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Rekha Seshadri, Sinead C Leahy, Graeme T Attwood, Koon Hoong Teh, Suzanne C Lambie, Adrian L Cookson, Emiley A Eloe-Fadrosh, Georgios A Pavlopoulos, Michalis Hadjithomas, Neha J Varghese, David Paez-Espino, Rechelle Perry, Gemma Henderson, Christopher J Creevey, Nicolas Terrapon, Pascal Lapebie, Elodie Drula, Vincent Lombard, Edward Rubin, Nikos C Kyrpides, Bernard Henrissat, Tanja Woyke, Natalia N Ivanova, William J Kelly
Productivity of ruminant livestock depends on the rumen microbiota, which ferment indigestible plant polysaccharides into nutrients used for growth. Understanding the functions carried out by the rumen microbiota is important for reducing greenhouse gas production by ruminants and for developing biofuels from lignocellulose. We present 410 cultured bacteria and archaea, together with their reference genomes, representing every cultivated rumen-associated archaeal and bacterial family. We evaluate polysaccharide degradation, short-chain fatty acid production and methanogenesis pathways, and assign specific taxa to functions...
March 19, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
Lijian Leng, Songqi Leng, Jie Chen, Xingzhong Yuan, Jun Li, Kun Li, Yunpu Wang, Wenguang Zhou
Co-liquefaction of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and heavy metal (HM) contaminated lignocellulosic biomass (rice straw or wood sawdust) was conducted at 300 °C with ethanol as the solvent to study the transformation behavior of HMs (e.g., Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Ni). The results indicate that HMs in rice straw or wood sawdust transferred heavily to bio-oils (up to 10-25% of the total Cu, Cd, and Zn) when they were liquefied individually, compared with MSS with only ∼5% distributed to bio-oil. The bio-available fraction of HMs in bio-chars and bio-oils produced from liquefaction of individual biomass were assessed to show medium to high risk to the environment...
March 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Xin You, Zhen Qin, Yan-Xiao Li, Qiao-Juan Yan, Bin Li, Zheng-Qiang Jiang
Mannan is one of the major constituent groups of hemicellulose, which is a renewable resource from higher plants. β-Mannanases are enzymes capable of degrading lignocellulosic biomass. Here, an endo-β-mannanase from Rhizopus microsporus (RmMan134A) was cloned and expressed. The recombinant RmMan134A showed maximal activity at pH 5.0 and 50 °C, and exhibited high specific activity towards locust bean gum (2337 U/mg). To gain insight into the substrate-binding mechanism of RmMan134A, four complex structures (RmMan134A-M3, RmMan134A-M4, RmMan134A-M5 and RmMan134A-M6) were further solved...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Pedro Jorge Louro Crugeira, Gustavo M Pires-Santos, Susana C P S de Oliveira, Fernando José Pires Sampaio, Neandder Andrade Correia, Sandra R C de A Fagnani, Fabio Alexandre Chinalia, Paulo Fernando de Almeida, Antônio L B Pinheiro
Cellulose has a highly diversified architecture and its enzymatic complexes are studied for achieving an efficient conversion and a high level of efficiency in the deconstruction of cellulolytic biomass into sugars. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of Laser or LED light in the cellulolytic activity (CMCase) and on the proliferation of the thermophilic microbial consortium used on the degradation process of a lignocellulosic biomass of green coconut shell. The irradiation protocol consisted of six Laser irradiations (λ660 ηm, 40 mW, 270 s, 13 J/cm2 ) or LED (λ632 ± 2 ηm, 145 mW, 44 s, 13 J/cm2 ) with 12- h time intervals in nutrient deprivation conditions...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Michael Kohlstedt, Sören Starck, Nadja Barton, Jessica Stolzenberger, Mirjam Selzer, Kerstin Mehlmann, Roland Schneider, Daniel Pleissner, Jan Rinkel, Jeroen S Dickschat, Joachim Venus, Jozef N J H van Duuren, Christoph Wittmann
Cis,cis-muconic acid (MA) is a chemical that is recognized for its industrial value and is synthetically accessible from aromatic compounds. This feature provides the attractive possibility of producing MA from mixtures of aromatics found in depolymerized lignin, the most underutilized lignocellulosic biopolymer. Based on the metabolic pathway, the catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) node is the central element of this type of production process: (i) all upper catabolic pathways of aromatics converge at catechol as the central intermediate, (ii) catechol itself is frequently generated during lignin pre-processing, and (iii) catechol is directly converted to the target product MA by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase...
