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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434196/role-of-gut-microbiota-bile-acids-and-their-crosstalk-in-the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#1
Haijun Liu, Cheng Hu, Xueli Zhang, Weiping Jia
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide and has become one of the greatest threats to global health. Bariatric surgery was initially designed to achieve weight loss and subsequently was noted to induce improvements or remission of type 2 diabetes. Currently, these bariatric operations such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are the most effective procedures for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, the specific mechanism mediating the beneficial effects of metabolic surgery has remained largely unknown...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434108/emotional-eating-binge-eating-and-animal-models-of-binge-type-eating-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Robert Turton, Rayane Chami, Janet Treasure
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this paper is to review the role that hedonic factors, emotions and self-regulation systems have over eating behaviours from animal models to humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence has been found to suggest that for some high-risk individuals, obesity/binge eating may develop as an impulsive reaction to negative emotions that over time becomes a compulsive habit. Animal models highlight the neural mechanisms that might underlie this process and suggest similarities with substance use disorders...
April 22, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433989/oral-contraceptives-after-bariatric-surgery
#3
Joël Schlatter
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery offers a highly effective mode of treatment for obese patients. Some procedures such as bypass cause an alteration in normal gastrointestinal tract with possible consequences for the uptake of orally administered drugs. METHODS: We assessed the literature to ascertain whether the use of oral drugs and especially oral contraceptives is effective and adequate after bariatric surgery. RESULTS: The bioavailability of drugs could be affected by the solubility and pH of the modified medium after bariatric surgery and by the loss of gastrointestinal transporters...
April 22, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433948/metabolic-syndrome-in-subjects-with-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder-in-a-current-depressive-episode-population-based-study-metabolic-syndrome-in-current-depressive-episode
#4
Fernanda Pedrotti Moreira, Karen Jansen, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Thaíse Campos Mondin, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Flávio Kapczinski, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva, Jean Pierre Oses, Carolina David Wiener
OBJECTIVE: To assess the differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their components in young adults with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in a current depressive episode. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with young adults aged 24-30 years old. Depressive episode (bipolar or unipolar) was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - Plus version (MINI Plus). The MetS was assessed using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III)...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433713/biased-signaling-at-neural-melanocortin-receptors-in-regulation-of-energy-homeostasis
#5
Li-Kun Yang, Ya-Xiong Tao
The global prevalence of obesity highlights the importance of understanding on regulation of energy homeostasis. The central melanocortin system is an important intersection connecting the neural pathways controlling satiety and energy expenditure to regulate energy homeostasis by sensing and integrating the signals of external stimuli. In this system, neural melanocortin receptors, melanocortin-3 and -4 receptors (MC3R and MC4R), play crucial roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Recently, multiple intracellular signaling pathways and biased signaling at neural MCRs have been discovered, providing new insights into neural MCR signaling...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432570/vascular-and-endothelial-function-in-youth-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#6
REVIEW
Amy S Shah, Elaine M Urbina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to discuss the burden of type 2 diabetes in youth and summarize the studies that have utilized noninvasive techniques to assess early vascular disease in youth with type 2 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Noninvasive imaging modalities provide researchers with tools to investigate the vasculature in adolescents with type 2 diabetes. The data published to date consistently show adolescents with type 2 diabetes have greater vascular thickness and stiffness and worse endothelial function compared to their obese and lean peers...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432282/loss-of-function-myostatin-mutation-increases-insulin-sensitivity-and-browning-of-white-fat-in-meishan-pigs
#7
Chunbo Cai, Lili Qian, Shengwang Jiang, Youde Sun, Qingqing Wang, Dezun Ma, Gaojun Xiao, Biao Li, Shanshan Xie, Ting Gao, Yaoxing Chen, Jie Liu, Xiaorong An, Wentao Cui, Kui Li
Myostatin-deficient mice showed a remarkable hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, with a decreased fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Currently, it is unclear if the inhibition of myostatin could be used as an approach to treat human obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated if the inhibition of porcine myostatin has any effect on fat deposition and insulin sensitivity using genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a myostatin loss-of-function mutation (Mstn -/- ). Our results indicated that, when compared with wild-type pigs, the amount of subcutaneous fat and leaf fat of Mstn -/- pigs were significantly decreased mainly due to the browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432082/effect-of-oral-contraceptives-and-or-metformin-on-glp-1-secretion-and-reactive-hypoglycemia-in-pcos
#8
Dorte Glintborg, Hanne Mumm, Jens Juul Holst, Marianne Andersen
CONTEXT: Insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may increase the risk of reactive hypoglycaemia (RH) and decrease glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. The possible effects of treatment with oral contraceptives (OCP) and/or metformin on GLP-1 secretion and risk of RH in PCOS is undetermined. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Randomized, controlled clinical trial. Ninety women with PCOS were randomized to 12 month treatment with OCP (150 mg desogestrel+30 microgram ethinylestradiol), metformin (2 g/day), or metformin +OCP...
