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Body fluids

Taraknath Mandal, Ronald G Larson
Using fully atomistic and coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report, for the first time, the self-assembly of initially randomly dispersed dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) surfactants into a striped cylindrical micelle (SCM) with lamellae of surfactant heads and tails alternating along the cylindrical axis, with both heads and tails in contact with the water. By changing the interaction strength of the head group with water relative to itself, we find that such micelles are most likely for head groups with marginal solubility in the water solvent...
March 22, 2018: Soft Matter
Antonio Tricoli, Giovanni Neri
This review reports the latest achievements in point-of-care (POC) sensor technologies for the monitoring of ammonia, creatinine and urea in patients suffering of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Abnormal levels of these nitrogen biomarkers are found in the physiological fluids, such as blood, urine and sweat, of CKD patients. Delocalized at-home monitoring of CKD biomarkers via integration of miniaturized, portable, and low cost chemical- and bio-sensors in POC devices, is an emerging approach to improve patients' health monitoring and life quality...
March 22, 2018: Sensors
Ana Laura Flores-García, Carmen Alicia Sánchez-Ramírez, Óscar Alberto Newton-Sánchez, Fabián Rojas-Larios
INTRODUCTION: Patients on dialysis have important changes in body composition. OBJECTIVES: To determine the correlation between skinfold thickness (SKF) and bioimpedance analysis (BIA) for estimating fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). METHODS: Cross-sectional study. We included 50 patients under dialysis treatment. To measure SKF, we used the Lange® skinfold caliper (Beta Technology, California, USA) and we carried out the impedance analysis with the Bodystat Quadscan 4000® (Quadscan, Isle of Man, UK)...
January 10, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Danielle Pazzotti Borges, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Edimar A Bocchi, Vagner Oliveira Carvalho Rigaud
BACKGROUND: Circulating cell-free miRNAs hold great promise as a new class of biomarkers due to their high stability in body fluids and association with disease stages. However, even using sensitive and specific methods, technical challenges are associated with miRNA analysis in body fluids. A major source of variation in plasma and serum is the potential cell-derived miRNA contamination from hemolysis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the delayed whole blood processing time on the concentrations of miR-1 and -423-5p...
March 21, 2018: MicroRNA
Taoufik Ladhari, Konrad Szafnicki
Usual therapies against malignant tumors, such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, is severe and when repeated their efficiency may decrease because tumorous cells may become resistant. Contrarily, hyperthermia has been known for some time as an effective auxiliary treatment, which can be applied repeatedly. In some cases of abdominal carcinomatosis, particularly those of digestive origin, HIPEC is considered as an promising therapeutic option. Chemotherapy and hyperthermia are combined via the perfusion of the abdominal cavity with hot fluids containing chemotherapeutic agents, thus, augmenting the influence of appropriate chemotherapeutic agents with heat...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
Jeong Hee Lee, Eung Do Kim, Eun Jung Jun, Hyoung Sun Yoo, Joon Woo Lee
Background: The purpose of this paper is to provide technology trends and information regarding market and prospects in stents used for human blood vessels in Korea and the world.A stent is a medical device in the form of a cylindrical metal net used to normalize flow when blood or other bodily fluids such as biliary fluids are obstructed in blood vessels, gastrointestinal tracts, etc. by inserting the stent into a narrowed or clogged area. Stents are classified into vascular and non-vascular stents...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Wasl Al-Adsani, Ali Ahmad, Mohammad Al-Mousa
Background: Brucellosis is a bacterial infection, caused by the nonmotile gram-negative aerobic coccobacilli. The clinical manifestation of brucellosis is variable, ranging from mild disease to severe disease. The gold standard test to confirm the diagnosis of brucellosis is assaying blood, bone marrow, or other body fluids or by tissue culture. Preferred first-line treatment in adults with uncomplicated, nonlocalized disease consists of doxycycline-aminoglycoside combination. The recommended duration of treatment is 6 weeks...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Mohamed Tharwat, Madeh Sadan, El-Sayed El-Shafaey, El-Hassan Saeed, Abdullah Al-Hawas
This report summarizes the clinical, hematobiochemical, ultrasonographic, histopathological and bacteriological findings in a male Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) with bilateral renal abscessation and chronic active pyelonephritis. Owner complaint included a decreased appetite and loss of body condition with occasionally voiding red urine. In the right kidney, ultrasonographic changes included a hypoechoic fluid surrounding the renal parenchyma. Within the left kidney, a large volume of hypoechoic contents were imaged...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Simon F Schoeller, Eric E Keaveny
