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Yan Yuan, Da An, Li-Juan Su, Shi-Feng Wang
The multimode light-field camera can capture spatial location and spectral and polarization characteristics of a target simultaneously. There is an aliasing effect, which causes the directly extracted image of a certain filter to include information from other filters. The reconstruction method proposed by Li (Jingzhen Li, thesis of Beihang University, 2015) can improve the accuracy of the polarization images, but the gray values still have gradient variations. In this paper, a method for reconstructing polarization images from the light-field image is proposed along with an aliasing model...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Jamie Shaw
The near consensus in the secondary literature on Feyerabend is that his epistemological anarchism, characterized by the slogan 'anything goes', was not a positive proposal but the conclusion of a reductio argument against his opponents (Lloyd 1997; Staley 1999; Munévar 2000; Farrell 2003; Tsou 2003; Oberheim 2006; Roe 2009). This makes anarchism a mere criticism rather than a substantive position in its own right. In this paper, I argue that Feyerabend held anarchism as a positive thesis. Specifically, I present two possible interpretations of anarchism: one where anarchism is entailed by Feyerabend's radical view of pluralism and another where scientists must be 'methodological opportunists', which Feyerabend held simultaneously from at least 1970...
August 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Babak Amoian, Marzyeh Omidbakhsh, Soraya Khafri
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is the most effective antiseptic mouthwash to date. Essential oil such as thymol, have inhibitory and biocidal effects a range of bacteria. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of mouthwash containing CHX and thymol on plaque induced gingivitis. METHODS: This double-blind randomized clinical trial study was performed on 60 patients with plaque induced gingivitis who were randomly divided into two groups: Group I (CHX/thymol mouthwash-Vi-one) and Group II (CHX mouthwash-Behsa)...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
Yasaman Parsia, Shahryar Sorooshian
The data presented in this article is related to the Master thesis; entitled "Survey Aerobic Microbial Diversity Mud Volcanoes in Chabahar and Khash Ports in Southern Iran" by the first author of this article, year 2011, Islamic Azad University, Iran (reference number (Parsia, 2011) [1] of this article). This article shows microbial biodiversity and evaluates bio-emulsifier and bio-demulsifier abilities of capnophile isolates, in order to introduce a superior isolate for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) process in the petrochemical industry...
December 2017: Data in Brief
Donald Gillies
This paper considers what evidence is needed to establish the effectiveness and safety of a drug therapy. The claim that A cures D is a particular case of a causal claim in medicine. So the paper begins with a general analysis of the evidence for causal claims in medicine. Such evidence is divided into two types: statistical evidence and evidence of mechanism. These are further divided into observational and interventional, producing a 2x2 classification. It is shown that historically there have different assessments of the importance of these different types of evidence...
October 11, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Xiang-Long Cui, Bing Xu, Jun-Wen Liu, Guo-Lin Shi, Xin-Yuan Shi, Yan-Jiang Qiao
Raw materials' quality variation could affect the quality consistency of product and the clinical efficacy. In this paper, the high shear wet granulation (HSWG) process of the ginkgo leaf tablet was taken as the research object. Ginkgo biloba extracts and excipients microcrystalline cellulose collected from various sources and batches were used to simulate raw materials' quality variation. Real-time torque was recorded to analyze the viscosity of the wetting mass, and then by combining with physical fingerprint, the impact of physical quality variation of powders on granule properties could be investigated...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Frederik J G M van Kuijk, Scott W McPherson, Heidi Roehrich
PURPOSE: Understanding the apparent paradoxical role of zinc in the pathogenesis and prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been limited by the lack of animal models for its detection in sub-retinal epithelial deposits (drusen), a definitive early hallmark of AMD. In-vitro studies using Zinpyr-1 showed drusen contained high levels of zinc, but the probe was not suitable for in-vivo studies. This study compares Zinpyr-1 to ZPP1, a new fluorescein-based probe for zinc, to assess the potential of ZPP1 for in-vivo detection of zinc in drusen...
August 2017: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
Colin A McCannel
PURPOSE: To assess the specificity of simulation-based virtual reality ophthalmic cataract surgery training on the Eyesi ophthalmic virtual reality surgical simulator, and test the hypothesis that microsurgical motor learning is highly specific. METHODS: Retrospective educational interventional case series. The rates of vitreous loss and retained lens material, and vitreous loss and retained lens material associated with an errant continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) were assessed among 1037 consecutive cataract surgeries performed during four consecutive academic years at a teaching hospital...
August 2017: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
Stefanie Gil Franco
The proposal of this article is to briefly present how artistic expressions of the alienated appear as a discursive element in medical and critical readings of Júlio Dantas, starting with his thesis, Pintores e poetas de Rilhafolles, which he presented in 1900 as the conclusion to his medicine course in Lisbon. This particularly involves investigating the methods Dantas used in his invested and conceptual propositions on this topic, considering that his interests responded to very specific issues: the characteristics and forms of social degeneration...
