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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906520/construction-of-the-human-forebrain
#1
REVIEW
Terry L Jernigan, Joan Stiles
The adult human brain is arguably the most complex of biological systems. It contains 86 billion neurons (the information processing cells of the brain) and many more support cells. The neurons, with the assistance of the support cells, form trillions of connections creating complex, interconnected neural networks that support all human thought, feeling, and action. A challenge for modern neuroscience is to provide a model that accounts for this exquisitely complex and dynamic system. One fundamental part of this model is an account of how the human brain develops...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901507/disseminated-toxoplasmosis-toxoplasma-gondii-in-a-wild-florida-manatee-trichechus-manatus-latirostris-and-seroprevalence-in-two-wild-populations
#2
Lauren N Smith, Thomas B Waltzek, David S Rotstein, Ruth Francis-Floyd, Michael T Walsh, James F X Wellehan, Rick Gerhold, Alycia E Chapman, Martine de Wit
Marine mammals are important indicators for ecosystem health and serve as sentinel species for infectious agents including zoonoses. Histological examination of tissues from a stranded Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris revealed protozoal cysts in the cerebrum and intrahistiocytic tachyzoites in the liver and caudal mesenteric lymph node. Disseminated Toxoplasma gondii infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region of formalin-fixed tissues...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900365/genome-sequencing-in-a-case-of-niemann-pick-type-c
#3
Max Dougherty, John Lazar, Jason C Klein, Karina Diaz, Theodore Gobillot, Eli Grunblatt, Nicholas Hasle, Daniel Lawrence, Megan Maurano, Maria Nelson, Gregory Olson, Sanjay Srivatsan, Jay Shendure, C Dirk Keene, Thomas Bird, Marshall S Horwitz, Desiree A Marshall
Adult-onset Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is an infrequent presentation of a rare neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder caused by autosomal recessive mutations in NPC1 (∼95%) or NPC2 (∼5%). Our patient was diagnosed at age 33 when he presented with a 10-yr history of difficulties in judgment, concentration, speech, and coordination. A history of transient neonatal jaundice and splenomegaly with bone marrow biopsy suggesting a lipid storage disorder pointed to NPC; biochemical ("variant" level cholesterol esterification) and ultrastructural studies in adulthood confirmed the diagnosis...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888408/extra-intestinal-detection-of-canine-kobuvirus-in-a-puppy-from-southern-brazil
#4
Juliane Ribeiro, Selwyn Arlington Headley, Jaqueline Assumpção Diniz, Alfredo Hajime Tanaka Pereira, Elis Lorenzetti, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Alice Fernandes Alfieri
This study presents the pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings associated with the extra-intestinal detection of canine kobuvirus (CaKV) in a 5-month-old Chihuahua puppy, that had a clinical history of bloody-tinged feces. Principal pathological findings were interstitial pneumonia, necrotizing bronchitis, and parvovirus-induced enteritis. Molecular diagnostic methods identified CaKV within the cerebellum, cerebrum, lung, tonsil, and liver. CaKV and rotavirus were not identified within the feces and intestine...
November 25, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886014/embryonic-mutant-huntingtin-aggregate-formation-in-mouse-models-of-huntington-s-disease
#5
Alexander P Osmand, Terry Jo Bichell, Aaron B Bowman, Gillian P Bates
The role of aggregate formation in the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD) remains uncertain. However, the temporal appearance of aggregates tends to correlate with the onset of symptoms and the numbers of neuropil aggregates correlate with the progression of clinical disease. Using highly sensitive immunohistochemical methods we have detected the appearance of diffuse aggregates during embryonic development in the R6/2 and YAC128 mouse models of HD. These are initially seen in developing axonal tracts and appear to spread throughout the cerebrum in the early neonate...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884438/toxoplasma-gondii-in-stranded-marine-mammals-from-the-north-sea-and-eastern-atlantic-ocean-findings-and-diagnostic-difficulties
#6
Norbert van de Velde, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Mardik Leopold, Lineke Begeman, Lonneke IJsseldijk, Sjoukje Hiemstra, Jooske IJzer, Andrew Brownlow, Nicholas Davison, Jan Haelters, Thierry Jauniaux, Ursula Siebert, Pierre Dorny, Stéphane De Craeye
The occurrence of the zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in marine mammals remains a poorly understood phenomenon. In this study, samples from 589 marine mammal species and 34 European otters (Lutra lutra), stranded on the coasts of Scotland, Belgium, France, The Netherlands and Germany, were tested for the presence of T. gondii. Brain samples were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of parasite DNA. Blood and muscle fluid samples were tested for specific antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT), a commercial multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA)...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882133/effects-of-forced-swimming-stress-on-thyroid-function-pituitary-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-and-hypothalamus-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-expression-in-adrenalectomy-wistar-rats
#7
Qiuyan Sun, Aihua Liu, Yanan Ma, Anyi Wang, Xinhong Guo, Weiping Teng, Yaqiu Jiang
In order to study the impact that is imposed on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of adrenalectomy male Wistar rats by stress caused by swimming, the blood level of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the expression of TSHβ mRNA at the pituitary and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) expression at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were measured. A total of 50 male Wistar rats of 6-8 weeks of age and with an average weight of 190-210 grams were randomly divided into the following two groups: The surgical (without adrenal glands) and non-surgical (adrenalectomy) group...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866083/neuroanatomical-differences-in-fast-and-slow-rat-strains-with-differential-vulnerability-to-kindling-and-behavioral-comorbidities
#8
Pragati Sharma, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Michael A D Vandenberg, Ke Fang, Leigh A Johnston, Sandy R Shultz, Terence J O'Brien, Krista L Gilby
OBJECTIVE: The neurobiological factors underlying a predisposition towards developing epilepsy and its common behavioral comorbidities are poorly understood. FAST rats are a strain that has been selectively bred for enhanced vulnerability to kindling, while the SLOW strain has been bred to be resistant to kindling. FAST rats also exhibit behavioral traits reminiscent of those observed in neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum disorder (ASD)/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) commonly comorbid with epilepsy...
