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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089504/review-nutrient-sulfate-supply-from-mother-to-fetus-placental-adaptive-responses-during-human-and-animal-gestation
#1
REVIEW
P A Dawson, K Richard, A Perkins, Z Zhang, D G Simmons
Nutrient sulfate has numerous roles in mammalian physiology and is essential for healthy fetal growth and development. The fetus has limited capacity to generate sulfate and relies on sulfate supplied from the maternal circulation via placental sulfate transporters. The placenta also has a high sulfate requirement for numerous molecular and cellular functions, including sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) to estrogen and thyroid hormone which leads to their inactivation. Accordingly, the ratio of sulfonated (inactive) to unconjugated (active) hormones modulates endocrine function in fetal, placental and maternal tissues...
January 4, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008329/maternal-and-fetal-mechanisms-of-b-cell-regulation-during-pregnancy-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-stimulates-b-cells-to-produce-il-10%C3%A2-while-alpha-fetoprotein-drives-them-into-apoptosis
#2
Franziska Fettke, Anne Schumacher, Andrea Canellada, Natalia Toledo, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding, Albert Bondt, Manfred Wuhrer, Serban-Dan Costa, Ana Claudia Zenclussen
Maternal immune tolerance toward the fetus is an essential requisite for pregnancy. While T cell functions are well documented, little is known about the participation of B cells. We have previously suggested that IL-10-producing B cells are involved in pregnancy tolerance in mice and humans. By employing murine and human systems, we report now that fetal trophoblasts positively regulate the generation of IL-10-producing B cells. We next studied the participation of hormones produced by the placenta as well as the fetal protein alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in B cell modulation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835804/gap-junctional-connexin-messenger-rna-expression-in-the-ovine-uterus-and-placenta-effects-of-estradiol-17%C3%AE-treatment-early-pregnancy-stages-and-embryo-origin
#3
M L Johnson, D A Redmer, L P Reynolds, A T Grazul-Bilska
Gap junctions play a major role in direct, contact-dependent cell-cell communication, and they have been implicated in the regulation of cellular metabolism and the coordination of cellular functions during growth and differentiation of organs and tissues. Gap junctional channels, composed of connexin (Cx) proteins, have been detected and shown to be influenced by hormones (eg, estrogen and progesterone) in uterine and placental tissues in several species. We hypothesized that (1) the messenger RNA (mRNA) for Cx26, Cx32, Cx37, and Cx43 is expressed in the uterus of ovariectomized sheep treated with estradiol-17β (E2) and in ovine placenta during early pregnancy, (2) E2-treatment of ovariectomized ewes would cause time-specific changes in Cx26, Cx32, Cx37, and Cx43 mRNA expression (experiment 1), and (3) expression of these 4 Cx would vary across the days of early pregnancy (experiment 2) and will be affected by embryo origin (ie, after application of assisted reproductive technologies [ARTs]; experiment 3)...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791094/primate-specific-mir-515-family-members-inhibit-key-genes-in-human-trophoblast-differentiation-and-are-upregulated-in-preeclampsia
#4
Ming Zhang, Sribalasubashini Muralimanoharan, Alison C Wortman, Carole R Mendelson
Dysregulation of human trophoblast invasion and differentiation can result in preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with significant morbidity and mortality for mother and offspring. miRNA microarray analysis of RNA from human cytotrophoblasts (CytT), before and after differentiation to syncytiotrophoblast (SynT) in primary culture, revealed that members of miR-515 family-including miR-515-5p, miR-519e-5p, miR-519c-3p, and miR-518f, belonging to the primate- and placenta-specific chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC)-were significantly down-regulated upon human SynT differentiation...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761482/immunology-of-neuromyelitis-optica-during-pregnancy
#5
Vahid Davoudi, Kiandokht Keyhanian, Riley M Bove, Tanuja Chitnis
Anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibody plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Studies have shown increased relapse rates in patients with NMO during pregnancy and postpartum. High estrogen levels during pregnancy can increase activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression, which is responsible for immunoglobulin production. Additionally, sex hormones may influence antibody glycosylation, with effects on antibody function. Estrogen decreases apoptosis of self-reactive B cells, through upregulation of antiapoptotic molecules...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693517/carbenoxolone-exposure-during-late-gestation-in-rats-alters-placental-expressions-of-p53-and-estrogen-receptors
#6
Maie D Al-Bader, Sara A Jasem, Narayana Kilarkaje
Gestational carbenoxolone exposure inhibits placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD), the physiological barrier for glucocorticoids, which increases fetal exposure to glucocorticoids and induces intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We hypothesized that carbenoxolone exposure influences the expression of placental estrogen receptors-α and β (ERα & ERβ) and p53 leading to inhibited fetal and placental growth. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected twice daily with either carbenoxolone (10mg/kg; s...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628217/igfbp1-involved-in-the-decreased-birth-weight-due-to-fetal-high-estrogen-exposure-in-mice
#7
Min Jin, Ping-Ping Lv, Tian-Tian Yu, Jin-Ming Shen, Chun Feng, He-Feng Huang
Our previous study indicated that maternal high estrogen environment in the first trimester is correlated with increased risks of low birth weight (LBW) and adult diseases. The present study aimed to establish an animal model to confirm such an effect in mice; and to further explore 5 the mechanism involved. A mouse model with high estradiol (E2) exposure during early pregnancy was established, and the birth weight, growth after birth, and expression levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) of pups were examined, respectively...
