Read by QxMD icon Read


Carsten R Bjarkam, Andreas N Glud, Dariusz Orlowski, Jens Christian H Sørensen, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher
During the last 20 years pigs have become increasingly popular in large animal translational neuroscience research as an economical and ethical feasible substitute to non-human primates. The anatomy of the pig telencephalon is, however, not well known. We present, accordingly, a detailed description of the surface anatomy and cytoarchitecture of the Göttingen minipig telencephalon based on macrophotos and consecutive high-power microphotographs of 15 μm thick paraffin embedded Nissl-stained coronal sections...
October 24, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Yin-Xi Zhang, Yang Zheng, Bi-Jun Zhang, Yun Zhang, Mei-Ping Ding, Bao-Rong Zhang
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome characterized by reversible vasogenic edema typically at a posterior location of the cerebrum. PRES with prominent brainstem or basal ganglia involvement is defined as central-variant, which is rare. We herein report an atypical case of a 35-year-old man with a 2-year history of untreated hypertension who complained of recurrent dizziness. The patient presented with brainstem and diffuse white matter involvement associated with intracranial hemorrhage and recovered fully after therapy...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Sooyoung Lee, Masafumi Sanefuji, Michiko Torio, Noriyuki Kaku, Yuko Ichimiya, Soichi Mizuguchi, Haruhisa Baba, Yasunari Sakai, Yoshito Ishizaki, Hiroyuki Torisu, Ryutaro Kira, Toshiro Hara, Shouichi Ohga
Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) occurs in children associated with infection. It is characterized by a prolonged febrile seizure in the first phase, and a cluster of seizures, deterioration of consciousness and the white matter lesions with reduced diffusion in the second phase. The patients often have severe neurological sequelae, but the prognostic indicators remain unknown. The present study aimed to clarify the characteristics of AESD patients who subsequently exhibited severe neurological sequelae...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
E H Baker, S W Levin, Z Zhang, A B Mukherjee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is a devastating neurodegenerative storage disease caused by palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 deficiency, which impairs degradation of palmitoylated proteins (constituents of ceroid) by lysosomal hydrolases. Consequent lysosomal ceroid accumulation leads to neuronal injury, resulting in rapid neurodegeneration and childhood death. As part of a project studying the treatment benefits of a combination of cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetyl cysteine, we made serial measurements of patients' brain volumes with MR imaging...
October 20, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
S Kemp, R S Allan, N Patanjali, M H Barnett, B P Jonker
We report a unique case of neurological deficit from late onset multiple sclerosis (MS), in a 65-year-old woman, after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). At 3.5months post-SRS for TN, the patient developed ataxia and left leg paraesthesiae and brain MRI showed altered signal and enhancement in the vicinity of the right trigeminal root entry zone (REZ). The symptoms remitted following treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, however, 10months post-SRS, the patient developed gait ataxia and left lower limb weakness...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
M Chaâbane, I Ghorbel, A Elwej, H Mnif, T Boudawara, S Ellouze Chaâbouni, N Zeghal, N Soudani
Pesticides exposure causes usually harmful effects to the environment and human health. The present study aimed to investigate the potential toxic effects of penconazole, a triazole fungicide, on the cerebrum and cerebellum of adult rats. Penconazole was administered intraperitoneally to male Wistar rats at a dose of 67 mg kg(-1) body weight every 2 days during 9 days. Results showed that penconazole induced oxidative stress in rat cerebrum and cerebellum tissues. In fact, we have found a significant increase in malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and advanced oxidation protein product levels, as well as an alteration of the antioxidant status, enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and nonenzymatic (glutathione), the cholinergic function, and membrane-bound ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase)...
