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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913877/oxidative-stress-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-major-depression-effects-of-disease-acuity-and-potential-confounders
#1
Wolfgang Jordan, Henrik Dobrowolny, Sabine Bahn, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Tanja Brigadski, Thomas Frodl, Berend Isermann, Volkmar Lessmann, Jürgen Pilz, Andrea Rodenbeck, Kolja Schiltz, Edzard Schwedhelm, Hayrettin Tumani, Jens Wiltfang, Paul C Guest, Johann Steiner
Oxidative stress and immune dysregulation have been linked to schizophrenia and depression. However, it is unknown whether these factors are related to the pathophysiology or whether they are an epiphenomenon. Inconsistent oxidative stress-related findings in previous studies may have resulted from the use of different biomarkers which show disparate aspects of oxidative stress. Additionally, disease severity, medication, smoking, endocrine stress axis activation and obesity are potential confounders. In order to address some of these shortcomings, we have analyzed a broader set of oxidative stress biomarkers in our exploratory study, including urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), 8-OH-2-deoyxguanosine (8-OH-2-dG), and blood levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in acutely ill drug-naïve first episode patients with schizophrenia (n = 22), major depression (n = 18), and controls (n = 43)...
December 2, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913872/treatment-for-6%C3%A2-months-with-fish-oil-derived-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-has-neutral-effects-on-glycemic-control-but-improves-dyslipidemia-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-abdominal-obesity-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#2
Feng Wang, Yanyan Wang, Yan Zhu, Xiaosong Liu, Hui Xia, Xian Yang, Guiju Sun
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effects of fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA on glycemic control and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients with abdominal obesity. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 100 type 2 diabetic patients with abdominal obesity were randomized into two groups including 4 g/day of fish oil (2.4 g n-3 PUFA) or placebo (corn oil) for 6 months. Serum fatty acid, body composition, as well as markers of glucose regulation and lipid parameters were measured before and after intervention...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913572/very-low-density-lipoprotein-vldl-induced-signals-mediating-aldosterone-production
#3
Ying-Ying Tsai, William E Rainey, Wendy B Bollag
Aldosterone, secreted by the adrenal zona glomerulosa, enhances sodium retention, thus increasing blood volume and pressure. Excessive production of aldosterone results in high blood pressure, and contributes to cardiovascular and renal disease, stroke, and visual loss. Hypertension is also associated with obesity, which s correlated with other serious health risks as well. Although weight gain is associated with increased blood pressure, the mechanism by which excess fat deposits increase blood pressure remains unclear...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913509/the-post-thrombotic-syndrome
#4
Susan R Kahn
The post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a frequent, sometimes disabling complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) that reduces quality of life and is costly. This article discusses risk factors for PTS after DVT and available means to prevent and treat PTS, with a focus on new information in the field. After DVT, PTS will develop in 20% to 50% of patients, and severe PTS, including venous ulcers, will develop in 5% to 10%. The principal risk factors for PTS are anatomically extensive DVT, recurrent ipsilateral DVT, persistent leg symptoms 1 month after acute DVT, obesity, and older age...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913478/thrombosis-in-the-setting-of-obesity-or-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Steven R Lentz
Obesity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are systemic inflammatory disorders that predispose to arterial and venous thrombosis through similar prothrombotic mechanisms. Obesity and IBD are chronic risk factors that lead to a persistently elevated risk of thrombosis, although the thrombotic risk with IBD appears to wax and wane with disease severity. Because of the lack of high-quality evidence to guide management decisions, approaches to the prevention and treatment of thrombosis in patients with obesity or IBD are based on extrapolation from general guidelines for antithrombotic therapy...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913299/the-inhibitory-effect-of-beta-lapachone-on-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis
#6
Dong Ryun Gu, Joon No Lee, Gi-Su Oh, Hyung Jin Kim, Min Seuk Kim, Seoung Hoon Lee
β-lapachone (β-L) is a substrate of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). NQO1 reduces quinones to hydroquinones using NADH as an electron donor and consequently increases the intracellular NAD+/NADH ratio. The activation of NQO1 by β-L has beneficial effects on several metabolic syndromes, such as obesity, hypertension, and renal injury. However, the effect of β-L on bone metabolism remains unclear. Here, we show that β-L might be a potent inhibitor of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis...