September 14, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549090/hypoxia-induced-regulation-of-placental-redd1-and-mtor-was-impaired-in-a-rat-model-of-estrogen-induced-cholestasis
#8
Fan Zhou, Huafang Chen, Xiaodong Wang, Pin Yu, Yayi Hu
PURPOSE: Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), regulated in development and DNA damage response-1 (REDD1), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) play distinct roles in response to hypoxia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the HIF-1α-REDD1-mTOR-mediated hypoxic stress response also operates normally in estrogen-induced cholestasis. METHODS: Pregnant rats were administered with ethinylestradiol (EE) to induce cholestasis and then were subjected to feto-placental ischemia reperfusion (IR); as controls, one group received neither EE nor IR, and another two groups received only EE or IR...
August 22, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535960/fructose-synthesis-and-transport-at-the-uterine-placental-interface-of-pigs-cell-specific-localization-of-slc2a5-slc2a8-and-components-of-the-polyol-pathway
#9
Chelsie B Steinhauser, McKinsey Landers, Louise Myatt, Robert C Burghardt, Jeffrey L Vallet, Fuller W Bazer, Greg A Johnson
The fetal fluids and uterine flushings of pigs contain higher concentrations of fructose than glucose, but fructose is not detected in maternal blood. Fructose can be synthesized from glucose via enzymes of the polyol pathway, aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD), transported across cell membranes by solute carriers SLC2A5 and SLC2A8, and converted to fructose-1-phosphate by keto-hexokinase (KHK). SLC2A8, SLC2A5, AKR1B1, SORD and KHK mRNAs and proteins were analyzed using qPCR and immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization in endometria and placentae of cyclic and pregnant gilts, cyclic gilts injected with estrogen, and ovariectomized gilts injected with progesterone (P4)...
August 17, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530348/elevated-utero-placental-gr-nr3c1-is-not-required-for-the-induction-of-parturition-in-the-dog
#10
Aykut Gram, Alexandra Trachsel, Alois Boos, Mariusz P Kowalewski
The endocrine mechanisms that lead to initiation of parturition in dogs are still not fully understood. The prepartum luteolysis is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG) F2α secretion; however, there is no pregnancy- or parturition-related increase in estrogens. Moreover, unlike in other mammalian species, in the dog, increased peripartum levels of cortisol measured sporadically in maternal peripheral blood are not mandatory for normal parturition. Nevertheless, auto/paracrine effects of cortisol at the placental feto-maternal level cannot be excluded...
October 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492720/dynamic-expression-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-and-urocortin-in-estrogen-induced-cholestasis-pregnant-rat
#11
Fan Zhou, Bingxin Gao, Chunyan Deng, Guiqiong Huang, Ting Xu, Xiaodong Wang
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy(ICP) is complicated by acute placental-fetal hypoxia. Corticotropin-releasing hormone(CRH) and urocortin(UCN) are vasodilatory regulators of blood flow in the placenta. An ethinylestradiol(EE)-induced cholestasis rat model was reproduced and serum/placental CRH/UCN were detected during 14-21days of gestation(DG). Maternal serum or placental CRH/UCN levels in the control rats were relatively consistent during 14-21DG. Serum CRH was reduced in the EE-treated rats compared with the control rats at 21DG...
October 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422263/widening-spectrum-of-cellular-and-subcellular-expression-of-human-glud1-and-glud2-glutamate-dehydrogenases-suggests-novel-functions
#12
Cleanthe Spanaki, Dimitra Kotzamani, Andreas Plaitakis
Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase1 (GDH1) (E.C. 1.4.1.3) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD+ and/or NADP+ to NADH and/or NADPH. It links amino acid with carbohydrate metabolism, contributing to Krebs cycle anaplerosis, energy production, ammonia handling and redox homeostasis. Although GDH1 was one of the first major metabolic enzymes to be studied decades ago, its role in cell biology is still incompletely understood...