April 21, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432036/increased-inflammation-from-childhood-to-adolescence-predicts-sleep-apnea-in-boys-a-preliminary-study
#9
Jordan Gaines, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Fan He, Susan L Calhoun, Duanping Liao, Edward O Bixler
While chronic systemic inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been traditionally considered a consequence of intermittent hypoxia, several treatment studies targeting inflammation suggest that this process may precede the development of the disorder. A recent cross-sectional study in the Penn State Child Cohort (PSCC) revealed that inflammation largely mediates the association between visceral adiposity and OSA in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to examine for the first time whether, longitudinally, inflammation precedes OSA during this developmental period...
April 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431670/use-of-glp-1-receptor-agonists-for-type-2-diabetes-treatment-intensification-after-basal-insulin-failure
#10
M Joubert, Y Reznik
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are part of the armamentarium for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), although recent guidelines have mainly recommended their use on top of oral treatments when a single or combination of two or three oral hypoglycaemic agents has failed to lower HbA1c levels below the individualized target range. In such situations, the decision to use GLP-1RAs is mostly driven by their high level of efficacy, their effect on body weight balance and their safety considerations, such as low hypoglycaemic risk...
April 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431534/the-effects-of-spirulina-platensis-on-anthropometric-indices-appetite-lipid-profile-and-serum-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-vegf-in-obese-individuals-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
Reihaneh Zeinalian, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Atefeh Shariat, Maryam Saghafi-Asl
BACKGROUND: In recent years, a great attention has been focused on Spirulina platensis as a source of potential valuable nutrients for prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. The objectives of the current study were to determine the effects of Spirulina platensis on anthropometric parameters, serum lipids, appetite and serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in obese individuals. METHODS: In the current study sixty four obese individuals aged 20-50 years were enrolled and randomly allocated into two groups of intervention and placebo...
April 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431144/effect-of-body-mass-index-on-venous-sinus-pressures-in-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-patients-before-and-after-endovascular-stenting
#12
Daniel M S Raper, Dale Ding, Thomas J Buell, R Webster Crowley, Robert M Starke, Kenneth C Liu
BACKGROUND: Elevated body mass index (BMI) has been correlated with worse outcomes after treatment for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Venous sinus stenting (VSS) has emerged as a safe and effective treatment for a subset of patients with IIH and evidence of venous sinus stenosis. However, the association between BMI and the efficacy of VSS remains poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: To determine, in a retrospective cohort study, the effect of BMI on preoperative mean intracranial venous pressure (MVP) and post-VSS outcomes...
April 20, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430714/ultrasound-molecular-imaging-of-inflammation-in-mouse-abdominal-aorta
#13
Shiying Wang, Sunil Unnikrishnan, Elizabeth B Herbst, Alexander L Klibanov, Frank William Mauldin, John A Hossack
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to demonstrate a new clinically translatable ultrasound molecular imaging approach, modulated acoustic radiation force-based imaging, which is capable of rapid and reliable detection of inflammation as validated in mouse abdominal aorta. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animal studies were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Virginia. C57BL/6 mice stimulated with tumor necrosis factor α, or fed with a high-fat diet, were used as inflammation (MInflammation) and diet-induced obesity (DIO) (MDIO) models, respectively...
