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Induced pluripotent stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352121/efficient-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-skeletal-muscle-cells-by-combining-rna-based-myod1-expression-and-pou5f1-silencing
#1
Tomohiko Akiyama, Saeko Sato, Nana Chikazawa-Nohtomi, Atsumi Soma, Hiromi Kimura, Shunichi Wakabayashi, Shigeru B H Ko, Minoru S H Ko
Direct generation of skeletal muscle cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) would be beneficial for drug testing, drug discovery, and disease modelling in vitro. Here we show a rapid and robust method to induce myogenic differentiation of hPSCs by introducing mRNA encoding MYOD1 together with siRNA-mediated knockdown of POU5F1 (also known as OCT4 or OCT3/4). This integration-free approach generates functional skeletal myotubes with sarcomere-like structure and a fusion capacity in several days. The POU5F1 silencing facilitates MYOD1 recruitment to the target promoters, which results in the significant activation of myogenic genes in hPSCs...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352035/using-mouse-transgenic-and-human-stem-cell-technologies-to-model-genetic-mutations-associated-with-schizophrenia-and-autism
#2
REVIEW
David St Clair, Mandy Johnstone
Solid progress has occurred over the last decade in our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of neurodevelopmental disorders, and of schizophrenia and autism in particular. Although the genetic architecture of both disorders is far more complex than previously imagined, many key loci have at last been identified. This has allowed in vivo and in vitro technologies to be refined to model specific high-penetrant genetic loci involved in both disorders. Using the DISC1/NDE1 and CYFIP1/EIF4E loci as exemplars, we explore the opportunities and challenges of using animal models and human-induced pluripotent stem cell technologies to further understand/treat and potentially reverse the worst consequences of these debilitating disorders...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350802/cellular-reprogramming-a-new-way-to-understand-aging-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Burcu Yener Ilce, Umut Cagin, Acelya Yilmazer
Increased life expectancy, due to the rise in life quality and the decline in mortality rates, is leading to a society in which the population aged 60 and over is growing more rapidly than the entire population. Although various models and model organisms have been employed to investigate the mechanism of aging, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are useful candidates to study human aging and age-related human diseases. This work discusses how iPSCs can be used as an alternative to the model organisms such as yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, or the mouse...
January 19, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350722/chemical-decontamination-of-ips-cell-derived-neural-cell-mixtures
#4
Di Mao, Xie Khim Watson Chung, Tomoko Andoh-Noda, Ying Qin, Shin-Ichi Sato, Yasushi Takemoto, Wado Akamatsu, Hideyuki Okano, Motonari Uesugi
This report describes the design and evaluation of phosphorylated 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38-P), which selectively eliminates tumor-forming proliferative stem cells, including human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and neural stem cells, from iPSC-derived neural cell mixtures. Results of the present study demonstrate that simple phosphorylation of an anticancer drug can provide a safe, cost-effective, and chemically-defined tool for decontaminating hiPSC-derived neuron.
January 19, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348408/nipbl-haploinsufficiency-reveals-a-constellation-of-transcriptome-disruptions-in-the-pluripotent-and-cardiac-states
#5
Jason A Mills, Pamela S Herrera, Maninder Kaur, Lanfranco Leo, Deborah McEldrew, Jesus A Tintos-Hernandez, Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Alyssa Gagne, Zhe Zhang, Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez, Ian D Krantz
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a complex disorder with multiple structural and developmental defects caused by mutations in structural and regulatory proteins involved in the cohesin complex. NIPBL, a cohesin regulatory protein, has been identified as a critical protein responsible for the orchestration of transcriptomic regulatory networks necessary for embryonic development. Mutations in NIPBL are responsible for the majority of cases of CdLS. Through RNA-sequencing of human induced pluripotent stem cells and in vitro-derived cardiomyocytes, we identified hundreds of mRNAs, pseudogenes, and non-coding RNAs with altered expression in NIPBL+/- patient-derived cells...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348245/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-extracellular-vesicles-a-potential-therapy-for-cardiac-repair
#6
EDITORIAL
Venkata Naga Srikanth Garikipati, Raj Kishore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346426/proliferation-and-survival-of-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-during-their-hepatic-differentiation
#7
Julieta L Maymó, Rodrigo Riedel, Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Marta Magatti, Bernardo Maskin, José Luis Dueñas, Ornella Parolini, Víctor Sánchez-Margalet, Cecilia L Varone
Stem cells derived from placental tissues are an attractive source of cells for regenerative medicine. Amniotic epithelial cells isolated from human amnion (hAECs) have desirable and competitive characteristics that make them stand out between other stem cells. They have the ability to differentiate toward all three germ layers, they are not tumorigenic and they have immunosuppressive properties. Although liver transplantation is the best way to treat acute and chronic hepatic failure patients, there are several obstacles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345014/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-models-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#8
REVIEW
Ana Artero Castro, Dunja Lukovic, Pavla Jendelova, Slaven Erceg
Hereditary retinal dystrophies, specifically retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases affecting primarily retinal cells and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells with blindness as a final outcome. Understanding the pathogenicity behind these diseases has been largely precluded by the unavailability of affected tissue from patients, large genetic heterogeneity and animal models that do not faithfully represent some human diseases. A landmark discovery of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) permitted the derivation of patient-specific cells...
