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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106717/air-embolism-diagnosis-clinical-management-and-outcomes
#1
Colin J McCarthy, Sasan Behravesh, Sailendra G Naidu, Rahmi Oklu
Air embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of surgical procedures. Rapid recognition and intervention is critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. We retrospectively characterized our experience with air embolism during medical procedures at a tertiary medical center. Electronic medical records were searched for all cases of air embolism over a 25-year period; relevant medical and imaging records were reviewed. Sixty-seven air embolism cases were identified; the mean age was 59 years (range, 3-89 years)...
January 17, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100454/gene-therapy-targeting-oligodendrocytes-provides-therapeutic-benefit-in-a-leukodystrophy-model
#2
Elena Georgiou, Kyriaki Sidiropoulou, Jan Richter, Christos Papaneophytou, Irene Sargiannidou, Alexia Kagiava, Georg von Jonquieres, Christina Christodoulou, Matthias Klugmann, Kleopas A Kleopa
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease or hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-2 is an autosomal recessively inherited leukodystrophy with childhood onset resulting from mutations in the gene encoding the gap junction protein connexin 47 (Cx47, encoded by GJC2). Cx47 is expressed specifically in oligodendrocytes and is crucial for gap junctional communication throughout the central nervous system. Previous studies confirmed that a cell autonomous loss-of-function mechanism underlies hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-2 and that transgenic oligodendrocyte-specific expression of another connexin, Cx32 (GJB1), can restore gap junctions in oligodendrocytes to achieve correction of the pathology in a disease model...
January 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079960/successful-medical-management-of-a-domestic-longhair-cat-with-subdural-intracranial-empyema-and-multifocal-pneumonia
#3
Thomas J A Cardy, Richard Lam, Laureen M Peters, Philippa J McLaren, Màrian Matas Riera, Steven De Decker
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of successful medical management of subdural intracranial empyema and multifocal pneumonia in a domestic longhaired cat. CASE SUMMARY: A 7-year-and-8-month-old male neutered domestic longhair cat presented with tachypnea, respiratory compromise, vestibular ataxia, obtundation, left-sided head tilt, and multiple cranial nerve deficits. Neuroanatomical localization was multifocal with central vestibular involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head indicated diffuse subdural empyema, mainly affecting the middle cranial fossa and the right cerebrum...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078505/t2-relaxation-time-measurements-in-the-brains-of-scalded-rats
#4
Tao Jiang, Liqi Xie, Xin Lou, Dawei Li, Zhiye Chen, Huafeng Xiao, Lin Ma
This study aimed to evaluate the T2 relaxation time of the brain in severely scalded rats using a magnetic resonance (MR) T2 mapping sequence, and to investigate the correlation between T2 relaxation time and plasma glucose level. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into the scalded group (n=21) and control group (n=7). Magnetic resonance scans were performed with T1WI, T2WI, and T2-mapping sequences in the scalded group; the scans were performed 1 day prior to scalding and 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post-scalding; in addition, identical MR scans were performed in the control group at the same time points...
January 4, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072384/impact-of-cerebellar-atrophy-on-cortical-gray-matter-and-cerebellar-peduncles-as-assessed-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging
#5
Michael Dayan, G Olivito, M Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, M Leggio
In recent years the cerebellum has been attributed amore important role in higher-level functions than previously believed. We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063896/clinical-correlation-of-abnormal-findings-on-magnetic-resonance-elastography-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#6
Avital Perry, Christopher S Graffeo, Nikoo Fattahi, Mona M ElSheikh, Nealey Cray, Arvin Arani, Richard L Ehman, Kevin J Glaser, Armando Manduca, Fredric B Meyer, John Huston
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is ventriculomegaly syndrome characterized by dementia, urinary incontinence, and gait disturbance, which is potentially reversible following ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS). Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an evolving imaging technology that noninvasively measures tissue viscoelasticity. OBJECTIVE: We studied iNPH patients using MRE prior to shunting, compared them to normal controls, and analyzed associations between MRE findings and clinical features, as a pilot assessment of MRE in iNPH...
