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Mesbahi Z, Kabbaj H, Malki E, Bouihat N, Qrafli M, Belfquih B, Marcil S, Challine D, Pawlotsky Jm, Bouvier Alias M, Seffar M
The early detection and genotyping of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important in the management of this infection. The genotype is the major factor influencing treatment decisions. That's why it is necessary to use fast and accurate methods in its determination. This study reports, over a period of 3 years (from May 2012 to July 2015), the percentage of indeterminate genotypes by the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II test and their results using a sequencing technique. Of 309 samples of 309 patients tested, 11 were indeterminate (4...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Tatiana M Souza-Moreira, Geisiany M Queiroz-Fernandes, Rosemeire C L R Pietro
Stryphnodendron spp., popularly known as "barbatimão", is the native Brazilian tree most often employed to treat wounds and infections. The aim of the present study was to highlight the importance of S. adstringens, as well as other Stryphnodendron species recognized as "barbatimão", to human health, depicting the relevance of ethnopharmacological knowledge to scientific evidence for uses, related chemical compounds, development of pharmaceutical formulations, and the establishment of toxicity parameters...
April 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
María Del Mar Fernández, Jurgita Saulyte, Hazel M Inskip, Bahi Takkouche
OBJECTIVE: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a very common disorder worldwide which carries an important economic burden. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis to assess the role of alcohol in the occurrence of PMS. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the five regional bibliographic databases of the WHO, the Proceedings database and the Open Access Thesis and Dissertations (OATD) from inception to May 2017. We also reviewed the references of every article retrieved and established personal contact with researchers to trace further publications or reports...
April 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Philipp Krauter, Christian Zoller, Alwin Kienle
A double anisotropic coherent backscattering cone was found. In contrast to the (single) anisotropic coherent backscattering, which was observed in liquid crystals, here, the long axis of the elongated structures changes its orientation with angular distance. We compared our results with the two-dimensional Fourier transform of spatially resolved reflectance measurements and found good agreement, which is predicted by the reciprocity thesis. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo model was applied to reproduce successfully the results of the experiment, whereas the double anisotropy is not predicted by diffusion models...
April 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Richard Marz
Planning and implementing a new curriculum at the Medical Faculty of the University of Vienna was a bold attempt to use a scientific approach. A curriculum of sequentially presented and departmentally controlled subject areas using oral examinations was replaced with horizontally and vertically integrated organ/function modules. The reform also introduced integrated written year-end examinations, a required research thesis, stronger clinical orientation starting already in the 1st semester and more elective components...
April 12, 2018: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Harald Brüssow
With the explosion of DNA sequencing and information technology, environmental microbiology goes through a big data driven period. In view of the central role of bacteriophages in the development of microbiology and molecular biology and their emerging role in ecosystem functioning, an argument is formulated to complement this trend of complexity inventorisation by a renewed reductionist approach. It is proposed to investigate the interaction of three biological model systems that are naturally linked, namely phage T4 infecting Escherichia coli colonizing the gut of mice, using molecular cell biology techniques at an organismal level...
April 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Florian Schmidsberger, Henriette Löffler-Stastka
BACKGROUND: The current philosophical debate on empathy entails accounts of theory of mind and simulation as well as a phenomenological opposition. The first focuses on a detached observation of others from a 3rd person perspective and formulates the common claim that there is no direct access to the mental and emotional life of others, only simulation or analogy can grant access to the emotions and behaviour of others. The philosophical respectively phenomenological account of Fuchs instead opposes by focusing personal interaction within a 1st or 2nd person perspective claiming that the emotions of others are experienceable through bodily expression and bodily resonance...
April 5, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Jesper Roed Sorensen
Surgery - is it any good for goiter? In patients with goiter the benefits of thyroid surgery have previously rarely been investigated, as only few alternatives existed. However, the increasing evidence of the advantages with non-surgical substitutes with lower costs and preferable risk profiles prompted us to investi-gate the evidence base for thyroid surgery thoroughly. This thesis consists of three published studies investigating the impact of thyroidectomy on: 1) changes in disease-specific quality of life, 2) swallowing symptoms and esophageal motility, and 3) tracheal anatomy and airflow, in a cohort of patients with benign nodular goiter...
April 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Charlotte Holm
Iron deficiency and anaemia in the puerperium are associated with several important clinical consequences, most prominently physical fatigue. Current treatment practice with oral iron supplementation is associated with gastrointestinal side-effects and subsequent poor compliance. Red blood cell transfusion is also widely used to treat severe postpartum anaemia, though accumulating evidence questions its risk-benefit ratio. Intravenous iron has in previous studies been associated with fast improvement of haemoglobin and iron biochemical markers in the treatment of postpartum anaemia, but there is a lack of studies on patient reported outcomes...
April 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Lars Folkestad
Ostegenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary disease of the connective tissue caused by mutations to, mainly, the genes that are involved in the biosynthesis of collagen type 1. Patients are grouped according to clinical severity and mode of inheritance according to Sillence's classification (originally 1979, updated 2014). According to our data, the population prevalence of OI in Denmark was 10.3 per 100,000, with 575 patients registered with an OI diagnosis in the National Patient Register and alive at the end of 2012 out of a total population of 5,602,628 persons...
