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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339554/synthetic-biology-strategies-for-improving-microbial-synthesis-of-green-biopolymers
#1
Lisa A Anderson, M Ahsanul Islam, Kristala L J Prather
Polysaccharide-based biopolymers have many material properties relevant to industrial and medical uses, including as drug delivery agents, wound healing adhesives, and food additives and stabilizers. Traditionally, polysaccharides are obtained from natural sources. Microbial synthesis offers an attractive alternative for sustainable production of tailored biopolymers. Here, we review synthetic biology strategies for select "green" biopolymers: cellulose, alginate, chitin, chitosan, and hyaluronan. Microbial production pathways, opportunities for pathway yield improvements, and advances in microbial engineering of biopolymers in various hosts are discussed...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338177/a-novel-alkali-activation-of-titanium-substrates-to-grow-thick-and-covalently-bound-pmma-layers
#2
Melania Reggente, Patrick Masson, Camille Dollinger, Heinz Palkowski, Spyridon Zafeiratos, Leandro Jacomine, Daniele Passeri, Marco Rossi, Nihal Engin Vrana, Genevieve Pourroy, Adele Carrado
Titanium (Ti) is the most widely used metal in biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility; however, the significant difference of the mechanical properties between Ti and the surrounding tissues results in stress shielding which is detrimental for load bearing tissues. In the current study, to attenuate the stress shielding effect, a new processing route was developed. It aimed at growing thick poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layers grafted on Ti substrates to incorporate a polymer component on Ti implants...
January 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336631/the-beneficial-radioprotective-effect-of-tomato-seed-oil-against-gamma-radiation-induced-damage-in-male-rats
#3
Magda K Ezz, Nashwa K Ibrahim, Mahmoud M Said, Mostafa A Farrag
Radiation protection research receives intense focus due to its significant impact on human health. The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of pretreatment with tomato seed oil (TSO) against gamma radiation-induced damage in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (1) untreated control; (2) TSO-supplemented; (3) gamma-irradiated; (4) TSO-pretreated and gamma-irradiated. Acute exposure of animals to a single gamma radiation dose (6 Gy) induced oxidative stress in major body organs, altered serum lipid homeostasis, significantly increased serum testosterone and sorbitol dehydrogenase levels, and elicited a systemic inflammation as manifested by the induction of serum vascular cell adhesion molecule-1...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336552/engineering-the-surface-of-therapeutic-living-cells
#4
Jooyeon Park, Brenda Andrade, Yongbeom Seo, Myung-Joo Kim, Steven C Zimmerman, Hyunjoon Kong
Biological cells are complex living machines that have garnered significant attention for their potential to serve as a new generation of therapeutic and delivery agents. Because of their secretion, differentiation, and homing activities, therapeutic cells have tremendous potential to treat or even cure various diseases and injuries that have defied conventional therapeutic strategies. Therapeutic cells can be systemically or locally transplanted. In addition, with their ability to express receptors that bind specific tissue markers, cells are being studied as nano- or microsized drug carriers capable of targeted transport...
January 16, 2018: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334191/exogenous-oestrogen-inhibits-genital-transmission-of-cell-associated-hiv-1-in-dmpa-treated-humanized-mice
#5
Nirk E Quispe Calla, Rodolfo D Vicetti Miguel, Melissa E Glick, Jesse J Kwiek, Janelle M Gabriel, Thomas L Cherpes
INTRODUCTION: HIV affects more women than any other life-threatening infectious agent, and most infections are sexually transmitted. HIV must breach the female genital tract mucosal barrier to establish systemic infection, and clinical studies indicate virus more easily evades this barrier in women using depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and other injectable progestins for contraception. Identifying a potential mechanism for this association, we learned DMPA promotes susceptibility of wild-type mice to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection by reducing genital tissue expression of the cell-cell adhesion molecule desmoglein-1 (DSG-1) and increasing genital mucosal permeability...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333771/-effect-of-hydrofluoric-acid-concentration-on-the-surface-morphology-and-bonding-effectiveness-of-lithium-disilicate-glass-ceramics-to-resin-composites
#6
Qian Hailan, Ren Lingyan, Nie Rongrong, Meng Xiangfeng
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at determining the influence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) in varied concentrations on the surface morphology of lithium disilicate glass ceramics and bond durability between resin composites and post-treated lithium disilicate glass ceramics. METHODS: After being sintered, ground, and washed, 72 as-prepared specimens of lithium disilicate glass ceramics with dimensions of 11 mm×13 mm×2 mm were randomly divided into three groups. Each group was treated with acid solution [32% phosphoric acid (PA) or 4% or 9...
December 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331086/current-management-of-small-bowel-obstruction-in-the-uk-results-from-the-national-audit-of-small-bowel-obstruction-clinical-practice-survey
#7
Matthew J Lee, Adele E Sayers, Timothy R Wilson, Austin G Acheson, Iain D Anderson, Nicola S Fearnhead
AIM: Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The National Audit of Small Bowel Obstruction (NASBO) is a collaboration between trainees and specialty associations to improve the care of patients with SBO through national clinical audit. The aim of this study was to define current Consultant practice preferences in the management of small bowel obstruction in the UK. METHOD: A survey was designed to assess practice preferences of consultant surgeons...