July 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Danylo Kaminskyy, Anna Kryshchyshyn, Roman Lesyk
Rhodanines, as one of the 4-thiazolidinones subtypes, are recognized as privileged heterocycles in medicinal chemistry. The main achievements include the development of drug-like molecules with numerous biological activities as well as approved drugs. Among rhodanines, 5-ene-rhodanines are of special interest, and are often claimed as pan assay interference compounds due to Michael acceptor functionality. Areas covered: Herein, the synthetic protocols for rhodanines and their transformation are reviewed. Biological activity is briefly discussed as well as biotargets, mode of actions and optimization directions...
October 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Julia H Goedecke
The PhD thesis of Gradidge, entitled 'Factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in an ageing cohort of black women living in Soweto, Johannesburg (Study of Women in and Entering Endocrine Transition [SWEET])', attempts to understand the determinants of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a population of urban-dwelling black South African women. A conceptual framework is presented, which positions obesity as the central risk factor for MetS, and includes the possible influence of socioeconomic status, lifestyle behaviours and body size perceptions, as key determinants of obesity...
2017: Global Health Action
Joey V Barnett, Robert A Harris, Michael J Mulvany
The PhD degree was established in Berlin 200 years ago and has since spread across the whole world. While there is general agreement that the degree is awarded in recognition of successfully completed research training, there have been significant differences in the way doctoral training programs have developed in particular countries. There is, however, a clear global tendency to follow the programs currently used either in the United States or in Europe. To determine more clearly how US and European PhD programs are both similar and different, we have used a validated questionnaire to analyze biomedical PhD programs in four representative institutions at Vanderbilt University, University of Manitoba, Karolinska Institutet, and Graz Medical University...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Bjarke Brandt Hansen
This PhD thesis is based on three scientific papers. In 2011 the Parker Institute the department of rheumatology introduced standing weight-bearing MRI (G-Scan, ESAOTE, Genova, Italy) in the diagnostic of low back pain patients. Unfortunately, we experienced a substantial risk of fainting (orthostatic syncope) during standing pMRI. In paper 1 we present in an observational study that the risk of fainting (19%) during standing pMRI could almost be eliminated by the use of an external pneumatic compression device (2%)...
October 2017: Danish Medical Journal
Silje Haukali Omland
BCC is an immunogenic tumor highlighted by the increased risk in immunosuppressed individuals and the frequent occurrence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the tumor surroundings. Immunotherapy is evolving as a promising treatment strategy for several cancer types where topical immunostimulators are among the possibilities for superficial BCC. The overall aim of this thesis is to characterize the immunologic response upon BCC as well as characterizing the surrounding tumor stroma. The aim was achieved by the use of a variety of laboratory techniques; immunohistochemistry, immunoflourescence, qRT-PCR and NGS...
October 2017: Danish Medical Journal
Maj Rabjerg
Kidney cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)) is one of the most deadly malignancies due to frequent late diagnosis and poor treatment options. Histologically, RCC embraces a wide variety of different subtypes with the clear cell variant (ccRCC) being the most common, accounting for 75-90% of all RCCs. At present, the surveillance protocols for follow-up of RCC patients after radical nephrectomy are based on the American Joint Committee on Cancers (AJCC) pathological tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification system...
October 2017: Danish Medical Journal
Tove Filtenborg Tvedskov
This thesis is based on 10 original articles, of which 3 were previously included in the PhD thesis "Staging of women with breast cancer after introduction of sentinel node guided axillary dissection". In the PhD thesis is was shown that the introduction of sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) in the treatment of breast cancer in Denmark has resulted in an increased identification of patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (ITC) in the lymph nodes. Not all these small metastases are likely to disseminate to non-sentinel nodes...
October 2017: Danish Medical Journal
Maite Mijan, Rodrigo Guedes de Amorim, Soraya Coelho Leal, Jan Mulder, Luciana Oliveira, Nico H J Creugers, Jo E Frencken
Mw. M. Mijan will defend her PhD thesis on 15th September 2017. Whilst reviewing her work in preparation to the event, we discovered a few irregularities that prompted a recheck of the database and ditto analyses. These activities have lead to a few textual changes in the publication.
October 3, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
Valentina Petkova, Jeffrey Atkinson
Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists) act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm.) degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists) follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Adam Zmysłowski, Arkadiusz Szterk
Due to the fact that one of the main causes of worldwide deaths are directly related to atherosclerosis, scientists are constantly looking for atherosclerotic factors, in an attempt to reduce prevalence of this disease. The most important known pro-atherosclerotic factors include: elevated levels of LDL, low HDL levels, obesity and overweight, diabetes, family history of coronary heart disease and cigarette smoking. Since finding oxidized forms of cholesterol - oxysterols - in lesion in the arteries, it has also been presumed they possess pro-atherosclerotic properties...
October 2, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
Ioatzin Ríos de Anda, Francesco Turci, Richard P Sear, C Patrick Royall
We perform particle resolved experimental studies on the heterogeneous crystallisation process of two component mixtures of hard spheres. The components have a size ratio of 0.39. We compared these with molecular dynamics simulations of homogenous nucleation. We find for both experiments and simulations that the final assemblies are interstitial solid solutions, where the large particles form crystalline close-packed lattices, whereas the small particles occupy random interstitial sites. This interstitial solution resembles that found at equilibrium when the size ratios are 0...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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