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Paola Ferrini, Camila A Rezende, Roberto Rinaldi
Catalytic upstream biorefining (CUB) encompasses processes for plant biomass deconstruction through the early-stage conversion of lignin by the action of a hydrogenation catalyst. CUB processes produce lignin as an extensively depolymerised product (i.e., a viscous lignin oil) and render highly delignified pulps. In this report, we examine CUB from the pulp perspective. Notably, Raney Ni plays an indirect role in the processes that occur within the lignocellulose matrix. As there are negligible points of contact between the poplar wood chips and Raney Ni, the catalyst action is limited to the species leached from the matrix into the liquor...
October 21, 2016: ChemSusChem
Xiaoming Huang, Jiadong Zhu, Tamás I Korányi, Michael D Boot, Emiel J M Hensen
Adding value to lignin, the most complex and recalcitrant fraction in lignocellulosic biomass, is highly relevant to costefficient operation of biorefineries. We report the use of homogeneous metal triflates to rapidly release lignin from biomass. Combined with metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis, the process separates woody biomass into few lignin-derived alkylmethoxyphenols and cellulose under mild conditions. Model compound studies show the unique catalytic properties of metal triflates in cleaving lignin-carbohydrate interlinkages...
October 21, 2016: ChemSusChem
Can Chen, Junfeng Pan, Xiaobing Yang, He Xiao, Yaoling Zhang, Meiru Si, Xihui Shen, Yao Wang
Corynebacterium glutamicum can survive by using ferulic acid as the sole carbon source. In this study, we assessed the response of C. glutamicum to ferulic acid stress by means of a global transcriptional response analysis. The transcriptional data showed that several genes involved in degradation of ferulic acid were affected. Moreover, several genes related to the stress response; protein protection or degradation and DNA repair; replication, transcription and translation; and the cell envelope were differentially expressed...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
James J Lischeske, Nathan C Crawford, Erik Kuhn, Nicholas J Nagle, Daniel J Schell, Melvin P Tucker, James D McMillan, Edward J Wolfrum
BACKGROUND: Pretreatment is a critical step in the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Due to the complexity of the physicochemical transformations involved, predictively scaling up technology from bench- to pilot-scale is difficult. This study examines how pretreatment effectiveness under nominally similar reaction conditions is influenced by pretreatment reactor design and scale using four different pretreatment reaction systems ranging from a 3 g batch reactor to a 10 dry-ton/days continuous reactor...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Johannes G de Vries
Several strategies can be chosen to convert renewable resources into chemicals. In this account, I exemplify the route that starts with so-called platform chemicals; these are relatively simple chemicals that can be produced in high yield, directly from renewable resources, either via fermentation or via chemical routes. They can be converted into the existing bulk chemicals in a very efficient manner using multistep catalytic conversions. Two examples are given of the conversion of sugars into nylon intermediates...
October 20, 2016: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Joanna Berlowska, Weronika Cieciura, Sebastian Borowski, Marta Dudkiewicz, Michal Binczarski, Izabela Witonska, Anna Otlewska, Dorota Kregiel
Research into fermentative production of lactic acid from agricultural by-products has recently concentrated on the direct conversion of biomass, whereby pure sugars are replaced with inexpensive feedstock in the process of lactic acid production. In our studies, for the first time, the source of carbon used is sugar beet pulp, generated as a by-product of industrial sugar production. In this paper, we focus on the simultaneous saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of lactic acid, using mixed cultures with complementary assimilation profiles...
October 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lakshmi Kasirajan, Kalaivaani Aruchamy, Prathima P Thirugnanasambandam, Selvi Athiappan
Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is one of the highest biomass-producing plant and the best lignocellulosic feedstock for ethanol production. To achieve more efficient conversion of biomass to ethanol, a better understanding of the main factors affecting biomass recalcitrance is needed. Therefore, with this objective, here, we report a systematic study on lignin content, deposition, identification, and cloning of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and their differential expression in five sugarcane clones, EC11003, EC11010, IK 76-91, IK 76-99, and Co 86032...
October 19, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Qingqi Yan, Yumei Wang, Wawat Rodiahwati, Antje Spiess, Michael Modigell
Screw press processing of biomass can be considered as a suitable mechanically based pretreatment for biofuel production since it disrupts the structure of lignocellulosic biomass with high shear and pressure forces. The combination with chemical treatment has been suggested to increase the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars. Within the study, the synergetic effect of alkaline (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) soaking and screw press pretreatment on wheat straw was evaluated based on, e.g., sugar recovery and energy efficiency...
October 19, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Hee Jin Lee, In Jung Kim, Hak Jin Youn, Eun Ju Yun, In-Geol Choi, Kyoung Heon Kim
Processivity is a typical characteristic of cellobiohydrolases (CBHs); it enables the enzyme to successively hydrolyze the ends of cellulose chains and to produce cellobiose as the major product. Some microbes, which do not have CBHs, utilize endoglucanases (EGs) that exhibit processivity, commonly referred to as processive EGs. A processive EG identified from Hahella chejuensis, HcCel5, has a catalytic domain (CD) belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) and two carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM6s)...
October 19, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Suzhen Wei
Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic waste is considered to be an efficient way to answer present-day energy crisis and environmental challenges. However, the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic material forms a major obstacle for obtaining maximum biogas production. The use of biological pretreatment and bioaugmentation for enhancing the performance of anaerobic digestion is quite recent and still needs to be investigated. This paper reviews the status and perspectives of recent studies on biotechnology concept and investigates its possible use for enhancing biogas production from lignocellulosic waste with main emphases on biological pretreatment and bioaugmentation techniques...
