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Body fluids

Nehemiah T Liu, José Salinas, Craig A Fenrich, Maria L Serio-Melvin, George C Kramer, Ian R Driscoll, Martin A Schreiber, Leopoldo C Cancio, Kevin K Chung
INTRODUCTION: The depth of burn has been an important factor often overlooked when estimating the total resuscitation fluid needed for early burn care. The goal of this study was to determine the degree to which full-thickness (FT) involvement affected overall 24-hour burn resuscitation volumes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients admitted to our burn intensive care unit from December 2007 to April 2013, with significant burns that required resuscitation using our computerized decision support system for burn fluid resuscitation...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Matthew S Palmer, George Jf Heigenhauser, MyLinh Duong, Lawrence L Spriet
This study determined whether mild dehydration influenced skeletal muscle glycogen use, core temperature or performance during high-intensity, intermittent cycle-based exercise in ice hockey players vs. staying hydrated with water. Eight males (21.6 ± 0.4 yr, 183.5 ± 1.6 cm, 83.9 ± 3.7 kg, 50.2 ± 1.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed two trials separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of 3 periods (P) containing 10 x 45-second cycling bouts at ~133% VO2max, followed by 135 seconds of passive rest. Subjects drank no fluid and dehydrated during the protocol (NF), or maintained body mass by drinking WATER...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Yu Sun, Jesper Østergaard
Efficient drug delivery is dependent on the drug substance dissolving in the body fluids, being released from dosage forms and transported to the site of action. A fundamental understanding of the interplay between the physicochemical properties of the active compound and pharmaceutical excipients defining formulation behavior after exposure to the aqueous environments and pharmaceutical performance is critical in pharmaceutical development, manufacturing and quality control of drugs. UV imaging has been explored as a tool for qualitative and quantitative characterization of drug dissolution and release with the characteristic feature of providing real-time visualization of the solution phase drug transport in the vicinity of the formulation...
October 20, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Matthias Jacob, Daniel Chappell, Bernhard F Becker
Oxygen delivery to cells is the basic prerequisite of life. Within the human body, an ingenious oxygen delivery system, comprising steps of convection and diffusion from the upper airways via the lungs and the cardiovascular system to the microvascular area, bridges the gap between oxygen in the outside airspace and the interstitial space around the cells. However, the complexity of this evolutionary development makes us prone to pathophysiological problems. While those problems related to respiration and macrohemodynamics have already been successfully addressed by modern medicine, the pathophysiology of the microcirculation is still often a closed book in daily practice...
October 21, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Ying Zhang, Xi Wang, Dan Cui, Jun Zhu
The human whole saliva is a vital body fluid to study the physiology and pathology of oral cavity. As a powerful technique for biomarker discovery, mass spectrometry-based proteomic strategy has been introduced to saliva analysis and identified hundreds of proteins and N-glycosylation sites. However, there still lacks of quantitative analysis, which is necessary for biomarker screening and biological researches. In this study, we established an integrated workflow by the combination of stable isotope dimethyl labeling, HILIC enrichment and high resolution mass spectrometry for both quantification of global proteome and N-glycoproteome of human saliva from oral ulcer patients...
October 20, 2016: Proteomics
Hillary W Garner, Michelle M Paturzo, Gabriela Gaudier, Perry J Pickhardt, Daniel E Wessell
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the variation in attenuation values (expressed as Hounsfield units) for L1 vertebral body trabecular bone at different tube voltages used in dual-energy CT (DECT) and to remind physicians to consider changes in attenuation values when they approach opportunistic screening for osteoporosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent DECT examination of the abdomen and pelvis for suspected urolithiasis were included in the study...
October 20, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Antonella Caivano, Francesco La Rocca, Vittorio Simeon, Marco Girasole, Simone Dinarelli, Ilaria Laurenzana, Angelo De Stradis, Luciana De Luca, Stefania Trino, Antonio Traficante, Giovanni D'Arena, Giovanna Mansueto, Oreste Villani, Giuseppe Pietrantuono, Luca Laurenti, Luigi Del Vecchio, Pellegrino Musto
PURPOSE: The use of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from body fluids as "liquid biopsies" is emerging as a promising approach for the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic monitoring of cancer patients. MicroRNA-155 (miR155), a non-coding transcript of the B-cell integration cluster (BIC) gene, has been reported to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of several types of hematologic malignancies (HMs) in which high miR155 levels have been found. At yet, however, the EV miR155 level and its putative clinical relevance in sera of HM patients have not been reported...
October 19, 2016: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Kenichi Morikawa, Tomoe Shimazaki, Rei Takeda, Takaaki Izumi, Machiko Umumura, Naoya Sakamoto
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious health threat around the world. Despite the availability of an effective hepatitis B vaccine, the number of HBV carriers is estimated to be as high as 240 million worldwide. Global mortality due to HBV-related liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be as high as 1 million deaths per year. HBV is transmitted via blood and body fluids, and is much more infectious than both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
P Michel, D Wähnert, M Freistühler, M G Laukoetter, S Rehberg, M J Raschke, P Garcia
BACKGROUND: Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is well known as a life-threatening complication in critically ill patients in an intensive care unit. Massive crystalloid fluid resuscitation has been identified as the most important risk factor. The time interval from hospital admittance to the development of manifest abdominal compartment syndrome is usually greater than 24 hours. In the absence of any direct abdominal trauma, we observed a rapidly evolving secondary abdominal compartment syndrome shortly after hospital admittance associated with massive transfusion of blood products and only moderate crystalloid resuscitation...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Francislaine Aparecida Lívero, Jacqueline Vergutz Menetrier, Emerson Luiz Botelho Lourenço, Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior
Heart failure, hypertension, cirrhosis and nephritic syndrome are among conditions that alter volume and composition of body fluids and are modulated by diuretics. Natural products are important source of diuretics and have been considered remarkable alternative with greater effectiveness and fewer side effects. However, many of these plants used in traditional medicine must be scientifically assessed about their efficacy and toxicity. Despite the large number of published articles claiming that plants or plant-derived components may act as diuretic agents, few studies have addressed the mechanism of action of medicinal plants...
