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Hyewon Hwang, Jae Hoon Lee, In Gyu Choi, Joon Weon Choi
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of lignocellulosic biomass has been widely investigated for the production of renewable and alternative bio-crude oil. In this study, catalytic hydrothermal processing of two biomasses (larch and Mongolian oak) was performed using different K2CO3 concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0wt% of solvent) to improve fuel yield and properties. HTL oil, hydrochar, water soluble fraction (WSF) and gas were characterized and carbon balance was investigated. As a result, the maximum yield of HTL oil, 27...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Technology
Hung Hiep Huynh, Nozomi Ishii, Ichiro Matsuo, Manabu Arioka
Cellulose in plant cell walls is mainly covered by hemicellulose and lignin, and thus efficient removal of these components is thought to be a key step in the optimal utilization of lignocellulose. The recently discovered carbohydrate esterase (CE) 15 family of glucuronoyl esterases (GEs) which cleave the linkages between the free carboxyl group of D-glucuronic acid in hemicellulose and the benzyl groups in lignin residues could contribute to this process. Herein, we report the identification, functional expression, and enzymatic characterization of a GE, AfGE, from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus...
January 14, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Souvik Kumar Paul, Saikat Chakraborty
Sunn hemp fibre - a cellulose-rich crystalline non-food energy crop, containing 75.6% cellulose, 10.05% hemicellulose, 10.32% lignin, with high crystallinity (80.17%) and degree of polymerization (650) - is identified as a new non-food substrate for lignocellulosic biofuel production. Microwave irradiation is employed to rapidly rupture the cellulose's glycosidic bonds and enhance glucose yield to 78.7% at 160 °C in only 46 min. The reactants - long-chain cellulose, ionic liquid, transition metal catalyst, and water - form a polar supramolecular complex that rotates under the microwave's alternating polarity and rapidly dissipates the electromagnetic energy through molecular collisions, thus accelerating glycosidic bond breakage...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Weiliang Hou, Jie Bao
Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is the most efficient operation in biorefining conversion, but aerobic SSF under high solids loading significantly faces the serious oxygen transfer limitation. This study took the first insight into an aerobic SSF by high oxygen demanding filamentous fungi in highly viscous lignocellulose hydrolysate. The results show that oxygen requirement in the aerobic SSF by Aspergillus niger was well satisfied for production of cellulosic citric acid. The record high citric acid titer of 136...
January 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Ryosuke Kadoya, Ken'ichiro Matsumoto, Kenji Takisawa, Toshihiko Ooi, Seiichi Taguchi
Lignocellulose-utilizing biorefinery is a promising strategy for the sustainable production of value-added products such as bio-based polymers. Simultaneous consumption of glucose and xylose in Escherichia coli was achieved by overexpression of the gene encoding Mlc, a multiple regulator of glucose and xylose uptake. This catabolite derepression gave the enhancement in the production of poly (15 mol% lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate), up to 65% from 50% (wild-type strain) in the cellular contents, of the Mlc-overexpressing strain of E...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Jaruwan Marudkla, Wen-Chien Lee, Siwaporn Wannawilai, Yusuf Chisti, Sarote Sirisansaneeyakul
Acetic acid, a potential growth inhibitor, commonly occurs in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. The growth of Cupriavidus necator DSM 545 and production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by this bacterium in a glucose-based medium supplemented with various initial concentrations of acetic acid are reported. The bacterium could use both glucose and acetic acid to grow and produce PHB, but acetic acid inhibited growth once its initial concentration exceeded 0.5 g/L. As acetic acid is an unavoidable contaminant in hydrolysates used as sugar sources in commercial fermentations, a mathematical model was developed to describe its impact on growth and the production of PHB...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Hongliang Guo, Yingju Chang, Duu-Jong Lee
To realize lignocellulosic biorefinery is of global interest, with enzymatic saccharification presenting an essential stage to convert polymeric sugars to mono-sugars for fermentation use. This mini-review summarizes qualitatively the research focuses discussed the review articles presented in the past 22 months and other relevant papers. The research focuses on pretreatment with improved efficiency, enhanced enzyme production with high yields and high extreme tolerance, feasible combined saccharification and fermentation processes, detailed mechanisms corresponding to the enzymatic saccharification in lignocellulosic biorefinery, and the costs are discussed...