October 12, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Yan-Ping Zhang, Rujuan Miao, Qing Li, Tianfeng Wu, Fei Ma
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, and higher DHA intake is inversely correlated with relative risk of Alzheimer's disease. The potential benefits of DHA supplementation in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have not been fully examined. Our study aimed to determine the effect of DHA supplementation on cognitive function and hippocampal atrophy in elderly subjects with MCI. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Tianjin, China. 240 individuals with MCI aged 65 years and over were recruited and equalized randomly allocated to the DHA or the placebo group...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Kentaro Hayashi, Yoko Mochizuki, Ryoko Takeuchi, Toshio Shimizu, Masahiro Nagao, Kazuhiko Watabe, Nobutaka Arai, Kiyomitsu Oyanagi, Osamu Onodera, Masaharu Hayashi, Hitoshi Takahashi, Akiyoshi Kakita, Eiji Isozaki
In the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that had progressed to result in a totally locked-in state (communication Stage V), in which all voluntary movements are lost and communication is impossible. In 11 patients, six had phosphorylated TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (pTDP-43)-immunoreactive (ir) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI), two had fused in sarcoma (FUS)-ir NCI, and three had copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1)-ir NCI...
September 30, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Daniela Delwing-de Lima, Monique Fröhlich, Leticia Dalmedico, Juliana Gruenwaldt Maia Aurélio, Débora Delwing-Dal Magro, Eduardo Manoel Pereira, Angela T S Wyse
We evaluated the in vitro effects of galactose at 0.1, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mM on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS), total sulfhydryl content, protein carbonyl content, on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of rats. We also investigated the influence of the antioxidants (each at 1 mM), α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and glutathione, on the effects elicited by galactose on the parameters tested...
October 6, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Stephen E Cassle, Nelmarie Landrau-Giovannetti, Lisa L Farina, Angelique Leone, James F X Wellehan, Nicole I Stacy, Patrick Thompson, Hada Herring, Blair Mase-Guthrie, Uriel Blas-Machado, Jeremiah T Saliki, Michael T Walsh, Thomas B Waltzek
A recently deceased juvenile male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) was found floating in the Gulf of Mexico, off Sand Key in Clearwater, Florida. At autopsy, we identified pneumonia and a focus of malacia in the right cerebrum. Cytologic evaluation of tissue imprints from the right cerebrum revealed fungal hyphae. Fungal cultures of the lung and brain yielded Aspergillus fumigatus, which was confirmed by amplification of a portion of the fungal nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 region sequence...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Andrew A Maudsley, Mohammed Z Goryawala, Sulaiman Sheriff
A method for mapping of temperature over a large volume of the brain using volumetric proton MR spectroscopic imaging has been implemented and applied to 150 normal subjects. Magnetic susceptibility-induced frequency shifts in gray- and white-matter regions were measured and included as a correction in the temperature mapping calculation. Additional sources of magnetic susceptibility variations of the individual metabolite resonance frequencies were also observed that reflect the cellular-level organization of the brain metabolites, with the most notable differences being attributed to changes of the N-Acetylaspartate resonance frequency that reflect the intra-axonal distribution and orientation of the white-matter tracts with respect to the applied magnetic field...
September 28, 2016: NeuroImage
Michael F Rosser, Dana M Lindemann, Anne M Barger, Matthew C Allender, Shih-Hsuan Hsiao, Mark E Howes
A 5-yr-old, intact male red ruffed lemur ( Varecia rubra ) presented for evaluation as the result of a 1-wk history of lethargy and hyporexia. Physical examination findings included thin body condition, muffled heart sounds, harsh lung sounds, and liquid brown diarrhea. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry showed an inflammatory leukogram, mild hyponatremia, and mild hypochloremia. Orthogonal trunk radiographs revealed a severe alveolar pattern in the right cranial lung lobes with cardiac silhouette effacement...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Hua Dai, Yin-Yin Xia, Ting-Li Han Ting-Li Han, Philip N Baker Philip N Baker, Xu Tang, Rui-Yuan Zhang, Hang DU, Tong-Jian Cai, Shu-Qun Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of chronic arsenic exposure on cerebral cortex and serum metabolics of mice and explore the mechanism of arsenic neurotoxicity. METHODS: Twelve 3-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned into exposure group and control group and exposed to sodium arsenite (50 mg/L) via drinking water and deionized water for 12 weeks, respectively. After the exposure, arsenic level in the cerebrum was determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry...
August 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Ming Li, Shuo Zhou, Xian-Song Wang, Ci Liu, Shu Li
Avermectins (AVMs) are used worldwide in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Residues of avermectin drugs, causing toxicological effects on non-target organisms, have raised great concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM on the expression levels of alpha synuclein (α-Syn) and proteasomal activity in pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that, the mRNA and protein levels of α-Syn increased in AVM treated groups relative to control groups in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo...