November 29, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912678/the-physiology-and-molecular-underpinnings-of-the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-obesity-and-diabetes
#7
Simon S Evers, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley
Bariatric surgeries, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and vertical sleeve gastrectomy, produce significant and durable weight loss in both humans and rodents. Recently, these surgical interventions have also been termed metabolic surgery because they result in profound metabolic improvements that often surpass the expected improvement due to body weight loss alone. In this review we focus on the weight-loss independent effects of bariatric surgery, which encompass energy expenditure and macronutrient preference, the luminal composition of the gut (i...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912206/irisin-lowers-blood-pressure-by-improvement-of-endothelial-dysfunction-via-ampk-akt-enos-no-pathway-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#8
Jinjuan Fu, Yu Han, Jialiang Wang, Yukai Liu, Shuo Zheng, Lin Zhou, Pedro A Jose, Chunyu Zeng
BACKGROUND: Exercise is a major nonpharmacological treatment for hypertension, but its underlying mechanisms are still not completely elucidated. Irisin, a polypeptide containing 112 amino acids, which is secreted mainly by skeletal muscle cells during exercise, exerts a protective role in metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and obesity. Because of the close relationship between irisin and metabolic diseases, we hypothesized that irisin may play a role in the regulation of blood pressure...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911750/homeostasis-meets-motivation-in-the-battle-to-control-food-intake
#9
Carrie R Ferrario, Gwenaël Labouèbe, Shuai Liu, Edward H Nieh, Vanessa H Routh, Shengjin Xu, Eoin C O'Connor
Signals of energy homeostasis interact closely with neural circuits of motivation to control food intake. An emerging hypothesis is that the transition to maladaptive feeding behavior seen in eating disorders or obesity may arise from dysregulation of these interactions. Focusing on key brain regions involved in the control of food intake (ventral tegmental area, striatum, hypothalamus, and thalamus), we describe how activity of specific cell types embedded within these regions can influence distinct components of motivated feeding behavior...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911129/socioeconomic-position-and-mortality-among-patients-with-prostate-cancer-influence-of-mediating-factors
#10
Signe Benzon Larsen, Klaus Brasso, Jane Christensen, Christoffer Johansen, Anne Tjønneland, Søren Friis, Peter Iversen, Susanne Oksbjerg Dalton
INTRODUCTION: Men with low socioeconomic position experience higher mortality after a prostate cancer diagnosis compared to men with a higher socioeconomic position, however, the specific mediators of this association are unclear. We therefore evaluated the influence of potential mediators on the association between socioeconomic position, and prostate cancer-specific and all-cause death in prostate cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of prostate cancer patients in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study...
December 2, 2016: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910718/substituting-poly-and-mono-unsaturated-fat-for-dietary-carbohydrate-reduces-hyperinsulinemia-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#11
Dalia Perelman, Nicole Coghlan, Cindy Lamendola, Susan Carter, Fahim Abbasi, Tracey McLaughlin
OBJECTIVE: Hyperinsulinemia is a prevalent feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), contributing to metabolic and reproductive manifestations of the syndrome. Weight loss reduces hyperinsulinemia but weight regain is the norm, thus preventing long-term benefits. In the absence of weight loss, replacement of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) with mono/polyunsaturated fat reduces ambient insulin concentrations in non-PCOS subjects. The current study evaluated whether this dietary intervention could ameliorate hyperinsulinemia in women with PCOS...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909906/obesity-and-prostate-cancer
#12
Yin Cao, Edward Giovannucci
Prostate cancer is a complex, heterogeneous disease. Factors related to detection, particularly PSA screening, further increase heterogeneity in the manifestation of the disease. It is thus not possible to provide a simple summary of the relationship between obesity and prostate cancer. Findings on obesity, often defined using body mass index (BMI), and total prostate cancer risk have been mixed; however, obesity is relatively consistently associated with a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer, with aggressiveness defined in various ways (e...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909900/obesity-and-colorectal-cancer
#13
Carmen Jochem, Michael Leitzmann
There is strong evidence that modifiable lifestyle factors such as obesity play a key role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic data have consistently reported a positive association between obesity and colorectal cancer. The relative risk associated with general obesity (as assessed by BMI) is higher in men than in women and for cancer of the colon than for cancer of the rectum. Abdominal obesity (as assessed by waist circumference (WC) or waist-to-hip ratio) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in both sexes, with stronger associations for cancer of the colon than for cancer of the rectum...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909874/is-daily-low-dose-aspirin-safe-to-take-following-laparoscopic-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-for-obesity-surgery
#14
Xian Kang, Dennis Hong, Mehran Anvari, Maria Tiboni, Nalin Amin, Scott Gmora
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery is a safe and effective procedure for patients with severe obesity. One potential complication of LRYGB is the development of marginal ulcers (MUs). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to significantly increase the likelihood of developing marginal ulcers after surgery. However, the risk associated with low-dose aspirin consumption is not well defined. We examined the impact of daily low-dose aspirin (81 mg) on the development of marginal ulcers following LRYGB...
