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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351041/mechanisms-of-retinal-fluid-accumulation-and-blood-retinal-barrier-breakdown
#1
José Cunha-Vaz
Macular edema is the swelling of the central portion of the human retina and it is associated with increased retinal thickness. It can be simply defined as an excess of fluid within the retinal tissue. It must be realized that the normal retina possesses a functional extracellular space. With regard to the extracellular volume of the retina, there have been few physiologic studies, but there are reported values of 24.8% for the cerebrum and 23.6% for the cerebellum. It is accepted that the retinal extracellular space is similar to the brain...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331772/an-automated-gravity-driven-csf-drainage-system-decreases-complications-and-lowers-costs
#2
Robert E Lieberson, Jan Eckermann, William Meyer, Tung Trang
BACKGROUND: FlowSafe(TM) (BeckerSmith Medical, Irvine, CA, USA) is a novel, robotic, external lumbar drainage (ELD) system, which was designed to control cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, reduce complications, and decrease treatment costs. METHODS:  Forty-seven consecutive neurosurgical patients requiring ELD were treated using the FlowSafe system. RESULTS: In 39 of 40 patients with traumatic and surgical dural openings, potential CSF leaks were avoided...
February 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331115/spontaneous-multicentric-soft-tissue-sarcoma-in-a-captive-african-pygmy-hedgehog-atelerix-albiventris-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Josué Díaz-Delgado, Roy Pool, Sharman Hoppes, Argine Cerezo, Óscar Quesada-Canales, George Stoica
This report describes the clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and immunohistological features of a spontaneous multicentric extraskeletal sarcoma in an adult male African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). It also provides a succinct up-to-date review on neoplasia in this species. On autopsy examination, main gross findings included a moderately demarcated cranial mass and a multilobulated, caudal intra-abdominal mass. The cranial mass had perforated the underlying temporal and occipital bones and had extended into the cranial vault and was compressing the surface of the cerebellum and cerebrum...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328116/brain-morphology-in-children-with-nevoid-basal-cell-carcinoma-syndrome
#4
Tadashi Shiohama, Katsunori Fujii, Toshiyuki Miyashita, Hiromi Mizuochi, Hideki Uchikawa, Naoki Shimojo
Brain morphology is tightly regulated by diverse signaling pathways. Hedgehog signaling is a candidate pathway considered responsible for regulating brain morphology. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), caused by a PTCH1 mutation in the hedgehog signaling pathway, occasionally exhibits macrocephaly and medulloblastoma. Although cerebellar enlargement occurs in ptch1 heterozygous-deficient mice, its impact on human brain development remains unknown. We investigated the brain morphological characteristics of children with NBCCS...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321950/the-cerebellum-shrinks-faster-than-normal-ageing-in-alzheimer-s-disease-but-not-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#5
Hossein Tabatabaei-Jafari, Erin Walsh, Marnie E Shaw, Nicolas Cherbuin
BACKGROUND: While acceleration in age-related cerebral atrophy has been well documented in Alzheimer's disease, the cerebellar contributions to this effect have not been thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated cerebellar volume and atrophy rate using magnetic resonance imaging in individuals with normal cognition (CN), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Two hundred twenty-nine CN, 398 MCI and 191 AD participants of stage I ADNI database with screening scans were evaluated for cerebellar volume...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321076/acute-intermittent-porphyria-presenting-with-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-accompanied-by-prolonged-vasoconstriction
#6
Tadayuki Takata, Kodai Kume, Yohei Kokudo, Kazuyo Ikeda, Masaki Kamada, Tetsuo Touge, Kazushi Deguchi, Tsutomu Masaki
A 20-year-old Japanese woman had an attack of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed symmetrical lesions in the cerebrum and cerebellar hemisphere, corresponding to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Our administration of heme arginate gradually improved the clinical condition associated with AIP and the level of metabolite of nitric oxide (NO), which is a vascular dilator. Repeated MRI and magnetic resonance angiography revealed exacerbated PRES, part of which showed a small infarction, accompanied by progressive vasoconstriction...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320202/identification-and-expression-of-equine-mer-derived-mirnas
#7
Jeong-An Gim, Heui-Soo Kim
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded, small RNAs (21-23 nucleotides) that function in gene silencing and translational inhibition via the RNA interference mechanism. Most miRNAs originate from host genomic regions, such as intergenic regions, introns, exons, and transposable elements (TEs). Here, we focused on the palindromic structure of medium reiteration frequencies (MERs), which are similar to precursor miRNAs. Five MER consensus sequences (MER5A1, MER53, MER81, MER91C, and MER117) were matched with paralogous transcripts predicted to be precursor miRNAs in the horse genome (equCab2) and located in either intergenic regions or introns...
