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Gerard J Connors, Stephen A Maisto, Clare E Campbell, Brenda To, David Sack
Systematic outcome assessment is central to ascertaining the impact of treatment services and to informing future treatment initiatives. This project was designed to be conducted within the clinical operations of 4 private addictions treatment centers. A structured interview was used to assess patients' alcohol and other drug use and related variables (on treatment entry and at 1, 3, and 6 months following treatment discharge). The primary outcomes were percentage of days abstinent (PDA) from alcohol and drugs, PDA from alcohol, and PDA from other drugs...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Amanda Marie Marshall, David A Danford, Christopher L Curzon, Venus Anderson, Jeffrey W Delaney
OBJECTIVES: Children with congenital heart disease may require long-term central venous access for intensive care management; however, central venous access must also be preserved for future surgical and catheterization procedures. Transhepatic venous catheters may be an useful alternative. The objective of this study was to compare transhepatic venous catheters with traditional central venous catheters regarding complication rate and duration of catheter service. DESIGN: Retrospective review of 12 congenital heart disease patients from September 2013 to July 2015 who underwent placement of one or more transhepatic venous catheters...
July 25, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Tzu-Hsuan Chang, Kanglin Xiong, Sung Hyun Park, Ge Yuan, Zhenqiang Ma, Jung Han
Single crystal semiconductor nanomembranes (NM) are important in various applications such as heterogeneous integration and flexible devices. This paper reports the fabrication of AlGaN/GaN NMs and NM high electron mobility transistors (HEMT). Electrochemical etching is used to slice off single-crystalline AlGaN/GaN layers while preserving their microstructural quality. A double heterostructure design with a symmetric strain profile is employed to ensure minimal residual strain in freestanding NMs after release...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhihui Dai, Suli Liu, Qinghua Zhang, Jianchun Bao, Yafei Li, Lin Gu
Freestanding metal nanoclusters can tune, precisely and effectively, the Gibbs free energy (ΔGH) of atomic hydrogen on the surface of materials. This enables the enhancement of hydrogen evolution activity. In this paper, we report a study of freestanding Pd-Ru distorted icosahedral clusters (ico-clusters) with less than 600 atoms using a simple one-pot synthesis method. This Pd-Ru ico-cluster can be used as an efficient electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acidic water, which is a promising alternative to Pt...
July 24, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yan Zhang, Jian Xiao, Qi-Ying Lv, Lu Wang, Xulin Dong, Muhammad Asif, Jinghua Ren, Wenshan He, Yimin Sun, Fei Xiao, Shuai Wang
In this work, we develop a new type of freestanding nanohybrid paper electrode assembled from 3D ionic liquid (IL) functionalized graphene framework (GF) decorated by gold nanoflowers (AuNFs), and explore its practical application in in-situ electrochemical sensing of live breast cell samples by real-time tracking biomarker H2O2 released from cells. The AuNFs modified IL functionalized GF (AuNFs/IL-GF) was synthesized via a facile and efficient dopamine assisted one-pot self-assembly strategy. The as-obtained nanohybrid assembly exhibits a typical 3D hierarchical porous structure, where the highly active electrocatalyst AuNFs are well dispersed on IL-GF scaffold...
