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Amol K Bhandage, Zhe Jin, Charlotte Hellgren, Sergiy V Korol, Krzysztof Nowak, Louise Williamsson, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Bryndis Birnir
The amino acid glutamate opens cation permeable ion channels, the iGlu receptors. These ion channels are abundantly expressed in the mammalian brain where glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter. The neurotransmitters and their receptors are being increasingly detected in the cells of immune system. Here we examined the expression of the 18 known subunits of the iGlu receptors families; α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), kainate, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and delta in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Tobias Hornig, Björn Grüning, Kousik Kundu, Torsten Houwaart, Rolf Backofen, Knut Biber, Claus Normann
Glutamate is the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a glutamate-gated ionotropic cation channel that is composed of several subunits and modulated by a glycine binding site. Many forms of synaptic plasticity depend on the influx of calcium ions through NMDA receptors, and NMDA receptor dysfunction has been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in a family with a strong history of psychotic disorders over three generations...
January 30, 2017: Genetics Research
Karen Siaw-Ling Wee, Francis Chee Kuan Tan, Yoke-Ping Cheong, Sanjay Khanna, Chian-Ming Low
N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors are localized to synaptic and extrasynaptic sites of dendritic spines and shafts. Here, the ontogenic profiles of GluN3A and GluN3B subunits in the rat brain were determined. A developmental switch from GluN3A to GluN3B proteins was detected within the first two postnatal weeks of crude synaptosomes prepared from forebrain and midbrain. Further fractionation of crude synaptosomes revealed the preferential localization of GluN3B to synaptic regions from P7 onwards. Immunolabeling and biochemical fractionation of rat P7 cultured hippocampal neurons showed that GluN3B was predominantly at synaptic sites...
February 2016: Neurochemical Research
H Yamamoto, Y Hagino, S Kasai, K Ikeda
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays important roles in learning and memory. NMDA receptors are a tetramer that consists of two glycine-binding subunits GluN1, two glutamate-binding subunits (i.e., GluN2A, GluN2B, GluN2C, and GluN2D), a combination of a GluN2 subunit and glycine-binding GluN3 subunit (i.e., GluN3A or GluN3B), or two GluN3 subunits. Recent studies revealed that the specific expression and distribution of each subunit are deeply involved in neural excitability, plasticity, and synaptic deficits...
2015: Current Molecular Medicine
Trine Kvist, Thomas Bielefeldt Steffensen, Jeremy R Greenwood, Fatemeh Mehrzad Tabrizi, Kasper B Hansen, Michael Gajhede, Darryl S Pickering, Stephen F Traynelis, Jette Sandholm Kastrup, Hans Bräuner-Osborne
NMDA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. They are tetrameric complexes composed of glycine-binding GluN1 and GluN3 subunits together with glutamate-binding GluN2 subunits. Subunit-selective antagonists that discriminate between the glycine sites of GluN1 and GluN3 subunits would be valuable pharmacological tools for studies on the function and physiological roles of NMDA receptor subtypes. In a virtual screening for antagonists that exploit differences in the orthosteric binding site of GluN1 and GluN3 subunits, we identified a novel glycine site antagonist, 1-thioxo-1,2-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-4(5H)-one (TK40)...
November 15, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Trine Kvist, Jeremy R Greenwood, Kasper B Hansen, Stephen F Traynelis, Hans Bräuner-Osborne
NMDA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that assemble into tetrameric receptor complexes composed of glycine-binding GluN1 and GluN3 subunits (GluN3A-B) and glutamate-binding GluN2 subunits (GluN2A-D). NMDA receptors can assemble as GluN1/N2 receptors and as GluN3-containing NMDA receptors, which are either glutamate/glycine-activated triheteromeric GluN1/N2/N3 receptors or glycine-activated diheteromeric GluN1/N3 receptors. The glycine-binding GluN1 and GluN3 subunits display strikingly different pharmacological selectivity profiles...
December 2013: Neuropharmacology
Hui Wang, Haitao Yan, Shuzhuo Zhang, Xiaoli Wei, Jianquan Zheng, Jin Li
NMDARs (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors) mediate the predominantly excitatory neurotransmission in the CNS (central nervous system). Excessive release of glutamate and overactivation of NMDARs during brain ischemia and the hypoxia process are causally linked to excitotoxicity and neuronal damage. GluN3 subunits, the third member of the NMDAR family with two isoforms, GluN3A and GluN3B, have been confirmed to display an inhibitory effect on NMDAR activity. However, the effect of GluN3 subunits in brain ischemia and hypoxia is not clearly understood...
August 29, 2013: ASN Neuro
L K Berg, M Larsson, C Morland, V Gundersen
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptors is involved in synaptic plasticity in hippocampal mossy fibre-CA3 pyramidal neuron synapses. The ultrastructural localization of NMDA receptor subunits at this synapse type is not known. By postembedding electron microscopic immunogold cytochemistry we show that the NMDA receptor subunits GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B, GluN2C and GluN2D are located in postsynaptic membranes of mossy fibre as well as CA3 recurrent associational commissural synapses. In the mossy fibres the GluN1, GluN2B and GluN2D labelling patterns suggested that these subunits were located also presynaptically in nerve terminal membranes and in mossy fibre axons...
January 29, 2013: Neuroscience
David W McClymont, John Harris, Ian R Mellor
The GluN3 subunits of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor are known to reduce its Ca(2+) permeability and Mg(2+) sensitivity, however, little is known about their effects on other channel blockers. cRNAs for rat NMDA receptor subunits were injected into Xenopus oocytes and responses to NMDA and glycine were recorded using two electrode voltage clamp. Channel block of receptors containing GluN1-1a/2A, GluN1-1a/2A/3A or GluN1-1a/2A/3B subunits was characterised using Mg(2+), memantine, MK-801, philanthotoxin-343 and methoctramine...
July 5, 2012: European Journal of Pharmacology
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