in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Its origin was ascribed to primordial gaseous O2 incorporated into the nucleus during the comet's formation. This thesis was put forward after discounting several O2 production mechanisms in comets, including photolysis and radiolysis of water, solar wind-surface interactions and gas-phase collisions. Here we report an original Eley-Rideal reaction mechanism, which permits direct O2 formation in single collisions of energetic water ions with oxidized cometary surface analogues...
May 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480387/politics-of-biopiracy-an-adventure-into-hoodia-xhoba-patenting-in-southern-africa
#19
Lere Amusan
BACKGROUND: Africa is being described as the wretched of the earth, despite this, the continent is endowed with natural resources, dynamic ecosystem, and different species of plants and animals, and species derivatives. This paper area of departure is to focus on Hoodia, a plant that is being a source of food, medicine and water for the San and Khoe indigenous peoples before the advent of Europeans into southern Africa. South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) dubiously patented Hoodia without observing the basic indices of geographical indications (GIs), indigenous knowledge (IK), novelty, access sharing benefit (ASB), prior informed consent (PIC) and sustainability of ecosystem before the rights was sold to Phytopharm pharmaceutical company...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479438/computational-fluid-dynamic-analysis-after-carotid-endarterectomy-patch-graft-versus-direct-suture-closure
#20
Maurizio Domanin, Adelaide Buora, Francesco Scardulla, Bruno Guerciotti, Laura Forzenigo, Pietro Biondetti, Christian Vergara
BACKGROUND: Closure tecnique after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) still remains an issue of debate. Routinely use of patch graft (PG) has been advocated to reduce restenosis, stroke, and death but its protective effect, particularly from late restenosis, is less evident and recent studies call into question this thesis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare PG and direct suture (DS) by means of computational fluid-dynamic (CFD). To identify carotid regions with flow recirculation more prone to restenosis development, we analyzed time averaged oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT), that are well known indices correlated with plaque formation...
May 4, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
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