March 13, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
M Hazwan Hussin, Noraini Abdul Samad, Nur Hanis Abd Latif, Nurul Adilla Rozuli, Siti Baidurah Yusoff, François Gambier, Nicolas Brosse
Lignocellulosic materials can significantly contribute to the development of eco-friendly wood adhesives. In this work, glyoxal-phenolic resins for plywood were prepared using organosolv lignin, which was isolated from black liquor recovered from organosolv pulping of oil palm fronds (OPF) and considered to be an alternative to phenol. Glyoxal, which is a dialdehyde obtained from several natural resources, was used as substitute for formaldehyde. The structure of organosolv lignin and the resins were characterized by FTIR and NMR, and for thermal stability by TGA and DSC...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Nasir Mehmood, Ranim Alayoubi, Eric Husson, Cédric Jacquard, Jochen Büchs, Catherine Sarazin, Isabelle Gosselin
Imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) are promising solvents for lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) pretreatment and allow the achievement of higher ethanolic yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanolic fermentation. However, residual ILs entrapped in pretreated biomass are often toxic for fermentative microorganisms, but interaction mechanisms between ILs and cells are still unknown. Here we studied the effects of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim][OAc] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylphosphonate [Emim][MeO(H)PO₂] on Kluyveromyces marxianus , a thermotolerant ethanologenic yeast...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Camila Carlos, Huan Fan, Cameron R Currie
Deconstructing the intricate matrix of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin poses a major challenge in biofuel production. In diverse environments in nature, some microbial communities, are able to overcome plant biomass recalcitrance. Identifying key degraders of each component of plant cell wall can help improve biological degradation of plant feedstock. Here, we sequenced the metagenome of lignocellulose-adapted microbial consortia sub-cultured on xylan and alkali lignin media. We observed a drastic shift on community composition after sub-culturing, independently of the original consortia...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Saisi Xue, A Daniel Jones, Leonardo Sousa, Jeff Piotrowski, Mingjie Jin, Cory Sarks, Bruce E Dale, Venkatesh Balan
Biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels requires pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Degradation products produced during thermochemical pretreatment, however, inhibit the microbes with regard to both ethanol yield and cell growth. In this work, we used synthetic hydrolysates (SynH) to study the inhibition of yeast fermentation by water-soluble components (WSC) isolated from lignin streams obtained after extractive ammonia pretreatment (EA)...
2018: PloS One
Daniel Girma Mulat, Janka Dibdiakova, Svein Jarle Horn
Background: The emerging cellulosic bioethanol industry will generate huge amounts of lignin-rich residues that may be converted into biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) to increase the output of energy carriers from the biorefinery plants. The carbohydrates fraction of lignocellulosic biomass is degradable, whereas the lignin fraction is generally considered difficult to degrade during AD. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of biogas production by AD from hydrolysis lignin (HL), prepared by steam explosion (SE) and enzymatic saccharification of birch...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Chiara Cattaneo, Patrizia Cesaro, Stefano Spertino, Sara Icardi, Maria Cavaletto
Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is a low-cost and abundant source of fermentable sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the main ways to obtain sugars from biomass, but most of the polysaccharide-degrading enzymes are poorly efficient on LCB and cellulases with higher performances are required. In this study, we designed a chimeric protein by adding the carbohydrate binding module (CBM) of the cellulosomal enzyme CtLic26A-Cel5E (endoglucanase H or CelH) from Clostridium (Ruminiclostridium) thermocellum to the C-terminus of Dtur CelA, an interesting hyperthermostable endoglucanase from Dictyoglomus turgidum...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat, Pilanee Vaithanomsat, Warunee Thanapase, Khanok Ratanakhanokchai, Akihiko Kosugi
Lignocellulosic biomass as co-substrate enhances the 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production of anaerobic fermenters by increasing their conversion yield from glycerol. To improve 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production by this efficient approach, Clostridium butyricum I5-42 was supplemented with lignocellulosic biomasses (starch free fiber (CPF) from cassava pulp and xylan) as co-substrates. The 1,3-PD production and growth of C. butyricum were considerably higher in glycerol plus CPF and xylan than in glycerol alone, whereas another major polysaccharide (cellulose co-substrate) failed to improve the 1,3-PD production...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Zhaoyue Sun, Tianyuan Zheng, Jia Xin, Xilai Zheng, Rongting Hu, Fazle Subhan, Haibing Shao
Lignocellulosic agricultural residues were utilized as denitrification carbon substrates to improve the purification capacity of unsaturated soil and alleviate nitrate pollution of groundwater. In this study, corncob and wheat straw were treated by calcium hydroxide to improve biodegradability and enhance denitrification potential. Calcium hydroxide treatment decreased the contents of lignin (i.e., from 16.7 wt% to 15.2 wt% in corncob and from 21.9 wt% to 20.6 wt% in wheat straw), increased potential biodegradable carbon by 4...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
