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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820912/impact-of-novel-palmitoylated-prolactin-releasing-peptide-analogs-on-metabolic-changes-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#1
Veronika Pražienková, Martina Holubová, Helena Pelantová, Martina Bugáňová, Zdenko Pirník, Barbora Mikulášková, Andrea Popelová, Miroslava Blechová, Martin Haluzík, Blanka Železná, Marek Kuzma, Jaroslav Kuneš, Lenka Maletínská
Analogs of anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), have a potential as new anti-obesity drugs. In our previous study, palmitic acid attached to the N-terminus of PrRP enabled its central anorexigenic effects after peripheral administration. In this study, two linkers, γ-glutamic acid at Lys11 and a short, modified polyethylene glycol at the N-terminal Ser and/or Lys11, were applied for the palmitoylation of PrRP31 to improve its bioavailability. These analogs had a high affinity and activation ability to the PrRP receptor GPR10 and the neuropeptide FF2 receptor, as well as short-term anorexigenic effect similar to PrRP palmitoylated at the N-terminus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820743/sleep-apnea-a-review-of-diagnostic-sensors-algorithms-and-therapies
#2
Mehdi Shokoueinejad, Chris Fernandez, Emily Carroll, Fa Wang, Jake Levin, Sam Rusk, Nick Glattard, Ashley Mulchrone, Xuan Zhang, Ailiang Xie, Mihaela Teodorescu, Jerome Dempsey, John Webster
While public awareness of sleep related disorders is growing, sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) remains a public health and economic challenge. Over the last two decades, extensive controlled epidemiologic research has clarified the incidence, risk factors including the obesity epidemic, and global prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), as well as establishing a growing body of literature linking OSA with cardiovascular morbidity, mortality, metabolic dysregulation, and neurocognitive impairment. The US Institute of Medicine Committee on Sleep Medicine estimates that 50-70 million US adults have sleep or wakefulness disorders...
August 18, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820391/deep-brain-stimulation-alters-light-phase-food-intake-microstructure-in-rats
#3
P Prinz, P Kobelt, S Scharner, M Goebel-Stengel, D Harnack, K Faust, Y Winter, M Rose, A Stengel
Treatment of eating disorders like obesity or anorexia is challenging. Options are limited and new approaches desired. An interesting approach is the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS). The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is part of the food reward system. A pilot study reported that DBS of the NAcc shell modulates food intake and body weight in rats. Underlying mechanisms such as the food intake microstructure are unknown so far. Normal weight female Sprague-Dawley rats were equipped with a custom-made DBS electrode placed unilaterally in the NAcc shell...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819865/melatonin-mitochondria-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Daniel P Cardinali, Daniel E Vigo
A number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease including hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, obesity, and elevated blood pressure are collectively known as metabolic syndrome (MS). Since mitochondrial activity is modulated by the availability of energy in cells, the disruption of key regulators of metabolism in MS not only affects the activity of mitochondria but also their dynamics and turnover. Therefore, a link of MS with mitochondrial dysfunction has been suspected since long. As a chronobiotic/cytoprotective agent, melatonin has a special place in prevention and treatment of MS...
August 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819236/impact-of-sex-fat-distribution-and-initial-body-weight-on-oxytocin-s-body-weight-regulation
#5
Yuko Maejima, Masato Aoyama, Kazuho Sakamoto, Teruo Jojima, Yoshimasa Aso, Katsuya Takasu, Seiichi Takenosihita, Kenju Shimomura
Obesity is considered as a worldwide problem in both males and females. Although many studies have demonstrated the efficiency of oxytocin (Oxt) as an anti-obesity peptide, there is no comparative study of its effect in males and females. This study aims to determine factors (sex, initial body weight, and fat distribution) that may affect the ability of Oxt to regulate body weight (BW). With regard to sex, Oxt reduced BW similarly in males and females under both high fat diet (HFD) and standard chow-fed condition...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818558/current-and-emerging-pharmacotherapies-for-obesity-in-australia
#6
REVIEW
Samantha Hocking, Anthony Dear, Michael A Cowley
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major issue in Australia and globally. Many individuals struggle to maintain weight loss with lifestyle modification, and adjunctive pharmacotherapy may help. Historically, there have been limited pharmacotherapies for managing obesity. In addition, previous treatments such as phentermine-fenfluramine, rimonabant and sibutramine were withdrawn due to safety issues, resulting in lingering safety concerns. METHODS: This is a narrative review of published data examining four new pharmacotherapy options for weight management in Australia...
