Read by QxMD icon Read


Richard Lindqvist, Chaitanya Kurhade, Jonathan D Gilthorpe, Anna K Överby
BACKGROUND: Flaviviruses are a group of diverse and emerging arboviruses and an immense global health problem. A number of flaviviruses are neurotropic, causing severe encephalitis and even death. Type I interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense of the innate immune system against flavivirus infection. IFNs elicit the concerted action of numerous interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) to restrict both virus infection and replication. Viperin (virus-inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, IFN-inducible) is an ISG with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multiple flaviviruses in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Mahmod Panahi, Naeimeh Yousefi Mesri, Eva-Britt Samuelsson, Kirsten G Coupland, Charlotte Forsell, Caroline Graff, Saara Tikka, Bengt Winblad, Matti Viitanen, Helena Karlström, Erik Sundström, Homira Behbahani
Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familial fatal progressive degenerative disorder. One of the pathological hallmarks of CADASIL is a dramatic reduction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in cerebral arteries. Using VSMCs from the vasculature of the human umbilical cord, placenta and cerebrum of CADASIL patients, we found that CADASIL VSMCs had a lower proliferation rate compared to control VSMCs. Exposure of control VSMCs and endothelial cells (ECs) to media derived from CADASIL VSMCs lowered the proliferation rate of all cells examined...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Andreas Pfrommer, Anke Henning
PURPOSE: The ultimate intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (UISNR) represents an upper bound for the achievable SNR of any receive coil. To reach this threshold a complete basis set of equivalent surface currents is required. This study systematically investigated to what extent either loop- or dipole-like current patterns are able to reach the UISNR threshold in a realistic human head model between 1.5 T and 11.7 T. Based on this analysis, we derived guidelines for coil designers to choose the best array element at a given field strength...
March 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Nobuo Yamashiro, Takamura Nagasaka, Naoki Ooishi, Mai Tsuchiya, Ryusuke Takaki, Fumikazu Kobayashi, Kazumasa Shindo, Yoshihisa Takiyama
We report here the clinical presentation and subsequent autopsy of a 90-year-old man who developed small papules with pain and swelling in his right ear. On admission, he exhibited right facial nerve paralysis, neck stiffness and Kernig's sign. The cell count was elevated and the varicella-zoster virus-PCR was positive in the CSF. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions in the left pons and left temporal lobe, in FLAIR images. We diagnosed the patient with Ramsay Hunt syndrome and meningoencephalitis due to varicella-zoster virus...
March 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
G Conte, S Milani, G Palumbo, G Talenti, S Boito, M Rustico, F Triulzi, A Righini, G Izzo, C Doneda, A Zolin, C Parazzini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evaluation of biometry is a fundamental step in prenatal brain MR imaging. While different studies have reported reference centiles for MR imaging biometric data of fetuses in the late second and third trimesters of gestation, no one has reported them in fetuses in the early second trimester. We report centiles of normal MR imaging linear biometric data of a large cohort of fetal brains within 24 weeks of gestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the data bases of 2 referral centers of fetal medicine, accounting for 3850 examinations, we retrospectively collected 169 prenatal brain MR imaging examinations of singleton pregnancies, between 20 and 24 weeks of gestational age, with normal brain anatomy at MR imaging and normal postnatal neurologic development...
March 8, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Kei Zaitsu, Yumi Hayashi, Tasuku Murata, Kazumi Yokota, Tomomi Ohara, Maiko Kusano, Hitoshi Tsuchihashi, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Akira Ishii, Koretsugu Ogata, Hiroshi Tanihata
Recent improvements in ambient ionization techniques combined with mass spectrometry has enabled to achieve real-time monitoring of analytes of interest, even for biogenic molecules in living animals. Here, we demonstrate a newly-developed system for in vivo real-time monitoring of metabolites in a living mouse brain. It consists of a semi-automated manipulation system and a unique probe electrospray ionization unit, which uses an extremely thin solid needle (tip dia.: 700 nm) for direct sampling and ionization, coupled to a conventional tandem mass spectrometer...
March 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Mahdi Haghighatafshar, Mehrnaz Ghaedian, Zahra Etemadi, Seyed M Entezarmahdi, Tahereh Ghaedian
OBJECTIVE: Although different methods have been suggested on reducing salivary gland radiation after radioiodine administration, an effective preventive or therapeutic measure is still up for debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pilocarpine, as a sialagogue drug on the radioiodine content of the salivary gland, and radioiodine-induced symptoms of salivary gland dysfunction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who were referred for radioiodine therapy were randomized into pilocarpine and placebo groups...