Swimming cells and microorganisms are as diverse in their collective dynamics as they are in their individual shapes and propulsion mechanisms. Even for sperm cells, which have a stereotyped shape consisting of a cell body connected to a flexible flagellum, a wide range of collective dynamics is observed spanning from the formation of tightly packed groups to the display of larger-scale, turbulence-like motion. Using a detailed mathematical model that resolves flagellum dynamics, we perform simulations of sperm suspensions containing up to 1000 cells and explore the connection between individual and collective dynamics...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Hiroshi Nagano, Yuki Sobue, Hayato Matsuyama, Shoichiro Saito, Hiroki Sakai, Firoj Alom, Yasuyuki Tanahashi, Toshiaki Ishii, Toshihiro Unno
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been suggested to be implicated in arginine-vasopressin secretion because intraventricular muscarinic agonist administration induces arginine-vasopressin release into the circulation. Although which subtype is involved in the regulation of arginine-vasopressin secretion is unclear, M2 receptors have been reported to be highly expressed in the hypothalamus. In the present study, M2 receptor knockout mice were used to elucidate whether M2 receptor regulates arginine-vasopressin synthesis in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Mindy Elizabeth Hair, Adrianna I Mathis, Erica K Brunelle, Lenka Halámková, Jan Halámek
Sweat is a biological fluid present on the skin surface of every individual and is known to contain amino acids as well as other low molecular weight compounds. Each individual is inherently different from one another based on certain factors including, but not limited to, his/her genetic make-up, environment, and lifestyle. As such, the biochemical composition of each person greatly differs. The concentrations of the biochemical content within an individual's sweat are largely controlled by metabolic processes within the body that fluctuate regularly based on attributes such as age, gender, and activity levels...
March 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Laurence Vico, Alan Hargens
Space sojourns are challenging for life. The ability of the human body to adapt to these extreme conditions has been noted since the beginning of human space travel. Skeletal alterations that occur during spaceflight are now better understood owing to tools such as dual-energy X-ray densitometry and high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT, and murine models help researchers to understand cellular and matrix changes that occur in bone and that are difficult to measure in humans. However, questions remain with regard to bone adaptation and osteocyte fate, as well as to interactions of the skeleton with fluid shifts towards the head and with the vascular system...
March 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Kenji Kikuchi, Mark A Stremler, Souvick Chatterjee, Wah-Keat Lee, Osamu Mochizuki, John J Socha
Mosquitoes transport liquid foods into the body using two muscular pumps in the head. In normal drinking, these pumps reciprocate in a stereotyped pattern of oscillation, with a high frequency but small stroke volume. Do mosquitoes modulate their neuromotor programs for pumping to produce different drinking modes? More broadly, what are the mechanical consequences of a two-pump system in insects? To address these questions, we used synchrotron x-ray imaging and fluid mechanical modeling to investigate drinking performance in mosquitoes...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Remigiusz Gałęcki, Rajmund Sokół
There are no standard guidelines for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in reptiles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two cryptosporidiosis therapies in captive green iguanas. Eight green iguanas aged 2-6 years, including 6 (1 ♂ and 5 ♀) animals with chronic diarrhea, received treatment for cryptosporidiosis. The presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was determined in 8 iguanas (100%), Isospora sp. oocysts were detected in 3 animals (37.5%), and Oxyuridae eggs were observed in 5 iguanas (62...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Ross W Paterson, Catherine F Slattery, Teresa Poole, Jennifer M Nicholas, Nadia K Magdalinou, Jamie Toombs, Miles D Chapman, Michael P Lunn, Amanda J Heslegrave, Martha S Foiani, Philip S J Weston, Ashvini Keshavan, Jonathan D Rohrer, Martin N Rossor, Jason D Warren, Catherine J Mummery, Kaj Blennow, Nick C Fox, Henrik Zetterberg, Jonathan M Schott
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are increasingly being used to support a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Their clinical utility for differentiating AD from non-AD neurodegenerative dementias, such as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD), is less well established. We aimed to determine the diagnostic utility of an extended panel of CSF biomarkers to differentiate AD from a range of other neurodegenerative dementias. METHODS: We used immunoassays to measure conventional CSF markers of amyloid and tau pathology (amyloid beta (Aβ)1-42, total tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau (P-tau)) as well as amyloid processing (AβX-38, AβX-40, AβX-42, soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP)α, and sAPPβ), large fibre axonal degeneration (neurofilament light chain (NFL)), and neuroinflammation (YKL-40) in 245 patients with a variety of dementias and 30 controls...
