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Daniel Herda, Bill McCarthy
There is a growing body of evidence linking racial discrimination and juvenile crime, and a number of theories explain this relationship. In this study, we draw on one popular approach, Agnew's general strain theory, and extend prior research by moving from a focus on experienced discrimination to consider two other forms, anticipated and vicarious discrimination. Using data on black, white, and Hispanic youth, from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we find that experienced, anticipated, and to a lesser extent, vicarious discrimination, significantly predict violent crime independent of a set of neighborhood, parental, and individual level controls, including prior violent offending...
February 2018: Social Science Research
Zifeng Yang, Lingling Jin, Haitao Zhu, Shaokui Wang, Guiquan Zhang, Guifu Liu
Heading date directly determines the planting districts and seasons, and thus plays an important role for producing and introducing of varieties. Limited to the materials and methodologies, analysis of epistasis still presents an obvious challenge. This thesis estimated effectively four types of epistatic components among dual QTLs on heading date based on eight single segment substitution lines (SSSLs) in rice. The results confirmed that they carried truly with heading date QTLs. Eleven pairs of QTLs were with 50...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Priscilla Savopoulos, Annukka K Lindell
Over 100 years ago Lombroso [(1876/2006). Criminal man. Durham: Duke University Press] proposed a biological basis for criminality. Based on inspection of criminals' skulls he theorized that an imbalance of the cerebral hemispheres was amongst 18 distinguishing features of the criminal brain. Specifically, criminals were less lateralized than noncriminals. As the advent of neuroscientific techniques makes more fine-grained inspection of differences in brain structure and function possible, we review criminals' and noncriminals' structural, functional, and behavioural lateralization to evaluate the merits of Lombroso's thesis and investigate the evidence for the biological underpinning of criminal behaviour...
February 15, 2018: Laterality
Évelyne Diebolt
A Frenchwoman, Anna Hamilton (1864-1935), daughter of a Franco-English couple, reads with passion the works of Florence Nightingale and takes an interest in nursing. In order to practice it, she first passes the equivalent of a bachelor's degree in self-education and registers at the Marseille medical school. She wants to prepare a medical thesis on the nursing staff in the hospitals in Europe and is conducting an investigation throughout Europe. She passed her thesis on June 15, 1900 entitled ?Considerations on hospital nurses?...
February 2, 2018: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
Joanna R Pepin, Liana C Sayer, Lynne M Casper
Assumptions that single mothers are "time poor" compared with married mothers are ubiquitous. We tested theorized associations derived from the time poverty thesis and the gender perspective using the 2003-2012 American Time Use Surveys (ATUS). We found marital status differentiated housework, leisure, and sleep time, but did not influence the amount of time that mothers provided childcare. Net of the number of employment hours, married mothers did more housework and slept less than never-married and divorced mothers, counter to expectations of the time poverty thesis...
February 8, 2018: Demography
Ahti Tarkkanen
The discoverer of exfoliation was John Lindberg of Helsinki, Finland. He conducted his research as a young ophthalmology resident with the aim of elucidating two types of age-related degenerations of the iris and presenting it as an academic thesis. To this end, he had to construct a slitlamp, because they were not commercially available. During this investigation, he paid attention to greyish flakes and fringes on the anterior lens capsule and the pupillary border, which had not been previously described. His material consisted of 202 patients...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Eric M England, Sulaiman K Matarneh, Rachel M Mitacek, Anupam Abraham, Ranjith Ramanathan, Jordan C Wicks, Hao Shi, Tracy L Scheffler, Emily M Oliver, Emma T Helm, David E Gerrard
Anaerobic glycolysis dominates energy metabolism postmortem. Even so, however, recent studies suggest mitochondria can modify postmortem energy metabolism and may contribute to pH decline, possibly affecting the transformation of muscle to meat and fresh meat quality development. Because oxygen is a necessary component of mitochondrial function, oxygenation of porcine and bovine longissimus thoracis et lumborum was determined postmortem using NIR spectroscopy. The ratio of oxy- to deoxymyoglobin decreased with time postmortem in both species...
February 1, 2018: Meat Science
Juliana Alves Leite Leal, Cristina Maria Meira de Melo
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of nurses' work process in different countries. METHOD: We have used the integrative review method and selected 84 publications (articles, theses and dissertations) in national and foreign thesis banks and databases. We analyzed the evidence based on dialectical materialism. RESULTS: The rejection of managerial tasks hides the singularity of nurses' work, due to the failure to understand the inseparable nature of managerial and healthcare tasks, given that it is what provides the expertise to coordinate the nursing work process and guide the healthcare work processes...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Shan C Lin, Marisse Masis, Travis C Porco, Louis R Pasquale
[This corrects the article on p. T6 in vol. 115, PMID: 29147104.].
August 2017: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
Ashrafali M Ismail, Tiange Cui, Kalpana Dommaraju, Gurdeep Singh, Shoaleh Dehghan, Jason Seto, Susmita Shrivastava, Nadia B Fedorova, Neha Gupta, Timothy B Stockwell, Ramana Madupu, Albert Heim, Adriana E Kajon, Eric G Romanowski, Regis P Kowalski, Jambulingam Malathi, Kuzhanthai L Therese, Hajib Narahari Madhavan, Qiwei Zhang, Leonardo J Ferreyra, Morris S Jones, Jaya Rajaiya, David W Dyer, James Chodosh, Donald Seto
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are uniquely important "model organisms" as they have been used to elucidate fundamental biological processes, are recognized as complex pathogens, and are used as remedies for human health. As pathogens, HAdVs may effect asymptomatic or mild and severe symptomatic disease upon their infection of respiratory, ocular, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems. High-resolution genomic data have enhanced the understanding of HAdV epidemiology, with recombination recognized as an important and major pathway in the molecular evolution and genesis of emergent HAdV pathogens...
