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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425136/molecularisation-and-metaphor
#1
David Armstrong
This article explores the molecularisation of medicine thesis by investigating reports on genetics and molecular medicine in the New England Journal of Medicine. While there has indeed been a large increase in the number of references to molecules in the context of genetics over the last few decades these are mostly embedded in a framework of explanatory metaphors, namely (gene) expressivity, penetrance, regulation and pathways. As most of these metaphors are drawn from the social world it would appear that the molecularisation thesis - that social life is becoming dominated by the molecular - needs to be tempered by the ways in which understanding of that molecular world is itself a reflection of social life...
April 20, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403503/-psychiatry-in-east-germany-gdr-between-awakening-and-stagnation-the-brandenburg-proposition-to-the-therapeutic-community-1974-76
#2
Ekkehardt Kumbier, Kathleen Haack
Inspired by the concept of the English psychiatrist Maxwell Jones, the Brandenburg proposition or thesis towards the "Therapeutic Community" was formulated in 1974. Its objective was to transform the therapeutic environment in psychiatric hospitals of the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Based on sources from the Federal Archive in Berlin and for the first time from the Historical Archive of the Asklepios Hospital in Brandenburg, the motivation, implementation and effect of the so-called Brandenburg proposition will be analysed within its socio-political context...
April 12, 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399512/protocol-for-a-scoping-review-of-existing-policies-on-the-prevention-and-control-of-obesity-across-countries-in-africa
#3
Theodosia Adom, Thandi Puoane, Anniza De Villiers, André Pascal Kengne
INTRODUCTION: The obesity epidemic is a public health challenge for all, including low-income countries. The behavioural patterns known to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence occur in an environmental context which is not conducive for healthy choices. A policy approach to obesity prevention constitutes a form of public intervention in that it extends beyond individuals to influence entire populations and is a mechanism for creating healthier environments. Little is known about obesity prevention policies in Africa...
February 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394145/increased-startle-potentiation-to-unpredictable-stressors-in-alcohol-dependence-possible-stress-neuroadaptation-in-humans
#4
Christine A Moberg, Daniel E Bradford, Jesse T Kaye, John J Curtin
Stress plays a key role in addiction etiology and relapse. Rodent models posit that following repeated periods of alcohol and other drug intoxication, compensatory allostatic changes occur in the central nervous system (CNS) circuits involved in behavioral and emotional response to stressors. We examine a predicted manifestation of this neuroadaptation in recently abstinent alcohol-dependent humans. Participants completed a translational laboratory task that uses startle potentiation to unpredictable (vs. predictable) stressors implicated in the putative CNS mechanisms that mediate this neuroadaptation...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388615/should-biomedical-research-be-like-airbnb
#5
Vivien R Bonazzi, Philip E Bourne
The thesis presented here is that biomedical research is based on the trusted exchange of services. That exchange would be conducted more efficiently if the trusted software platforms to exchange those services, if they exist, were more integrated. While simpler and narrower in scope than the services governing biomedical research, comparison to existing internet-based platforms, like Airbnb, can be informative. We illustrate how the analogy to internet-based platforms works and does not work and introduce The Commons, under active development at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and elsewhere, as an example of the move towards platforms for research...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386533/the-civic-turn-of-immigrant-integration-policies-in-the-scandinavian-welfare-states
#6
EDITORIAL
Karin Borevi, Kristian Kriegbaum Jensen, Per Mouritsen
This special issue addresses the question of how to understand the civic turn within immigrant integration in the West towards programs and instruments, public discourses and political intentions, which aim to condition, incentivize, and shape through socialization immigrants into 'citizens'. Empirically, it focuses on the less studied Scandinavian cases of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. In this introduction, we situate the contributions to this special issue within the overall debate on civic integration and convergence...
