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Lignocellulose

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220903/application-of-carbohydrate-arrays-coupled-with-mass-spectrometry-to-detect-activity-of-plant-polysaccharide-degradative-enzymes-from-the-fungus-aspergillus-niger
#1
Jolanda M van Munster, Baptiste Thomas, Michel Riese, Adrienne L Davis, Christopher J Gray, David B Archer, Sabine L Flitsch
Renewables-based biotechnology depends on enzymes to degrade plant lignocellulose to simple sugars that are converted to fuels or high-value products. Identification and characterization of such lignocellulose degradative enzymes could be fast-tracked by availability of an enzyme activity measurement method that is fast, label-free, uses minimal resources and allows direct identification of generated products. We developed such a method by applying carbohydrate arrays coupled with MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry to identify reaction products of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219736/development-of-minimal-enzyme-cocktails-for-hydrolysis-of-sulfite-pulped-lignocellulosic-biomass
#2
Piotr Chylenski, Zarah Forsberg, Jerry Ståhlberg, Anikó Várnai, Martin Lersch, Oskar Bengtsson, Solve Sæbø, Svein Jarle Horn, Vincent G H Eijsink
Despite recent progress, saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass is still a major cost driver in biorefining. In this study, we present the development of minimal enzyme cocktails for hydrolysis of Norway spruce and sugarcane bagasse, which were pretreated using the so-called BALI™ process, which is based on sulfite pulping technology. Minimal enzyme cocktails were composed using several glycoside hydrolases purified from the industrially relevant filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei and a purified commercial β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216587/high-yield-production-of-levulinic-acid-from-pretreated-cow-dung-in-dilute-acid-aqueous-solution
#3
Jialei Su, Feng Shen, Mo Qiu, Xinhua Qi
Agricultural waste cow dung was used as feedstock for the production of a high value-added chemical levulinic acid (LA) in dilute acid aqueous solutions. A high LA yield of 338.9 g/kg was obtained from the pretreated cow dung, which was much higher than that obtained from the crude cow dung (135 g/kg), mainly attributed to the breakage of the lignin fraction in the lignocellulose structure of the cow dung by potassium hydroxide (KOH) pretreatment, and thus enhanced the accessibility of cow dung to the acid sites in the catalytic reaction...
February 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216003/enhanced-volatile-fatty-acids-production-during-anaerobic-digestion-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-via-micro-oxygenation
#4
Chayanon Sawatdeenarunat, Shihwu Sung, Samir Kumar Khanal
A series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of inoculum type, oxygen (O2) dosage, and incubation time on volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production during anaerobic digestion (AD) of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), a high yielding energy crop. The results showed that anaerobically digested cattle manure (ADCM) as an inoculum generated significantly higher VFAs compared to that of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge (ADWAS) as an inoculum. Additionally, the incubation time of 3days and O2 dosage of 15mL/g volatile solidsadded showed the highest VFAs production when ADCM was used as an inoculum...
February 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215326/marine-enzymes-and-microorganisms-for-bioethanol-production
#5
M R Swain, V Natarajan, C Krishnan
Bioethanol is a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels. Bioethanol as a fuel has several economic and environmental benefits. Though bioethanol is produced using starch and sugarcane juice, these materials are in conflict with food availability. To avoid food-fuel conflict, the second-generation bioethanol production by utilizing nonfood lignocellulosic materials has been extensively investigated. However, due to the complexity of lignocellulose architecture, the process is complicated and not economically competitive...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213322/study-of-processes-influencing-bioavailability-of-pesticides-in-wood-soil-systems-effect-of-different-factors
#6
J M Marín-Benito, E Herrero-Hernández, M S Rodríguez-Cruz, M Arienzo, M J Sánchez-Martín
Lignocellulosic wastes and by-products containing lignin are now available in large amounts from forestry and industrial activities, and could be promising organic materials for the biosorption of pesticides by soils in order to reduce point-source pollution. Adding these materials to soil requires understanding the process of pesticide sorption-desorption by wood-soils, as sorption capacity could increase, with changes in pesticide bioavailability and final fate. The objective of this work was to study the effect that pine and oak wood added to soils had on the sorption/desorption of the pesticides linuron, alachlor, and metalaxyl...
February 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213311/effect-of-biomass-pretreatment-on-the-product-distribution-and-composition-resulting-from-the-hydrothermal-liquefaction-of-short-rotation-coppice-willow
#7
I F Grigoras, R E Stroe, I M Sintamarean, L A Rosendahl
A major challenge for the implementation of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) as a continuous process is the formulation of lignocellulosic feedstock, which is prone to phase separation into water and biomass parts when pressurized. One approach to remedy such phase separation is to reduce the dry matter content; however, as this approach is detrimental to process cost efficiency, designing an appropriate pretreatment step to ensure pumpability at high dry matter content is preferable. This paper evaluated the effect of various pretreatment methods on product distribution and composition resulting from the HTL of willow and proposes short rotation coppice as an alternative biomass feedstock for biofuels production...
