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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548612/multiple-sclerosis-serum-anti-cns-autoantibodies
#1
John W Prineas, John D E Parratt
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether there are autoantibodies detectable by indirect immunofluorescence in the serum of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there are anti-central nervous system (CNS) autoantibodies detectable by indirect immunofluorescence in the serum of MS patients. METHODS: Sera and in some cases cerebrospinal fluid from 106 patients with multiple sclerosis, 156 patients with other neurological diseases, and 70 healthy control subjects were examined by indirect immunofluorescence using cryostat sections of rat cerebrum fixed by perfusion with paraformaldehyde...
May 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545192/atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-of-brain-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-eleven-patients-and-review-of-literature
#2
Nasir Ud Din, Abrar Barakzai, Aisha Memon, Sheema Hasan, Zubair Ahmad
Background: Atypical teratoid/ rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare aggressive embryonal central nervous system (CNS) tumor of infancy and early childhood. Majority of the cases arise in the posterior fossa, and remaining in the cerebrum. Aims: To analyze the clinicopathologic features of AT/RT on a cohort of cases. Materials and methods: All reported cases of AT/RT at the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) from 2007 to 2016 were reviewed for clinical and pathological features...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535436/microcystin-lr-induces-changes-in-the-gaba-neurotransmitter-system-of-zebrafish
#3
Wei Yan, Li Li, Guangyu Li, Sujuan Zhao
It has been reported that exposure to microcystins altered adult zebrafish swimming performance parameters, but the possible mechanisms of action remain unknown. Neuronal activity depends on the balance between the number of excitatory and inhibitory processes which are associated with neurotransmitters. In the present study, zebrafish embryos (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30μg/L (microcystin-LR) MCLR for 90day until reaching sexual maturity. To investigate the effects of MCLR on the neurotransmitter system, mRNA levels involved in amino acid g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate metabolic pathways were tested using quantitative real-time PCR...
May 15, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535250/evidence-for-the-deregulation-of-protein-turnover-pathways-in-atm-deficient-mouse-cerebellum-an-organotypic-study
#4
Catherine D Kim, Ryan E Reed, Meredith A Juncker, Zhide Fang, Shyamal D Desai
Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), an antagonist of the ubiquitin pathway, is elevated in cells and brain tissues obtained from ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) patients. Previous studies reveal that an elevated ISG15 pathway inhibits ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, leading to activation of basal autophagy as a compensatory mechanism for protein turnover in A-T cells. Also, genotoxic stress (ultraviolet [UV] radiation) deregulates autophagy and induces aberrant degradation of ubiquitylated proteins in A-T cells...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529273/septicemic-invasive-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection-in-a-cynomolgus-monkey-macaca-fascicularis-with-severe-diffused-suppurative-meningoencephalitis
#5
Kazufumi Kasuya, Kou Takayama, Makiko Bito, Natsumi Shimokubo, Ryosuke Kawashima, Tomoyuki Shibahara
A 2-year-old male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) showed neurological symptoms during quarantine for importation into Japan, and was euthanized due to poor prognosis. Gross anatomical examination revealed a hemorrhagic lesion around the lateral ventricle in the cerebrum. Histologically, severe diffused suppurative meningitis and ventriculitis were detected with numerous Gram-negative bacilli in the cerebrum. Immunohistochemically, the bacilli were positively stained with an antibody against Klebsiella pneumoniae...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507318/cerebellar-volume-and-cerebellocerebral-structural-covariance-in-schizophrenia-a-multisite-mega-analysis-of-983-patients-and-1349-healthy-controls
#6
T Moberget, N T Doan, D Alnæs, T Kaufmann, A Córdova-Palomera, T V Lagerberg, J Diedrichsen, E Schwarz, M Zink, S Eisenacher, P Kirsch, E G Jönsson, H Fatouros-Bergman, L Flyckt, G Pergola, T Quarto, A Bertolino, D Barch, A Meyer-Lindenberg, I Agartz, O A Andreassen, L T Westlye
Although cerebellar involvement across a wide range of cognitive and neuropsychiatric phenotypes is increasingly being recognized, previous large-scale studies in schizophrenia (SZ) have primarily focused on supratentorial structures. Hence, the across-sample reproducibility, regional distribution, associations with cerebrocortical morphology and effect sizes of cerebellar relative to cerebral morphological differences in SZ are unknown. We addressed these questions in 983 patients with SZ spectrum disorders and 1349 healthy controls (HCs) from 14 international samples, using state-of-the-art image analysis pipelines optimized for both the cerebellum and the cerebrum...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496038/methylmercury-induces-hyaluronan-synthesis-in-cultured-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-and-pericytes-via-different-mechanisms
#7
Takashi Hirooka, Eiko Yoshida, Komyo Eto, Toshiyuki Kaji