April 20, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430653/preventive-effects-of-the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-tofogliflozin-on-diethylnitrosamine-induced-liver-tumorigenesis-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#14
Koki Obara, Yohei Shirakami, Akinori Maruta, Takayasu Ideta, Tsuneyuki Miyazaki, Takahiro Kochi, Hiroyasu Sakai, Takuji Tanaka, Mitsuru Seishima, Masahito Shimizu
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors are expected to ameliorate the abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor tofogliflozin on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-related liver tumorigenesis in C57BL/KsJ-+Leprdb/+Leprdb obese and diabetic mice. The direct effects of tofogliflozin on human liver cancer cell proliferation were also evaluated. Mice were administered diethylnitrosamine-containing water for 2 weeks and were treated with tofogliflozin throughout the experiment...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430296/effect-of-body-mass-index-on-the-outcome-of-surgical-patients-receiving-extracorporeal-devices-vv-ecmo-pecla-for-respiratory-failure
#15
Justyna Swol, Dirk Buchwald, Justus T Strauch, Thomas A Schildhauer, Christopher Ull
INTRODUCTION: To determine whether obese surgical patients are at a significant disadvantage in terms of outcomes after extracorporeal device (ECD) support, such as veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) or pumpless extracorporeal lung assist (pECLA), for respiratory failure, the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and hospital outcomes was analyzed. METHODS: This retrospective study included data on patients who were supported with an ECD between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2014...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429777/interleukin-6-increases-the-expression-and-activity-of-insulin-degrading-enzyme
#16
Mirian A Kurauti, José M Costa-Júnior, Sandra M Ferreira, Gustavo J Santos, Carlos H G Sponton, Everardo M Carneiro, Guilherme D Telles, Mara P T Chacon-Mikahil, Cláudia R Cavaglieri, Luiz F Rezende, Antonio C Boschero
Impairment of the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we used 4-mo-old male C57BL/6 interleukin-6 (IL-6) knockout mice (KO) to investigate the role of this cytokine on IDE expression and activity. IL-6 KO mice displayed lower insulin clearance in the liver and skeletal muscle, compared with wild type (WT), due to reduced IDE expression and activity. We also observed that after 3-h incubation, IL-6, 50 and 100 ng ml(-1), increased the expression of IDE in HEPG2 and C2C12 cells, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429775/fucoxanthin-provides-neuroprotection-in-models-of-traumatic-brain-injury-via-the-nrf2-are-and-nrf2-autophagy-pathways
#17
Li Zhang, Handong Wang, Youwu Fan, Yongyue Gao, Xiang Li, Zhigang Hu, Ke Ding, Yujie Wang, Xiaoliang Wang
Fucoxanthin is abundant in seaweed and is considered as a powerful antioxidant. It has been proposed to possess anti-cancer, anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effects. However, its roles in brain injury models have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the neuroprotection of fucoxanthin in models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the role of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant-response element (ARE) and Nrf2-autophagy pathways in the putative neuroprotection...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429701/-microbiota-and-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Yüksel Altuntaş, Adnan Batman
The role of gut bacteria in the pathogenesis and treatment of various diseases has been a focus of attention in the last 10 years. Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases continues to increase, in spite of technological developments and treatment alternatives. Microbial dysbiosis, described as the decrease of useful bacteria and the increase of harmful bacteria, has been associated with diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. In microbial dysbiosis, increase of harmful metabolites and changes to composition of bile acids occur via carbohydrate and protein fermentation...
April 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429582/obesity-and-addiction-can-a-complication-of-surgery-help-us-understand-the-connection
#19
REVIEW
V Ivezaj, L E Stoeckel, N M Avena, S C Benoit, A Conason, J F Davis, A N Gearhardt, R Goldman, J E Mitchell, C N Ochner, K K Saules, K J Steffen, E Stice, S Sogg
Obesity is a multifactorial, chronic disease that has proven difficult to treat. An increased understanding of aetiological mechanisms is critical to the development of more effective obesity prevention and treatment strategies. A growing body of empirical evidence has demonstrated parallels between obesity, overeating and substance abuse, including shared behavioural, psychological and neurophysiological factors implicated in the excessive intake of both food and substances of abuse. Several different lines of research have recently emerged that hold the potential to shed light on the connection between obesity, food reward and addiction, with studies examining changes in alcohol use/misuse after weight loss surgery providing a particularly interesting perspective on these interrelationships...
April 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429577/investigating-general-medication-prescription-by-general-practitioners-during-a-12-month-randomized-controlled-weight-loss-trial
#20
N R Fuller, N S Lau, T P Markovic, I D Caterson
Much healthcare expenditure is on pharmaceutical drugs. Expenditure on medications has increased both in absolute terms, and as a proportion of total health expenditure. No previous studies have investigated the prescribing costs by general practitioners when managing patients during a weight loss intervention. This study evaluated the medication costs by individual class during a 1-year study in which 268 participants were randomized to one of two weight loss programmes, either standard care (SC) as defined by national guidelines, or a commercial provider (Weight Watchers) (CP)...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Obesity
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