March 21, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315866/cerebrospinal-fluid-and-parenchymal-brain-development-and-growth-in-the-healthy-fetus
#8
Nickie N Andescavage, Adre DuPlessis, Robert McCarter, Gilbert Vezina, Richard Robertson, Catherine Limperopoulos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to apply quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to characterize absolute cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) development, as well as its relative development to fetal brain parenchyma in the healthy human fetus. DESIGN: We created three-dimensional high-resolution reconstructions of the developing brain for healthy fetuses between 18 and 40 weeks' gestation, segmented the parenchymal and CSF spaces, and calculated the volumes for the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles; extra-axial CSF space; and the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314818/allometric-analysis-detects-brain-size-independent-effects-of-sex-and-sex-chromosome-complement-on-human-cerebellar-organization
#9
Catherine Mankiw, Min Tae M Park, P K Reardon, Ari M Fish, Liv S Clasen, Deanna Greenstein, Jay N Giedd, Jonathan D Blumenthal, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty, Armin Raznahan
The cerebellum is a large hindbrain structure that is increasingly recognized for its contribution to diverse domains of cognitive and affective processing in human health and disease. Although several of these domains are sex-biased, our fundamental understanding of cerebellar sex differences - including their spatial distribution, potential biological determinants, and independence from brain volume variation - lags far behind that for the cerebrum. Here, we harness automated neuroimaging methods for cerebellar morphometrics in 417 individuals to (i) localize normative male-female differences in raw cerebellar volume, (ii) compare these to sex chromosome effects estimated across five rare X-/Y-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) syndromes, and (iii) clarify brain size-independent effects of sex and SCA on cerebellar anatomy using a generalizable allometric approach which considers scaling relationships between regional cerebellar volume and brain volume in health...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302607/brain-development-in-fetuses-of-mothers-with-diabetes-a-case-control-mr-imaging-study
#10
F C Denison, G Macnaught, S I K Semple, G Terris, J Walker, D Anblagan, A Serag, R M Reynolds, J P Boardman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Offspring exposed to maternal diabetes are at increased risk of neurocognitive impairment, but its origins are unknown. With MR imaging, we investigated the feasibility of comprehensive assessment of brain metabolism ((1)H-MRS), microstructure (DWI), and macrostructure (structural MRI) in third-trimester fetuses in women with diabetes and determined normal ranges for the MR imaging parameters measured. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with singleton pregnancies with diabetes (n = 26) and healthy controls (n = 26) were recruited prospectively for MR imaging studies between 34 and 38 weeks' gestation...
March 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295824/wavelet-entropy-of-bold-time-series-an-application-to-rolandic-epilepsy
#11
Lalit Gupta, Jacobus F A Jansen, Paul A M Hofman, René M H Besseling, Anton J A de Louw, Albert P Aldenkamp, Walter H Backes
PURPOSE: To assess the wavelet entropy for the characterization of intrinsic aberrant temporal irregularities in the time series of resting-state blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. Further, to evaluate the temporal irregularities (disorder/order) on a voxel-by-voxel basis in the brains of children with Rolandic epilepsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The BOLD time series was decomposed using the discrete wavelet transform and the wavelet entropy was calculated...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279623/cortical-thickness-reduction-in-combat-exposed-u-s-veterans-with-and-without-ptsd
#12
Kristen M Wrocklage, Lynnette A Averill, J Cobb Scott, Christopher L Averill, Brian Schweinsburg, Marcia Trejo, Alicia Roy, Valerie Weisser, Christopher Kelly, Brenda Martini, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Steven M Southwick, John H Krystal, Chadi G Abdallah
We investigated the extent of cortical thinning in U.S. Veterans exposed to combat who varied in the severity of their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. In addition, we explored the neural correlates of PTSD symptom dimensions and the interactive effects of combat exposure and PTSD upon cortical thickness. Sixty-nine combat exposed Veterans completed high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to estimate cortical thickness. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and Combat Exposure Scale (CES) assessments were completed to measure current PTSD and historical combat severity, respectively...
March 6, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277546/decerebrate-mouse-model-for-studies-of-the-spinal-cord-circuits
#13
Claire F Meehan, Kyle A Mayr, Marin Manuel, Stan T Nakanishi, Patrick J Whelan
The adult decerebrate mouse model (a mouse with the cerebrum removed) enables the study of sensory-motor integration and motor output from the spinal cord for several hours without compromising these functions with anesthesia. For example, the decerebrate mouse is ideal for examining locomotor behavior using intracellular recording approaches, which would not be possible using current anesthetized preparations. This protocol describes the steps required to achieve a low-blood-loss decerebration in the mouse and approaches for recording signals from spinal cord neurons with a focus on motoneurons...