August 14, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818460/the-design-and-synthesis-of-a-novel-compound-of-berberine-and-baicalein-that-inhibits-the-efficacy-of-lipid-accumulation-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#7
Mengjiao Hao, Zhuoji Guan, Yan Li, Lixian Liu, Xiao Yuan, Ying Gao, Weimin Li
The combination of berberine and baicalein may have a better therapeutic effect against disease. To explore the combined effect of baicalein and berberine in the treatment of obesity, we designed and synthesized a hybrid compound, and its biological activities were evaluated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The structures of the berberine-baicalein (BBS) compounds were confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, ultraviolet spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The present study showed that the IC50 values of the inhibitory effects of baicalein, berberine and BBS against 3T3-L1 cells were 29...
August 9, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818324/the-treatment-of-segmental-tibial-fractures-does-patient-preference-differ-from-surgeon-choice
#8
Z Little, T O Smith, S E McMahon, C Cooper, A Trompeter, M Pearse, S Britten, B Rogers, H Sharma, B Narayan, M Costa, D J Beard, C B Hing
INTRODUCTION: Segmental tibial fractures are complex injuries with a prolonged recovery time. Current definitive treatment options include intramedullary fixation or a circular external fixator. However, there is uncertainty as to which surgical option is preferable and there are no sufficiently rigorous multi-centre trials that have answered this question. The objective of this study was to determine whether patient and surgeon opinion was permissive for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing intramedullary nailing to the application of a circular external fixator...
August 9, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818261/contemporary-medical-therapies-of-atherosclerotic-carotid-artery-disease
#9
Suk F Cheng, Martin M Brown
Contemporary medical therapy consists of identification and treatment of all patient-modifiable vascular risk factors. Specific atherosclerotic disease therapies are designed to reduce the risk of thrombosis, and the disease progression in order to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events. Contemporary medical management emphasizes the need to support the patient in achieving lifestyle modifications and to adjust medication to achieve individualized target values for specific quantifiable risk factors...
March 2017: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817856/back-to-basics-the-effect-of-healthy-diet-and-exercise-on-chronic-disease-management
#10
Robert L Allison
INTRODUCTION: The increase in obesity rates in the U.S. and other less developed industrial countries have led to a worldwide epidemic of chronic disease states. Increased obesity rates are implicated in the treatment failures for illnesses such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, heart failure, hypertension and cancer. Effective prevention of obesity through diet and exercise contributes to the successful medical management of multiple chronic disease states. OBJECTIVE: Review the last 10 years of literature (2006-2016) on the effects of diet and exercise as they relate to the prevention of chronic disease...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817418/neuromodulation-and-neurofeedback-treatments-in-eating-disorders-and-obesity
#11
Bethan Dalton, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychological interventions are the treatment of choice for most eating disorders; however, significant proportions of patients do not recover with these. Advances in understanding of the neurobiology of eating disorders have led to the development of targeted treatments, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS), and neurofeedback. We review the emerging clinical evidence for the use of these interventions in eating disorders and obesity, together with their theoretical rationale...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816926/feasibility-and-relevance-of-antipsychotic-safety-monitoring-in-children-with-tourette-syndrome-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#12
Tamara Pringsheim, Josephine Ho, Justyna R Sarna, Tracy Hammer, Scott Patten
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics are efficacious for tics and are increasingly prescribed to children with behavioral disorders. Antipsychotics have important adverse effects, and systematic monitoring of drug safety is infrequently performed. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of antipsychotic safety monitoring in children with Tourette Syndrome using a defined protocol and to evaluate the risk of adverse effects with chronic use. METHODS/PROCEDURES: A prospective longitudinal study of children prescribed antipsychotics was performed...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816184/early-screening-of-diabetes-and-hypertension-in-primary-care-dental-clinics-at-king-saud-university-in-riyadh-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia
#13
Emad M Hadlaq, Ziyad T Faraj, Fahad M Al Gamdi, Faisal A Al Obathani, Mashael F Abuabat, Kamran H Awan
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are the leading chronic diseases in Saudi Arabia; 23.1% of the Saudi population are diabetic and 25.5% are hypertensive. This cross-sectional study was made on dental setting to determine the effectiveness of screening of diabetes and hypertension in dental clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out in the primary care dental clinics at the Dental College in King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816082/zeaxanthin-dipalmitate-alleviates-hepatic-injury-induced-by-superimposed-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-non-obese-mice
#14
Jing-Jing Li, Hao Gao, Yi Lv, Mian-Huan Li, Chao-Ran Ren, Kwok-Fai So, Jia Xiao
A hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice model was used to establish the fatty liver superimposed model by feeding the methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 8 weeks, with or without the gavage of 2 mg/kg zeaxanthin dipalmitate (ZD) three times per week. Both wild-type and HBV transgenic mice, with MCD diet, gained typical non-obese non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and HBV symptoms. Coadministration with ZD exhibited evident therapeutic effects through alleviating those pathological events. Moreover, long-term vehicle-ZD treatment was found to be safe...
