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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236987/extra-gonadal-actions-of-fsh-a-critical-need-for-novel-genetic-models
#1
T Rajendra Kumar
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is critical for ovarian folliculogenesis and essential for female fertility. FSH binds to FSH receptors (FSHRs) and regulates estrogen production in ovarian granulosa cells to orchestrate female reproductive physiology. Ovarian senescence that occurs as a function of aging results in loss of estrogen production and this is believed to be the major reason for bone loss in postmenopausal women. Although conflicting, studies in rodents and humans during the last decade provide genetic, pharmacological and physiological evidence that elevated FSH levels that occur in the face of normal or declining estrogen levels directly regulate bone mass and adiposity...
December 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228121/low-dose-bisphenol-a-activates-the-erk-signaling-pathway-and-attenuates-steroidogenic-gene-expression-in-human-placental-cells
#2
Po-Wei Chu, Zhi-Jie Yang, Huei-Shing Huang, Ai-An Chang, Yu-Chen Cheng, Gwo-Jang Wu, Hsin-Chieh Lan
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial material used for many plastic products and is considered an endocrine disruptor. BPA can be released into the environment and can spread through the food chain. It is well known that BPA exposure leads to lesions, especially in the reproductive system. According to previous studies, BPA reduces newborn numbers in pregnant mice and affects placentation. The placenta is a special endocrine organ during pregnancy. It secretes important hormones, such as progesterone and estrogen, to maintain gestation...
December 4, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212380/%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-and-fibronectin-expressions-and-their-relation-to-estrogen-and-progesterone-during-placentation-in-swine
#3
C Vélez, C Barbeito, M Koncurat
Mammalian pregnancy requires specific interactions between the conceptus and its mother that involve the endocrine system and adhesion molecules. The relation between adhesion molecules and their ligands at the fetal-maternal interface is crucial for developing a successful implantation. Progesterone (P4) and estrogen (E2) secreted by the porcine conceptus are required for the relation to be established. We investigated the expression of αvβ3 integrin and its ligand, fibronectin (FN), at the placental interface, and E2 and P4 concentrations in both serum and maternal and fetal placental extracts during placentation in swine...
December 7, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207177/regulation-of-steroid-hormones-in-the-placenta-and-serum-of-women-with-preeclampsia
#4
Ye Young Shin, Jea Sic Jeong, Mee-Na Park, Jae-Eon Lee, Sung-Min An, Wan-Seob Cho, Seung Chul Kim, Beum-Soo An, Kyu-Sup Lee
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy‑specific hypertensive syndrome that results in substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The exact cause of PE has not been completely elucidate, although abnormal formation of the placenta has been considered. The placenta connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall, producing a large quantity of steroid hormones to maintain pregnancy. Although steroid hormones, particularly progesterone (P4) and estrogen (E2), in the serum of women with PE have been studied, steroidogenesis in the placenta has not well been established...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181440/influence-of-dexamethasone-on-some-reproductive-hormones-and-uterine-progesterone-receptor-localization-in-pregnant-yankasa-sheep-in-semiarid-zones-of-nigeria
#5
Dauda Yahi, Nicholas Adetayo Ojo, Gideon Dauda Mshelia
Dexamethasone is widely used in both veterinary and human medical practices. However, it seems to cause some deleterious effects on pregnancy probably by causing changes in the reproductive hormone levels and their corresponding receptor concentrations. This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone on these parameters. Twenty healthy adult Yankasa sheep comprising 18 ewes and 2 rams were used for this study. Pregnancies were achieved by natural mating after estrus synchronization. Dexamethasone was administered at 0...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151792/fluoxetine-modulates-sex-steroid-levels-in-vitro
#6
Diana Lupu, Marcus O D Sjödin, Mukesh Varshney, Johan Lindberg, Felicia Loghin, Joëlle Rüegg
Background and aims: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressants increasingly prescribed against depression during and after pregnancy. However, these compounds cross the placenta and are found in breast milk, thus reaching, and possibly affecting, the fetus and infant during critical developmental stages. Fluoxetine (FLX), a widely used SSRI, can interfere with estrogen signaling, which is important for the development of female sex organs and certain brain areas, among others...
2017: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066529/steroidogenic-enzyme-activities-in-the-pre-and-post-parturient-equine-placenta
#7
Erin Lea Legacki, Cynthia Jo Corbin, Barry A Ball, Kirsten Scoggin, Scott D Stanley, Alan Conley
Steroidogenic enzymes in placentas shape steroid hormone profiles in the maternal circulation of each mammalian species. These include 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3βHSD) and 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) crucial for progesterone and androgen synthesis, respectively, as well as aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) that converts Δ4-androgens to estrogens. 5α-reductase is another important enzyme in equine placentas because 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) sustains pregnancy in the absence of progesterone in the second half of equine pregnancy...
