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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211869/non-apoptotic-cell-death-in-animal-development
#1
REVIEW
Lena M Kutscher, Shai Shaham
Programmed cell death (PCD) is an important process in the development of multicellular organisms. Apoptosis, a form of PCD characterized morphologically by chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, and cytoplasm compaction, and molecularly by the activation of caspase proteases, has been extensively investigated. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, mice, and the developing chick have revealed, however, that developmental PCD also occurs through other mechanisms, morphologically and molecularly distinct from apoptosis...
February 17, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211793/a-novel-field-emission-microscopy-method-to-study-field-emission-characteristics-of-freestanding-carbon-nanotube-array
#2
Yunhan Li, Yonghai Sun, David Jaffray, John T W Yeow
Field emission (FE) uniformity and mechanism of emitter failure of freestanding carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have not been well studied due to the difficulty of observing and quantifying FE performance of each emitter in CNT arrays. Herein a field emission microscopy (FEM) method based on Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin film is proposed to study the FE uniformity and CNT emitter failure of freestanding CNT arrays. FE uniformity of freestanding CNT arrays and different levels of FE current contributions from each emitter in the arrays are recorded and visualized...
February 17, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208509/orientational-action-of-edge-dislocations-on-the-director-field-in-antiferroelectric-smectic-c_-a-films
#3
P V Dolganov, N S Shuravin, V K Dolganov, Atsuo Fukuda
We report imaging of the director field near edge dislocations in thermotropic antiferroelecric smectic-C_{A}^{*} (SmC_{A}^{*}) liquid crystal. Measurements were made in freestanding films with thickness from two to ten smectic layers. We find two different orientations of the molecular tilt plane with respect to the edge dislocation line. The orientation is determined by the value of the Burgers vector of the dislocation. Elementary edge dislocation and dislocations with a Burgers vector equal to an odd number of layers orient the tilt plane perpendicular on the two sides of the dislocation...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208016/highly-efficient-and-exceptionally-durable-co2-photoreduction-to-methanol-over-freestanding-defective-single-unit-cell-bismuth-vanadate-layers
#4
Shan Gao, Bingchuan Gu, Xingchen Jiao, Yongfu Sun, Xiaolong Zu, Fan Yang, Wenguang Zhu, Chengming Wang, Zimou Feng, Bangjiao Ye, Yi Xie
Unearthing an ideal model for disclosing the role of defect sites in solar CO2 reduction remains a great challenge. Here, freestanding gram-scale single-unit-cell o-BiVO4 layers are successfully synthesized for the first time. Positron annihilation spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence unveil their distinct vanadium vacancy concentrations. Density functional calculations reveal the introduction of vanadium vacancies brings a new defect level and higher hole concentration near Fermi level, resulting in increased photoabsorption and superior electronic conductivity...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202725/stretchable-living-materials-and-devices-with-hydrogel-elastomer-hybrids-hosting-programmed-cells
#5
Xinyue Liu, Tzu-Chieh Tang, Eléonore Tham, Hyunwoo Yuk, Shaoting Lin, Timothy K Lu, Xuanhe Zhao
Living systems, such as bacteria, yeasts, and mammalian cells, can be genetically programmed with synthetic circuits that execute sensing, computing, memory, and response functions. Integrating these functional living components into materials and devices will provide powerful tools for scientific research and enable new technological applications. However, it has been a grand challenge to maintain the viability, functionality, and safety of living components in freestanding materials and devices, which frequently undergo deformations during applications...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187530/structural-and-dynamic-characterization-of-a-freestanding-acyl-carrier-protein-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-cyclic-lipopeptide-antibiotics
#6
Subrata Paul, Hiroaki Ishida, Leonard T Nguyen, Zhihong Liu, Hans J Vogel
Friulimicin is a cyclic lipodecapeptide antibiotic that is produced by Actinoplanes friuliensis. Like the related lipopeptide drug daptomycin, the peptide skeleton of friulimicin is synthesized by a large multienzyme Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) system. The LipD protein plays a major role in the acylation reaction of friulimicin. The attachment of the fatty acid group promotes its antibiotic activity. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that LipD is most closely related to other freestanding Acyl Carrier Proteins (ACPs), for which the genes are located near to NRPS gene clusters...
