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pharmacological myopia treatment

Gary D Novack
Because of the epidemic of myopia with both its short-term and long-term effects, we desperately need ways to slow myopic progression. In this study which was part of a myopia prevention symposium, the author answers the following question: Assuming that researchers did come up with a pharmacological treatment to slow myopic progression-what would it take to obtain regulatory approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)? Previous publicly available information (a 2003 FDA advisory committee on this topic, International Conference on Harmonisation guidances on drug development, and published articles) as well as the author's experience is used...
March 16, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Pauline Kang
Recent increases in global myopia prevalence rates have raised significant concerns as myopia increases the lifelong risk of various sight-threatening ocular conditions. This growing public health burden has generated significant research interests into understanding both its aetiology and developing effective methods to slow down or stop its development, methods collectively termed 'myopia control'. The growing body of research has demonstrated benefits of various optical and pharmacological treatments resulting in myopia control management increasingly becoming a part of main stream clinical practice...
February 28, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Marc W Robboy, Gene Hilmantel, Michelle E Tarver, Malvina B Eydelman
The increased prevalence of myopia in the United States and other regions of the world, and the sight-threatening problems associated with higher levels of myopia have led to great interest in research designed to reduce these rates. As most of the progression of myopia occurs in childhood, these investigations have been directed toward slowing the progression of myopia in children. Treatments described to potentially slow the progression of myopia have included pharmacological interventions, multifocal spectacles, and multifocal correction created by contact lenses...
January 15, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Wolf A Lagrèze, Frank Schaeffel
BACKGROUND: Nearsightedness (myopia) has become more common around the world recently, mainly because of changes in visual, educational, and recreational behavior. The question arises how the risk of myopia and its progression can be reduced. This would lessen the prevalence and severity of myopia and also lower the risk of secondary diseases that impair visual acuity. METHODS: The PubMed/Medline database was selectively searched for pertinent literature. RESULTS: The risk of myopia is lowered by exposure to daylight and increased by activities performed at short visual distances (close-up work)...
September 4, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Pradeep Venkatesh, Brijesh Takkar
The prevalence of myopia and its severe/progressive visually impairing forms is increasing all over the globe. Most of the preliminary clinical research has focused on rehabilitation and treatment of its complications. Pharmacological prevention of myopic progression has shown encouraging results recently and currently the scleral structure is believed to be responsible for disease progression. In this article, we have hypothesized injecting a biological cement in the potential space between the choroid and the sclera to halt the progressive elongation of the eye ball while preventing complications related to myopia...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Xiangtian Zhou, Machelle T Pardue, P Michael Iuvone, Jia Qu
In the face of an "epidemic" increase in myopia over the last decades and myopia prevalence predicted to reach 2.5 billion people by the end of this decade, there is an urgent need to develop effective and safe therapeutic interventions to slow down this "myopia booming" and prevent myopia-related complications and vision loss. Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the retina and mediates diverse functions including retina development, visual signaling, and refractive development...
November 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Xintong Li, Ilana B Friedman, Norman B Medow, Cheng Zhang
Myopia is an important public health issue, and high myopia may lead to severe complications if left untreated. Orthokeratology lenses, worn overnight to reshape the cornea, are one of many recent modalities used to slow down the progression of myopia in children. This treatment has been proven successful, as evidenced by decreased spherical refractive error and axial length relative to the control at interval follow-up ranging from 6 months to 5 years. In this systematic review, the authors collected published controlled studies that analyzed the efficacy of orthokeratology lens wear and calculated longitudinal relative changes in axial length, revealing a weighted average of -45...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Pei-Chang Wu, Hsiu-Mei Huang, Hun-Ju Yu, Po-Chiung Fang, Chueh-Tan Chen
Myopia is not a simple refractive error, but an eyesight-threatening disease. There is a high prevalence of myopia, 80% to 90%, in young adults in East Asia; myopia has become the leading cause of blindness in this area. As the myopic population increases globally, the severity of its impact is predicted. Approximately one fifth of the myopic population has high myopia (≥-6 diopters), which results in irreversible vision loss such as retinal detachment, choroidal neovascularization, cataracts, glaucoma, and macular atrophy...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
J W L Tideman, J R Polling, A van der Schans, V J M Verhoeven, C C W Klaver
- Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood, with a peak incidence between the ages of 13 to 15 years. - Especially high myopia, i.e. a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during adulthood due to structural abnormalities of the retina and optic nerve.- The cause of myopia is complex. Lifestyle factors in childhood, such as limited time spent outdoors and close work - such as reading and smartphone usage - are risk factors...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Michela Fresina, Giuseppe Giannaccare, Piera Versura, Emilio C Campos
INTRODUCTION: Acute acquired distance esotropia (AADE) is a poorly understood moderate-angle strabismus, affecting young adult myopes and determining bothersome diplopia. Symptoms can be intermittent in the early stages, becoming constant in long-lasting disease. Symptomatic therapy includes prism correction, while surgery is the only curative treatment. However, the latter is affected by high rate of symptoms recurrence with the frequent need for reoperation. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that AADE could be caused by the increase of the accommodative demand, often secondary to a myopic overcorrection...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
V P Erichev, Yu V Mazurova
UNLABELLED: Many factors exist that are associated with higher risk of glaucoma progression. Arterial hypotension, low perfusion pressure, vasospastic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, myopia, etc. increase the need for neuroprotective therapy, which is aimed at stabilizing the pathological process and creating favorable conditions for maintaining visual functions. The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic efficacy of Gliatilin as part of the complex treatment of progressive glaucomatous optic neuropathy...