December 1, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909723/inhibition-of-jnk-suppresses-autophagy-and-attenuates-insulin-resistance-in-a-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Hua Yan, Yanqiong Gao, Ying Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease, the pathological process of which is complex. Activation of the c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is associated with the mechanism underlying obesity-induced insulin resistance. Furthermore, the JNK signaling pathway and dysfunctional autophagy serve important roles in hepatic lipid metabolism. However, the exact role of JNK in autophagy and obesity‑induced insulin resistance is not fully understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which the JNK signaling pathway regulates autophagy and insulin resistance in fatty liver...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909699/aav-mediated-sirt1-overexpression-in-skeletal-muscle-activates-oxidative-capacity-but-does-not-prevent-insulin-resistance
#16
Laia Vilà, Carles Roca, Ivet Elias, Alba Casellas, Ricardo Lage, Sylvie Franckhauser, Fatima Bosch
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by triglyceride accumulation and reduced lipid oxidation capacity in skeletal muscle. SIRT1 is a key protein in the regulation of lipid oxidation and its expression is reduced in the skeletal muscle of insulin resistant mice. In this tissue, Sirt1 up-regulates the expression of genes involved in oxidative metabolism and improves mitochondrial function mainly through PPARGC1 deacetylation. Here we examined whether Sirt1 overexpression mediated by adeno-associated viral vectors of serotype 1 (AAV1) specifically in skeletal muscle can counteract the development of insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet in mice...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909560/induction-of-heme-oxygenase-1-with-dietary-quercetin-reduces-obesity-induced-hepatic-inflammation-through-macrophage-phenotype-switching
#17
Chu-Sook Kim, Hye-Seon Choi, Yeonsoo Joe, Hun Taeg Chung, Rina Yu
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity-induced steatohepatitis accompanied by activated hepatic macrophages/Kupffer cells facilitates the progression of hepatic fibrinogenesis and exacerbates metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance. Heme oxyganase-1 (HO-1) modulates tissue macrophage phenotypes and thus is implicated in protection against inflammatory diseases. Here, we show that the flavonoid quercetin reduces obesity-induced hepatic inflammation by inducing HO-1, which promotes hepatic macrophage polarization in favor of the M2 phenotype...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908750/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-based-therapies-reduce-obesity-and-metabolic-syndromes-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#18
Chien-Wei Lee, Wei-Ting Hsiao, Oscar K Lee
Obesity is an alarming global health problem that results in multiaspect metabolic syndromes in both genders and most age groups. The lack of effective therapies for obesity and its associated metabolic syndrome is an urgent societal issue. To elucidate whether mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapies can ameliorate high-fat diet-induced obesity and compare the effectiveness of several methodological approaches, we transplanted human MSCs, MSC-derived brown adipocytes (M-BA), and MSC lysateinto obese mice...
November 12, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908527/-historical-review-on-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-children
#19
Y H Chien, C Guilleminault
An historical review on the discoveries on pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and sleep-disordered breathing is outlined. Starting with the description by Dickens of "Joe" the obese, snoring and sleepy individual, the authors trace more than 50 years of questions and research starting with the lean adult to the child and from the recognition of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome to the outline of upper-airway resistance syndrome. The pathophysiological knowledge on sleep-disordered breathing has evolved over time, as have treatment approaches in children, from tracheostomy to positive-airway-pressure therapy, to adenotonsillectomy with and without orthodontic treatments to oral-facial myofunctional therapy...
November 28, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908418/lead-pb-exposure-promotes-diabetes-in-obese-rodents
#20
Jannifer B Tyrrell, Samar Hafida, Paul Stemmer, Angie Adhami, Todd Leff
BACKGROUND: Pb (lead) exposure occurs at elevated frequency in urban inner city populations that also have high rates of obesity and diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To determine if Pb can promote the development of diabetes in a setting of obesity, we examined the effect of Pb exposure on glucose metabolism in a rodent model of obesity. METHODS: Adult female ZDF rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water for 24 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, and glucose tolerance were measured at regular intervals...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
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