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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773187/gd-accumulation-in-tissues-of-healthy-mice-upon-repeated-administrations-of-gadodiamide-and-gadoteridol
#1
Enza Di Gregorio, Rebecca Iani, Giuseppe Ferrauto, Raffaele Nuzzi, Silvio Aime, Eliana Gianolio
The aim of this work was to investigate, by five different administration protocols, the impact of the dosage, the time passed after the last injection and the frequency of injections, on accumulation and distribution of Gd-containing species in the body tissues of healthy mice upon repeated injections of Gadolinium Based Contrast Agents (GBCAs). Gadodiamide and Gadoteridol have been compared. The amount of Gd retained in several tissues/organs (cerebrum, cerebellum, spleen, liver, kidneys, eyes, skin, bone and muscle) has been assessed by ICP-MS upon administration of the GBCAs i) at three weeks or three months after the last administration, ii) when one, three or twelve doses of GBCA were administered and iii) when administrations were made every two weeks...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766452/a-novel-technique-for-visualizing-and-analyzing-the-cerebral-vasculature-in-rodents
#2
Arjang Salehi, Amandine Jullienne, Kara M Wendel, Mary Hamer, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang, William J Pearce, Richard A DeFazio, Zinaida S Vexler, Andre Obenaus
We introduce a novel protocol to stain, visualize, and analyze blood vessels from the rat and mouse cerebrum. This technique utilizes the fluorescent dye, DiI, to label the lumen of the vasculature followed by perfusion fixation. Following brain extraction, the labeled vasculature is then imaged using wide-field fluorescence microscopy for axial and coronal images and can be followed by regional confocal microscopy. Axial and coronal images can be analyzed using classical angiographic methods for vessel density, length, and other features...
May 15, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755252/a-digital-endocranial-cast-of-the-early-paleocene-puercan-archaic-mammal-onychodectes-tisonensis-eutheria-taeniodonta
#3
James G Napoli, Thomas E Williamson, Sarah L Shelley, Stephen L Brusatte
Eutherian mammals-placentals and their closest extinct relatives-underwent a major radiation following the end-Cretaceous extinction, during which they evolved disparate anatomy and established new terrestrial ecosystems. Much about the timing, pace, and causes of this radiation remain unclear, in large part because we still know very little about the anatomy, phylogenetic relationships, and biology of the so-called 'archaic' eutherians that prospered during the ~10 million years after the extinction. We describe the first digital endocranial cast of a taeniodont, a bizarre group of eutherians that flourished in the early Paleogene, reconstructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a late Puercan (65...
2018: Journal of Mammalian Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754046/brain-stiffens-post-mortem
#4
J Weickenmeier, M Kurt, E Ozkaya, R de Rooij, T C Ovaert, R L Ehman, K Butts Pauly, E Kuhl
Alterations in brain rheology are increasingly recognized as a diagnostic marker for various neurological conditions. Magnetic resonance elastography now allows us to assess brain rheology repeatably, reproducibly, and non-invasively in vivo. Recent elastography studies suggest that brain stiffness decreases one percent per year during normal aging, and is significantly reduced in Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. While existing studies successfully compare brain stiffnesses across different populations, they fail to provide insight into changes within the same brain...
April 22, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744590/anatomical-organization-of-the-cerebrum-of-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#5
Joss von Hadeln, Vanessa Althaus, Linda Häger, Uwe Homberg
The desert locust Schistocerca gregaria is a major agricultural pest in North Africa and the Middle East. As such, it has been intensely studied, in particular with respect to population dynamics, sensory processing, feeding behavior flight and locomotor control, migratory behavior, and its neuroendocrine system. Being a long-range migratory species, neural mechanisms underlying sky compass orientation have been studied in detail. To further understand neuronal interactions in the brain of the locust, a deeper understanding of brain organization in this insect has become essential...
May 9, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703517/the-prognostic-value-of-gray-white-matter-ratio-on-brain-computed-tomography-in-adult-comatose-cardiac-arrest-survivors
#6
Gan-Nan Wang, Xu-Feng Chen, Jin-Ru Lv, Na-Na Sun, Xiao-Quan Xu, Jin-Song Zhang
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggested that the gray-white matter ratio (GWR) determined from brain computed tomography (CT) scans may be a reliable predictor of poor neurological outcomes. The aim of study was to evaluate the association between the GWR and the outcomes in adult comatose cardiac arrest (CA) survivors in Chinese. METHODS: A total of 58 CA patients who had CT scans within 72 h of resuscitation between January 2011 and December 2015 were included in this single-center retrospective study...