January 18, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343702/analysis-of-mitochondrial-function-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-patients-with-mitochondrial-diabetes-due-to-the-a3243g-mutation
#9
Masaki Matsubara, Hajime Kanda, Hiromi Imamura, Mayumi Inoue, Michio Noguchi, Kiminori Hosoda, Akira Kakizuka, Kazuwa Nakao
We previously established human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in two diabetic patients from different families with the mitochondrial A3243G mutation and isolated isogenic iPS cell clones with either undetectable or high levels of the mutation in both patients. In the present study, we analyzed the mitochondrial functions of two mutation-undetectable and two mutation-high clones in each patient through four methods to assess complex I activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial ATP production...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343174/small-molecules-for-neural-stem-cell-induction
#10
Donghui Liu, Nimshitha Pavathuparambil Abdul Manaph, Mohammed Al-Hawwas, Xin-Fu Zhou, Hong Liao
Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from other somatic cells has provided great hopes for transplantation therapies. However, these cells still cannot be used for clinical application due to the low reprogramming and differentiation efficiency beside the risk of mutagenesis and tumor formation. Compared to iPSCs, induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) are easier to terminally differentiate into neural cells and safer, thus, iNSCs hold more opportunities than iPSCs to treat neural diseases. On the other hand, recent studies have showed that small molecules (SMs) can dramatically improve the efficiency of reprogramming and SMs alone can even convert one kind of somatic cells into another, which is much safer and more effective than transcription factor-based methods...
January 17, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342448/generation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-cssi002-a-2851-from-a-patient-with-juvenile-huntington-disease
#11
Jessica Rosati, Eris Bidollari, Giovannina Rotundo, Daniela Ferrari, Barbara Torres, Laura Bernardini, Federica Consoli, Alessandro De Luca, Iolanda Santimone, Giuseppe Lamorte, Ferdinando Squitieri, Angelo Luigi Vescovi
Huntington Disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and behavioral features caused by a CAG expansion in the HTT gene beyond 35 repeats. The juvenile form (JHD) may begin before the age of 20years and is associated with expanded alleles as long as 60 or more CAG repeats. In this study, induced pluripotent stem cells were generated from skin fibroblasts of a 8-year-old child carrying a large size mutation of 84 CAG repeats in the HTT gene. HD appeared at age 3 with mixed psychiatric (i...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339826/using-intracellular-markers-to-identify-a-novel-set-of-surface-markers-for-live-cell-purification-from-a-heterogeneous-hipsc-culture
#12
Elizabeth J Paik, Alison L O'Neil, Shi-Yan Ng, Chicheng Sun, Lee L Rubin
Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can provide sources for midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neural progenitors (NPCs) for cell therapy to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, the well-known line-to-cell line variability in the differentiation capacity of individual cell lines needs to be improved for the success of this therapy. To address this issue, we sought to identify mDA NPC specific cell surface markers for fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Through RNA isolation after sorting for NPCs based on staining for cell-specific transcription factors followed by microarray, we identified two positive cell surface markers (CORIN and CD166) and one negative cell surface marker (CXCR4) for mDA NPC sorting...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339535/functional-changes-of-ampa-responses-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-progenitors-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#13
Venkat Swaroop Achuta, Tommi Möykkynen, Ulla-Kaisa Peteri, Giorgio Turconi, Claudio Rivera, Kari Keinänen, Maija L Castrén
Altered neuronal network formation and function involving dysregulated excitatory and inhibitory circuits are associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS). We examined functional maturation of the excitatory transmission system in FXS by investigating the response of FXS patient-derived neural progenitor cells to the glutamate analog (AMPA). Neural progenitors derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines generated from boys with FXS had augmented intracellular Ca2+ responses to AMPA and kainate that were mediated by Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) lacking the GluA2 subunit...
January 16, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339137/oxygen-induced-alterations-in-the-expression-of-chromatin-modifying-enzymes-and-the-transcriptional-regulation-of-imprinted-genes
#14
William M Skiles, Avery Kester, Jane H Pryor, Mark E Westhusin, Michael C Golding, Charles R Long
Embryo culture and assisted reproductive technologies have been associated with a disproportionately high number of epigenetic abnormalities in the resulting offspring. However, the mechanisms by which these techniques influence the epigenome remain poorly defined. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of oxygen concentration to influence the transcriptional control of a selection of key enzymes regulating chromatin structure. In mouse embryonic stem cells, oxygen concentrations modulated the transcriptional regulation of the TET family of enzymes, as well as the de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3a...
