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estrogen placenta

Vahid Davoudi, Kiandokht Keyhanian, Riley M Bove, Tanuja Chitnis
Anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibody plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Studies have shown increased relapse rates in patients with NMO during pregnancy and postpartum. High estrogen levels during pregnancy can increase activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression, which is responsible for immunoglobulin production. Additionally, sex hormones may influence antibody glycosylation, with effects on antibody function. Estrogen decreases apoptosis of self-reactive B cells, through upregulation of antiapoptotic molecules...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Maie D Al-Bader, Sara A Jasem, Narayana Kilarkaje
Gestational carbenoxolone exposure inhibits placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD), the physiological barrier for glucocorticoids, which increases fetal exposure to glucocorticoids and induces intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We hypothesized that carbenoxolone exposure influences the expression of placental estrogen receptors-α and β (ERα & ERβ) and p53 leading to inhibited fetal and placental growth. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected twice daily with either carbenoxolone (10mg/kg; s...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Min Jin, Ping-Ping Lv, Tian-Tian Yu, Jin-Ming Shen, Chun Feng, He-Feng Huang
Our previous study indicated that maternal high estrogen environment in the first trimester is correlated with increased risks of low birth weight (LBW) and adult diseases. The present study aimed to establish an animal model to confirm such an effect in mice; and to further explore 5 the mechanism involved. A mouse model with high estradiol (E2) exposure during early pregnancy was established, and the birth weight, growth after birth, and expression levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) of pups were examined, respectively...
September 14, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Fan Zhou, Huafang Chen, Xiaodong Wang, Pin Yu, Yayi Hu
PURPOSE: Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), regulated in development and DNA damage response-1 (REDD1), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) play distinct roles in response to hypoxia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the HIF-1α-REDD1-mTOR-mediated hypoxic stress response also operates normally in estrogen-induced cholestasis. METHODS: Pregnant rats were administered with ethinylestradiol (EE) to induce cholestasis and then were subjected to feto-placental ischemia reperfusion (IR); as controls, one group received neither EE nor IR, and another two groups received only EE or IR...
August 22, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Chelsie B Steinhauser, McKinsey Landers, Louise Myatt, Robert C Burghardt, Jeffrey L Vallet, Fuller W Bazer, Greg A Johnson
The fetal fluids and uterine flushings of pigs contain higher concentrations of fructose than glucose, but fructose is not detected in maternal blood. Fructose can be synthesized from glucose via enzymes of the polyol pathway, aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD), transported across cell membranes by solute carriers SLC2A5 and SLC2A8, and converted to fructose-1-phosphate by keto-hexokinase (KHK). SLC2A8, SLC2A5, AKR1B1, SORD and KHK mRNAs and proteins were analyzed using qPCR and immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization in endometria and placentae of cyclic and pregnant gilts, cyclic gilts injected with estrogen, and ovariectomized gilts injected with progesterone (P4)...
August 17, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Aykut Gram, Alexandra Trachsel, Alois Boos, Mariusz P Kowalewski
The endocrine mechanisms that lead to initiation of parturition in dogs are still not fully understood. The prepartum luteolysis is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG) F2α secretion; however, there is no pregnancy- or parturition-related increase in estrogens. Moreover, unlike in other mammalian species, in the dog, increased peripartum levels of cortisol measured sporadically in maternal peripheral blood are not mandatory for normal parturition. Nevertheless, auto/paracrine effects of cortisol at the placental feto-maternal level cannot be excluded...
October 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Fan Zhou, Bingxin Gao, Chunyan Deng, Guiqiong Huang, Ting Xu, Xiaodong Wang
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy(ICP) is complicated by acute placental-fetal hypoxia. Corticotropin-releasing hormone(CRH) and urocortin(UCN) are vasodilatory regulators of blood flow in the placenta. An ethinylestradiol(EE)-induced cholestasis rat model was reproduced and serum/placental CRH/UCN were detected during 14-21days of gestation(DG). Maternal serum or placental CRH/UCN levels in the control rats were relatively consistent during 14-21DG. Serum CRH was reduced in the EE-treated rats compared with the control rats at 21DG...
October 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Cleanthe Spanaki, Dimitra Kotzamani, Andreas Plaitakis
Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase1 (GDH1) (E.C. is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD+ and/or NADP+ to NADH and/or NADPH. It links amino acid with carbohydrate metabolism, contributing to Krebs cycle anaplerosis, energy production, ammonia handling and redox homeostasis. Although GDH1 was one of the first major metabolic enzymes to be studied decades ago, its role in cell biology is still incompletely understood...
July 16, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Tan-Min Lu, Wei Lu, Long-Jun Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of microRNA-137 (miRNA-137) in proliferation and migration of placenta trophoblast cells of preeclampsia and the targeting gene of miRNA-137. METHODS: A total of 134 cases of puerperants were divided into normal pregnancy (n = 50), mild preeclampsia (n = 38), and severe preeclampsia groups (n = 46). MiRNA-137, estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), and wingless INT (WNT)11 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were measured in placental tissue and trophoblast cells after transfection, and ERRα protein in placental tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry...
June 6, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Aoi Ichikawa, Hiromichi Tamada
This study investigated the relationship among estrogen, placental blood flow and placental weight gain in rats treated with ketoconazole. Oral administration of ketoconazole (25mg/kg/day) on Days 12-14 of pregnancy induced reduction of plasma estradiol-17β (E2) concentration, transient decrease in placental blood flow and increased intensity of a hypoxia-related marker in the placenta on Day 14 of pregnancy. On Day 20 of pregnancy, placental weights of ketoconazole-treated rats increased when compared to controls...