October 19, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jiangshan Ma, Keke Zhang, Mei Huang, Stanton B Hector, Bin Liu, Chunyi Tong, Qian Liu, Jiarui Zeng, Yan Gao, Ting Xu, Ying Liu, Xuanming Liu, Yonghua Zhu
BACKGROUND: Lignocellulolytic bacteria have revealed to be a promising source for biofuel production, yet the underlying mechanisms are still worth exploring. Our previous study inferred that the highly efficient lignocellulose degradation by bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1 might involve Fenton chemistry (Fe(2+) + H2O2 + H(+) → Fe(3+) + OH· + H2O), similar to that of white-rot and brown-rot fungi. The aim of this work is to investigate the existence of this Fenton-based oxidation mechanism in the rice straw degradation process of P...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Can Chen, Junfeng Pan, Xiaobing Yang, Chenghao Guo, Wei Ding, Meiru Si, Yi Zhang, Xihui Shen, Yao Wang
Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Vanillin is one of the major phenolic inhibitors in biomass production using lignocellulose. To assess the response of Corynebacterium glutamicum to vanillin stress, we performed a global transcriptional response analysis. The transcriptional data showed that the vanillin stress not only affected the genes involved in degradation of vanillin, but also differentially regulated several genes related to the stress response, ribosome/translation, protein secretion, and the cell envelope...
2016: PloS One
Ferdinand X Choong, Marcus Bäck, Svava E Steiner, Keira Melican, K Peter R Nilsson, Ulrica Edlund, Agneta Richter-Dahlfors
Enabling technologies for efficient use of the bio-based feedstock are crucial to the replacement of oil-based products. We investigated the feasibility of luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs) for non-destructive, rapid detection and quality assessment of lignocellulosic components in complex biomass matrices. A cationic pentameric oligothiophene denoted p-HTEA (pentamer hydrogen thiophene ethyl amine) showed unique binding affinities to cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, and cellulose nanofibrils in crystal, liquid and paper form...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Teresa Lopes da Silva, Cátia Baptista, Alberto Reis, Paula C Passarinho
Lignocellulosic materials have been considered low-cost effective substrates for bioethanol production. However, lignocellulosic pretreatment releases toxic compounds such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that is known to inhibit the yeast growth and ethanol production. In this work, flow cytometry was used to monitor the physiological response of the yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis ATCC 6269 in the presence of different initial HMF concentrations within the range of 0-15 g/L, in terms of cell membrane integrity, potential, and intracellular lipids...
October 18, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Brian Weselowski, Naeem Nathoo, Alexander William Eastman, Jacqueline MacDonald, Ze-Chun Yuan
BACKGROUND: Paenibacillus polymyxa is a plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium that could be exploited as an environmentally friendlier alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Various strains have been isolated that can benefit agriculture through antimicrobial activity, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, plant hormone production, or lignocellulose degradation. However, no single strain has yet been identified in which all of these advantageous traits have been confirmed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Martinus J A Daas, Antonius H P van de Weijer, Willem M de Vos, John van der Oost, Richard van Kranenburg
BACKGROUND: Due to the finite nature of global oil resources we are now faced with the challenge of finding renewable resources to produce fuels and chemicals in the future. Lactic acid has great potential as a precursor for the production of bioplastics alternatives to conventional plastics. Efficient lactic acid fermentation from non-food lignocellulosic substrates requires pretreatment and saccharification to generate fermentable sugars. A fermentation process that requires little to no enzyme additions, i...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Jie Zhou, Jia Ouyang, Qianqian Xu, Zhaojuan Zheng
The main barriers to cost-effective lactic acid production from lignocellulose are the high cost of enzymes and the ineffective utilization of the xylose within the hydrolysate. In the present study, the thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strain CC17 was used for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of bagasse sulfite pulp (BSP) to produce l-lactic acid. Unexpectedly, SSF by CC17 required approximately 33.33% less fungal cellulase than did separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). More interestingly, CC17 can co-ferment cellobiose and xylose without any exogenous β-glucosidase in SSF...
October 1, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Carolyn N Haarmeyer, Matthew D Smith, Shishir Chundawat, Deanne Sammond, Timothy A Whitehead
Biological-mediated conversion of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and biochemicals is a promising avenue towards energy sustainability. However, a critical impediment to the commercialization of cellulosic biofuel production is the high cost of cellulase enzymes needed to deconstruct biomass into fermentable sugars. One major factor driving cost is cellulase adsorption and inactivation in the presence of lignin, yet we currently have a poor understanding of the protein structure-function relationships driving this adsorption...
October 17, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Siti Nurjaliah Muhammad, Faradiella Mohd Kusin, Mohd Syakirin Md Zahar, Ferdaus Mohamat Yusuff, Normala Halimoon
Passive bioremediation of metal- and sulfate-containing acid mine drainage (AMD) has been investigated in a batch study. Multiple substrates were used in the AMD remediation using spent mushroom compost (SMC), limestone, activated sludge (AS), and woodchips (WC) under anoxic conditions suitable for bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). Limestones used were of crushed limestone (CLS) and uncrushed limestone, provided at two different ratios in mixed substrates treatment and varied by the proportion of SMC and limestone...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Peng-Fei Xia, Guo-Chang Zhang, Berkley Walker, Seung-Oh Seo, Suryang Kwak, Jingjing Liu, Heejin Kim, Donald Ort, Shu-Guang Wang, Yong-Su Jin
Global climate change caused by the emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses (GHGs) is a grand challenge to humanity. To alleviate the trend, the consumption of fossil fuels needs to be largely reduced and alternative energy technologies capable of controlling GHG emissions are anticipated. In this study, we introduced a synthetic reductive pentose phosphate pathway (rPPP) into a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain SR8 to achieve simultaneous lignocellulosic bioethanol production and carbon dioxide recycling...
October 17, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
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