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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443270/brain-lesions-among-orally-fed-and-gastrostomy-fed-dysphagic-preterm-infants-can-routine-qualitative-or-volumetric-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-predict-feeding-outcomes
#1
Nasser H Kashou, Irfaan A Dar, Mohamed A El-Mahdy, Charles Pluto, Mark Smith, Ish K Gulati, Warren Lo, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
INTRODUCTION: The usefulness of qualitative or quantitative volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early detection of brain structural changes and prediction of adverse outcomes in neonatal illnesses warrants further investigation. Our aim was to correlate certain brain injuries and the brain volume of feeding-related cortical and subcortical regions with feeding method at discharge among preterm dysphagic infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a retrospective observational study design, we examined MRI data among 43 (22 male; born at 31...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429407/spinal-cord-injury-induces-widespread-chronic-changes-in-cerebral-white-matter
#2
Tero Ilvesmäki, Eerika Koskinen, Antti Brander, Teemu Luoto, Juha Öhman, Hannu Eskola
Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) lead to axonal damage at the trauma site, as well as disconnections within the central nervous system. While the exact mechanisms of the long-term pathophysiological consequences of SCIs are not fully understood, it is known that neuronal damage and degeneration are not limited to the direct proximity of the trauma. Instead, the effects can be detected even in the cerebrum. We examined SCI-induced chronic brain changes with a case-control design using 32 patients and 70 control subjects...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428014/concussion-induces-focal-and-widespread-neuromorphological-changes
#3
Dafna Sussman, Leodante da Costa, Mallar M Chakravarty, Elizabeth W Pang, Margot J Taylor, Benjamin T Dunkley
Concussion induces transient, and oftentimes chronic, lingering impairment to mental functioning, which must be driven by some underlying neurobiological perturbation - however, the physical changes related to sequelae are difficult to detect. Previous imaging studies on concussion have focused on alterations to cortical anatomy, but few have examined the cerebrum, subcortex, and cerebellum. Here, we present an analysis of these structures in a single cohort (all males, 21 patients, 22 controls) using MRI and diagnosed with a single-concussive episode in the acute and sub-acute stages of injury...
April 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425516/mechanical-and-vibrational-characterization-of-amyloid-like-het-s-nanosheets-based-on-the-skewed-plate-theory
#4
Hyun Joon Chang, Myeongsang Lee, Jae In Kim, Gwonchan Yoon, Sungsoo Na
Pathological amyloidogenic prion proteins have a toxic effect on functional cells in the human cerebrum because of poor degradability and the tendency to accumulate in an uncontrolled manner under physiological conditions. HET-s, a fungal prion protein, is known to undergo conformational variations from fibrillar to nanosheet structures during a change from low to high pH conditions. It has been said that this conformational change can lead to self-propagation by nucleating on the lateral surface of singlet fibrils...
April 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392367/six-gu-rich-6gur-fus-binding-motifs-detected-by-normalization-of-clip-seq-by-nascent-seq
#5
Jun-Ichi Takeda, Akio Masuda, Kinji Ohno
FUS, an RNA-binding protein (RBP), is mutated or abnormally regulated in neurodegenerative disorders. FUS regulates various aspects of RNA metabolisms. FUS-binding sites are rich in GU contents and are highly degenerative. FUS-binding motifs of GGU, GGUG, GUGGU and CGCGC have been previously reported. These motifs, however, are applicable to a small fraction of FUS-binding sites. As CLIP-seq tags are enriched in genes that are highly expressed, we normalized CLIP-seq tags by Nascent-seq tags or RNA-seq tags of mouse N2a cells...
April 6, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389902/effects-of-zinc-and-n-acetylcysteine-in-damage-caused-by-lead-exposure-in-young-rats
#6
Taíse F Pedroso, Cláudia S Oliveira, Mariana M Fonseca, Vitor A Oliveira, Maria Ester Pereira
This study investigated the toxicity of rats exposed to lead acetate (AcPb) during the second phase of brain development (8-12 days postnatal) in hematological and cerebral parameters. Moreover, the preventive effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was investigated. Pups were injected subcutaneously with saline (0.9% NaCl solution), ZnCl2 (27 mg/kg/day), NAC (5 mg/kg/day) or ZnCl2 plus NAC for 5 days (3rd-7th postnatal days), and with saline (0.9% NaCl solution) or AcPb (7 mg/kg/day) in the five subsequent days (8th-12th postnatal days)...
April 7, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388366/ellagic-acid-protects-against-neuron-damage-in-ischemic-stroke-through-regulating-the-ratio-of-bcl-2-bax-expression
#7
Qing-Shan Liu, Ran Deng, Shuran Li, Xu Li, Keqin Li, Kebaituli Gulibanumu, Xueli Li, Rui Liu
To research the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a low molecular weight polyphenol, on neuron cells and function, and to evaluate whether EA can be safely utilized by humans as a functional food or therapeutic agent, an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (ODG/R) model in primary cultured rat cortical neurons were created in this work. Administration of EA significantly decreased the volume of cerebrum infarction and the neurological deficit scores of the rats; EA treatment also increased the number of Bcl-2-positive cells and the ratio of Bcl-2-positive to Bax-positive neurons in semidarkness zone near brain ischemic focus in the PCI model...