November 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865980/aging-of-cerebral-white-matter
#9
REVIEW
Huan Liu, Yuanyuan Yang, Yuguo Xia, Wen Zhu, Rehana K Leak, Zhishuo Wei, Jianyi Wang, Xiaoming Hu
White matter (WM) occupies a large volume of the human cerebrum and is mainly composed of myelinated axons and myelin-producing glial cells. The myelinated axons within WM are the structural foundation for efficient neurotransmission between cortical and subcortical areas. Similar to neuron-enriched gray matter areas, WM undergoes a series of changes during the process of aging. WM malfunction can induce serious neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments. Thus, age-related changes in WM may contribute to the functional decline observed in the elderly...
November 16, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857045/long-term-pharmacotherapy-by-methylfenidate-or-atomoxetine-dat-1-10-10-adhd-children-in-correlation-with-results-of-the-imaging-methods
#10
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: ADHD is one of the most significant diagnostic units in child and adolescent psychiatry. The occurrence in children is 5-6% and 50-80% continued to adult age. The presence of individual genes (polymorphism) on particular symptoms and processes in ADHD are not known. It is estimated that ADHD symptoms are up to 80% to genetic. The higher density of resultant DAT 1 protein was observed in ADHD patients in comparison with controls. The question was if DAT 1 10/10 predicted bad prognoses in long term therapy...
September 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856619/coq-deficiency-causes-disruption-of-mitochondrial-sulfide-oxidation-a-new-pathomechanism-associated-with-this-syndrome
#11
Marta Luna-Sánchez, Agustín Hidalgo-Gutiérrez, Tatjana M Hildebrandt, Julio Chaves-Serrano, Eliana Barriocanal-Casado, Ángela Santos-Fandila, Miguel Romero, Ramy Ka Sayed, Juan Duarte, Holger Prokisch, Markus Schuelke, Felix Distelmaier, Germaine Escames, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, Luis C López
Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a key component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, but it also has several other functions in the cellular metabolism. One of them is to function as an electron carrier in the reaction catalyzed by sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), which catalyzes the first reaction in the hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathway. Therefore, SQR may be affected by CoQ deficiency. Using human skin fibroblasts and two mouse models with primary CoQ deficiency, we demonstrate that severe CoQ deficiency causes a reduction in SQR levels and activity, which leads to an alteration of mitochondrial sulfide metabolism...
November 17, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853608/fossil-skulls-reveal-that-blood-flow-rate-to-the-brain-increased-faster-than-brain-volume-during-human-evolution
#12
Roger S Seymour, Vanya Bosiocic, Edward P Snelling
The evolution of human cognition has been inferred from anthropological discoveries and estimates of brain size from fossil skulls. A more direct measure of cognition would be cerebral metabolic rate, which is proportional to cerebral blood flow rate (perfusion). The hominin cerebrum is supplied almost exclusively by the internal carotid arteries. The sizes of the foramina that transmitted these vessels in life can be measured in hominin fossil skulls and used to calculate cerebral perfusion rate. Perfusion in 11 species of hominin ancestors, from Australopithecus to archaic Homo sapiens, increases disproportionately when scaled against brain volume (the allometric exponent is 1...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853118/traditional-living-habits-of-the-taz-tundra-population-a-paleoparasitological-study
#13
Sergey Mikhailovich Slepchenko, Sergey Nikolaevich Ivanov, Bagashev Anatoly Nikolaevich, Tsybankov Alexander Alekseevich, Slavinsky Vyacheslav Sergeyevich
An excavation of the Vesakoyakha II-IV and Nyamboyto I burial grounds was conducted during the 2014 field season, and soil samples from intact burials dating from the 19th and 20th centuries, respectively, were analyzed to determine interactions between parasites and host/vectors. Considering the discovery of Diphyllobothrium sp. and Taenia sp. eggs in soil samples from the pelvic region, diphyllobothriasis was the most frequent helminthic infection among the Taz Nenets. The Nyamboyto Nenets mainly consumed uncooked fish, while the Vesakoyakha Nenets had a bigger variety in food choices, including reindeer meat...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852025/-neuroanatomy-of-temporal-association-cortex
#14
Noritaka Ichinohe
The temporal lobe of the cerebrum consists of several spatially segregated functional regions. There are discrete regions of the temporal lobe where auditory (primary, secondary and tertiary), visual (motion detection and object recognition) and meta-cognitive (memory and social communication) functions are processed. The subcortical amygdala and hippocampal-complex can also be considered temporal structures. Several nomenclature systems have been promoted over the years resulting in multiple names for most individual gyri and sulci...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822763/surgical-resection-of-large-encephalocele-a-report-of-two-cases-and-consideration-of-resectability-based-on-developmental-morphology
#15
Hideo Ohba, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Takashi Sadatomo, Masaaki Takeda, Manish Kolakshyapati, Kaoru Kurisu
INTRODUCTION: The first-line treatment of encephalocele is reduction of herniated structures. Large irreducible encephalocele entails resection of the lesion. In such case, it is essential to ascertain preoperatively if the herniated structure encloses critical venous drainage. CASE REPORTS: Two cases of encephalocele presenting with large occipital mass underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In first case, the skin mass enclosed the broad space containing cerebrospinal fluid and a part of occipital lobe and cerebellum...