January 13, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329666/advances-in-self-healing-materials-based-on-vascular-networks-with-mechanical-self-repair-characteristics
#8
REVIEW
Min Wook Lee, Seongpil An, Sam S Yoon, Alexander L Yarin
Here, we review the state-of-the-art in the field of engineered self-healing materials. These materials mimic the functionalities of various natural materials found in the human body (e.g., the healing of skin and bones by the vascular system). The fabrication methods used to produce these "vascular-system-like" engineered self-healing materials, such as electrospinning (including co-electrospinning and emulsion spinning) and solution blowing (including coaxial solution blowing and emulsion blowing) are discussed in detail...
December 24, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329339/accessibility-and-contribution-to-glucan-masking-of-natural-and-genetically-tagged-versions-of-yeast-wall-protein-1-of-candida-albicans
#9
Bruce L Granger
Yeast wall protein 1 (Ywp1) is an abundant glycoprotein of the cell wall of the yeast form of Candida albicans, the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. Antibodies that bind to the polypeptide backbone of isolated Ywp1 show little binding to intact yeast cells, presumably because the Ywp1 epitopes are masked by the polysaccharides of the mannoproteins that form the outer layer of the cell wall. Rare cells do exhibit much greater anti-Ywp1 binding, however, and one of these was isolated and characterized...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329075/anticoagulant-polyurethane-substrates-modified-with-poly-2-methacryloyloxyethyl-phosphorylcholine-via-si-ratrp
#10
Cheng Chi, Baohong Sun, Ninglin Zhou, Ming Zhang, Xiaohong Chu, Ping Yuan, Jian Shen
A novel catalyst system of Reverse Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (RATRP) to prepare Polyurethane (PU) films modified by poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (pMPC) was studied in this article. In this system, PU film was pretreated by LaCl3/CA ethanol solution to obtain a hydrated surface allowing more initiators to be immobilized on it. Moreover, complexes composed of silane coupling agent 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane (CPTM), chlorhexidine acetate (CA) and lanthanum(III) worked as ligands of copper ions as a whole during RATRP process...
January 8, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324806/immunocompetent-host-develops-mild-intestinal-inflammation-in-acute-infection-with-toxoplasma-gondii
#11
Paulo da Silva Watanabe, Aline Rosa Trevizan, Saulo Euclides Silva-Filho, Marcelo Biondaro Góis, João Luiz Garcia, Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman, Ana Cristina Breithaupt-Faloppa, Débora de Mello Gonçales Sant Ana, Gessilda de Alcantara Nogueira de Melo
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, common zoonosis among vertebrates and high incidence worldwide. During the infection, the parasite needs to transpose the intestinal barrier to spread throughout the body, which may be a trigger for an inflammatory reaction. This work evaluated the inflammatory alterations of early T. gondii infection in peripheral blood cells, in the mesenteric microcirculation, and small intestinal tissue by measurement of MPO (myeloperoxidase) activity and NO (nitric oxide) level in rats...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321693/human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-lose-their-functional-properties-after-paclitaxel-treatment
#12
Franziska Münz, Ramon Lopez Perez, Thuy Trinh, Sonevisay Sisombath, Klaus-Josef Weber, Patrick Wuchter, Jürgen Debus, Rainer Saffrich, Peter E Huber, Nils H Nicolay
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an integral part of the bone marrow niche and aid in the protection, regeneration and proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells after exposure to myelotoxic taxane anti-cancer agents, but the influence of taxane compounds on MSCs themselves remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that bone marrow-derived MSCs are highly sensitive even to low concentrations of the prototypical taxane compound paclitaxel. While MSCs remained metabolically viable, they were strongly impaired regarding both their proliferation and their functional capabilities after exposure to paclitaxel...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321514/flavin-reductase-contributes-to-pneumococcal-virulence-by-protecting-from-oxidative-stress-and-mediating-adhesion-and-elicits-protection-against-pneumococcal-challenge
#13
Giora I Morozov, Nurith Porat, Tatyana Kushnir, Hastyar Najmuldeen, Asad Adawi, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Rachel Benisty, Ariel Ohayon, Ofir Liron, Shalhevet Azriel, Itai Malka, Shahar Dotan, Maxim Portnoi, Andrew A Piotrowski, Daniel Kafka, Barak Hajaj, Tali Fishilevich, Marilou Shagan, Michael Tal, Ron Ellis, Donald A Morrison, Andrea M Mitchell, Timothy J Mitchell, Ron Dagan, Hasan Yesilkaya, Yaffa Mizrachi Nebenzahl
Pneumococcal flavin reductase (FlaR) is known to be cell-wall associated and possess age dependent antigenicity in children. This study aimed at characterizing FlaR and elucidating its involvement in pneumococcal physiology and virulence. Bioinformatic analysis of FlaR sequence identified three-conserved cysteine residues, suggesting a transition metal-binding capacity. Recombinant FlaR (rFlaR) bound Fe2+ and exhibited FAD-dependent NADP-reductase activity, which increased in the presence of cysteine or excess Fe2+ and inhibited by divalent-chelating agents...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320955/therapeutic-roles-of-statins-in-gynecology-and-obstetrics-the-current-evidence
#14
Burak Zeybek, Maged Costantine, Gokhan S Kilic, Mostafa A Borahay
INTRODUCTION: Statins are a class of drugs, which act by inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase). The inhibition of mevalonate synthesis leads to subsequent inhibition of downstream products of this pathway, which explains the pleiotropic effects of these agents in addition to their well-known lipid-lowering effects. Accumulating evidence suggests that statins might be beneficial in various obstetric and gynecologic conditions...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320578/the-potent-effect-of-mycolactone-on-lipid-membranes
#15
Milène Nitenberg, Anaïs Bénarouche, Ofelia Maniti, Estelle Marion, Laurent Marsollier, Julie Géan, Erick J Dufourc, Jean-François Cavalier, Stéphane Canaan, Agnès P Girard-Egrot
Mycolactone is a lipid-like endotoxin synthesized by an environmental human pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer disease. Mycolactone has pleiotropic effects on fundamental cellular processes (cell adhesion, cell death and inflammation). Various cellular targets of mycolactone have been identified and a literature survey revealed that most of these targets are membrane receptors residing in ordered plasma membrane nanodomains, within which their functionalities can be modulated...