March 2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Kaivon Pakzad-Vaezi, Hemal Mehta, Zaid Mammo, Adnan Tufail
INTRODUCTION: Myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the most common cause of CNV in those under 50 years of age. It is a significant cause of visual loss in those with pathologic myopia. The current standard of care involves therapy with intravitreal inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). AREAS COVERED: The epidemiology of myopia, high myopia, pathologic myopia, and myopic CNV is reviewed, along with a brief discussion of historical treatments...
July 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Jinhai Huang, Daizong Wen, Qinmei Wang, Colm McAlinden, Ian Flitcroft, Haisi Chen, Seang Mei Saw, Hao Chen, Fangjun Bao, Yune Zhao, Liang Hu, Xuexi Li, Rongrong Gao, Weicong Lu, Yaoqiang Du, Zhengxuan Jinag, Ayong Yu, Hengli Lian, Qiuruo Jiang, Ye Yu, Jia Qu
PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of different interventions to slow down the progression of myopia in children. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and from inception to August 2014. We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving interventions for controlling the progression of myopia in children with a treatment duration of at least 1 year for analysis...
April 2016: Ophthalmology
Rebecca Milston, Michele C Madigan, J Sebag
Vitreous is a hydrated extracellular matrix comprised primarily of water, collagens, and hyaluronan organized into a homogeneously transparent gel. Gel liquefaction results from molecular alterations with dissociation of collagen from hyaluronan and aggregation of collagen fibrils forming fibers that cause light scattering and hence symptomatic floaters, especially in myopia. With aging, gel liquefaction and weakened vitreoretinal adhesion result in posterior vitreous detachment, the most common cause of primary symptomatic floaters arising from the dense collagen matrix of the posterior vitreous cortex...
March 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
Harsha Bhattacharjee, Rushil Kumar Saxena, Jnanankar Medhi
We report a rare case of bilateral spontaneous anterior partial in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation in a 75-year-old man with pseudoexfoliation (PXF). He underwent uneventful phacoemulsification in both eyes with in-the-bag IOL implantation 9 years back. In the right eye, single piece poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) IOL (+19 D) and in the left eye, single piece acrylic foldable IOL (+19 D) were implanted. An attempt at pharmacological IOL repositioning was unsuccessful. The dislocated IOLs were explanted and exchanged with scleral suture fixated PMMA IOLs...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Paul Gifford, Kate Louise Gifford
The growing incidence of pediatric myopia worldwide has generated strong scientific interest in understanding factors leading to myopia development and progression. Although contact lenses (CLs) are prescribed primarily for refractive correction, there is burgeoning use of particular modalities for slowing progression of myopia following reported success in the literature. Standard soft and rigid CLs have been shown to have minimal or no effect for myopia control. Overall, orthokeratology and soft multifocal CLs have shown the most consistent performance for myopia control with the least side effects...
April 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Gary D Novack, Alan L Robin
Ophthalmic diseases include both those analogous to systemic diseases (eg, inflammation, infection, neuronal degeneration) and not analogous (eg, cataract, myopia). Many anterior segment diseases are treated pharmacologically through eye drops, which have an implied therapeutic index of local therapy. Unlike oral dosage forms administered for systemic diseases, eyedrops require patients not only to adhere to treatment, but to be able to accurately perform-ie, instill drops correctly. Anatomical and physiological barriers make topical delivery to the anterior chamber challenging-in some cases more challenging than absorption through the skin, nasal passages, or gut...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Arabella Stuart, John A Ford, Susan Duckworth, Colin Jones, Augustine Pereira
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to systematically review the evidence for anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy in choroidal neovascularisation secondary to conditions other than age-related macular degeneration. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, MEDLINE in-process, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases and conference abstracts were searched (from inception to Jan 2014). STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Randomised and non-randomised comparative studies with follow-up of at least 6 months were included and were used to assess clinical effectiveness...
2015: BMJ Open
Giada Colafrancesco, Giulia Maria Di Marzio, Giuseppe Abbracciavento, Vera Stoppioni, Vincenzo Leuzzi, Mauro Ferrara
UNLABELLED: Homocystinuria due to cystathionine-β-synthase deficiency (CBS deficiency) usually presents with ectopia lentis, myopia, intellectual disability, skeletal anomalies resembling Marfan syndrome, and thromboembolic events. Whereas neurodevelopment impairments have been often described in untreated homocystinuria adult patients, acute psychosis has rarely been reported as a presenting symptom of the disease. Here, we describe a 17-year-old girl affected by CBS deficiency presenting acute onset of visual hallucinations, behavioral perseverance, psychomotor hyperactivity, and affective inappropriateness...
September 2015: European Journal of Pediatrics
Ioannis M Aslanides, Vasilis D Selimis, Nikolaos V Bessis, Panagiotis N Georgoudis
PURPOSE: We report our experience with the use of the matrix regenerating agent (RGTA) Cacicol(®) after reverse transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA)-SCHWIND to assess the safety, efficacy, pain, and epithelial healing. METHODS: Forty eyes of 20 myopic patients were prospectively recruited to a randomized fellow eye study. Patients underwent transepithelial ASLA in both eyes, with one of the eyes randomly assigned to the use of the RGTA Cacicol. Postoperative pain and vision were subjectively assessed with the use of a questionnaire on the operative day, at 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours...
2015: Clinical Ophthalmology
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