In a cerebrum damaged by methylmercury, where neuropathological lesions tend to localize along deep sulci and fissures, edematous changes in white matter have been proposed as the cause of such localization. Since hyaluronan has a high water-retention capability and can contribute to the progression of edematous changes, we hypothesize that methylmercury increases hyaluronan in brain microvascular cells. Our experimental results indicate that methylmercury induces the expression of hyaluronan in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes through the induction of expressed UDP-glucose dehydrogenase and hyaluronan synthase 2, respectively...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489966/acrylamide-induced-disturbance-of-the-redox-balance-in-the-chick-embryonic-brain
#8
Marta Batoryna, Marcin Lis, Grzegorz Formicki
This study was undertaken to determine the redox balance in the developing brain after exposure to acrylamide (ACR), a potent neurotoxin. The studies were performed using an in ovo chick embryo model. The antioxidant enzymes SOD, GPx, CAT, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were used as indicators of the redox balance. Eggs were injected with ACR doses of 40 mg kg(-1) egg mass (2.4 mg egg(-1)) on embryonic day 17 (E17). The activity of the antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of GSH were measured at E17, E18, and E19 in the medulla oblongata, cerebrum, cerebellum, and optic lobe...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489004/analogous-mechanism-regulating-formation-of-neocortical-basal-radial-glia-and-cerebellar-bergmann-glia
#9
Xin Heng, Qiuxia Guo, Alan W Leung, James Yh Li
Neocortical basal radial glia (bRG) and cerebellar Bergmann glia (BG) are basal progenitors derived from ventricular apical radial glia (aRG) that selectively lose their apical processes. bRG and BG have been implicated in the expansion and folding of the cerebrum and cerebellum, respectively. Here, we analyzed the molecular characteristics and development of bRG and BG. Transcriptomic comparison revealed striking similarity of the molecular features of bRG and BG. We found that heightened ERK signaling activity in aRG is tightly linked to the temporal formation and the relative abundance of bRG in human and mouse cortices...
May 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484279/diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-of-microstructural-alterations-in-the-brains-of-paediatric-patients-with-congenital-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#10
Wenbin Zheng, Chunxiao Wu, Lexing Huang, Renhua Wu
Our aim was to assess microstructural alterations in the cerebrums of paediatric patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). Seventy-two paediatric SNHL patients and 38 age-matched healthy volunteers were examined via DKI using a 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) imager. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean kurtosis (MK) values were computed for 12 cerebral regions in both the controls and the SNHL patients. Compared with patients below age 3, patients in the older age group were found to have more significant differences in MK than in FA, and these appeared in more major areas of the brain...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463793/caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-protects-the-brain-against-hexavalent-chromium-toxicity-by-enhancing-endogenous-antioxidants-and-modulating-the-jak-stat-signaling-pathway
#11
Ayman M Mahmoud, Sanaa M Abd El-Twab
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is commonly used in industry, and is a proven toxin and carcinogen. However, the information regarding its neurotoxic mechanism is not completely understood. The present study was designed to scrutinize the possible protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a bioactive phenolic of propolis extract, on Cr(VI)-induced brain injury in rats, with an emphasis on the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Rats received 2mg/kgK2CrO4 and concurrently treated with 20mg/kg CAPE for 30 days...
April 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462034/virtual-reconstruction-of-the-endocranial-anatomy-of-the-early-jurassic-marine-crocodylomorph-pelagosaurus-typus-thalattosuchia
#12
Stephanie E Pierce, Megan Williams, Roger B J Benson
Thalattosuchians were highly specialised aquatic archosaurs of the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, and represent a peak of aquatic adaptation among crocodylomorphs. Relatively little is known of their endocranial anatomy or its relevance for the evolution of sensory systems, physiology, and other aspects of biology. Nevertheless, such data have significance for two reasons: (1) thalattosuchians represent an important data point regarding adaptation to marine life in tetrapods; and (2) as early-diverging members of the crocodylian stem-lineage, thalattosuchians provide information on the evolutionary assembly of the brain and other endocranial structures in crocodylomorphs...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454880/expression-of-negative-immune-regulatory-molecules-pro-inflammatory-chemokine-and-cytokines-in-immunopathology-of-ecm-developing-mice
#13
Ashwin V Khandare, Deepali Bobade, Mangesh Deval, Tushar Patil, Bhaskar Saha, D Prakash
The pathological events in human cerebral malaria are mimicked in the experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PBA)-infected C57BL/6 mice. Although previously implied in ECM, the kinetics of cytokines and chemokines expression-an essential functional feature for defining causality in ECM development-remained untested. Herein, we characterized the immunopathological changes and the expression of negative immune regulatory molecules, cytokines and chemokines through asymptomatic (3days after infection, 3dpi), symptomatic (5dpi) and ECM (7dpi) stages in PBA-infected C57BL/6 mice...