October 24, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061543/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-in-human-placenta-may-mediate-the-adverse-effects-of-phthalates-exposure-in-pregnancy
#8
Yujing Huang, Jose M Garcia, Weiqun Shu, Honghui Rong, Lin Zhang, Yanzhou Wang, Yao Tan, Hui Lin, Hui Zeng, Ji-An Chen
Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARG) in placenta play an important role in pregnancy. Our previous study showed that it mediated the effects of phthalates on placental mRNA expression of estrogen synthetases in rats. To assess the effects of phthalate exposure on PPARG placental expression, and the contribution of PPARG to the effects of phthalates in human. 207 healthy pregnant women were recruited and their cord blood and placenta were collected upon delivery. Three phthalates, estrogens in cord blood and protein expression of PPARG in placenta were measured...
October 20, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052908/hbxag-suppresses-cell-apoptosis-and-promotes-the-secretion-of-placental-hormones-in-human-placental-trophoblasts-via-activation-of-the-egfr-akt-pathway
#9
Weimin Wang, Guiqin Bai, Yuting Zhang, Ting Zhang, Chen Li, Yongxing Yuan, Sixue Liu, Caili Wang
The aim of this study is to investigate the role of Hepatitis B virus x (HBx) in the growth and secretion of human placental trophoblasts. Firstly, placenta tissues were collected from pregnant HBV carriers with various viral loads. The results of immunohistochemical technique showed that the HBx protein and pEGFR protein levels were both markedly increased with the viral load elevation. Then, a placental trophoblast cell strain (JEG-3-HBx), which stablly expressed HBx mRNA and protein, was established with the pcDNA-HBx transfection followed by the G418 selection...
October 20, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040188/phagocytosis-of-extracellular-vesicles-extruded-from-the-placenta-by-ovarian-cancer-cells-inhibits-growth-of-the-cancer-cells
#10
Qi Chen, Victoria Rutten, Wei-Tzu Cheng, Mancy Tong, Jia Wei, Peter Stone, Lai-Ming Ching, Lawrence W Chamley
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is a common gynecological cancer, and parity is negatively associated with the incidence of this disease. This negative association is hypothesized to be due in part to shifting the balance of estrogen and progesterone toward more progesterone and reduced ovulation during pregnancy. However, studies suggested that parity is also associated with estrogen-independent gynecological cancers suggesting balance of hormones may not be the only protective factor. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in cell-to-cell communication in physiological and pathological conditions...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018059/involvement-of-leptin-in-the-molecular-physiology-of-the-placenta
#11
Malena Schanton, Julieta Lorena Maymó, Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Victor Sanchez-Margalet, Cecilia Varone
Leptin is a homeostatic regulator in the placenta where it promotes proliferation, protein synthesis and the expression of tolerogenic maternal response molecules such as HLA-G. Leptin also exerts an anti-apoptotic action in placenta controlling the expression of p53 master cell cycle regulator under different stress conditions. On the other hand, leptin is an integrative target of different placental stimuli. The expression of leptin in placenta is regulated by hCG, insulin, steroids, hypoxia, and many other growth hormones, suggesting that it might have an important endocrine function in the trophoblastic cells...
October 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965292/co-culture-of-jeg-3-bewo-and-syncbewo-cell-lines-with-adrenal-h295r-cell-line-an-alternative-model-for-examining-endocrine-and-metabolic-properties-of-the-fetoplacental-unit
#12
Eliza Drwal, Agnieszka Rak, Ewa Gregoraszczuk
Monocultures of different placental cells are used for many physiological and toxicological studies; however, they are not a true reflection of the interaction between placenta and fetus. To develop the most appropriate model to study endocrine and metabolic properties of fetoplacental unit we used three co-culture models of placental cells nonfusogenic JEG-3, unsyncytialised BeWo (BeWo) and syncytialised BeWo (syncBeWo) cultured with adrenal (H295R) cells. As an end point of endocrine properties we investigated steroids receptors expression and steroid secretion, while as metabolic properties AhR, CYP1A1and COMT expression...
September 30, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955183/a-brief-account-of-the-discovery-of-the-fetal-placental-unit-for-estrogen-production-in-equine-and-human-pregnancies-relation-to-human-medicine
#13
REVIEW
James I Raeside
The role of steroids in human medicine is well recognized, but the major contributions made by the large domestic animals as a source of material in the discovery, isolation, and determination of the structure of the steroid hormones is less well appreciated. After a brief reminder of the early efforts to obtain a reliable source of steroids for clinical use, the narrative here is to outline one example where success was ultimately achieved for estrogen replacement therapy. Whereas knowledge of the high concentrations of estrogens in urine of pregnant women and mares dates from the late 1920s, it was not until the 1940s that the latter was shown to be a practical source...