February 10, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181273/first-time-mothers-choice-of-birthplace-influencing-factors-expectations-of-the-midwife-s-role-and-perceived-safety
#7
Sara E Borrelli, Denis Walsh, Helen Spiby
AIM: To explore first-time pregnant women's expectations and factors influencing their choice of birthplace. BACKGROUND: Although outcomes and advantages for low-risk childbearing women giving birth in midwifery-led units and home compared with obstetric units have been investigated previously, there is little information on the factors that influence women's choice of place of birth. DESIGN: A qualitative Straussian grounded theory methodology was adopted...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165744/continuous-dry-spinning-of-extra-long-silver-submicron-fibers-with-micrometer-patterning-capability
#8
Xiaopeng Bai, Suiyang Liao, Ya Huang, Jianan Song, Zhenglian Liu, Minghao Fang, Chencheng Xu, Yi Cui, Hui Wu
Ultrathin metal fibers can serve as highly conducting and flexible current and heat transport channels, which are essential for numerous applications ranging from flexible electronics to energy conversion. Although industrial production of metal fibers with diameters of down to 2 μm is feasible, continuous production of high-quality and low-cost nanoscale metal wires is still challenging. Herein, we report the continuous dry spinning of highly conductive silver submicron fibers with the minimum diameter of ~200 nm and length of more than kilometers...
February 6, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164866/solution-assisted-ultrafast-transfer-of-graphene-based-thin-films-for%C3%A2-solar-cells-and-humidity-sensors
#9
Jiawei Sun, Xiao Xie, Hengchang Bi, Haiyang Jia, Chongyang Zhu, Neng Wan, Jianqiu Huang, Meng Nie, Dan Li, Litao Sun
Vacuum filtration enables large-area graphene-based membranes (GBMs) fabrication, possessing smoother surface than that by spray, spin coating or drop casting. However, due to the strong interaction with substrates, separation of thin GBMs from the filter is problematic. Conventional stamping separation/transfer graphene oxide (GO) films requires another substrate and pressing for >10 h, which may hurt delicate structure of transfer substrates. Others require GO to be reduced on filters before separation thus limits the reduction methods...
February 6, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151790/management-of-opioid-and-sedative-weaning-in-pediatric-congenital-heart-disease-patients-assessing-the-state-of-practice
#10
Caitlin O'Connell, Sonja Ziniel, Lauren Hartwell, Jean Connor
BACKGROUND: Opioid and sedative medications are commonly used to treat pediatric patients with congenital heart disease; however, their use is not without adverse effects. Symptoms of withdrawal can occur if the medications are discontinued abruptly or weaned too quickly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand and describe the current management of opioid and sedative weaning in pediatric congenital heart disease patients in freestanding children's hospitals across the United States...
March 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134451/direct-evidence-of-dirac-signature-in-bilayer-germanene-islands-on-cu-111
#11
Zhihui Qin, Jinbo Pan, Shuangzan Lu, Yan Shao, Yeliang Wang, Shixuan Du, Hong-Jun Gao, Gengyu Cao
Bernal-stacked bilayer germanene with a stable buckled honeycomb structure has been successfully synthesized on Cu(111). Structural and electronic characterizations as well as theoretical calculations unequivocally demonstrate for the first time the presence of a nearly linear energy dispersion in the vicinity of the Fermi energy, as expected of the Dirac signature for theoretical freestanding germanene.
January 30, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126592/freestanding-midwifery-units-maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-following-transfer
#12
Amy R Monk, Celia P Grigg, Maralyn Foureur, Mark Tracy, Sally K Tracy
BACKGROUND: the viability of freestanding midwifery units in Australia is restricted, due to concerns over their safety, particularly for women and babies who, require transfer. AIM: to compare the maternal and neonatal birth outcomes of women who planned, to give birth at freestanding midwifery units and subsequently, transferred to a tertiary maternity unit to the maternal and neonatal, outcomes of a low-risk cohort of women who planned to give birth in, tertiary maternity unit...
January 10, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120960/enhanced-selective-oxidation-of-h-bn-nanosheet-through-a-substrate-mediated-localized-charge-effect
#13
Keke Mao, Xiaojun Wu, Jinlong Yang
Manipulation of the chemical reactivity of two-dimensional materials is a challenge for advancing various nanotechnologies, ranging from electronics to catalysis. In this study, on the basis of first-principles calculations, we demonstrated that the chemical reactivity of h-BN sheets towards O2 can be significantly enhanced via a metal substrate-mediated charge effect. The chemisorption of O2 molecule on the h-BN sheet deposited on Ni, Co, or Cu substrate were almost spontaneous with negligible energy barrier, distinctly different from that on the freestanding h-BN sheet, which has ultra-high chemical stability...
January 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112861/wet-chemical-synthesis-of-silica-nanosheets-via-ethyl-acetate-mediated-hydrolysis-of-silica-precursors-and-their-applications
#14
Xiaoxiao Wang, Jing Xu, Qilong Wang, Aiqun Xu, Yusheng Zhai, Jirong Luo, Yong Jiang, Nongyue He, Zhifei Wang
Freestanding and transferable silica nanosheets with thicknesses of ≈5-7 nm are prepared via ethyl acetate-mediated hydrolysis of silica precursors in aqueous solution. The resulting silica nanosheets have shown many potential applications. For example, they can be used as the support film on the finer mesh grids for transmission electron microscopy imaging and as the precursor for the synthesis of silicon nanosheets.