April 25, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450941/rapidly-progressive-rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis-in-a-patient-with-type-2-diabetes-a-case-report
#14
Yan-Xia Chen, Yin-Xi He, Hong Zhou, Mian Wang, Sheng-Ou Su
With the ongoing economic development, lifestyle changes and an aging population, diabetes mellitus has be come one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the world. Rhino-orbito-cerebral (ROC) mucormycosis is a rare, acute and angioinvasive fungal infection that can be fatal. Mucormycosis occurs exclusively in immunocompromised patients with diabetes mellitus and other types of immunodeficiency and has three subtypes: Rhino-maxillary, rhino-orbital and ROC mucormycosis. The present study reported on a case of ROC mucormycosis in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450267/retinal-changes-in-the-tg-swdi-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Fred G Oliveira-Souza, Marci L DeRamus, Thomas van Groen, Alexis E Lambert, Mark S Bolding, Christianne E Strang
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a debilitating neurodegenerative illness, is characterized by neuronal cell loss, mental deficits, and abnormalities in several neurotransmitter and protein systems. AD is also associated with visual disturbances, but their causes remain unidentified. We hypothesize that the visual disturbances stem from retinal changes, particularly changes in the retinal cholinergic system, and that the etiology in the retina parallels the etiology in the rest of the brain. To test our hypothesis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were employed to assess changes in acetylcholine receptor (AChR) gene expression, number of retinal cells, and astrocytic gliosis in the Transgenic Swedish, Dutch and Iowa (Tg-SwDI) mouse model as compared to age-matched wild-type (WT)...
April 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443270/brain-lesions-among-orally-fed-and-gastrostomy-fed-dysphagic-preterm-infants-can-routine-qualitative-or-volumetric-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-predict-feeding-outcomes
#16
Nasser H Kashou, Irfaan A Dar, Mohamed A El-Mahdy, Charles Pluto, Mark Smith, Ish K Gulati, Warren Lo, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
INTRODUCTION: The usefulness of qualitative or quantitative volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early detection of brain structural changes and prediction of adverse outcomes in neonatal illnesses warrants further investigation. Our aim was to correlate certain brain injuries and the brain volume of feeding-related cortical and subcortical regions with feeding method at discharge among preterm dysphagic infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a retrospective observational study design, we examined MRI data among 43 (22 male; born at 31...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429407/spinal-cord-injury-induces-widespread-chronic-changes-in-cerebral-white-matter
#17
Tero Ilvesmäki, Eerika Koskinen, Antti Brander, Teemu Luoto, Juha Öhman, Hannu Eskola
Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) lead to axonal damage at the trauma site, as well as disconnections within the central nervous system. While the exact mechanisms of the long-term pathophysiological consequences of SCIs are not fully understood, it is known that neuronal damage and degeneration are not limited to the direct proximity of the trauma. Instead, the effects can be detected even in the cerebrum. We examined SCI-induced chronic brain changes with a case-control design using 32 patients and 70 control subjects...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428014/concussion-induces-focal-and-widespread-neuromorphological-changes
#18
Dafna Sussman, Leodante da Costa, Mallar M Chakravarty, Elizabeth W Pang, Margot J Taylor, Benjamin T Dunkley
Concussion induces transient, and oftentimes chronic, lingering impairment to mental functioning, which must be driven by some underlying neurobiological perturbation - however, the physical changes related to sequelae are difficult to detect. Previous imaging studies on concussion have focused on alterations to cortical anatomy, but few have examined the cerebrum, subcortex, and cerebellum. Here, we present an analysis of these structures in a single cohort (all males, 21 patients, 22 controls) using MRI and diagnosed with a single-concussive episode in the acute and sub-acute stages of injury...
April 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425516/mechanical-and-vibrational-characterization-of-amyloid-like-het-s-nanosheets-based-on-the-skewed-plate-theory
#19
Hyun Joon Chang, Myeongsang Lee, Jae In Kim, Gwonchan Yoon, Sungsoo Na
Pathological amyloidogenic prion proteins have a toxic effect on functional cells in the human cerebrum because of poor degradability and the tendency to accumulate in an uncontrolled manner under physiological conditions. HET-s, a fungal prion protein, is known to undergo conformational variations from fibrillar to nanosheet structures during a change from low to high pH conditions. It has been said that this conformational change can lead to self-propagation by nucleating on the lateral surface of singlet fibrils...
April 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392367/six-gu-rich-6gur-fus-binding-motifs-detected-by-normalization-of-clip-seq-by-nascent-seq
#20
Jun-Ichi Takeda, Akio Masuda, Kinji Ohno
FUS, an RNA-binding protein (RBP), is mutated or abnormally regulated in neurodegenerative disorders. FUS regulates various aspects of RNA metabolisms. FUS-binding sites are rich in GU contents and are highly degenerative. FUS-binding motifs of GGU, GGUG, GUGGU and CGCGC have been previously reported. These motifs, however, are applicable to a small fraction of FUS-binding sites. As CLIP-seq tags are enriched in genes that are highly expressed, we normalized CLIP-seq tags by Nascent-seq tags or RNA-seq tags of mouse N2a cells...
June 30, 2017: Gene
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