2017: Comparative Migration Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386271/modulation-of-colorectal-cancer-risk-by-polymorphisms-in-51gln-his-64ile-val-and-148asp-glu-of-apex-gene-23gly-ala-of-xpa-gene-and-689ser-arg-of-ercc4-gene
#7
L Dziki, A Dziki, M Mik, I Majsterek, J Kabzinski
Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may affect the activity of the BER (base excision repair) and NER (nucleotide excision repair) systems. Using DNA isolated from blood taken from patients (n = 312) and a control group (n = 320) with CRC, we have analyzed the polymorphisms of selected DNA repair genes and we have demonstrated that genotypes 51Gln/His and 148Asp/Glu of APEX gene and 23Gly/Ala of XPA gene may increase the risk of colorectal cancer. At the same time analyzing the gene-gene interactions, we suggest the thesis that the main factor to be considered when analyzing the impact of polymorphisms on the risk of malignant transformation should be intergenic interactions...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385175/on-the-role-of-the-gut-in-diabetic-hyperglucagonaemia
#8
Asger Lund
Patients with type 2 diabetes are characterised not only by compromised insulin secretion and action, but also by elevated plasma concentrations of the 29-amino acid peptide hormone glucagon, which generally is thought of as a pancreas-derived hormone (produced in and secreted from alpha cells in the islet of Langerhans). In patients with diabetes, circulating glucagon concentrations are elevated in the fasting state and fail to decrease appropriately or even increase in response to ingestion of nutrients. Glucagon is known to be a potent stimulator of hepatic glucose production, and, thus, the elevated glucagon concentrations in diabetes contribute decisively to the predominating trait of patients with diabetes namely hyperglycaemia...
April 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385174/take-home-training-in-laparoscopy
#9
Ebbe Thinggaard
When laparoscopy was first introduced, skills were primarily taught using the apprenticeship model. A limitation of this method when compared to open surgery, was that it requires more time to practise and more frequent learning opportunities in clinical practice. The unique set of skills required in laparoscopy highlighted the need for new training methods that reduce the need for supervision and do not put the patient at risk. Simulation training was developed to meet this need. The overall purpose of this thesis was to explore simulation-based laparoscopic training at home...
April 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385173/novel-augmentation-strategies-in-major-depression
#10
Klaus Martiny
Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition, and with minor side effects, thus improving the short- and medium-term outcome in major depression. Procedures Study design The basic study design has been the double blind randomised controlled trial (RCT). In the light therapy study, all patients were treated with sertraline for the whole of the study duration...
April 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384585/polyhalogenated-compounds-chlorinated-paraffins-novel-and-classic-flame-retardants-pops-in-dishcloths-after-their-regular-use-in-households
#11
Christoph Gallistl, Bianca Lok, Annika Schlienz, Walter Vetter
Dishcloths are routinely used in the clean-up process following daily kitchen activities and are thus subject to contamination commensurate with their frequent use. Here we analyzed dishcloths for the occurrence of polyhalogenated compounds after 14days of use in household kitchens. Analysis of 19 dishcloths revealed the presence of 29 polyhalogenated contaminants with total mean/median concentrations of 6,900/3,600ng/dishcloth, respectively. The spectrum featured classic and novel halogenated flame-retardants (HFRs) like polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), chlordene plus and dechlorane plus, as well as typical chloropesticides and background contaminants (e...
April 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383901/in-situ-two-phase-ligand-exchange-a-new-method-for-syn-thesis-of-alloy-nanoclusters-with-precise-atomic-structures
#12
Sha Yang, Jinsong Chai, Yongbo Song, Jiqiang Fan, Tao Chen, Shuxin Wang, Haizhu Yu, Xiaowu Li, Manzhou Zhu
A new method termed "in situ two-phase ligand-exchange" was developed to obtain alloy nanoclusters. With this approach, a series of alloy nanoclusters were obtained for the first time, including Au20Ag1(SR)15, Au21-xAgx(SR)15(x=4-8), Au21-xCux(SR)15(x=0,1), and Au21-xCux(SR)15(x=2-5) (R= tert-butyl, t-Bu). Interesting-ly, the single crystal X-ray crystallography (SC-XRD) shows that their framework are all alike except for Au21-xCux(SR)15(x=2-5), indicating that more Cu dopants alter the structure. Au21-xCux(SR)15(x=2-5) exhibits a significantly different configuration...
April 6, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376928/-these-people-you-just-guide-them-until-they-become-these-people-learning-to-become-a-frequent-indoor-tanner
#13
Jerod L Stapleton, Benjamin F Crabtree
BACKGROUND: Many young women experiment with using indoor tanning beds with some becoming regular users. There is a dearth of research focused on factors related to the development of regular tanning. This study was designed to gain an in-depth understanding of the experiences of a regular indoor tanning bed user for the purpose of discovering working hypotheses related to the development of this behavior. The article thesis is that initial interactions with tanning salon employees transmit insider knowledge that serves to encourage the regular use of indoor tanning beyond experimentation...