March 6, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Shoko Merrit Yamada, Yusuke Tomita, Soichiro Shibui, Mikiko Takahashi, Masashi Kawamoto, Sumihito Nobusawa, Junko Hirato
Astroblastoma is a rare tumor that is thought to occur exclusively in the cerebrum. To the authors' knowledge, no cases of spinal cord astroblastoma have been reported. A 20-year-old woman presented with numbness in her legs. MRI demonstrated a 2-cm intramedullary enhancing lesion in the spinal cord at the T-1 level. The patient declined to undergo resection of the tumor because she was able to walk unassisted; however, she returned for surgery 1 month later because she had developed paraplegia with bladder and rectal dysfunction, and MRI showed enlargement of the tumor...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Lucy V Hiscox, Curtis L Johnson, Matthew D J McGarry, Michael Perrins, Aimee Littlejohn, Edwin J R van Beek, Neil Roberts, John M Starr
Volumetric structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to determine the extent of neuronal loss in aging, indicated by cerebral atrophy. The brain, however, exhibits other biophysical characteristics such as mechanical properties, which can be quantified with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). MRE is an emerging noninvasive imaging technique for measuring viscoelastic tissue properties, proven to be sensitive metrics of neural tissue integrity, as described by shear stiffness, μ and damping ratio, and ξ parameters...
February 6, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Swetha Chintapanti, K Pratap Reddy, P Sreenivasula Reddy
The present study evaluated the protective effects of Centella asiatica (CA) leaf extract on behavioral deficits and neurotoxicity in adult rat exposed to lead during perinatal period. Adult Wistar rats were exposed to 0.15% lead acetate (Pb) from gestation day 6 through drinking water and the pups were exposed lactationally to Pb till weaning. Significant perturbations in locomotor activity and exploratory behavior were observed in rats exposed to Pb during perinatal period. The levels of lipid peroxidation increased significantly with a reduction in levels of glutathione and activity levels of acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant enzymes in hippocampus, cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla of brains excised from Pb-exposed rats...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lei Pei, Jingjing Xu, Minming Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlation between the number of previous gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations and high signal intensity (SI) in the cerebrum nucleus on unenhanced T1 -weighted magnetic resonance images. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients who previously underwent at least three contrast-enhanced brain MRI examinations were enrolled in the study. The right globus pallidus, right thalamus, right dentate nucleus, pons and white matter of right frontal lobe were selected as region of interests (ROI)...
May 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Michele Patrizii, Monica Bartucci, Sharon R Pine, Hatem E Sabaawy
Despite substantial effort and resources dedicated to drug discovery and development, new anticancer agents often fail in clinical trials. Among many reasons, the lack of reliable predictive preclinical cancer models is a fundamental one. For decades, immortalized cancer cell cultures have been used to lay the groundwork for cancer biology and the quest for therapeutic responses. However, cell lines do not usually recapitulate cancer heterogeneity or reveal therapeutic resistance cues. With the rapidly evolving exploration of cancer "omics," the scientific community is increasingly investigating whether the employment of short-term patient-derived tumor cell cultures (two- and three-dimensional) and/or patient-derived xenograft models might provide a more representative delineation of the cancer core and its therapeutic response...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Danuta M Lisiecka-Ford, Daniel J Tozer, Robin G Morris, Andrew J Lawrence, Thomas R Barrick, Hugh S Markus
INTRODUCTION: Apathy is a common yet under-recognised feature of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), but its underlying neurobiological basis is not yet understood. We hypothesized that damage to the reward network is associated with an increase of apathy in patients with SVD. METHODS: In 114 participants with symptomatic SVD, defined as a magnetic resonance imaging confirmed lacunar stroke and confluent white matter hyperintensities, we used diffusion tensor imaging tractography to derive structural brain networks and graph theory to determine network efficiency...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
D Ito, C Ishikawa, N D Jeffery, K Ono, M Tsuboi, K Uchida, O Yamato, M Kitagawa