January 12, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337900/age-related-epigenetic-derangement-upon-reprogramming-and-differentiation-of-cells-from-the-elderly
#15
REVIEW
Francesco Ravaioli, Maria G Bacalini, Claudio Franceschi, Paolo Garagnani
Aging is a complex multi-layered phenomenon. The study of aging in humans is based on the use of biological material from hard-to-gather tissues and highly specific cohorts. The introduction of cell reprogramming techniques posed promising features for medical practice and basic research. Recently, a growing number of studies have been describing the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from old or centenarian biologic material. Nonetheless, Reprogramming techniques determine a profound remodelling on cell epigenetic architecture whose extent is still largely debated...
January 16, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337120/deriving-dorsal-spinal-sensory-interneurons-from-human-pluripotent-stem%C3%A2-cells
#16
Sandeep Gupta, Daniel Sivalingam, Samantha Hain, Christian Makkar, Enrique Sosa, Amander Clark, Samantha J Butler
Cellular replacement therapies for neurological conditions use human embryonic stem cell (hESC)- or induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons to replace damaged or diseased populations of neurons. For the spinal cord, significant progress has been made generating the in-vitro-derived motor neurons required to restore coordinated movement. However, there is as yet no protocol to generate in-vitro-derived sensory interneurons (INs), which permit perception of the environment. Here, we report on the development of a directed differentiation protocol to derive sensory INs for both hESCs and hiPSCs...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337119/sox10-single-transcription-factor-based-fast-and-efficient-generation-of%C3%A2-oligodendrocytes-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Juan Antonio García-León, Manoj Kumar, Ruben Boon, David Chau, Jennifer One, Esther Wolfs, Kristel Eggermont, Pieter Berckmans, Nilhan Gunhanlar, Femke de Vrij, Bas Lendemeijer, Benjamin Pavie, Nikky Corthout, Steven A Kushner, José Carlos Dávila, Ivo Lambrichts, Wei-Shou Hu, Catherine M Verfaillie
Scarce access to primary samples and lack of efficient protocols to generate oligodendrocytes (OLs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are hampering our understanding of OL biology and the development of novel therapies. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of the transcription factor SOX10 is sufficient to generate surface antigen O4-positive (O4+) and myelin basic protein-positive OLs from hPSCs in only 22 days, including from patients with multiple sclerosis or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The SOX10-induced O4+ population resembles primary human OLs at the transcriptome level and can myelinate neurons in vivo...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337067/the-impact-of-growth-factors-on-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-differentiation-into-cardiomyocytes
#18
Marianne E Yassa, Iman A Mansour, Nadia I Sewelam, Hala Hamza, Taghrid Gaafar
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) act as a promising therapeutic alternative for cardiovascular diseases. They yield a large number of functional cardiomyocytes (CMs) from autologous cell sources without ethical or immunological problems. However, significant limitations still remain in terms of line-to-line variability in CM yield and reproducibility. AIM: To efficiently enhance NP0040 hiPSCs differentiation into CMs. MAIN METHODS: Following a standard cardiac differentiation protocol using small molecules targeting the canonical Wnt signaling, growth factors (BMP4 and FGF2) and ascorbic acid were added further in order to increase the cardiac differentiation efficiency...
January 11, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336212/simulated-microgravity-impairs-cardiac-autonomic-neurogenesis-from-neural-crest-cells
#19
Konstantinos E Hatzistergos, Zhijie Jiang, Krystalenia Valasaki, Lauro M Takeuchi, Wayne Balkan, Preethi Atluri, Dieter Saur, Barbara Seidler, Nicholas Tsinoremas, Darcy DiFede, Joshua M Hare
Microgravity-induced alterations in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) contribute to derangements in both the mechanical and electrophysiologic function of the cardiovascular system, leading to severe symptoms in humans following space travel. Because the ANS forms embryonically from neural crest progenitors (NCs), we hypothesized that microgravity can impair NC derived cardiac structures. Accordingly, we conducted in vitro simulated microgravity experiments employing NC genetic lineage-tracing in mice with cKitCreERT2/+, Isl1nLacZ and Wnt1-Cre reporter alleles...
January 16, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335368/in-medio-stat-virtus-unanticipated-consequences-of-telomere-dysequilibrium
#20
REVIEW
Lea Harrington, Fabio Pucci
The integrity of chromosome ends, or telomeres, depends on myriad processes that must balance the need to compact and protect the telomeric, G-rich DNA from detection as a double-stranded DNA break, and yet still permit access to enzymes that process, replicate and maintain a sufficient reserve of telomeric DNA. When unable to maintain this equilibrium, erosion of telomeres leads to perturbations at or near the telomeres themselves, including loss of binding by the telomere protective complex, shelterin, and alterations in transcription and post-translational modifications of histones...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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