January 4, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018464/a-pediatric-case-of-idiopathic-harlequin-syndrome
#7
Ju Young Kim, Moon Souk Lee, Seung Yeon Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Soo Jin Lee, Chur Woo You, Jon Soo Kim, Ju Hyung Kang
Harlequin syndrome, which is a rare disorder caused by dysfunction of the autonomic system, manifests as asymmetric facial flushing and sweating in response to heat, exercise, or emotional factors. The syndrome may be primary (idiopathic) with a benign course, or can occur secondary to structural abnormalities or iatrogenic factors. The precise mechanism underlying idiopathic harlequin syndrome remains unclear. Here, we describe a case of a 6-year-old boy who reported left hemifacial flushing and sweating after exercise...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008954/sodium-selenate-regulates-the-brain-ionome-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Lin Zheng, Hua-Zhang Zhu, Bing-Tao Wang, Qiong-Hui Zhao, Xiu-Bo Du, Yi Zheng, Liang Jiang, Jia-Zuan Ni, Yan Zhang, Qiong Liu
Many studies have shown that imbalance of mineral metabolism may play an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. It was recently reported that selenium could reverse memory deficits in AD mouse model. We carried out multi-time-point ionome analysis to investigate the interactions among 15 elements in the brain by using a triple-transgenic mouse model of AD with/without high-dose sodium selenate supplementation. Except selenium, the majority of significantly changed elements showed a reduced level after 6-month selenate supplementation, especially iron whose levels were completely reversed to normal state at almost all examined time points...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008682/homozygous-ppt1-splice-donor-mutation-in-a-cane-corso-dog-with-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis
#9
A Kolicheski, H L Barnes Heller, S Arnold, R D Schnabel, J F Taylor, C A Knox, T Mhlanga-Mutangadura, D P O'Brien, G S Johnson, J Dreyfus, M L Katz
A 10-month-old spayed female Cane Corso dog was evaluated after a 2-month history of progressive blindness, ataxia, and lethargy. Neurologic examination abnormalities indicated a multifocal lesion with primarily cerebral and cerebellar signs. Clinical worsening resulted in humane euthanasia. On necropsy, there was marked astrogliosis throughout white matter tracts of the cerebrum, most prominently in the corpus callosum. In the cerebral cortex and midbrain, most neurons contained large amounts of autofluorescent storage material in the perinuclear area of the cells...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008305/magnesium-sulfate-prevents-placental-ischemia-induced-increases-in-brain-water-content-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-cytokines-in-pregnant-rats
#10
Linda W Zhang, Junie P Warrington
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the most widely used therapy in the clinic to prevent the progression of preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, to eclampsia. Eclampsia, manifested as unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum, accounts for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. While MgSO4 continues to be used in the clinic, the mechanisms by which it exerts its protective actions are not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MgSO4 protects against placental ischemia-induced increases in brain water content and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005956/the-intelligent-control-system-and-experiments-for-an-unmanned-wave-glider
#11
Yulei Liao, Leifeng Wang, Yiming Li, Ye Li, Quanquan Jiang
The control system designing of Unmanned Wave Glider (UWG) is challenging since the control system is weak maneuvering, large time-lag and large disturbance, which is difficult to establish accurate mathematical model. Meanwhile, to complete marine environment monitoring in long time scale and large spatial scale autonomously, UWG asks high requirements of intelligence and reliability. This paper focuses on the "Ocean Rambler" UWG. First, the intelligent control system architecture is designed based on the cerebrum basic function combination zone theory and hierarchic control method...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998851/-blue-rubber-bleb-nevus-syndrome-complicated-by-a-ventricular-septal-defect-a-case-report
#12
Xiao-Hua Chi, Quan-Shi Wang, Yao-Ming Xue, Feng Liu, Yong-Shuai Qi, Gui-Ping Li
The co-occurrence of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) and ventricular septal defects is rare. Here we present a case of BRBNS in a 15-year-old boy who was born with multiple cavernous hemangiomas and a ventricular septal defect. Examinations revealed the presence of hemangioma lesions in the subcutaneous and mucosal tissues as well as in the cerebrum, nasopharynx, tongue, esophagus, gastric body, sigmoid colon and adrenal gland. Combined imaging modalities played an important role in the diagnosis of hemangioma lesions...
December 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940782/third-trimester-brain-growth-in-preterm-infants-compared-with-in-utero-healthy-fetuses
#13
Marine Bouyssi-Kobar, Adré J du Plessis, Robert McCarter, Marie Brossard-Racine, Jonathan Murnick, Laura Tinkleman, Richard L Robertson, Catherine Limperopoulos
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Compared with term infants, preterm infants have impaired brain development at term-equivalent age, even in the absence of structural brain injury. However, details regarding the onset and progression of impaired preterm brain development over the third trimester are unknown. Our primary objective was to compare third-trimester brain volumes and brain growth trajectories in ex utero preterm infants without structural brain injury and in healthy in utero fetuses...
November 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939221/cerebral-disorders-of-calves
#14
REVIEW
Vincent Dore, Geof Smith
Neurologic diseases of the cerebrum are relatively common in cattle. In calves, the primary cerebral disorders are polioencephalomalacia, meningitis, and sodium toxicity. Because diagnostic testing is not always readily available, the practitioner must often decide on a course of treatment based on knowledge of the likely disease, as well as his or her own clinical experience. This is particularly true with neurologic diseases in which the prognosis is often poor and euthanasia may be the most humane outcome...