January 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213299/anaerobic-digestion-of-lignocellulosic-biomasses-pretreated-with-ceriporiopsis-subvermispora
#8
X Liu, S Hiligsmann, R Gourdon, R Bayard
Fungal pretreatment by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora of two forest residues (hazel and acacia branches) and two agricultural lignocellulosic residues (barley straw and sugarcane bagasse) were studied as a pretreatment to improve their subsequent anaerobic digestion for methane production. Biomass samples were grinded to 2 ranges of particle sizes (<4 or 1 mm), autoclaved, inoculated with two strains of C. subvermispora (ATCC 90467 and ATCC 96608) and incubated at 28 °C for 28 days. The effects of fungal pretreatment were assessed by analyzing the samples before and after incubations for dry solids mass, biochemical composition, bio-methane production (BMP) and availability of cellulose to hydrolysis...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208644/novel-magnetic-cross-linked-cellulase-aggregates-with-a-potential-application-in-lignocellulosic-biomass-bioconversion
#9
Junqi Jia, Weiwei Zhang, Zengjie Yang, Xianling Yang, Na Wang, Xiaoqi Yu
The utilization of renewable biomass resources to produce high-value chemicals by enzymatic processes is beneficial for alternative energy production, due to the accelerating depletion of fossil fuels. As immobilization techniques can improve enzyme stability and reusability, a novel magnetic cross-linked cellulase aggregate has been developed and applied for biomass bioconversion. The crosslinked aggregates could purify and immobilize enzymes in a single operation, and could then be combined with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which provides easy separation of the materials...
February 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208065/lignocellulosic-butanol-production-from-napier-grass-using-semi-simultaneous-saccharification-fermentation
#10
Chi-Ruei He, Yu-Yuan Kuo, Si-Yu Li
Napier grass is a potential feedstock for biofuel production because of its strong adaptability and wide availability. Compositional analysis has been done on Napier grass which was collected from a local area of Taiwan. By comparing acid- and alkali-pretreatment, it was found that the alkali-pretreatment process is favorable for Napier grass. An overall glucose yield of 0.82g/g-glucosetotal can be obtained with the combination of alkali-pretreatment (2.5wt% NaOH, 8wt% sample loading, 121°C, and a reaction time of 40min) and enzymatic hydrolysis (40FPU/g-substrate)...
January 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198423/discovery-of-genes-coding-for-carbohydrate-active-enzyme-by-metagenomic-analysis-of-lignocellulosic-biomasses
#11
Salvatore Montella, Valeria Ventorino, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Olimpia Pepe, Vincenza Faraco
In this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was applied to discover novel biocatalysts for lignocellulose hydrolysis from three dedicated energy crops, Arundo donax, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Populus nigra, after natural biodegradation. The microbiomes of the three lignocellulosic biomasses were dominated by bacterial species (approximately 90%) with the highest representation by the Streptomyces genus both in the total microbial community composition and in the microbial diversity related to GH families of predicted ORFs...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197688/functional-diversity-for-biomass-deconstruction-in-family-5-subfamily-5-gh5_5-of-fungal-endo-%C3%AE-1-4-glucanases
#12
Bingyao Li, Jonathan D Walton
Endo-β1,4-glucanases in glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5) are ubiquitous enzymes in the multicellular fungi and are common components of enzyme cocktails for biomass conversion. We recently showed that an endo-glucanase of subfamily 5 of GH5 (GH5_5) from Sporotrichum thermophile (StCel5A) was more effective at releasing glucose from pretreated corn stover, when part of an eight-component synthetic enzyme mixture, compared to its closely related counterpart from Trichoderma reesei, TrCel5A. StCel5A and TrCel5A belong to different clades of GH5_5 (GH5_5_1 and GH5_5_2, respectively)...
February 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193479/effects-of-substrate-ant-and-fungal-species-on-plant-fiber-degradation-in-a-fungus-gardening-ant-symbiosis
#13
Alexandria M DeMilto, Monte Rouquette, Ulrich G Mueller, Katrin Kellner, Jon N Seal
Fungus-gardening or attine ants have outsourced most of their digestive function to a symbiotic fungus. The ants feed their fungus - essentially an external digestive organ - a variety of substrates of botanical origin, including fresh and dried flowers, leaves and insect frass (processed leaves). Although plant tissues are rich in fibers (lignocelluloses, hemicelluloses, pectins and starches) and the symbiotic fungus possesses the genetic and enzymatic machinery to metabolize these compounds, the highly derived attines, the leaf-cutters (Atta and Acromyrmex), are known to produce fiber-rich waste...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191037/understanding-the-structural-and-chemical-changes-of-plant-biomass-following-steam-explosion-pretreatment
#14
Thomas Auxenfans, David Crônier, Brigitte Chabbert, Gabriel Paës
BACKGROUND: Biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass has become one of the most valuable alternatives for the production of multi-products such as biofuels. Pretreatment is a prerequisite to increase the enzymatic conversion of the recalcitrant lignocellulose. However, there is still considerable debate regarding the key features of biomass impacting the cellulase accessibility. In this study, we evaluate the structural and chemical features of three different representative biomasses (Miscanthus × giganteus, poplar and wheat straw), before and after steam explosion pretreatment at increasing severities, by monitoring chemical analysis, SEM, FTIR and 2D NMR...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188936/cultivation-of-podospora-anserina-on-soybean-hulls-results-in-an-efficient-enzyme-cocktail-for-plant-biomass-hydrolysis
#15
Miia R Mäkelä, Ourdia Bouzid, Diogo Robl, Harm Post, Mao Peng, Albert Heck, Maarten Altelaar, Ronald P de Vries
The coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina was cultivated on three different plant biomasses, i.e. cotton seed hulls (CSH), soybean hulls (SBH) and acid-pretreated wheat straw (WS) for four days, and the potential of the produced enzyme mixtures was compared in the enzymatic saccharification of the corresponding lignocellulose feedstocks. The enzyme cocktail P. anserina produced after three days of growth on SBH showed superior capacity to release reducing sugars from all tested plant biomass feedstocks compared to the enzyme mixtures from CSH and WS cultures...