August 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Silvia Vannuccini, Caterina Bocchi, Filiberto M Severi, John R Challis, Felice Petraglia
The mechanisms involved in human pregnancy maintenance and parturition are highly complex and involve mother, fetus and placenta. The "final common pathway" to delivery is composed by inflammatory and endocrine interactive paths that tip the balance in favor of coordinated uterine contractility and cervical dilation. These mechanisms involve a shift from progesterone to estrogen dominance, CRH action, increased sensitivity to oxytocin, gap junction formation, and increased prostaglandins activity. Complementary changes in the cervix involve a decrease in progesterone dominance and the actions of prostaglandins and relaxin, via connective tissue alterations, leading to cervical softening and dilation...
June 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
Yves Morel, Florence Roucher, Ingrid Plotton, Claire Goursaud, Véronique Tardy, Delphine Mallet
Progesterone, estrogens, androgens and glucocorticoids are involved in pregnancy from implantation to parturition. Their biosynthesis and their metabolism result from complex pathways involving the fetus, the placenta and the mother. The absence of expression of some steroïdogenic enzymes as CYP17 in placenta and in adrenal fetal zone and the better determination of the onset and variation of others especially HSD3B2 during the pregnancy explain the production of the steroid hormones. Moreover the consequences of some disorders of steroidogenesis (especially aromatase, POR, CYP11A1 and 21-hydroxylase deficiencies) in fetus and mother during the pregnancy have permit to elucidate these complex pathways...
June 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
Yixing Feng, Pin Zhang, Zhaobin Zhang, Jiachen Shi, Zhihao Jiao, Bing Shao
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is frequently used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Reports have shown that TCS is a potential endocrine disruptor; however, the potential effects of TCS on placental endocrine function are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of TCS on the placenta in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 20 were treated with 0, 30, 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/d TCS followed by analysis of various biochemical parameters...
2016: PloS One
Caroline E Gargett, Shanti Gurung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Wanhong He, Misra Gauri, Tang Li, Ruixuan Wang, Sheng-Xiang Lin
At the late 1940s, 17β-HSD1 was discovered as the first member of the 17β-HSD family with its gene cloned. The three-dimensional structure of human 17β-HSD1 is the first example of any human steroid converting enzyme. The human enzyme's structure and biological function have thus been studied extensively in the last two decades. In humans, the enzyme is expressed in placenta, ovary, endometrium and breast. The high activity of estrogen activation provides the basis of 17β-HSD1's implication in estrogen-dependent diseases, such as breast cancer, endometriosis and non-small cell lung carcinomas...
August 15, 2016: Gene
Sema Akçurin, Doğa Türkkahraman, Woo Young Kim, Erdem Durmaz, Jae Gook Shin, Su Jun Lee
OBJECTIVE: The CYP19A1 gene product aromatase is responsible for estrogen synthesis and androgen/estrogen equilibrium in many tissues, particularly in the placenta and gonads. Aromatase deficiency can cause various clinical phenotypes resulting from excessive androgen accumulation and insufficient estrogen synthesis during the pre- and postnatal periods. In this study, our aim was to determine the clinical characteristics and CYP19A1 mutations in three patients from a large Turkish pedigree...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
E Sieppi, K Vähäkangas, A Rautio, F Ietta, L Paulesu, P Myllynen
Many endogenous and xenobiotic compounds are substrates and regulators of human placental ABC transporters. ABCG2 is protecting fetus against foreign chemicals. Environmental xenoestrogens, like bisphenol A (BPA) and p-nonylphenol (p-NP), mimic natural estrogens and can affect hormonal systems. Effects of BPA, p-NP, DES (diethylstilbestrol) and estradiol (E2), on ABCG2 expression were studied using human first trimester and term placental explants. Role of estrogen receptors (ER) in the effects of chemicals was studied by ER antagonist...
July 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Christa E Flück, Amit V Pandey
Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1), in human placenta metabolizes androgens to estrogens and uses reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate through cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) for energy requirements for its metabolic activities. Mutations in the human POR lead to congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to loss of activities of several steroid metabolizing enzymatic reactions conducted by cytochrome P450 proteins located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Effect of POR mutations on different P450 activities depend on individual partner proteins...
March 23, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Zachary Anderson, Eric Larson, Muhammad Khan, Maria Bell
INTRODUCTION: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) encompasses a group of tumors derived from trophoblasts, which normally form the placenta during pregnancy. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein composed of an alpha subunit identical to that of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). Detection of beta-hCG is achievable in both urine and serum samples, proving useful for the detection of normal pregnancy and GTD...
February 2016: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
Brian C Willis, Sydney R Archer, Rida Shahid, Nasim Khoshnam, Julia Shinnick, L H Lou, Katherine E Hearn, Ann Marie Ilse, Christine Rizk, Laura Thompson, Enid Gilbert-Barness, Bahig M Shehata
We describe two occurrences of nontrophoblastic mesenchymal tumors of the placenta. The first placental tumor was found along the placental margin, and the second was identified close to the insertion of the fetal membranes along the placental disc. Microscopically both lesions demonstrated bland fibroblastic cells with intricate vasculature and inflammatory cells. Both lesions were negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), beta-HCG, PLAP, CD34, desmin, h-caldesmin, and smooth muscle actin by immunohistochemistry...
2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
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