September 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864005/sp1-transcription-factor-is-a-modulator-of-estradiol-leptin-induction-in-placental-cells
#14
Malena Schanton, Julieta Maymó, Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Yésica Gambino, Bernardo Maskin, José Luis Dueñas, Víctor Sánchez-Margalet, Cecilia Varone
INTRODUCTION: Pleiotropic effects of leptin have been identified in reproduction and pregnancy, particularly in the placenta, where it functions as an autocrine hormone. The synthesis of leptin in normal trophoblastic cells is regulated by different endogenous biochemical agents, but the regulation of placental leptin expression is still poorly understood. We have previously reported that 17β-estradiol up-regulates placental leptin expression through genomic and nongenomic mechanisms...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826365/src-3-plays-a-critical-role-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-by-regulating-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-in-preeclampsia
#15
Yu Yuan, Nan Shan, Bin Tan, Qinyin Deng, Yangming Liu, Hanbin Wang, Xiaofang Luo, Chengjin He, Xin Luo, Hua Zhang, Philip N Baker, David M Olson, Hongbo Qi
Preeclampsia (PE) is currently thought to be characterized by oxidative stress which may lead to endothelial dysfunction. The normal function of vascular endothelium is essential to vascular homeostasis. Previous studies have shown that steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3) interacts with estrogen receptors (ERs) which are involved in the vasoprotective effects of estrogen and is also associated with cell migration, invasion, and inflammation; however, its role in PE remains unclear. The main purpose of this study is to identify the role of SRC-3 in the function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) during the development of PE...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800957/insight-into-the-mode-of-action-and-selectivity-of-pbrm-a-covalent-steroidal-inhibitor-of-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1
#16
Alexandre Trottier, René Maltais, Diana Ayan, Xavier Barbeau, Jenny Roy, Martin Perreault, Richard Poulin, Patrick Lagüe, Donald Poirier
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1) is involved in the biosynthesis of estradiol, the major bioactive endogenous estrogen in mammals, and constitutes an interesting therapeutic target for estrogen-dependent diseases. A steroidal derivative, 3-{[(16β,17β)-3-(2-bromoethyl)-17-hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-16-yl]methyl} benzamide (PBRM), has recently been described as a non-estrogenic, irreversible inhibitor of 17β-HSD1. However, the mode of action of this inhibitor and its selectivity profile have not yet been elucidated...
November 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791837/the-role-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-metabolites-in-chromium-induced-oxidative-stress
#17
Ewa Sawicka, Anna Długosz
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of estrogen-dependent breast cancer and the presence in the environment of a large number of factors that interact with estrogen receptors have sparked interest in chemical influences on estrogen-dependent processes. In a previous work, the authors examined the interaction of estradiol with chromium. In the present article the importance of estradiol biotransformation in these interactions is investigated. There is no information in the available literature about the role of metabolites in exposure to chromium...
March 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750898/the-use-of-a-unique-co-culture-model-of-fetoplacental-steroidogenesis-as-a-screening-tool-for-endocrine-disruptors-the-effects-of-neonicotinoids-on-aromatase-activity-and-hormone-production
#18
Elyse Caron-Beaudoin, Rachel Viau, Andrée-Anne Hudon-Thibeault, Cathy Vaillancourt, J Thomas Sanderson
Estrogen biosynthesis during pregnancy is dependent on the collaboration between the fetus producing the androgen precursors, and the placenta expressing the enzyme aromatase (CYP19). Disruption of estrogen production by contaminants may result in serious pregnancy outcomes. We used our recently developed in vitro co-culture model of fetoplacental steroidogenesis to screen the effects of three neonicotinoid insecticides on the catalytic activity of aromatase and the production of steroid hormones. A co-culture of H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells with fetal characteristics and BeWo human choriocarcinoma cells which display characteristics of the villous cytotrophoblast was exposed for 24h to various concentrations of three neonicotinoids: thiacloprid, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid...
October 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694300/the-regulation-of-oxytocin-and-oxytocin-receptor-in-human-placenta-according-to-gestational-age
#19
Seung Chul Kim, Jae-Eon Lee, Seong Soo Kang, Hoe-Saeng Yang, Sun Suk Kim, Beum-Soo An
Oxytocin (OXT) is a peptide hormone that plays a central role in the regulation of parturition and lactation in the uterus. OXT signaling is mediated by OXT receptor (OXTR), which shows species- and tissue-specific expressions and gene regulation. In the present study, we examined synthesis of OXT and OXTR in human placenta tissue according to gestational age. A total of 48 placentas were divided into early preterm, late preterm, and term groups depending on gestational age, and expression of OXT and OXTR was evaluated...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669870/secretory-expression-purification-and-functional-characterization-of-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-from-mammalian-hek293t-cells
#20
Jiong Chen, Wei Feng, Yue Zhao
17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1) mainly catalyzes the reduction of estrone into estradiol. The enzymatic conversion is a critical step in estradiol accumulation in breast tissue, which is a valuable prognosis index of breast cancer disease. However, the source of 17β-HSD1 for inhibitor design is limited. In this study, the fragment encoding human 17β-HSD1 was successfully cloned and expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T mammalian cells. The recombinant protein was purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography yielding above 17 mg of purified 17β-HSD1 protein per liter of cell culture, with a specific activity of 8...
September 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
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