January 23, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098275/the-initial-stages-of-melting-of-graphene-between-4000-k-and-6000-k
#15
Eric Ganz, Ariel B Ganz, Li-Ming Yang, Matthew Dornfeld
Graphene and its analogues have some of the highest predicted melting points of any materials. Previous work estimated the melting temperature for freestanding graphene to be a remarkable 4510 K. However, this work relied on theoretical methods that do not accurately account for the role of bond breaking or complex bonding configurations in the melting process. Furthermore, experiments to verify these high melting points have been challenging. Practical applications of graphene and carbon nanotubes at high temperatures will require a detailed understanding of the behavior of these materials under these conditions...
February 1, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096296/a-critical-asthma-standardized-clinical-and-management-plan-reduces-duration-of-critical-asthma-therapy
#16
Jackson Wong, Michael S D Agus, Dionne A Graham, Elliot Melendez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reduction of critical asthma management time can reduce intensive care utilization. The goal of this study was to determine whether a Critical Asthma Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan (SCAMP) can decrease length of critical asthma management time. METHODS: This retrospective study compared critical asthma management times in children managed before and after implementation of a Critical Asthma SCAMP. The SCAMP used an asthma severity score management scheme to guide stepwise escalation and weaning of therapies...
February 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087691/imaging-proteins-at-the-single-molecule-level
#17
Jean-Nicolas Longchamp, Stephan Rauschenbach, Sabine Abb, Conrad Escher, Tatiana Latychevskaia, Klaus Kern, Hans-Werner Fink
Imaging single proteins has been a long-standing ambition for advancing various fields in natural science, as for instance structural biology, biophysics, and molecular nanotechnology. In particular, revealing the distinct conformations of an individual protein is of utmost importance. Here, we show the imaging of individual proteins and protein complexes by low-energy electron holography. Samples of individual proteins and protein complexes on ultraclean freestanding graphene were prepared by soft-landing electrospray ion beam deposition, which allows chemical- and conformational-specific selection and gentle deposition...
January 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079357/tetracarboxylated-azobenzene-polymer-supramolecular-assemblies-as-high-performance-multiresponsive-actuators
#18
Chengqun Qin, Yiyu Feng, Haoran An, Junkai Han, Chen Cao, Wei Feng
Multistimuli-responsive polymers are materials of emerging interest but synthetically challenging. In this work, supramolecular assembly was employed as a facile and effective approach for constructing 3,3',5,5'-azobenzenetetracarboxylic acid (H4abtc)/poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDAC) supramolecules. Structural transformations of H4abtc can be induced by light, mechanical force, and heat and influenced by free volume. Thus, the fabricated free-standing H4abtc/PDAC film underwent bending/unbending movements upon treatment with light, humidity, or temperature, as asymmetric structural transformations on either side of the film generated asymmetric contraction/stretching forces...
February 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079206/freestanding-moo2-mo2c-imbedded-carbon-fibers-for-li-ion-batteries
#19
Hongqin Li, Haijun Ye, Zheng Xu, Chuanyi Wang, Jiao Yin, Hui Zhu
Flexible and freestanding MoO2/Mo2C imbedded carbon fibers (MoO2/Mo2C ICFs) have been successfully synthesized via an integrated procedure including electrospinning, thermo-plastication in air and reduction/carbonization at high temperature. A series of techniques such as SEM, TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, XRD, TGA, IR and XPS have been employed to systemically characterize the MoO2/Mo2C ICFs. In particular, it is observed that the MoO2/Mo2C ICFs derived from phosphomolybdic acid have more highly porous structures than those derived from molybdic acid...
January 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074877/microwave-synthesized-freestanding-iron-carbon-nanotubes-on-polyester-composites-of-woven-kevlar-fibre-and-silver-nanoparticle-decorated-graphene
#20
Ankita Hazarika, Biplab K Deka, DoYoung Kim, Kyungil Kong, Young-Bin Park, Hyung Wook Park
We synthesized Ag nanoparticle-decorated multilayered graphene nanosheets (Ag-graphene) from graphite nanoplatelets and silver nitrate through 90-100 s of microwave exposure, without the use of any mineral acids or harsh reducing agents. Fe nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes (Fe-CNTs) were grown on polypyrrole (PPy) deposited on woven Kevlar fibre (WKF), using ferrocene as a catalyst, under microwave irradiation. Fe-CNTs grown on WKF and Ag-graphene dispersed in polyester resin (PES) were combined to fabricate Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES composites by vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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