February 7, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188935/model-based-characterisation-of-growth-performance-and-l-lactic-acid-production-with-high-optical-purity-by-thermophilic-bacillus-coagulans-in-a-lignin-supplemented-mixed-substrate-medium
#16
Robert Glaser, Joachim Venus
Three Bacillus coagulans strains were characterised in terms of their ability to grow in lignin-containing fermentation media and to consume the lignocellulose-related sugars glucose, xylose, and arabinose. An optical-density high-throughput screening was used for precharacterisation by means of different mathematical models for comparison (Logistic, Gompertz, Baranyi, Richards & Stannard, and Schnute). The growth response was characterised by the maximum growth rate and lag time. For a comparison of the screening and fermentation results, an unstructured mathematical model was proposed to characterise the lactate production, bacterial growth and substrate consumption...
February 7, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188206/insight-into-the-carbon-source-dependent-inducible-veratrylalcohol-and-ferulic-acid-metabolism-in-pseudomonas-putida-csv86
#17
Karishma Mohan, Prashant S Phale
Pseudomonas putida CSV86 degrades lignin-derived metabolic intermediates viz veratrylalcohol, ferulic acid, vanillin and vanillic acid as a sole source of carbon and energy. Strain CSV86 also displayed the ability to degrade lignin sulphonate. Cell respiration, enzyme activity, biotransformation and HPLC analysis suggests that veratyralcohol and ferulic acid are metabolized to vanillic acid by two distinct carbon-source dependent inducible pathways. Vanillic acid was further metabolized to protocatechuic acid and enters the central carbon pathway viaβ-ketoadipate route after ortho ring-cleavage...
February 10, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185380/advanced-biofuels-and-beyond-chemistry-solutions-for-propulsion-and-production
#18
Walter Leitner, Jürgen Klankermayer, Stefan Pischinger, Heinz Pitsch, Katharina Kohse-Höinghaus
Sustainably produced biofuels are being discussed intensively as one possible component in the energy scenarios for future ground transportation, especially when they are derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Traditionally, research activities on their production focus on the synthesis process, while leaving their combustion properties to subsequent evaluation by a different community. The present article adopts an integrative view of engine combustion and fuel synthesis, focusing on the chemical aspects as the common denominator...
February 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184248/expression-of-aspergillus-niger-cazymes-is-determined-by-compositional-changes-in-wheat-straw-generated-by-hydrothermal-or-ionic-liquid-pretreatments
#19
Paul Daly, Jolanda M van Munster, Martin J Blythe, Roger Ibbett, Matt Kokolski, Sanyasi Gaddipati, Erika Lindquist, Vasanth R Singan, Kerrie W Barry, Anna Lipzen, Chew Yee Ngan, Christopher J Petzold, Leanne Jade G Chan, Steven T Pullan, Stéphane Delmas, Paul R Waldron, Igor V Grigoriev, Gregory A Tucker, Blake A Simmons, David B Archer
BACKGROUND: The capacity of fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, to degrade lignocellulose is harnessed in biotechnology to generate biofuels and high-value compounds from renewable feedstocks. Most feedstocks are currently pretreated to increase enzymatic digestibility: improving our understanding of the transcriptomic responses of fungi to pretreated lignocellulosic substrates could help to improve the mix of activities and reduce the production costs of commercial lignocellulose saccharifying cocktails...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181082/growth-and-expression-of-relevant-metabolic-genes-of-clostridium-thermocellum-cultured-on-lignocellulosic-residues
#20
Vanessa O Leitão, Eliane F Noronha, Brenda R Camargo, Pedro R V Hamann, Andrei S Steindorff, Betania F Quirino, Marcelo Valle de Sousa, Cirano J Ulhoa, Carlos R Felix
The plant cell wall is a source of fermentable sugars in second-generation bioethanol production. However, cellulosic biomass hydrolysis remains an obstacle to bioethanol production in an efficient and low-cost process. Clostridium thermocellum has been studied as a model organism able to produce enzymatic blends that efficiently degrade lignocellulosic biomass, and also as a fermentative microorganism in a consolidated process for the conversion of lignocellulose to bioethanol. In this study, a C. thermocellum strain (designated B8) isolated from goat rumen was characterized for its ability to grow on sugarcane straw and cotton waste, and to produce cellulosomes...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
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