April 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276710/effects-of-vanillin-on-potassium-bromate-induced-neurotoxicity-in-adult-mice-impact-on-behavior-oxidative-stress-genes-expression-inflammation-and-fatty-acid-composition
#14
Hajer Ben Saad, Nadia Kharrat, Dorra Driss, Manel Gargouri, Rim Marrakchi, Kamel Jammoussi, Christian Magné, Tahia Boudawara, Samia Ellouz Chaabouni, Khaled Mounir Zeghal, Ahmed Hakim, Ibtissem Ben Amara
CONTEXT: Vanillin is known to possess important antioxidant activity. OBJECTIVE: The current study was conducted to establish the therapeutic efficiency of vanillin against potassium bromate (KBrO3)-induced depression-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mice were exposed during 15 days either to potassium bromate (KBrO3), KBrO3+ vanillin or to only vanillin. RESULTS: Our results revealed a significant modification in the fatty acid composition of the KBrO3-treated mice...
February 26, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275879/enhanced-expression-of-serotonin-receptor-5-hydroxytryptamine-2c-is-associated-with-increased-feather-damage-in-dongxiang-blue-shelled-layers
#15
Junfeng Yao, Xiaoliang Wang, Huangxiang Yan, Xia Cai, Min Wang, Yingying Tu, Changsuo Yang
The gene encoding the serotonin receptor 5-hydroxytraptamine 2C (HTR2C) has been implicated in behavioral phenotypes in a number of species. In previous studies, a mutation in the chicken HTR2C gene was found to be associated with feather condition, thereby suggesting a relationship between the gene and receiving feather pecking activity. The present study analyzed the chicken HTR2C gene at both the genomic make-up and expression level in Dongxiang blue-shelled layer. A significant association between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13640917 (C/T) and feather condition was confirmed in the Chinese local layer...
March 9, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273502/ruptured-berry-aneurysm-with-minimal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#16
Tyler J Gardner, Joseph A Prahlow
Cerebral artery aneurysm rupture is usually associated with significant subarachnoid hemorrhage; however, there are rare cases where there is a lack of hemorrhage into the subarachnoid space. While subdural hemorrhage can occur with ruptured aneurysms, isolated subdural hemorrhage is more often associated with trauma. In this case, a 51-year-old obese woman, who recently visited an Urgent Care Center for elevated blood pressure, was found dead roughly a month later. She had been complaining of headaches, and received medication for her blood pressure at the visit...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256303/polyphenol-rich-fraction-of-parquetina-nigrescens-mitigates-dichlorvos-induced-neurotoxicity-and-apoptosis
#17
Grace Onyeche Ochigbo, Adebowale Bernard Saba, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, Ebunoluwa Racheal Asenuga
BACKGROUND: Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel.) Bullock of the family Asclepiadaceae is known for its antioxidant effects with wide range of uses in Southwestern Nigeria especially in traditional medicine. This study was undertaken to explore if polyphenol-rich fraction (prf) from P. nigrescens will ameliorate dichlorvos-induced neurotoxicity and apoptosis. The exploration utilized evaluation of markers of oxidative stress, apoptosis and serum acetylcholinesterase (AchE) levels. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats randomly placed in four groups were utilized for the study...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243099/abnormalities-of-localized-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-patients-and-their-unaffected-relatives-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#18
Bo Xiao, Shuai Wang, Jianbo Liu, Tiantian Meng, Yuqiong He, Xuerong Luo
OBJECTIVE: The localized dysfunction of specialized brain regions in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected relatives has been identified in a large-scale brain network; however, evidence is inconsistent. We aimed to identify abnormalities in the localized connectivity in schizophrenia patients and their relatives by conducting a meta-analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo) studies. METHODS: Fourteen studies on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, with 316 schizophrenia patients, 342 healthy controls, and 66 unaffected relatives, were included in the meta-analysis...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242728/what-stops-a-saccade
#19
REVIEW
Lance M Optican, Elena Pretegiani
Rapid movements to a target are ballistic; they usually do not last long enough for visual feedback about errors to influence them. Yet, the brain is not simply precomputing movement trajectory. Classical models of movement control involve a feedback loop that subtracts 'where we are now' from 'where we want to be'. That difference is an internal motor error. The feedback loop reduces this error until it reaches zero, stopping the movement. However, neurophysiological studies have shown that movements controlled by the cerebrum (e...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240946/interictal-diffusion-and-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-cats-with-familial-spontaneous-epilepsy
#20
Shunta Mizoguchi, Daisuke Hasegawa, Yuji Hamamoto, Yoshihiko Yu, Takayuki Kuwabara, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Michio Fujita
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion and perfusion MRI of the cerebrum in cats with familial spontaneous epilepsy (FSECs) and identify microstructural and functional deficit zones in affected cats. ANIMALS 19 FSECs and 12 healthy cats. PROCEDURES Diffusion-weighted, diffusion tensor, and perfusion-weighted MRI of the cerebrum were performed during interictal periods in FSECs. Imaging findings were compared between FSECs and control cats. Diffusion (apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy) and perfusion (relative cerebral blood volume [rCBV], relative cerebral blood flow [rCBF], and mean transit time) variables were measured bilaterally in the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, parietal cortex gray matter, and subcortical white matter...
March 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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