September 24, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Luisa Klotz, Ivan Kuzmanov, Stephanie Hucke, Catharina C Gross, Vilmos Posevitz, Angela Dreykluft, Andreas Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Claudia Janoschka, Maren Lindner, Martin Herold, Nicholas Schwab, Isis Ludwig-Portugall, Christian Kurts, Sven G Meuth, Tanja Kuhlmann, Heinz Wiendl
Molecular mechanisms that determine lesion localization or phenotype variation in multiple sclerosis are mostly unidentified. Although transmigration of activated encephalitogenic T cells across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a crucial step in the disease pathogenesis of CNS autoimmunity, the consequences on brain endothelial barrier integrity upon interaction with such T cells and subsequent lesion formation and distribution are largely unknown. We made use of a transgenic spontaneous mouse model of CNS autoimmunity characterized by inflammatory demyelinating lesions confined to optic nerves and spinal cord (OSE mice)...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yoshimitsu Maki, Hiroshi Takashima
Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE) is characterized by heterogeneous neurological symptoms. HE is diagnosed based on three criteria-the presence of antithyroid antibodies, neurological symptoms from the cerebrum and/or cerebellum, and a positive response to immunotherapy. We clinically analyzed 18 patients (3 men, 15 women; age range, 38-81years) diagnosed with HE in our hospital from May 2013 to January 2016. Eleven patients showed sensory abnormalities such as strong pain, deep muscle pain, dysesthesia, paresthesia, or neuralgia...
September 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Hideaki Tashima, Taiga Yamaya
For dedicated brain PET, we can significantly improve sensitivity for the cerebrum region by arranging detectors in a compact hemisphere. The geometrical sensitivity for the top region of the hemisphere is increased compared with conventional cylindrical PET consisting of the same number of detectors. However, the geometrical sensitivity at the center region of the hemisphere is still low because the bottom edge of the field-of-view is open, the same as for the cylindrical PET. In this paper, we proposed a helmet PET with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain PET imaging for both center and top regions...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Chi Wang, Muyang Yan, Hui Jiang, Qi Wang, Xu Guan, Jingwen Chen, Chengbin Wang
OBJECTIVE: Hypobaric hypoxia, frequently encountered at high altitude, may lead to lung and cerebrum injury. Our study aimed to investigate whether puerarin could exert ameliorative effects on rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia via regulation of aquaporin (AQP) and NF-κB signaling pathway in lung and cerebrum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (normal control group, hypobaric hypoxia group, puerarin group and dexamethasone group)...
September 16, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Daichi Sone, Miho Ota, Norihide Maikusa, Yukio Kimura, Kaoru Sumida, Kota Yokoyama, Etsuko Imabayashi, Masako Watanabe, Yutaka Watanabe, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Noriko Sato, Hiroshi Matsuda
PURPOSE: Cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with ipsilateral amygdala enlargement (AE) have increasingly been reported. However, the white matter (WM) abnormalities of TLE patients with AE remain poorly investigated. Here we explored macrostructural and microstructural WM abnormalities in TLE patients with AE compared to normal controls and TLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected 17 patients with unilateral TLE with AE (TLE-AE) based on automated amygdala volumetry using FreeSurfer software, and 34 healthy controls and 35 patients with unilateral TLE with HS (TLE-HS) were also recruited...
September 11, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Zi-Zhao Yang, Li Li, Lu Wang, Ming-Cheng Xu, Sai An, Chen Jiang, Jing-Kai Gu, Zai-Jie Jim Wang, Lu-Shan Yu, Su Zeng
Regulating main brain-uptake transporter of morphine may restrict its tolerance generation, then modify its antinociception. In this study, more than 2 fold higher intracellular uptake concentrations for morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were observed in stable expression cells, HEK293-hOATP2B1 than HEK293-MOCK. Specifically, the Km value of morphine to OATP2B1 (57.58 ± 8.90 μM) is 1.4-time more than that of M6G (80.31 ± 21.75 μM); Cyclosporine A (CsA), an inhibitor of OATP2B1, can inhibit their intracellular accumulations with IC50 = 3...
2016: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"