January 10, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318564/strategies-to-target-matrix-metalloproteinases-as-therapeutic-approach-in-cancer
#16
Zoi Piperigkou, Dimitra Manou, Konstantina Karamanou, Achilleas D Theocharis
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are capable of degrading numerous extracellular matrix (ECM) components thus participating in physiological and pathological processes. Apart from the remodeling of ECM, they affect cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and are implicated in the development and progression of various diseases such as cancer. Numerous studies have demonstrated that MMPs evoke epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells and affect their signaling, adhesion, migration and invasion to promote cancer cell aggressiveness...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316529/vancomycin-assisted-green-synthesis-of-reduced-graphene-oxide-for-antimicrobial-applications
#17
Li Qun Xu, Yan Biao Liao, Ning Ning Li, Yi Jian Li, Jie Yu Zhang, Yun Bing Wang, Xue Feng Hu, Chang Ming Li
Chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is a simple and inexpensive method for the large-scale production of graphene-based materials. A suitable reducing agent, especially a green reductant, is in high demand for the production of reduced GO (RGO). Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic used to treat a variety of Gram-positive bacterial infections, was used to chemically reduce GO at a weak alkaline pH. As far as we know, this is the first report of reduction of GO by a glycopeptide antibiotic. The resulting vancomycin-decorated RGO (RGO-Van) was characterized by UV-visible adsorption and Raman spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction pattern and atomic force microscopy (AFM)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310513/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-subtype-1-s1pr1-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-brain-trauma
#18
Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Timothy Doyle, Michela Campolo, Irene Paterniti, Emanuela Esposito, Susan Farr, Daniela Salvemini
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) provokes secondary pathological mechanisms, including ischemic and inflammatory processes. The new research in sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators has opened the door for an effective mechanism of reducing central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory lesion activity. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the immunomodulatory effect of the functional S1PR1 antagonist siponimod in Phase III clinical trials for autoimmune disorders and of the competitive S1PR1 antagonist TASP0277308 in preclinical development in an in vivo model of TBI in mice...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306981/unusual-stability-of-a-recombinant-verrucomicrobium-spinosum-tyrosinase-to-denaturing-agents-and-its-use-for-a-production-of-a-protein-with-adhesive-properties
#19
A S Axambayeva, L R Zhaparova, Zh S Shagyrova, E M Ramankulov, A V Shustov
Tyrosinases catalyze oxidation of phenols with a formation of biphenols, quinones, and highly polymerized melanins. Tyrosinases have prospects for industrial use to remove phenols, also in biosensors, in bioorganic synthesis, and for a production of biocompatible adhesives (medical glues). Despite growing fields of potential applications, a selection of commercially available tyrosinases are currently limited to a single enzyme which is isolated from fruiting bodies of mushrooms. This article describes a preparation of recombinant tyrosinase from a bacterium Verrucomicrobium spinosum using a heterologous expression in Escherichia coli...
January 6, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305989/the-immune-response-of-mytilus-edulis-hemocytes-exposed-to-vibrio-splendidus-lgp32-strain-a-transcriptomic-attempt-at-identifying-molecular-actors
#20
Marion Tanguy, Sophie Gauthier-Clerc, Jocelyne Pellerin, Jean-Michel Danger, Ahmed Siah
The marine mussel Mytilus edulis, tolerant to a wide range of environmental changes, combines a key role as a sentinel species for environmental monitoring programs and a significant economic importance. Mortality events caused by infective agents and parasites have not been described in mussels, which suggests an efficient immune system. This study aims at identifying the molecular mechanisms involved in the early immune responses M. edulis' hemocytes challenged with Vibrio splendidus LGP32 strain during 2, 4 and 6 h...
January 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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