April 7, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387450/severe-demyelination-in-a-patient-with-a-late-infantile-form-of-niemann-pick-disease-type-c
#8
Tsuyoshi Kodachi, Shizuko Matsumoto, Masashi Mizuguchi, Hitoshi Osaka, Nobuyuki Kanai, Eiji Nanba, Kousaku Ohno, Takanori Yamagata
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a cholesterol storage disease caused by defective cellular cholesterol transportation. The onset and progression of NPC are variable, and autopsy findings have mainly been reported for the adult and juvenile forms of this disease. Here we report the clinical and pathological findings from a 9-year-old female patient with the late infantile form of NPC due to NPC1 gene mutation. She had notable splenomegaly at 4 months of age. She lost the ability to speak at 18 months of age...
April 7, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366748/management-and-survival-patterns-of-patients-with-gliomatosis-cerebri-a-seer-based-analysis
#9
Kate T Carroll, Brian Hirshman, Mir Amaan Ali, Ali A Alattar, Michael G Brandel, Bryson Lochte, Tyler Lanman, Bob Carter, Clark C Chen
OBJECTIVE: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1999-2010) to analyze the clinical practice patterns and overall survival in patients with "gliomatosis cerebri" (GC), or glioma involving three or more lobes of the cerebrum. METHODS: We identified 111 patients (age ≥18) with clinically or microscopically diagnosed GC in the SEER database. Analyses were performed to determine clinical practice patterns for these patients and whether these practices were associated with survival...
March 30, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363514/voxel-based-lesion-mapping-of-cryptogenic-stroke-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer-a-detailed-magnetic-resonance-imaging-analysis-of-distribution-pattern
#10
Takamune Achiha, Masatoshi Takagaki, Hiroshi Oe, Mio Sakai, Hitoshi Matsui, Katsuhiko Nakanishi, Tomohiko Ozaki, Yasunori Fujimoto, Toshiki Yoshimine, Katsuyuki Nakanishi, Manabu Kinoshita
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is one form of cancer-associated thrombosis that can greatly worsen a patient's performance status. The present investigation aimed to elucidate the characteristic distribution pattern(s) of cryptogenic stroke lesions using a voxel-based lesion-mapping technique and examine the differences in clinical manifestations between cryptogenic and conventional strokes in patients with advanced cancer. METHODS: Data from 43 patients with advanced cancer who developed acute ischemic stroke were retrospectively collected...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363071/calvarial-osteosarcoma-with-cerebral-compression-in-a-free-ranging-powerful-owl-ninox-strenua
#11
Izidora Sladakovic, Cheryl R Sangster, Graeme S Allan, Timothy J Portas, Cameron R Howlett, Uriel Blas-Machado
A free-ranging powerful owl (Ninox strenua) presented in a dull state with extensive bruising of the skin overlying the skull, due to suspected trauma. Supportive care was provided, which resulted in the return to a normal state, although intermittent subtle neurologic abnormalities remained. One month from original presentation, intermittent episodes of head turning and a possible seizure were noted, but behavior and appetite were otherwise normal. The owl was referred to Taronga Wildlife Hospital for evaluation...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363039/granulomatous-filarial-encephalomyelitis-caused-by-chandlerella-quiscali-in-a-northern-crested-caracara-caracara-cheriway
#12
Erin E Edwards, Sriveny Dangoudoubiyam, Sharman M Hoppes, Brian F Porter
A northern crested caracara (Caracara cheriway) was presented after being found nonambulatory in a field. On physical examination, the bird had severe hind-limb paresis. The bird did not improve after 10 days of hospitalization and was euthanized. Histologic examination of the cerebrum and spinal cord revealed multiple adult filarial nematodes surrounded by granulomatous inflammation with several multinucleated giant cells. These parasites were confirmed to be Chandlerella quiscali with polymerase chain reaction...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361387/excess-manganese-induced-apoptosis-in-chicken-cerebrums-and-embryonic-neurocytes
#13
Kun Zhang, Yihao Zhu, Xiaoyu Wang, Xin Zhao, Shu Li, Xiaohua Teng
There were many studies about the effect of excess manganese (Mn) on nervous system apoptosis; however, Mn-induced apoptosis in chicken cerebrums and embryonic neurocytes was unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of excess Mn on chicken cerebrum and embryonic neurocyte apoptosis. Seven-day-old Hyline male chickens were fed either a commercial diet or three levels of manganese chloride (MnCl2)-added commercial diets containing 600-, 900-, and 1800-mg/kg-Mn diet, respectively. On the 30th, 60th, and 90th days, cerebrums were collected...