February 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
John Asger Petersen
Clinical deterioration of patients hospitalized on general wards is often preceded by worsening vital signs. If identified early and acted upon quickly, it is conjectured that further deterioration can be prevented. To this means the early warning score (EWS) was implemented in all hospitals in the Capital Region of Denmark in 2013. EWS consists of an aggregated weighted track-and-trigger system (TTS), to identify at-risk patients early, and a treatment protocol to escalate care appropriately and determine the level of competency of the provider...
February 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Daniel Mønsted Shabanzadeh
Gallstone disease is highly prevalent in Denmark and other countries of northern Europe, and cholecystectomy for the treatment of clinical gallstone disease is one the most frequently performed surgical procedures. Research efforts for the identification of mechanisms involved in gallstone formation have a long history and the most established include bile cholesterol saturation, gallbladder motor function, and the enterohepatic circulation of secondary bile salts produced by fecal microbiota. A small number of determinants that are believed to affect these mechanisms have been identified until now...
February 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Margrethe Foss Hansen
This PhD thesis is based on three original articles. The studies were performed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Herlev University Hospital and at the Center for Clinical Epidemiology, Odense University Hospital. 
Urinary incontinence (UI) is a frequent disorder among women, which for the individual can have physical, psychological and social consequences. The current standard of surgical treatment is the synthetic midurethral sling (MUS), which is a minimal invasive procedure.
As the synthetic MUSs (TVT,TVT-O,TOT) were introduced in the late 1990s, there are only a few studies at the long-term follow-up based on nationwide populations; only a few have reported on the risk of reoperation and there is sparse evidence on which treatment should be used subsequently to failure of synthetic MUSs...
February 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Line Toft Tengberg
Critically ill acute high-risk abdominal surgery patients represent a major challenge to health care providers, with the typical patient being elderly and frail, and with severe and multiple comorbidities. The mortality rate in this population is high, and the postoperative course is characterized by complications, prolonged hospitalisation and considerable risk of permanent disability. With an ageing population, the number of elderly patients, as well as challenges concerning treatment will arise, calling for a coordinated effort both nationally and internationally to enhance treatment in this vulnerable patient group...
February 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Ajenthen Ranjan
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease caused by an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to a condition with insulin deficiency and elevated blood glucose levels. Individuals with type 1 diabetes are therefore recommended to frequently inject insulin subcutaneously to keep near-normal blood glucose levels, preventing the progression and onset of diabetes-related complications, i.e. kidney failure, blindness, amputation, stroke and heart attack. Unfortunately, the intensified insulin therapy is associated with risk of hypoglycemia- impeding individuals from reaching recommended treatment goals...
February 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Anat Galor, Leslie Small, William Feuer, Roy C Levitt, Konstantinos D Sarantopoulos, Gil Yosipovitch
Purpose: To evaluate associations between sensations of ocular itch and dry eye (DE) symptoms, including ocular pain, and DE signs. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 324 patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic was performed. The evaluation consisted of questionnaires regarding ocular itch, DE symptoms, descriptors of neuropathic-like ocular pain (NOP), and evoked pain sensitivity testing on the forehead and forearm, followed by a comprehensive ocular surface examination including corneal mechanical sensitivity testing...
August 2017: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
Kenichi Watanabe
 Posey et al. have reported multiple molecular diagnoses in 4.5% of cases (101/2076) in which whole-exome sequencing was informative. Distinct disease phenotypes affect different organ systems, whereas overlapping disease phenotypes are more likely to be caused by two genes encoding proteins that interact within the same pathway. My research projects at the Niigata University of Pharmacy have investigated underlying mechanisms involved in human disease, including fatty acid metabolism, diabetic cardiomyopathy, atopic dermatitis, colitis, hepatitis, etc...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Lili Huang, Michal Pyc, Saleh Alseekh, Donald R McCarty, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, Jesse F Gregory, Christopher S Henry, Alisdair R Fernie, Robert T Mullen, Andrew D Hanson
The pantothenate (vitamin B5) synthesis pathway in plants is not fully defined because the sub-cell-ular site of its ketopantoate → pantoate reduction step is unclear. However, the pathway is known to be split between cytosol, mit-o-chondria, and potentially plastids, and inferred to involve mitochondrial or plast-idial transport of ketopantoate or pantoate. No proteins that mediate these transport steps have been identified. Compar-at-ive genomic and transcriptomic analyses identified Arabidopsis thal-iana BASS1 (At1g78560) and its maize ( Zea mays ) ortholog as candidates for such a transport role...
January 30, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Yang Wang, Deyuan Li, Lina Qiao, Fumin Zhao
RATIONALE: Central nervous system (CNS) aspergillosis has the characteristics of multifocality, polymorphism, and coexistence of pathological types, and missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis frequently occur at the initial stage. The thesis reports a rare case of infant infection of CNS aspergillosis with the first-episode of intracranial hemorrhage. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 11-month-old female infant suffered convulsion and coma two days after the onset of fever and emesis...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andrea Sauchelli
Which metaphysical theories are involved-whether presupposed or implied-in Marquis' future-like-ours (FLO) argument against abortion? Vogelstein has recently argued that the supporter of the FLO argument faces a problematic dilemma; in particular, Marquis, the main supporter of the argument, seems to have to either (a) abandon diachronic universalism (DU) or (b) acquiesce and declare that contraception is morally wrong. I argue that the premises of Marquis' argument can be reasonably combined with a form of unrestricted composition and that the FLO argument is better viewed as including animalism, i...
January 25, 2018: Bioethics
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