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Fan Ye, Jaesung Lee, Philip X-L Feng
Heterostructures play significant roles in modern semiconductor devices and micro/nanosystems in a plethora of applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and transducers. While state-of-the-art heterostructures often involve stacks of crystalline epi-layers each down to a few nanometers thick, the intriguing limit would be hetero-atomic-layer structures. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of freestanding van der Waals heterostructures and their functional nanomechanical devices. By stacking single-layer (1L) MoS2 on top of suspended single-, bi-, tri- and four-layer (1L to 4L) graphene sheets, we realize an array of MoS2-graphene heterostructures with varying thickness and size...
November 21, 2017: Nanoscale
Xinjian He, Braxton V Lewis, Steven E Guffey
Capture hoods are an important component of a local ventilation system designed to reduce exposures to airborne contaminants. The velocity at any point along the centerline of the hood (Vx) is currently estimated using one of many predictive equations developed since the 1930's. It is unproven that those predictive equations for Vx are accurate, despite the prodigious number of studies concerning them. Among other issues, almost all experimental verifications were conducted for conditions that were either unrealistically ideal without competing air currents (e...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Sam Stubblefield
OBJECTIVES: While use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common in children, we know little about its use for hospitalized children. This survey measured the rate of CAM use, specific modalities used, and policies related to CAM use for hospitalized children. DESIGN: Anonymous survey of hospitals in the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRĪS) network SETTING: Hospitals in the PRĪS network. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of overall and specific CAM modality use, including whether these modalities are provided, permitted, or prohibited, and presence of a written policy on CAM use...
December 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Rui Li, Xiongjun Liu, Hui Wang, Yuan Wu, Zhaoping Lu
The worldwide boost in glucose related diseases such as diabetics over the last decade leads to an overwhelming demand for development of advanced electrochemical glucose sensors with high sensitivity, fast response and excellent selectivity. Herein we report a novel freestanding microelectrode comprising well-aligned Cu(OH)2 nanograss arrays and uniform nanoporous copper (NPC) substrate. Such a cost-effective hierarchical hybrid structure entails a unique combination of good conductivity of NPC and high electrocatalytic activity of Cu(OH)2...
November 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Yu Li, Shuangming Chen, Dawei Xi, Yanan Bo, Ran Long, Chengming Wang, Li Song, Yujie Xiong
The electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a highly important reaction that requires a relatively high overpotential and determines the rate of water splitting-a process for producing hydrogen. The overall OER performance is often largely limited by uncontrollable interface when active catalysts are loaded on conductive supports, for which polymer binders are widely used, but inevitably block species transportation channels. Here, a scalable fabrication approach to freestanding graphitized carbon nanofiber networks is reported, which provides abundant sites for in situ growing Fe/Ni catalysts with the improved interface...
November 17, 2017: Small
Nelli Teske, Jeremias Sibold, Johannes Schumacher, Nikolas K Teiwes, Martin Gleisner, Ingo P Mey, Claudia Steinem
A number of techniques has been developed and analyzed in recent years to generate pore-spanning membranes (PSMs). While quite a number of methods rely on nanoporous substrates, only a few use micrometer-sized pores to be able to individually resolve suspending membranes by means of fluorescence microscopy. To be able to produce PSMs on pores that are micrometer in size, an orthogonal functionalization strategy resulting in a hydrophilic surface is highly desirable. Here, we report on a method to prepare PSMs based on the evaporation of a thin layer of silicon monoxide on top of the porous substrate...
November 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Aaron E Kornblith, Ashley A Foster, Christine S Cho, Ralph C Wang, David M Jaffe
OBJECTIVE: Adults presenting to pediatric emergency departments are transferred to general emergency departments in proportions between 20% and 60%. How illness severity is related to the decision to transfer is poorly understood. We compared the proportion of adults with emergent and nonemergent conditions with respect to their final disposition. We also determined characteristics associated with transfer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the electronic medical record and identified all patients 25 years and older presenting to a large urban freestanding pediatric emergency department from 2008 to 2013...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
Kun Liang, Kyle Marcus, Zhenzhong Yang, Le Zhou, Hao Pan, Yuanli Bai, Yingge Du, Mark H Engelhard, Yang Yang
In this work, a freestanding NiFe oxyfluoride (NiFeOF) holey film is prepared by electrochemical deposition and anodic treatments. With the combination of good electrical conductivity and holey structure, the NiFeOF holey film offers superior electrochemical performance with maximum specific capacitance of 670 F cm(-3) (134 mF cm(-2) ), due to the following reasons: (i) The residual metal alloy framework can be used as the current collector to improve electrode conductivity. Moreover, the as-prepared freestanding NiFeOF holey film can be used as a supercapacitor electrode without reliance on binders and other additives...
November 14, 2017: Small
Hemalatha G Rangarajan, Joseph R Stanek, Rolla Abu-Arja, Rajinder P S Bajwa, Jeffery J Auletta, Dean A Lee, Sarah H O Brien, Riten Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is associated with a pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant environment which places recipients at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). While the incidence of VTE in adult HCT recipients has been extensively studied, similar data for children are lacking. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study to analyze the prevalence of VTE and associated risk factors in a large cohort of patients who underwent HCT at tertiary-care US children's hospitals...