October 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Kamal Niaz, Mohammad Abdollahi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a deadly flavivirus that has spread from Africa to Asia and European countries. The virus is associated with other viruses in the same genus or family, transmitted by the same mosquito species with known history of fatality. A sudden increase in the rate of infection from ZIKV has made it a global health concern, which necessitates close symptom monitoring, enhancing treatment options, and vaccine production. This paper reviewed current reports on birth defects associated with ZIKV, mode of transmission, body fluids containing the virus, diagnosis , possible preventive measures or treatments, and vaccine development...
October 18, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
En-Ping Lin, Tai-Chia Chiu, Ming-Mu Hsieh
Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was combined with acetonitrile stacking in capillary electrophoresis for the identification of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, fluoxetine, and fluvoxamine) in human fluids such as urine and plasma. Parameters that affect the extraction and stacking efficiency, such as the type and volume of the extraction and disperser solvent, extraction time, salt addition for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and sample matrices, pH, and concentration of the separation buffer for stacking, were investigated and optimized...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Yongkang Yue, Fangjun Huo, Songyi Lee, Caixia Yin, Juyoung Yoon
Intracellular pH values are some of the most important factors that govern biological processes and the acid-base homeostasis in cells, body fluids and organs sustains the normal operations of the body. Subcellular organelles including the acidic lysosomes and the alkalescent mitochondria undergo various processes such as intracellular digestion, ATP production and apoptosis. Due to their precise imaging capabilities, fluorescent probes have attracted great attention for the illustration of pH modulated processes...
October 19, 2016: Analyst
Vahit Guzelburc, Mehmet Balasar, Mukaddes Colakogullari, Selcuk Guven, Abdulkadir Kandemir, Ahmet Ozturk, Pelin Karaaslan, Bulent Erkurt, Selami Albayrak
PURPOSE: Irrigation-induced increase in intrarenal pressure is of concern because it may cause infection due to increased pyelovenous and pyelolymphatic absorption. This study is the first to compare prospectively the absorbed fluid volumes during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for stones larger than 2 cm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: General anesthesia was applied to all patients. Isotonic solution containing 1 % ethanol was used as irrigation fluid...
2016: SpringerPlus
Deborah S Bower, David M Scheltinga, Simon Clulow, John Clulow, Craig E Franklin, Arthur Georges
Freshwater biota experience physiological challenges in regions affected by salinization, but often the effects on particular species are poorly understood. Freshwater turtles are of particular concern as they appear to have limited ability to cope with environmental conditions that are hyperosmotic to their body fluids. Here, we determined the physiological responses of two Australian freshwater chelid turtles, Emydura macquarii and Chelodina expansa, exposed to freshwater (0‰) and brackish water (15‰, representing a hyperosmotic environment)...
2016: Conservation Physiology
S J van Rooijen, D Huisman, M Stuijvenberg, J Stens, R M H Roumen, F Daams, G D Slooter
BACKGROUND: Colorectal anastomotic leakage (CAL) is a major surgical complication in intestinal surgery. Despite many optimizations in patient care, the incidence of CAL is stable (3-19%) [1]. Previous research mainly focused on determining patient and surgery related risk factors. Intraoperative non-surgery related risk factors for anastomotic healing also contribute to surgical outcome. This review offers an overview of potential modifiable risk factors that may play a role during the operation...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Zhen Wang, Jun-Qiang Chen, Jin-Lu Liu, Lei Tian
Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an integral part in the biology of cancer, participating in tumor initiation, progression, and response to therapy. Exosome is an important part of TME. Exosomes are small vesicles formed in vesicular bodies with a diameter of 30-100 nm and a classic "cup" or "dish" morphology. They can contain microRNAs, mRNAs, DNA fragments and proteins, which are shuttled from a donor cell to recipient cells. Exosomes secreted from tumor cells are called tumor-derived (TD) exosomes. There is emerging evidence that TD exosomes can construct a fertile environment to support tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and premetastatic niche preparation...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Eugenio Baraldi, Giuseppe Giordano, Matteo Stocchero, Laura Moschino, Patrizia Zaramella, Maria Rosa Tran, Silvia Carraro, Roberto Romero, Maria Teresa Gervasi
OBJECTIVE: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious complication associated with preterm birth. A growing body of evidence suggests a role for prenatal factors in its pathogenesis. Metabolomics allows simultaneous characterization of low molecular weight compounds and may provide a picture of such a complex condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an unbiased metabolomic analysis of amniotic fluid (AF) can be used to investigate the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD) and BPD development in the offspring...
2016: PloS One
Cameron C Wick, Daniel E Killeen, Michael Clark, Joe Walter Kutz, Brandon Isaacson
OBJECTIVE: Describe the diagnosis and management of spontaneous lateral skull base cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks that originate from the posterior fossa. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary university hospital. PATIENTS: Adult patients from 2005 to 2015 who underwent surgical repair of a spontaneous lateral skull base CSF leak with intraoperative confirmation of a posterior fossa leak source...
October 14, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Giuseppe Lippi, Mario Plebani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
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