April 25, 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701558/syringobulbia-in-pediatric-patients-with-chiari-malformation-type-i
#7
Arnold H Menezes, Jeremy D W Greenlee, Brian J Dlouhy
OBJECTIVE Syringobulbia (SB) is a rare entity, with few cases associated with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) in the pediatric population. The authors reviewed all pediatric cases of CM-I-associated SB managed at their institution in order to better understand the presentation, treatment, and surgical outcomes of this condition. METHODS A prospectively maintained institutional database of craniovertebral junction abnormalities was analyzed to identify all cases of CM-I and SB from the MRI era (i.e., after 1984)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700382/reconstructing-the-neanderthal-brain-using-computational-anatomy
#8
Takanori Kochiyama, Naomichi Ogihara, Hiroki C Tanabe, Osamu Kondo, Hideki Amano, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Hiromasa Suzuki, Marcia S Ponce de León, Christoph P E Zollikofer, Markus Bastir, Chris Stringer, Norihiro Sadato, Takeru Akazawa
The present study attempted to reconstruct 3D brain shape of Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens based on computational neuroanatomy. We found that early Homo sapiens had relatively larger cerebellar hemispheres but a smaller occipital region in the cerebrum than Neanderthals long before the time that Neanderthals disappeared. Further, using behavioural and structural imaging data of living humans, the abilities such as cognitive flexibility, attention, the language processing, episodic and working memory capacity were positively correlated with size-adjusted cerebellar volume...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696945/the-effect-of-chewing-gum-on-dose-rate-of-salivary-gland-in-differentiated-thyroid-carcinoma-patients-treated-with-radioiodine
#9
Mahdi Haghighatafshar, Reza Nowshad, Zahra Etemadi, Tahereh Ghaedian
BACKGROUND: Although, different methods have been suggested on reducing salivary gland radiation after radioiodine administration, an effective preventive or therapeutic measure is still debateful. To the best of our knowledge this is the second study that aimed to evaluate the effect of chewing-gum as a sialagogue on the radioiodine content of salivary gland, and radioiodine- induced symptoms of salivary gland dysfunction. METHODS: Twenty two patients who were referred to radioiodine therapy were randomized into chewing-gum (group A) and control (group B) groups...
April 26, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693164/expression-and-functions-of-glutamate-and-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-aminobutyric-acid-transporters-in-ischemic-models
#10
Zhongrun Qian, Yingying Lin, Jin Xing, Yongming Qiu, Li Ren
Glutamate and γ‑aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters serve central roles in normal neuronal activity and are associated with numerous pathological brain conditions, including ischemia and epilepsy. However, the interplay between these transporters in ischemia remains unclear. In the present study, the expression levels of the excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) and GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) were analyzed in vivo and in vitro within ischemic models by immunofluorescence, western blot and RT‑qPCR...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687291/a-japanese-family-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-21-clinical-and-neuropathological-studies
#11
Hiroyuki Yahikozawa, Satoko Miyatake, Toshiaki Sakai, Takeshi Uehara, Mitsunori Yamada, Norinao Hanyu, Yasuhiro Futatsugi, Hiroshi Doi, Shigeru Koyano, Fumiaki Tanaka, Atsushi Suzuki, Naomichi Matsumoto, Kunihiro Yoshida
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 21 (SCA21) is a rare subtype of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias, which was first identified in a French family and has been reported almost exclusively in French ancestry so far. We here report the first Japanese family with SCA21, in which all affected members examined carried a heterozygous c.509C > T:p.Pro170Leu variant in TMEM240. Their clinical features were summarized as a slowly progressive ataxia of young-adult onset (5-48 years) associated with various degree of psychomotor retardation or cognitive impairment...
April 23, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663945/silicon-foreign-body-in-the-cerebrum-of-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#12
Cynthia J Doane, Prisca E Zimmerman, Philip T Putnam, Katalin M Gothard, David G Besselsen
A male rhesus macaque with a cephalic chamber implant for neurophysiology recording presented with hemiparesis affecting the left thoracic and pelvic limbs at approximately 5 wk after craniotomy surgery. MRI indicated a 1×2-cm ovoid cerebrocortical cystic lesion immediately subjacent to the right hemisphere craniotomy and recording chamber. Transdural aspiration of sterile transudate and resultant decompression resolved the hemiparesis, and follow-up MRI at 1 mo indicated resolution of the lesion. Subsequently, necropsy at study end revealed a cerebrocortical foreign body composed of silicon...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656705/suppressive-effects-of-neonatal-bisphenol-a-on-the-neuroendocrine-system
#13
R G Ahmed, G H Walaa, F S Asmaa
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of neonatal bisphenol A (BPA) administration on neuroendocrine features (the thyroid-brain axis). BPA (20 or 40 µg/kg) was orally administered to juvenile male albino rats ( Rattus norvegicus) from postnatal days (PNDs) 15 to 30. Both doses resulted in lower serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and growth hormone levels and higher thyrotropin level than the control levels at PND 30. In the neonatal cerebellum and cerebrum, vacuolation, pyknosis, edema, degenerative changes, and reductions in the size and number of the cells were observed in both treated groups...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656270/reduced-integrity-of-the-uncinate-fasciculus-and-cingulum-in-depression-a-stem-by-stem-analysis