July 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hendrik Schlicke, Malte Behrens, Clemens J Schröter, Gregor T Dahl, Hauke Hartmann, Tobias Vossmeyer
We report a novel approach for the detection of volatile compounds employing electrostatically driven drumhead resonators as sensing elements. The resonators are based on freestanding membranes of alkanedithiol cross-linked gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which are able to sorb analytes from the gas phase. Under reduced pressure, the fundamental resonance frequency of a resonator is continuously monitored while the device is exposed to varying partial pressures of toluene, 4-methylpentan-2-one, 1-propanol, and water...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
Andrew George Richter, Sergey A Dergunov, Mariya D Kim, Sergey N Shmakov, Sai Venkatesh Pingali, Volker S Urban, Yun Liu, Eugene Pinkhassik
The recent emergence of vesicle-templated nanocapsules as a viable platform for diverse applications has heightened the need for detailed structural characterization of nanocapsule shells and for better understanding of surfactant-mediated directed assembly of nanomaterials. Information on the thickness is a critical structural parameter of nanocapsules, where the shell plays a crucial role providing mechanical stability and control of permeability. Here we used small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to determine the thickness of freestanding and surfactant-stabilized nanocapsules...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Andreas Nägelein, Lisa Liborius, Matthias Steidl, Christian Blumberg, Peter Kleinschmidt, Artur Poloczek, Thomas Hannappel
The detection of doping dependent values like contact- and path resistances along nanowires (NWs) still proves to be rather challenging compared to planar structures. Unfortunately, the usually used and well established TLM (transmission line measurement) setup exhibits some drawbacks. Complex preliminary preparation steps and the necessity of ohmic contacts limit the investigation to certain semiconductor materials. The simultaneous determination of contact- and path resistances with an unknown distribution makes an analysis on complex structures like tapered nanowires very challenging...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Jing Fu, Fathy M Hassan, Cheng Zhong, Jun Lu, Han Liu, Aiping Yu, Zhongwei Chen
A critical bottleneck limiting the performance of rechargeable zinc-air batteries lies in the inefficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions at the air electrodes. Hybridizing transition-metal oxides with functional graphene materials has shown great advantages due to their catalytic synergism. However, both the mediocre catalytic activity of metal oxides and the restricted 2D mass/charge transfer of graphene render these hybrid catalysts inefficient. Here, an effective strategy combining anion substitution, defect engineering, and the dopant effect to address the above two critical issues is shown...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
Honghui Ou, Pengju Yang, Lihua Lin, Masakazu Anpo, Xinchen Wang
Aerogel structures have attracted increasing research interest in energy storage and conversion owing to their unique structural features, and a variety of matters has been engineered into aerogels, including carbons, metal oxides, linear polymers and even metal chalcogenides. However, manufacturing of aerogels from nitride-based materials, particularly the emerging light-weight carbonitride (CN) is rarely reported. Here, we develop a facile method based on self-assembly chemistry to produce self-supported CN aerogels, without using any cross-linking agents...
July 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Ryan J T Nicholl, Nickolay V Lavrik, Ivan Vlassiouk, Bernadeta R Srijanto, Kirill I Bolotin
We investigated the effect of out-of-plane crumpling on the mechanical response of graphene membranes. In our experiments, stress was applied to graphene membranes using pressurized gas while the strain state was monitored through two complementary techniques: interferometric profilometry and Raman spectroscopy. By comparing the data obtained through these two techniques, we determined the geometric hidden area which quantifies the crumpling strength. While the devices with hidden area ∼0% obeyed linear mechanics with biaxial stiffness 428±10  N/m, specimens with hidden area in the range 0...
June 30, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Tripta Bhatia, Flemming Cornelius, John H Ipsen
There is accumulating evidence that the small-scale lateral organization of biological membranes has a crucial role in signaling and trafficking in cells. However, it has been difficult to characterize these features with existing methods for preparing and analyzing freestanding membranes, because the dynamics occurs below the optical resolution possible with these protocols. We have developed a protocol that permits the imaging of lipid nanodomains and lateral protein organization in membranes of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs)...
August 2017: Nature Protocols
Ole M Schütte, Ingo Mey, Jörg Enderlein, Filip Savić, Burkhard Geil, Andreas Janshoff, Claudia Steinem
In the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, proteins and lipids are organized in clusters, the latter ones often called lipid domains or "lipid rafts." Recent findings highlight the dynamic nature of such domains and the key role of membrane geometry and spatial boundaries. In this study, we used porous substrates with different pore radii to address precisely the extent of the geometric constraint, permitting us to modulate and investigate the size and mobility of lipid domains in phase-separated continuous pore-spanning membranes (PSMs)...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jie Zhao, Guangmin Zhou, Kai Yan, Jin Xie, Yuzhang Li, Lei Liao, Yang Jin, Kai Liu, Po-Chun Hsu, Jiangyan Wang, Hui-Ming Cheng, Yi Cui
Developing high-capacity anodes is a must to improve the energy density of lithium batteries for electric vehicle applications. Alloy anodes are one promising option, but without pre-stored lithium, the overall energy density is limited by the low-capacity lithium metal oxide cathodes. Recently, lithium metal has been revived as a high-capacity anode, but faces several challenges owing to its high reactivity and uncontrolled dendrite growth. Here, we show a series of Li-containing foils inheriting the desirable properties of alloy anodes and pure metal anodes...