December 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923754/successful-coil-embolization-of-pediatric-carotid-cavernous-fistula-due-to-ruptured-posttraumatic-giant-internal-carotid-artery-aneurysm
#15
Daisuke Wajima, Ichiro Nakagawa, Hun Soo Park, Shohei Yokoyama, Takeshi Wada, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Hiroyuki Nakase
BACKGROUND: The goal of the treatment of direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is to occlude the arteriovenous shunt and to preserve the patency of the concerned internal carotid artery. However, for the ipsilateral posttraumatic fragile cerebrum, coil embolization plus parent artery occlusion for the high-flow direct CCF is better for the prevention of hyperperfusion syndrome and intracranial hemorrhage. We experienced such a case and managed it successfully. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 6-year-old boy had severe head trauma caused by being hit by a car...
December 5, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917786/structural-changes-in-the-cerebrum-cerebellum-and-corpus-callosum-in-migraine-patients
#16
Berin T Demir, Nezihe A Bayram, Zübeyde Ayturk, Hüsamettin Erdamar, Pelin Seven, Ayşegül Calp, Merve Sazak, Hatice G Ceylan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the relationship among the cerebrum, cerebellum and corpus callosum in migraine patients. METHODS: This work was conducted with cooperation of the Turgut Özal Medical Faculty, Department of Anatomy and Neurology. Migraine patients were divided into four groups: new patients; 1-5 years; 5-10 years; and, more than 10 years. All patients (n=75) and control subjects (n=20) underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and brain images were processed by ONIS and Image J...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916888/a-topographical-atlas-of-shiga-toxin-2e-receptor-distribution-in-the-tissues-of-weaned-piglets
#17
Daniel Steil, Robert Bonse, Iris Meisen, Gottfried Pohlentz, German Vallejo, Helge Karch, Johannes Müthing
Shiga toxin (Stx) 2e of Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is the primary virulence factor in the development of pig edema disease shortly after weaning. Stx2e binds to the globo-series glycosphingolipids (GSLs) globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer, Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glcβ1-1Cer) and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer, GalNAcβ1-3Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glcβ1-1Cer), the latter acting as the preferential Stx2e receptor. We determined Stx receptor profiles of 25 different tissues of a male and a female weaned piglet using immunochemical solid phase binding assays combined with mass spectrometry...
November 30, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906520/construction-of-the-human-forebrain
#18
REVIEW
Terry L Jernigan, Joan Stiles
The adult human brain is arguably the most complex of biological systems. It contains 86 billion neurons (the information processing cells of the brain) and many more support cells. The neurons, with the assistance of the support cells, form trillions of connections creating complex, interconnected neural networks that support all human thought, feeling, and action. A challenge for modern neuroscience is to provide a model that accounts for this exquisitely complex and dynamic system. One fundamental part of this model is an account of how the human brain develops...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901507/disseminated-toxoplasmosis-toxoplasma-gondii-in-a-wild-florida-manatee-trichechus-manatus-latirostris-and-seroprevalence-in-two-wild-populations
#19
Lauren N Smith, Thomas B Waltzek, David S Rotstein, Ruth Francis-Floyd, Michael T Walsh, James F X Wellehan, Rick Gerhold, Alycia E Chapman, Martine de Wit
Marine mammals are important indicators for ecosystem health and serve as sentinel species for infectious agents including zoonoses. Histological examination of tissues from a stranded Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris revealed protozoal cysts in the cerebrum and intrahistiocytic tachyzoites in the liver and caudal mesenteric lymph node. Disseminated Toxoplasma gondii infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region of formalin-fixed tissues...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900365/genome-sequencing-in-a-case-of-niemann-pick-type-c
#20
Max Dougherty, John Lazar, Jason C Klein, Karina Diaz, Theodore Gobillot, Eli Grunblatt, Nicholas Hasle, Daniel Lawrence, Megan Maurano, Maria Nelson, Gregory Olson, Sanjay Srivatsan, Jay Shendure, C Dirk Keene, Thomas Bird, Marshall S Horwitz, Desiree A Marshall
Adult-onset Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is an infrequent presentation of a rare neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder caused by autosomal recessive mutations in NPC1 (∼95%) or NPC2 (∼5%). Our patient was diagnosed at age 33 when he presented with a 10-yr history of difficulties in judgment, concentration, speech, and coordination. A history of transient neonatal jaundice and splenomegaly with bone marrow biopsy suggesting a lipid storage disorder pointed to NPC; biochemical ("variant" level cholesterol esterification) and ultrastructural studies in adulthood confirmed the diagnosis...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
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