V Isoni, D Kumbang, P N Sharratt, H H Khoo
Aligned with Singapore's commitment to sustainable development and investment in renewable resources, cleaner energy and technology (Sustainable Singapore Blueprint), we report a techno-economic analysis of the biorefinery process in Southeast Asia. The considerations in this study provide an overview of the current and future challenges in the biomass-to-chemical processes with life-cycle thinking, linking the land used for agriculture and biomass to the levulinic acid production. 7-8 kg of lignocellulosic feedstock (glucan content 30-35 wt%) from agriculture residues empty fruit bunches (EFB) or rice straw (RS) can be processed to yield 1 kg of levulinic acid...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Anastasia A Andrianova, Thomas DiProspero, Clayton Geib, Irina P Smoliakova, Evguenii I Kozliak, Alena Kubátová
The capability to characterize lignin, lignocellulose, and their degradation products is essential for the development of new renewable feedstocks. Electrospray ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-HR TOF-MS) method was developed expanding the lignomics toolkit while targeting the simultaneous detection of low and high molecular weight (MW) lignin species. The effect of a broad range of electrolytes and various ionization conditions on ion formation and ionization effectiveness was studied using a suite of mono-, di-, and triarene lignin model compounds as well as kraft alkali lignin...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Lijuan Ma, Qing Ma, Gaojie Guo, Liping Du, Yingying Zhang, Youzhi Cui, Dongguang Xiao
Sodium percarbonate (SP), a kind of alkaline strong oxidant, was applied to corncob pretreatment. The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 4% (w/v) SP concentration with solid-to-liquid (SLR) ratio of 1:10 treating for 4 hr at 60°C. This pretreatment resulted in 91.06% of cellulose and 84.08% of hemicellulose recoveries with 34.09% of lignin removal in corncob. The reducing sugar yield from SP-pretreated corncob was 0.56 g/g after 72 hr of enzymatic hydrolysis, 1.75-folds higher than that from raw corncob...
March 12, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Juan Wang, Yanfen Gong, Shengming Zhao, Gang Liu
Myceliophthora thermophila (ATCC 42464) is a thermophilic fungus that produces cellulolytic enzymes with high thermal stability. Unlike its mesophile counterparts, study on gene expression regulation of cellulolytic enzymes in M. thermophila is inadequate. This work identified the function of MHR1, a putative transcription regulator of cellulolytic enzymes in M. thermophila that was found through RNA-Seq based gene expression profile analysis. RNA interference was used to study the role of MHR1. A recombinant plasmid, pUC19-P pdc - mhr1 -T pdc , which contained the RNAi sequence for mhr1 was constructed and transformed into M...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Federico Sabbadin, Giovanna Pesante, Luisa Elias, Katrin Besser, Yi Li, Clare Steele-King, Meg Stark, Deborah A Rathbone, Adam A Dowle, Rachel Bates, J Reuben Shipway, Simon M Cragg, Neil C Bruce, Simon J McQueen-Mason
Lignocellulose forms the structural framework of woody plant biomass and represents the most abundant carbon source in the biosphere. Turnover of woody biomass is a critical component of the global carbon cycle, and the enzymes involved are of increasing industrial importance as industry moves away from fossil fuels to renewable carbon resources. Shipworms are marine bivalve molluscs that digest wood and play a key role in global carbon cycling by processing plant biomass in the oceans. Previous studies suggest that wood digestion in shipworms is dominated by enzymes produced by endosymbiotic bacteria found in the animal's gills, while little is known about the identity and function of endogenous enzymes produced by shipworms...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Thi Huyen Do, Ngoc Giang Le, Trong Khoa Dao, Thi Mai Phuong Nguyen, Tung Lam Le, Han Ly Luu, Khanh Hoang Viet Nguyen, Van Lam Nguyen, Lan Anh Le, Thu Nguyet Phung, Nico M van Straalen, Dick Roelofs, Nam Hai Truong
The scarcity of enzymes having an optimal activity in lignocellulose deconstruction is an obstacle for industrial-scale conversion of cellulosic biomass into biofuels. With the aim of mining novel lignocellulolytic enzymes, a ~9 Gb metagenome of bacteria in Vietnamese native goats' rumen was sequenced by Illumina platform. From the data, 821 ORFs encoding carbohydrate esterases (CEs) and polysaccharide lyases (PLs) serving for lignocellulose pre-treatment, 816 ORFs encoding 11 glycoside hydrolase families (GHs) of cellulases, and 2252 ORFs encoding 22 GHs of hemicellulases, were mined...
March 12, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Jinju Hou, Zhen Qiu, Hui Han, Qiuzhuo Zhang
Quantitative Structure-toxicity Relationship (QSTR) models were built to evaluate the toxicity of lignocellulose-derived phenolic inhibitors on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a bioethanol production process. The established models were proved to be reliable after rigorous validation and showed values of R2  > 0.6 and Q2 LOO  > 0.5. They could provide accurate guidance for alleviating the most toxic inhibitors in pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates, thus facilitating bioethanol production...
March 3, 2018: Chemosphere
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