March 20, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Viviana Izzo, Bruno Charlier, Elena Bloise, Marine Pingeon, Marianna Romano, Antonietta Finelli, Alfonso Vietri, Valeria Conti, Valentina Manzo, Maria Alfieri, Amelia Filippelli, Fabrizio Dal Piaz
Exposure of healthcare workers to anticancer drugs requires the combined action of environmental and biological monitoring to assess the effective level of exposure to these chemicals, to improve awareness and to avoid adverse health effects on this category of workers. Cancer chemotherapeutic drugs show different mechanisms of action due to diverse chemical structures; consequently, they differ in hydrophobicity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Therefore, the appearance, accumulation and elimination of each of these molecules in body fluids and tissues might be extremely variable; this prompts the need for a rapid and versatile analytical protocol for the biological monitoring of possible exposure of workers involved in the manipulation, administration and disposal of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Jonathan Martens, Giel Berden, Herman Bentlage, Karlien L M Coene, Udo F Engelke, David Wishart, Monique van Scherpenzeel, Leo A J Kluijtmans, Ron A Wevers, Jos Oomens
The identification of molecular biomarkers is critical for diagnosing and treating patients and for establishing a fundamental understanding of the pathophysiology and underlying biochemistry of inborn errors of metabolism. Currently, liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are the principle methods used for biomarker research and for structural elucidation of small molecules in patient body fluids. While both are powerful techniques, several limitations exist that often make the identification of unknown compounds challenging...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Mitsuru Ohishi
Elevated blood pressure is closely related to increased circulatory fluid volume and peripheral vascular resistance. Patients with diabetes mellitus experience increased peripheral artery resistance caused by vascular remodeling and increased body fluid volume associated with insulin resistance-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Both of these mechanisms elevate systemic blood pressure. Thus, fully understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension in diabetes mellitus requires knowing the natural history of type 2 diabetes...
March 19, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Michael A Zaks, Alexander Nepomnyashchy
Deterministic transport of passive tracers in steady laminar plane flows of incompressible viscous fluids through lattices of solid bodies or arrays of steady vortices can be anomalous. Motion along regular patterns of streamlines is often aperiodic: Repeated slow passages near stagnation points and/or solid surfaces serve for eventual decorrelation. Singularities of passage times near the obstacles, dictated by the boundary conditions, affect the character of transport anomalies: Flows past arrays of vortices are subdiffusive whereas tracers advected through lattices of solid obstacles can feature superdiffusion...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Omar Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi, Nour Al-Sawalha, Mohammad Bani Ahmad, Alan Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
PURPOSE: Acute exposure of experimental animals to waterpipe tobacco smoke has been shown to induce lung inflammation and injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic exposure to waterpipe smoke on inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in the mouse lung. METHOD: Using a whole-body exposure system, animals were exposed to waterpipe smoke for 6 weeks with a one-hour daily exposure for 5 days a week. RESULTS: Exposure to waterpipe tobacco smoke induced the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the airway...
March 16, 2018: Life Sciences
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