A 13-month-old female Toy Poodle was presented for progressive ataxia and intention tremors of head movement. The diagnosis of Sandhoff's disease (GM2 gangliosidosis) was confirmed by deficient β-N-acetylhexosaminidase A and B activity in circulating leukocytes and identification of the homozygous mutation (HEXB: c.283delG). White matter in the cerebrum and cerebellum was hyperintense on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images. Over the next 2 years, the white matter lesions expanded, and bilateral lesions appeared in the cerebellum and thalamus, associated with clinical deterioration...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Jonathan G Beckwith, Wei Zhao, Songbai Ji, Amaris G Ajamil, Richard P Bolander, Jeffrey J Chu, Thomas W McAllister, Joseph J Crisco, Stefan M Duma, Steven Rowson, Steven P Broglio, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Jason P Mihalik, Scott Anderson, Brock Schnebel, P Gunnar Brolinson, Michael W Collins, Richard M Greenwald
Kinematic measurements of head impacts are sensitive to sports concussion, but not highly specific. One potential reason is these measures reflect input conditions only and may have varying degrees of correlation to regional brain tissue deformation. In this study, previously reported head impact data recorded in the field from high school and collegiate football players were analyzed using two finite element head models (FEHM). Forty-five impacts associated with immediately diagnosed concussion were simulated along with 532 control impacts without identified concussion obtained from the same players...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Kotaro Hama, Yuko Fujiwara, Masashi Morita, Fumiyoshi Yamazaki, Yuko Nakashima, Shiro Takei, Shigeo Takashima, Mitsutoshi Setou, Nobuyuki Shimozawa, Tsuneo Imanaka, Kazuaki Yokoyama
ABCD1 is a gene responsible for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), and is critical for the transport of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) into peroxisomes and subsequent β-oxidation. VLCFA-containing lipids accumulate in X-ALD patients, although the effect of ABCD1-deficiency on each lipid species in the central nervous system has not been fully characterized. In this study, each phospholipid and lysophospholipid species in Abcd1-deficient mice brains were profiled by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
February 22, 2018: Lipids
Duygu Has Şimşek, Yasemin Şanlı, Serkan Kuyumcu, Bora Başaran, Ayşe Mudun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to present our experience in the baseline evaluation of carotid body paragangliomas (CBP) with68 Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT. METHODS: Five patients (4F, 1M; age 24-73 years) with CBPs who underwent68 Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT scan before the treatment were evaluated retrospectively. PET-CT images were analyzed visually as well as semiquantitatively, with measurement of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax ). RESULTS: All patients had unilateral CBP lesion, showed intense68 Ga-DOTATATE uptake in PET-CT...
February 21, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Tsai-Teng Tzeng, Chien-Chih Chen, Chin-Chu Chen, Huey-Jen Tsay, Li-Ya Lee, Wan-Ping Chen, Chien-Chang Shen, Young-Ji Shiao
Hericium erinaceus was used in traditional Chinese medicine for physiologically beneficial medicines. Recently, it has become a candidate in causing positive brain health-related activities. We previously reported that Hericium erinaceus mycelium ameliorates Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathologies. To reveal the role of the cyanthin diterpenoid and sesterterpene constituents on this effects, erinacine A and S were isolated and their effects on attenuating AD-related pathology in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were investigated...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
A Caipa, M Alomar, S Bashir
The application of medications with a well-defined mode of action on a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator of the central nervous system (CNS) can be utilized to test the pharmaco-physiological properties of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on cortical excitability and plasticity. Similarly, a physiologically well-defined TMS measure of cortical excitability may be exploited to study a particular drug's effect at the level of the cerebrum. In this review, we aim to assess the impact of calcium channel blockers, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), and GABAergic agents on cortical excitability and plasticity while concurrently investigating how TMS can enhance this understanding...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Mari Inohana, Ayumi Eguchi, Misato Nakamura, Rei Nagahara, Yosuke Watanabe, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
We describe a case of choroid plexus carcinoma arising in the cerebrum of a 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rat. The tumor mass occupied the right lateral ventricle of the cerebrum. Histological analyses revealed that the epithelial tumor cells had proliferated in tubular, cribriform, papillary and solid growth patterns in the vicinity of the choroid plexus, with slight invasion into the cerebrum parenchyma. We divided the tumor cells into cuboidal, elongated and intermediate cells. Immunohistochemical studies showed that these tumor cells expressed relatively high levels of cytokeratin AE1/AE3, vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic proteins, and low levels of nestin, oligodendrocyte transcription factor and doublecortin proteins...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"