July 10, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Bofan Zhu, Wen Li, Naiwei Chi, Randolph V Lewis, Jude Osamor, Rong Wang
Freestanding fibrous matrices with proper protein composition and desirable mechanical properties, stability, and biocompatibility are in high demand for tissue engineering. Electrospun (E-spun) collagen-silk composite fibers are promising tissue engineering scaffolds. However, as-spun fibers are mechanically weak and unstable. In this work, we applied glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor treatment to improve the fiber performance, and the effect on the properties of E-spun collagen-silk fibers was studied systematically...
June 30, 2017: ACS Omega
Rachel Dolin, G Mark Holmes, Sally C Stearns, Denise A Kirk, Laura C Hanson, Donald H Taylor, Pam Silberman
Hospice care is designed to support patients and families through the final phase of illness and death. Yet for more than a decade, hospices have steadily increased the rate at which they discharge patients before death-a practice known as "live discharge." Although certain live discharges are consistent with high-quality care, regulators have expressed concern that some hospices' desire to maximize profits drives them to inappropriately discharge patients. We used Medicare claims data for 2012-13 and cost reports for 2011-13 to explore relationships between hospice-level financial margins and live discharge rates among freestanding hospices...
July 1, 2017: Health Affairs
Baoming Wang, Zahabul Islam, Kehao Zhang, Ke Wang, Joshua A Robinson, M Aman Haque
We present in-situ transmission electron microscopy of crack propagation in a freestanding monolayer MoS<sub>2</sub> thin film and molecular dynamic analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Chemical vapor deposited monolayer MoS<sub>2</sub> was transferred from sapphire substrate using interfacial etching for defect and contamination minimization. Atomic resolution imaging shows crack tip atoms sustaining 14.5% strain before bond breaking, while the stress field decays at unprecedented rate of 2...
July 4, 2017: Nanotechnology
M A A Hermus, I C Boesveld, M Hitzert, A Franx, J P de Graaf, E A P Steegers, T A Wiegers, K M van der Pal-de Bruin
BACKGROUND: During the last decade, a rapid increase of birth locations for low-risk births, other than conventional obstetric units, has been seen in the Netherlands. Internationally some of such locations are called birth centres. The varying international definitions for birth centres are not directly applicable for use within the Dutch obstetric system. A standard definition for a birth centre in the Netherlands is lacking. This study aimed to develop a definition of birth centres for use in the Netherlands, to identify these centres and to describe their characteristics...
July 3, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Jiajie Pei, Jiong Yang, Xibin Wang, Fan Wang, Sudha Mokkapati, Tieyu Lü, Jin-Cheng Zheng, Qinghua Qin, Dragomir Neshev, Hark Hoe Tan, Chennupati Jagadish, Yuerui Lu
The tightly bound biexcitons found in atomically thin semiconductors have very promising applications for optoelectronic and quantum devices. However, there is a discrepancy between theory and experiment regarding the fundamental structure of these biexcitons. Therefore, the exploration of a biexciton formation mechanism by further experiments is of great importance. Here, we successfully triggered the emission of biexcitons in atomically thin MoSe2, via the engineering of three critical parameters: dielectric screening, density of trions, and excitation power...
July 25, 2017: ACS Nano
B Uder, U Hartmann
Two-dimensional atomically flat sheets with a high flexibility are very attractive as ultrathin membranes but are also inherently challenging for microscopic investigations. We report on a method using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) under ultra-high vacuum conditions for large-scale mapping of several-micrometer-sized freestanding single and multilayer graphene membranes. This is achieved by operating the STM at unusual parameters. We found that large-scale scanning on atomically thin membranes delivers valuable results using very high tip-scan speeds combined with high feedback-loop gain and low tunneling currents...
June 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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