November 7, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818274/phospholipids-and-calmodulin-modulate-the-inhibition-of-pmca-activity-by-tau
#16
María Berrocal, Isaac Corbacho, M Rosario Sepulveda, Carlos Gutierrez-Merino, Ana M Mata
The disruption of Ca(2+) signaling in neurons, together with a failure to keep optimal intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations, have been proposed as significant factors for neuronal dysfunction in the Ca(2+) hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau is a protein that plays an essential role in axonal transport and can form abnormal structures such as neurofibrillary tangles that constitute one of the hallmarks of AD. We have recently shown that plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), a key enzyme in the maintenance of optimal cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in cells, is inhibited by tau in membrane vesicles...
November 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812324/big-cat-coalitions-a-comparative-analysis-of-regional-brain-volumes-in-felidae
#17
Sharleen T Sakai, Bradley M Arsznov, Ani E Hristova, Elise J Yoon, Barbara L Lundrigan
Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus), cougars (Puma concolor), and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803415/toxoplasmic-encephalitis-with-untreated-hairy-cell-leukemia-variant
#18
Taichi Ikebe, Hitohiro Sasaki, Hiroyuki Takata, Yasuhiko Miyazaki, Eiichi Ohtsuka, Yoshio Saburi, Masao Ogata, Kuniaki Shirao
Toxoplasmic encephalitis is a rare infectious complication in patients with hematological malignancy except for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We herein report a case of possible toxoplasmic encephalitis with untreated hairy cell leukemia variant. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple nodules with surrounding edema in the entire cerebrum. A polymerase chain reaction analysis for Toxoplasma gondii was negative. Her signs and symptoms fully recovered by empirical therapy with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789719/prognostic-implications-of-total-hemispheric-glucose-metabolism-ratio-in-cerebro-cerebellar-diaschisis
#19
Eivind Antonsen Segtnan, Peter Grupe, Jens Ole Jarden, Oke Gerke, Jana Ivanidze, Sofie Bæk Christlieb, Caius Constantinescu, John Erling Pedersen, Sina Houshmand, Søren Hess, Mojtaba Zarei, Albert Gjedde, Abass Alavi, Poul Flemming Høilund-Carlsen
PURPOSE: Diaschisis denotes brain dysfunction remote from a focal brain lesion. We have quantified diaschisis and investigated its prognostic value in glioma. METHODS AND MATERIAL: We compared 50 (18)F-FDG-PET-CT studies collected prospectively from 14 patients with supratentorial glioma (5 men and 9 women aged 35-77 years) with 10 single scans from healthy controls aged 43-75 years. Dedicated 3D-segmentation software was used to obtain total hemispheric glucose metabolic ratios (THGr) by dividing total hemispheric (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in each diaschitic hemisphere, i...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785699/cerebellar-involvement-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-myoclonus-due-to-epm1-structural-and-functional-mri-findings-in-comparison-with-healthy-controls-and-ataxic-patients
#20
Anna Nigri, Elisa Visani, Nicola Bertolino, Lorenzo Nanetti, Caterina Mariotti, Marta Panzeri, Maria Grazia Bruzzone, Silvana Franceschetti, Laura Canafoglia
EPM1 (epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 1; Unverricht-Lundborg disease, OMIM #254800) is the most frequent form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Previous findings have suggested that its pathophysiology mainly involves the cerebellum, but the evaluation of cerebellar dysfunction is still unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to assess the structural and functional involvement of the cerebellum in EPM1. We used voxel-based morphometry and spatially unbiased infra-tentorial template analyses of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and functional MRI (fMRI) scans during block and event-related go/no-go motor tasks to study 13 EPM1 patients with mild to moderate myoclonus...
October 26, 2016: Brain Topography
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