March 30, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351041/mechanisms-of-retinal-fluid-accumulation-and-blood-retinal-barrier-breakdown
#14
José Cunha-Vaz
Macular edema is the swelling of the central portion of the human retina and it is associated with increased retinal thickness. It can be simply defined as an excess of fluid within the retinal tissue. It must be realized that the normal retina possesses a functional extracellular space. With regard to the extracellular volume of the retina, there have been few physiologic studies, but there are reported values of 24.8% for the cerebrum and 23.6% for the cerebellum. It is accepted that the retinal extracellular space is similar to the brain...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331772/an-automated-gravity-driven-csf-drainage-system-decreases-complications-and-lowers-costs
#15
Robert E Lieberson, Jan Eckermann, William Meyer, Tung Trang
BACKGROUND: FlowSafe(TM) (BeckerSmith Medical, Irvine, CA, USA) is a novel, robotic, external lumbar drainage (ELD) system, which was designed to control cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, reduce complications, and decrease treatment costs. METHODS:  Forty-seven consecutive neurosurgical patients requiring ELD were treated using the FlowSafe system. RESULTS: In 39 of 40 patients with traumatic and surgical dural openings, potential CSF leaks were avoided...
February 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331115/spontaneous-multicentric-soft-tissue-sarcoma-in-a-captive-african-pygmy-hedgehog-atelerix-albiventris-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Josué Díaz-Delgado, Roy Pool, Sharman Hoppes, Argine Cerezo, Óscar Quesada-Canales, George Stoica
This report describes the clinical, macroscopic, histopathological and immunohistological features of a spontaneous multicentric extraskeletal sarcoma in an adult male African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). It also provides a succinct up-to-date review on neoplasia in this species. On autopsy examination, main gross findings included a moderately demarcated cranial mass and a multilobulated, caudal intra-abdominal mass. The cranial mass had perforated the underlying temporal and occipital bones and had extended into the cranial vault and was compressing the surface of the cerebellum and cerebrum...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328116/brain-morphology-in-children-with-nevoid-basal-cell-carcinoma-syndrome
#17
Tadashi Shiohama, Katsunori Fujii, Toshiyuki Miyashita, Hiromi Mizuochi, Hideki Uchikawa, Naoki Shimojo
Brain morphology is tightly regulated by diverse signaling pathways. Hedgehog signaling is a candidate pathway considered responsible for regulating brain morphology. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), caused by a PTCH1 mutation in the hedgehog signaling pathway, occasionally exhibits macrocephaly and medulloblastoma. Although cerebellar enlargement occurs in ptch1 heterozygous-deficient mice, its impact on human brain development remains unknown. We investigated the brain morphological characteristics of children with NBCCS...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321950/the-cerebellum-shrinks-faster-than-normal-ageing-in-alzheimer-s-disease-but-not-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
Hossein Tabatabaei-Jafari, Erin Walsh, Marnie E Shaw, Nicolas Cherbuin
BACKGROUND: While acceleration in age-related cerebral atrophy has been well documented in Alzheimer's disease, the cerebellar contributions to this effect have not been thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated cerebellar volume and atrophy rate using magnetic resonance imaging in individuals with normal cognition (CN), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Two hundred twenty-nine CN, 398 MCI and 191 AD participants of stage I ADNI database with screening scans were evaluated for cerebellar volume...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321076/acute-intermittent-porphyria-presenting-with-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-accompanied-by-prolonged-vasoconstriction
#19
Tadayuki Takata, Kodai Kume, Yohei Kokudo, Kazuyo Ikeda, Masaki Kamada, Tetsuo Touge, Kazushi Deguchi, Tsutomu Masaki
A 20-year-old Japanese woman had an attack of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed symmetrical lesions in the cerebrum and cerebellar hemisphere, corresponding to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Our administration of heme arginate gradually improved the clinical condition associated with AIP and the level of metabolite of nitric oxide (NO), which is a vascular dilator. Repeated MRI and magnetic resonance angiography revealed exacerbated PRES, part of which showed a small infarction, accompanied by progressive vasoconstriction...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320202/identification-and-expression-of-equine-mer-derived-mirnas
#20
Jeong-An Gim, Heui-Soo Kim
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded, small RNAs (21-23 nucleotides) that function in gene silencing and translational inhibition via the RNA interference mechanism. Most miRNAs originate from host genomic regions, such as intergenic regions, introns, exons, and transposable elements (TEs). Here, we focused on the palindromic structure of medium reiteration frequencies (MERs), which are similar to precursor miRNAs. Five MER consensus sequences (MER5A1, MER53, MER81, MER91C, and MER117) were matched with paralogous transcripts predicted to be precursor miRNAs in the horse genome (equCab2) and located in either intergenic regions or introns...
March 21, 2017: Molecules and Cells
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