April 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Kasper Adelborg
Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality with a prevalence of 1%-2% of the adult population. The prognosis is poor with a 5-year mortality rate of 50%, which partly can be attributed to the presence of concomitant comorbidity, including neurological and psychiatric comorbidities. However, the prognostic impact of depression and the role of heart failure as a risk factor for dementia and stroke are not fully understood.
 Denmark is well-known for its unique health registries...
April 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Jørgen Riis Jepsen
Diagnostic consensus criteria cannot be applied in a major proportion of patients with upper limb complaints, many of which are regarded as "non-specific". The three empirical studies in this thesis aimed to address this diagnostic challenge by incorporating representative neurological qualities in the physical examination.
Patterns of muscle weakness, sensory abnormalities and nerve trunk allodynia based on the nerves' topography and their motor and cutaneous innervation were defined to reflect peripheral nerve afflictions and their locations...
April 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Henry Shue
A rejection by current generations of more ambitious mitigation of carbon emissions inflicts on future generations inherently objectionable risks about which they have no choice. Any gains through savings from less ambitious mitigation, which are relatively minor, would accrue to current generations, and all losses, which are relatively major, would fall on future generations. This mitigation gamble is especially unjustifiable because it imposes a risk of unlimited losses until carbon emissions cease. Ultimate physical collapses remain possible...
May 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Arely Anahy Paredes-Chi, María Teresa Castillo-Burguete
Normal schools in Mexico train teachers for basic level education. Classified as Higher Education Institutions, part of their mandate is to conduct scientific research to improve educational quality. Currently, normal school students can meet graduation requirements by either writing a thesis or reporting on professional practice using Participatory Action Research (PAR). Teachers at normal schools have only limited experience in conducting and supervising PAR projects. With the aim of analyzing the situation and addressing this paradox, we used PAR to develop a plan to train normal school teachers in application of PAR methodology...
March 26, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Yu-Rong Liang
The sampling jitter noise is one non-negligible noise source of the digital phasemeter used for space gravitational wave detection missions. This note provides a new method for directly reducing the sampling jitter noise of the digital phasemeter, by adding a dedicated signal of which the frequency, amplitude, and initial phase should be pre-set. In contrast to the phase correction using the pilot-tone in the work of Burnett, Gerberding et al., Liang et al., Ales et al., Gerberding et al., and Ware et al. [M...
March 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Erika Barbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Cláudia Maria Coelho Alves, Luciana Freitas Gomes E Silva, Cecília Cláudia Costa Ribeiro de Almeida, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E Alves, Juliana Balbinot Hilgert, Eliana Marcia da Ros Wendland
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding plays an important role in child health. However, there are doubts about its influence on malocclusions. Systematic reviews have yielded contradictory results. Research aim: This study aimed to investigate whether the type and duration of breastfeeding are associated with malocclusions in primary teething. METHODS: The review strategy included several electronic databases, lists of references, reviews, dissertation and thesis websites, experts, and other relevant documents...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
Mairead Ann Hughes, Susan Frances Knowles, Katie Dhingra, Hannah Louise Nicholson, Peter James Taylor
BACKGROUND: Rates of self-harm and suicide are increasing in young people. The literature suggests that individuals who identify with alternative subcultures (e.g., Goth) may be at a greater risk. OBJECTIVE: To explore the prevalence of self-harm and suicide in alternative subcultures and the factors that might contribute to this increased risk. METHOD: Using a systematic strategy, the databases PsycINFO, Scopus, MEDLINE and Web of Science, and the E-Thesis online service (ETHOS) were searched for English language only papers, with no restrictions in terms of date of publication...
March 25, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
H Nida Sen, Landon Grange, Marib Akanda, Austin Fox
Purpose: To elicit and evaluate opinions in the diagnosis and management of nonparaneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy (npAIR) among members of the American Uveitis Society (AUS) and to further the development of consensus and criteria in the diagnosis and management of npAIR. We hypothesize that despite lack of any clear guidelines, a general consensus in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of npAIR exists among uveitis experts. Methods: A literature review was performed and a panel of uveitis experts was consulted to formulate a survey regarding the diagnosis and management of npAIR...
August 2017: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
Damian Drzyzga, Jacek Lipok
The usefulness of glyphosate [ N -(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as a source of nutritive phosphorus for species of halophilic cyanobacteria has been postulated for years. Our results indicate a stimulating effect of glyphosate on the growth of four out of five examined freshwater species, Anabaena variabilis (CCALA 007), Chroococcus minutus (CCALA 055), Fischerella cf. maior (CCALA 067) and Nostoc cf. muscorum (CCALA 129), in a manner dependent on the applied concentration. The most significant stimulation was observed at a dose of 0...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Niloufar Amintavakoli, Silvia Spivakovsky
Data sourcesPubMed, Web of Science, CINHAL and the Cochrane Library were searched until May 2016. Unpublished data were searched in Pro-Quest Dissertation, Abstracts and Thesis and Google Scholar, supplemented with manual search of the included studies references. No language restriction was used.Study selectionAll types of study designs were included, except case reports, comparing CBCT data with conventional radiographs. The primary outcome was: diagnostic accuracy between modalities, agreement in position, treatment planning and outcome efficacy...
March 23, 2018: Evidence-based Dentistry
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