April 4, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366884/zilsel-s-thesis-maritime-culture-and-iberian-science-in-early-modern-europe
#14
Henrique Leitão, Antonio Sánchez
Zilsel's thesis on the artisanal origins of modern science remains one of the most original proposals about the emergence of scientific modernity. We propose to inspect the scientific developments in Iberia in the early modern period using Zilsel's ideas as a guideline. Our purpose is to show that his ideas illuminate the situation in Iberia but also that the Iberian case is a remarkable illustration of Zilsel's thesis. Furthermore, we argue that Zilsel's thesis is essentially a sociological explanation that cannot be applied to isolated cases; its use implies global events that involve extended societies over large periods of time...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363930/what-are-the-physical-and-psychological-health-effects-of-suicide-bereavement-on-family-members-protocol-for-an-observational-and-interview-mixed-methods-study-in-ireland
#15
Ailbhe Spillane, Celine Larkin, Paul Corcoran, Karen Matvienko-Sikar, Ella Arensman
INTRODUCTION: Research indicates that experiencing the suicide of a relative can have a significant impact on family members' emotional health. However, research incorporating the impact of suicide bereavement on family members' physical health is sparse. This paper details the protocol for a mixed-methods study of suicide-bereaved family members. The study will primarily examine the physical and mental health needs of those bereaved by suicide. A secondary objective of the study is to describe the support service needs of family members bereaved by suicide...
March 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363524/a-systematic-overview-of-leucosidea-sericea-a-multi-purpose-tree-with-great-potential-as-phytomedicine
#16
REVIEW
Tshepiso C Mafole, Adeyemi O Aremu, Thandekile Mthethwa, Mack Moyo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leucosidea sericea is a tree species found in southern Africa and possess several therapeutical effects against infectious diseases in humans and livestock. Increasing evidence on the efficacy of the species have demonstrated noteworthy biological potential. AIMS OF THE REVIEW: To comprehensively document and summarize the botany, biological and phytochemical properties of Leucosidea sericea, a monotypic species in the genus Leucosidea...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361213/food-addiction-as-a-proxy-for-eating-disorder-and-obesity-severity-trauma-history-ptsd-symptoms-and-comorbidity
#17
REVIEW
Timothy D Brewerton
PURPOSE: Food addiction (FA) is a newly defined yet still controversial condition that has important etiological, developmental, treatment, prevention, and social policy implications. In this review, the case is made that FA (or high scores on the Yale Food Addiction Scale) may be used as a proxy measure for a matrix of interrelated clinical features, including greater eating disorder severity, greater obesity severity, more severe trauma histories, greater symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), greater psychiatric comorbidity, as well as greater medical morbidity and mortality...
March 30, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346993/artemisia-sieberi-besser-essential-oil-and-treatment-of-fungal-infections
#18
REVIEW
Mohaddese Mahboubi
A. sieberi essential oil has been used for treatment of hardly curable infectious ulcers in Middle East Medicine and has been famous due to its wormicide effects. In this review, we evaluated the potency of A. sieberi essential oil in treatment of fungal infections. We searched in PubMed Central, Science direct, Wiley, Springer, SID, and accessible books, reports, thesis. There is a lot of mixed information on chemical compositions of A. sieberi essential oil, but most articles reported α, β-thujones as the main components of essential oils...
March 22, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346955/nonischemic-priapism-in-childhood-a-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#19
Hans-Walter Hacker, Marcus G Schwoebel, Philipp O Szavay
Introduction Nonischemic priapism (NIP) in childhood is a very rare affection. In the literature, patients with NIP are described mainly incidental after perineal trauma. Many of them underwent embolization of either internal pudendal artery or bulbocavernosal arteries. Patients and Methods We report on six boys between 4 and 13 years of age with NIP, treated at our institution between 2008 and 2014. Color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) was performed in all patients as emergency diagnostic evaluation. Patients were treated conservatively, including bed rest, local cooling, and perineal compression...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333515/a-philosophy-for-behavioral-health-integration-in-primary-care
#20
Thomas R Egnew
In response to a call for a philosophy that transcends the professional boundaries that threaten behavioral health integration in primary care, this essay explores the thesis that such a philosophy exists in medicine's core purpose. Drawing on the work of Eric Cassell, a philosophy may be determined that melds the values, themes, and constructs of individual models for behavioral health integration in primary care toward a single, overriding purpose. Effecting such integration challenges current trends in medicine by refocusing medicine on its ethical core...
March 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
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