November 8, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Duan Zhang, Tanhua Jia, Ran Dong, Dengyun Chen
Two-dimensional A(III)B(VI) layered semiconductors have recently attracted great attention due to their potential applications in piezo-phototronics and optoelectronics. Here, we report the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) of strained and unstrained GaSe flakes. It is found that, as the temperature increases, the PL from both the strained (wrinkled) and unstrained (flat) positions show a prominent red-shift to low energies. However, for the flat case, the slope of PL energy versus temperature at the range of 163-283 K is about -0...
November 8, 2017: Materials
Rebecca J Hart, Michelle D Stevenson, Michael J Smith, A Scott LaJoie, Keith Cross
Importance: Influenza is a significant public health burden, causing morbidity and mortality in children, yet vaccination rates remain low. Vaccination in the pediatric emergency department (PED) setting may be beneficial but, to date, has not been proven to be cost-effective. Objective: To compare the cost-effectiveness of 4 strategies for PED-based influenza vaccine: offering vaccine to all patients, only to patients younger than 5 years, only to high-risk patients (all ages), or to no patients...
November 6, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
Jeffrey J Cies, Wayne S Moore, Adela Enache, Arun Chopra
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether contemporary β-lactam anti-infective dosing recommendations in critically ill children achieve concentrations associated with maximal anti-infective activity. The secondary objective was to describe the microbiological and clinical outcomes associated with β-lactam therapeutic drug management. DESIGN: Electronic Medical Record Review. SETTING: A 189-bed, freestanding children's tertiary care teaching hospital in Philadelphia, PA...
November 3, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
Rui Hao, Yunshan Fan, Chu Han, Bo Zhang
In this Technical Note, we describe a method to fabricate nanopore-supported Pt nanoparticle electrodes and their use in bipolar electrochemistry. A Pt nanoparticle is deposited on the orifice of a solid-state nanopore inside a focused-ion beam (FIB) system. Complete blockage of the nanopore with Pt metal forms a closed bipolar nanoparticle electrode whose size and shape can be tunable in one simple step. Nanoparticle electrodes and their arrays can be prepared on different substrates such as the tip of a glass pipet, a double-barrel pipet, and a freestanding silicon nitride membrane...
November 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Kara D Fong, Tiesheng Wang, Hyun-Kyung Kim, R Vasant Kumar, Stoyan K Smoukov
Conducting polymers show great promise as supercapacitor materials due to their high theoretical specific capacitance, low cost, toughness, and flexibility. Poor ion mobility, however, can render active material more than a few tens of nanometers from the surface inaccessible for charge storage, limiting performance. Here, we use semi-interpenetrating networks (sIPNs) of a pseudocapacitive polymer in an ionically conductive polymer matrix to decrease ion diffusion length scales and make virtually all of the active material accessible for charge storage...
September 8, 2017: ACS Energy Letters
Lin Chen, Sudong Yang, Lei Mu, Peng-Cheng Ma
A series of three-dimensional (3-D) TiO2/graphene (TiO2/GR) hybrids with different TiO2 weight ratios were prepared using a self-assembly approach followed by the gaseous reduction in a hydrothermal system. The method was based on the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged titanium glycolate precursor and negatively charged graphene oxide in an aqueous medium without any surfactant or template. The structure, morphology, physical and optical properties of the as-synthesized hybrids were characterized, and the results showed that TiO2 spheres were homogeneously confined within the 3-D networks of graphene, and acted as pillars to effectively separate the graphene sheets from each other...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, Punkaj Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
Huihuo Zheng, Yu Gan, Peter Abbamonte, Lucas K Wagner
Electron correlation in graphene is unique because of the interplay between the Dirac cone dispersion of π electrons and long-range Coulomb interaction. Because of the zero density of states at Fermi level, the random phase approximation predicts no metallic screening at long distance and low energy, so one might expect that graphene should be a poorly screened system. However, empirically graphene is a weakly interacting semimetal, which leads to the question of how electron correlations take place in graphene at different length scales...
October 20, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Duc Dung Nguyen, Ping-Yen Hsieh, Meng-Ting Tsai, Chi-Young Lee, Nyan-Hwa Tai, Bao Dong To, Duc Tu Vu, Chia Chen Hsu
We report a versatile strategy to exploit parafilm waste as a carbon precursor for fabrication of freestanding, hollow few-layer graphene fiber mesh (HFGM) structures without use of any gaseous carriers/promoters via an annealing route. The freestanding HFGMs possess good mechanical flexibility, tailorable transparency, and high electrical conductivity, consequently qualifying them as promising electrochemical electrodes. Because of the hollow spaces, electrolyte ions can easily access into and contact with interior surfaces of the graphene fibers, accordingly increasing electrode/electrolyte interfacial area...
November 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiao-Wei Huang, Jing-Jing Wei, Tong Liu, Xue-Liang Zhang, Shu-Meng Bai, Huang-Hao Yang
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted rapidly increasing attention due to their fascinating properties and potential applications. However, scalable and cost-effective methods to produce thin-layer TMD nanosheets and their functional composites with environmental benignity are still limited. Herein, we develop a facile and environmentally friendly method for the scalable production of thin-layer TMD nanosheets in an aqueous medium by using silk fibroin, a natural and abundant biopolymer, as the exfoliating agent...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
Lindsey Korbel, Robert S Easterling, Nidhi Punja, John David Spencer
BACKGROUND: People with diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased infection risk. The healthcare utilization of pediatric and adolescent diabetic patients with infection is not well defined. This study evaluates the number of pediatric and adolescent patients with DM that seek medical treatment for infection management and assesses its socioeconomic impact. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database on children and adolescents with DM who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) or were hospitalized for infection management from 2008 to 2014...
November 2, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
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