September 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815987/health-related-quality-of-life-in-randomized-controlled-trials-of-lorcaserin-for-obesity-management-what-mediates-improvement
#15
R L Kolotkin, R D Crosby, Z Wang
Lorcaserin, plus diet and exercise, has demonstrated significant weight loss and improved cardiometabolic parameters vs. placebo in patients with overweight/obesity in three randomized, placebo-controlled trials. We examined whether lorcaserin is also associated with greater improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and whether these improvements are wholly attributable to weight loss. Pooled data from Behavioral Modification and Lorcaserin for Overweight and Obesity Management (BLOOM), Behavioral Modification and Lorcaserin Second Study for Obesity Management (BLOSSOM) and BLOOM-Diabetes Mellitus (BLOOM-DM) trials were analysed (n = 5624)...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815416/what-is-the-evidence-for-paediatric-adolescent-bariatric-surgery
#16
REVIEW
Natalie Durkin, Ashish P Desai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In spite of the increasing prevalence of severe and complex obesity in children, surgery as a potential management option is still not widely accepted. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for surgical options in the severely obese paediatric population. Increasing evidence supports early rather than later use of bariatric surgery in the treatment of extreme obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Prior to 2007, the feasibility and safety of surgery have been reported by predominantly small, sporadic single-centre retrospective case series...
August 16, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815388/guiding-patients-toward-the-appropriate-surgical-treatment-for-obesity-should-presurgery-psychological-correlates-influence-choice-between-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-and-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy
#17
Gretchen E Ames, Michael G Heckman, Nancy N Diehl, Dustin M Shepherd, Allison A Holgerson, Karen B Grothe, Todd A Kellogg, Steven P Bowers, Matthew M Clark
BACKGROUND: Helping patients determine which type of bariatric surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), may be the best treatment can be challenging. This study investigated psychological correlates and their influence on weight loss for patients who underwent RYGB or VSG. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-two patients (RYGB = 305; VSG = 117) completed screening questionnaires presurgery and underwent surgery between August 2012 and April 2015...
August 16, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815283/risk-factors-for-recurrence-after-hysterectomy-plus-native-tissue-repair-as-primary-treatment-for-genital-prolapse
#18
Stefano Manodoro, Matteo Frigerio, Alice Cola, Federico Spelzini, Rodolfo Milani
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Identification of risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) recurrence is crucial to provide adequate preoperative counselling and tailor surgical treatment. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify risk factors for recurrence in a large series of patients with POP treated with primary transvaginal native-tissue repair involving high uterosacral ligament suspension. METHODS: Postoperative descent of POP-Q stage 2 or higher in any compartment was considered as recurrence...
August 16, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814893/presentation-and-outcomes-of-necrotizing-soft-tissue-infections
#19
Kuan-Chin Jean Chen, Michelle Klingel, Shelley McLeod, Sean Mindra, Victor K Ng
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are aggressive infections associated with significant morbidity, including amputation and organ failure, and high mortality. The rapid progression and significant risk of morbidity and mortality associated with NSTIs makes quick diagnosis and treatment critical. The objective of this study was to determine the presentation of patients diagnosed with NSTIs and their in-hospital outcomes. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of adult (>17 years) patients with a discharge diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis at London Health Sciences Centre (annual census 125,000) over a 5-year period (April 2008-March 2013)...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814530/a-high-fat-diet-decreases-bone-mass-in-growing-mice-with-systemic-chronic-inflammation-induced-by-low-dose-slow-release-lipopolysaccharide-pellets
#20
Jay J Cao, Brian R Gregoire, Chwan-Li Shen
Background: Chronic inflammation is associated with increased bone resorption and is linked to osteopenia, or low bone mass. Obesity is also associated with low-grade chronic upregulation of inflammatory cytokines.Objective: This study investigated the effect of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity on bone structure changes in growing mice with existing systemic chronic inflammation induced by low-dose, slow-release lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Methods: Forty-eight 6-wk-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 12/group) in a 2 × 2 factorial design-control (placebo) or LPS treatment (1...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
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