July 16, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270272/microrna-137-affects-proliferation-and-migration-of-placenta-trophoblast-cells-in-preeclampsia-by-targeting-err%C3%AE
#13
Tan-Min Lu, Wei Lu, Long-Jun Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of microRNA-137 (miRNA-137) in proliferation and migration of placenta trophoblast cells of preeclampsia and the targeting gene of miRNA-137. METHODS: A total of 134 cases of puerperants were divided into normal pregnancy (n = 50), mild preeclampsia (n = 38), and severe preeclampsia groups (n = 46). MiRNA-137, estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), and wingless INT (WNT)11 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were measured in placental tissue and trophoblast cells after transfection, and ERRα protein in placental tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry...
June 6, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189313/ketoconazole-induced-estrogen-deficiency-causes-transient-decrease-in-placental-blood-flow-associated-with-hypoxia-and-later-placental-weight-gain-in-rats
#14
Aoi Ichikawa, Hiromichi Tamada
This study investigated the relationship among estrogen, placental blood flow and placental weight gain in rats treated with ketoconazole. Oral administration of ketoconazole (25mg/kg/day) on Days 12-14 of pregnancy induced reduction of plasma estradiol-17β (E2) concentration, transient decrease in placental blood flow and increased intensity of a hypoxia-related marker in the placenta on Day 14 of pregnancy. On Day 20 of pregnancy, placental weights of ketoconazole-treated rats increased when compared to controls...
August 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27155774/endocrinology-of-human-parturition
#15
Silvia Vannuccini, Caterina Bocchi, Filiberto M Severi, John R Challis, Felice Petraglia
The mechanisms involved in human pregnancy maintenance and parturition are highly complex and involve mother, fetus and placenta. The "final common pathway" to delivery is composed by inflammatory and endocrine interactive paths that tip the balance in favor of coordinated uterine contractility and cervical dilation. These mechanisms involve a shift from progesterone to estrogen dominance, CRH action, increased sensitivity to oxytocin, gap junction formation, and increased prostaglandins activity. Complementary changes in the cervix involve a decrease in progesterone dominance and the actions of prostaglandins and relaxin, via connective tissue alterations, leading to cervical softening and dilation...
June 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27155772/evolution-of-steroids-during-pregnancy-maternal-placental-and-fetal-synthesis
#16
Yves Morel, Florence Roucher, Ingrid Plotton, Claire Goursaud, Véronique Tardy, Delphine Mallet
Progesterone, estrogens, androgens and glucocorticoids are involved in pregnancy from implantation to parturition. Their biosynthesis and their metabolism result from complex pathways involving the fetus, the placenta and the mother. The absence of expression of some steroïdogenic enzymes as CYP17 in placenta and in adrenal fetal zone and the better determination of the onset and variation of others especially HSD3B2 during the pregnancy explain the production of the steroid hormones. Moreover the consequences of some disorders of steroidogenesis (especially aromatase, POR, CYP11A1 and 21-hydroxylase deficiencies) in fetus and mother during the pregnancy have permit to elucidate these complex pathways...
June 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27149376/endocrine-disrupting-effects-of-triclosan-on-the-placenta-in-pregnant-rats
#17
Yixing Feng, Pin Zhang, Zhaobin Zhang, Jiachen Shi, Zhihao Jiao, Bing Shao
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is frequently used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Reports have shown that TCS is a potential endocrine disruptor; however, the potential effects of TCS on placental endocrine function are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of TCS on the placenta in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 20 were treated with 0, 30, 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/d TCS followed by analysis of various biochemical parameters...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146030/endometrial-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-their-fibroblast-progeny-in-endometriosis-and-more
#18
Caroline E Gargett, Shanti Gurung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102893/current-knowledge-of-the-multifunctional-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-hsd17b1
#19
REVIEW
Wanhong He, Misra Gauri, Tang Li, Ruixuan Wang, Sheng-Xiang Lin
At the late 1940s, 17β-HSD1 was discovered as the first member of the 17β-HSD family with its gene cloned. The three-dimensional structure of human 17β-HSD1 is the first example of any human steroid converting enzyme. The human enzyme's structure and biological function have thus been studied extensively in the last two decades. In humans, the enzyme is expressed in placenta, ovary, endometrium and breast. The high activity of estrogen activation provides the basis of 17β-HSD1's implication in estrogen-dependent diseases, such as breast cancer, endometriosis and non-small cell lung carcinomas...
August 15, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27086564/a-novel-null-mutation-in-p450-aromatase-gene-cyp19a1-associated-with-development-of-hypoplastic-ovaries-in-humans
#20
Sema Akçurin, Doğa Türkkahraman, Woo Young Kim, Erdem Durmaz, Jae Gook Shin, Su Jun Lee
OBJECTIVE: The CYP19A1 gene product aromatase is responsible for estrogen synthesis and androgen/estrogen equilibrium in many tissues, particularly in the placenta and gonads. Aromatase deficiency can cause various clinical phenotypes resulting from excessive androgen accumulation and insufficient estrogen synthesis during the pre- and postnatal periods. In this study, our aim was to determine the clinical characteristics and CYP19A1 mutations in three patients from a large Turkish pedigree...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
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