#14
Kartik D Bhatia, Luke A Henderson, Eugene Hsu, Mark Yim
INTRODUCTION: The subgenual cingulate gyrus (Brodmann's Area 25: BA25) is hypermetabolic in depression and has been targeted successfully with deep brain stimulation. Two of the white matter tracts that play a role in treatment response are the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and the cingulum bundle. The UF has three prefrontal stems, the most medial of which extends from BA25 (which deals with mood regulation) and the most lateral of which extends from the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (concerned with executive function)...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643831/altered-intracortical-inhibition-in-chronic-traumatic-diffuse-axonal-injury
#15
Cintya Yukie Hayashi, Iuri Santana Neville, Priscila Aparecida Rodrigues, Ricardo Galhardoni, André Russowsky Brunoni, Ana Luiza Zaninotto, Vinicius Monteiro de Paula Guirado, Ana Sofia Cueva, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Wellingson Silva Paiva
Background: Overactivation of NMDA-mediated excitatory processes and excess of GABA-mediated inhibition are attributed to the acute and subacute phases, respectively, after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there are few studies regarding the circuitry during the chronic phase of brain injury. Objective: To evaluate the cortical excitability (CE) during the chronic phase of TBI in victims diagnosed with diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Methods: The 22 adult subjects were evaluated after a minimum of 1 year from the onset of moderate or severe TBI...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625747/brain-tissue-strains-vary-with-head-impact-location-a-possible-explanation-for-increased-concussion-risk-in-struck-versus-striking-football-players
#16
REVIEW
Benjamin S Elkin, Lee F Gabler, Matthew B Panzer, Gunter P Siegmund
BACKGROUND: On-field football helmet impacts over a large range of severities have caused concussions in some players but not in other players. One possible explanation for this variability is the struck player's helmet impact location. METHODS: We examined the effect of impact location on regional brain tissue strain when input energy was held constant. Laboratory impacts were performed at 12 locations distributed over the helmet and the resulting head kinematics were simulated in two finite element models of the brain: the Simulated Injury Monitor and the Global Human Body Model Consortium brain model...
March 29, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625400/spirulina-platensis-attenuates-the-associated-neurobehavioral-and-inflammatory-response-impairments-in-rats-exposed-to-lead-acetate
#17
Samah R Khalil, Hesham A Khalifa, Sabry M Abdel-Motal, Hesham H Mohammed, Yaser H A Elewa, Hend Atta Mahmoud
Heavy metals are well known as environmental pollutants with hazardous impacts on human and animal health because of their wide industrial usage. In the present study, the role of Spirulina platensis in reversing the oxidative stress-mediated brain injury elicited by lead acetate exposure was evaluated. In order to accomplish this aim, rats were orally administered with 300 mg/kg bw Spirulina for 15 d, before and simultaneously with an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg bw lead acetate [6 injections through the two weeks]...
April 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624727/autovoi-real-time-automatic-prescription-of-volume-of-interest-for-single-voxel-spectroscopy
#18
Young Woo Park, Dinesh K Deelchand, James M Joers, Brian Hanna, Adam Berrington, Joseph S Gillen, Kejal Kantarci, Brian J Soher, Peter B Barker, HyunWook Park, Gülin Öz, Christophe Lenglet
PURPOSE: To develop a fast and automated volume-of-interest (VOI) prescription pipeline (AutoVOI) for single-voxel MRS that removes the need for manual VOI placement, allows flexible VOI planning in any brain region, and enables high inter- and intra-subject consistency of VOI prescription. METHODS: AutoVOI was designed to transfer pre-defined VOIs from an atlas to the 3D anatomical data of the subject during the scan. The AutoVOI pipeline was optimized for consistency in VOI placement (precision), enhanced coverage of the targeted tissue (accuracy), and fast computation speed...
April 6, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610441/modified-origins-of-cortical-projections-to-the-superior-colliculus-in-the-deaf-dispersion-of-auditory-efferents
#19
Blake E Butler, Julia K Sunstrum, Stephen G Lomber
Following the loss of a sensory modality, such as deafness or blindness, crossmodal plasticity is commonly identified in regions of the cerebrum that normally process the deprived modality. It has been hypothesized that significant changes in the patterns of cortical afferent and efferent projections may underlie these functional crossmodal changes. However, studies of thalamocortical and corticocortical connections have refuted this hypothesis, instead revealing a profound resilience of cortical afferent projections following deafness and blindness...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605768/perinatal-exposure-to-energy-drink-induces-oxidative-damage-in-the-liver-kidney-and-brain-and-behavioral-alterations-in-mice-offspring
#20
Gadh I Al-Basher, Hanan Aljabal, Rafa S Almeer, Ahmed A Allam, Ayman M Mahmoud
The worldwide consumption of energy drinks (EDs) has increased in recent years. EDs have several side effects and can be linked to liver injury, kidney damage and risk-seeking behavior. The impact of perinatal consumption of EDs on the newborns has not been previously investigated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of perinatal exposure to a caffeinated ED on the liver, kidney, brain, locomotor activity and anxiety in mice newborns. Pregnant mice received 2.5 or 5 ml ED by oral gavage from the first day of pregnancy until day 15 after birth...
March 29, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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