December 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Scott Bottoms, Quinn Dickinson, Mick McGee, Li Hinchman, Alan Higbee, Alex Hebert, Jose Serate, Dan Xie, Yaoping Zhang, Joshua J Coon, Chad L Myers, Robert Landick, Jeff S Piotrowski
BACKGROUND: Gamma valerolactone (GVL) treatment of lignocellulosic bomass is a promising technology for degradation of biomass for biofuel production; however, GVL is toxic to fermentative microbes. Using a combination of chemical genomics with the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) deletion collection to identify sensitive and resistant mutants, and chemical proteomics to monitor protein abundance in the presence of GVL, we sought to understand the mechanism toxicity and resistance to GVL with the goal of engineering a GVL-tolerant, xylose-fermenting yeast...
January 12, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Ruquan Ye, Xiao Han, Dmitry V Kosynkin, Yilun Li, Chenhao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Angel A Marti, James M Tour
Laser-assisted materials fabrication is an advance that has propelled recent carbon synthesis approaches. Direct laser writing on polyimide or lignocellulose materials by a CO2 laser has successfully transformed the substrates into hierarchical graphene. However, formation of other carbon allotropes such as diamond and fullerene remains challenging. Here we report the direct synthesis of fluorinated nanodiamonds or fluorinated graphene by treating polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon, or PTFE) with a 9.3 μm pulsed CO2 laser under argon; no exogenous fluorine source is needed...
January 12, 2018: ACS Nano
Gabriella Cerullo, Jos Houbraken, Zoraide Granchi, Olimpia Pepe, Simona Varriale, Valeria Ventorino, Thomas Chin-A-Woeng, Martin Meijer, Ronald P de Vries, Vincenza Faraco
Here we present the draft genome sequence of the fungus Talaromyces adpressus A-T1C-84X (=CBS 142503). This strain was isolated from lignocellulosic biomass of Arundo donax during biodegradation under natural conditions in the Gussone Park of the Royal Palace of Portici, Naples, Italy.
January 11, 2018: Genome Announcements
In Iok Kong, Timothy Lee Turner, Heejin Kim, Soo Rin Kim, Yong-Su Jin
Microorganisms have been studied and used extensively to produce value-added fuels and chemicals. Yeast, specifically Saccharomyces cerevisiae, receive industrial attention because of their well-known ability to ferment glucose and produce ethanol. Thousands of natural or genetically-modified S. cerevisiae have been found in industrial environments for various purposes. These industrial strains are isolated from industrial fermentation sites and they are considered as potential host strains for superior fermentation processes...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Thaís R Santiago, Valquiria M Pereira, Wagner R de Souza, Andrei S Steindorff, Bárbara A D B Cunha, Marília Gaspar, Léia C L Fávaro, Eduardo F Formighieri, Adilson K Kobayashi, Hugo B C Molinari
Expansins refer to a family of closely related non-enzymatic proteins found in the plant cell wall that are involved in the cell wall loosening. In addition, expansins appear to be involved in different physiological and environmental responses in plants such as leaf and stem initiation and growth, stomata opening and closing, reproduction, ripening and stress tolerance. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is one of the main crops grown worldwide. Lignocellulosic biomass from sugarcane is one of the most promising raw materials for the ethanol industry...
2018: PloS One
Hiroshi Teramura, Kengo Sasaki, Tomoko Oshima, Hideo Kawaguchi, Chiaki Ogino, Takashi Sazuka, Akihiko Kondo
We investigated the use of low concentrations of butanol (<40%, all v/v) as an organosolv pretreatment to fractionate lignocellulosic biomass into cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The pretreatment conditions were optimized for sorghum bagasse by focusing on four parameters: butanol concentration, sulfuric acid concentration, pretreatment temperature, and pretreatment time. A butanol concentration of 25% or higher together with 0.5% or higher acid was effective for removing lignin while retaining most of the cellulose in the solid fraction...
December 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Franklin Damião Xavier, Gustavo Santos Bezerra, Sharline Florentino Melo Santos, Líbia Sousa Conrado Oliveira, Flávio Luiz Honorato Silva, Aleir Joice Oliveira Silva, Marta Maria Conceição
Recent years have seen an increase in the use of lignocellulosic materials in the development of bioproducts. Because sisal fiber is a low cost raw material and is readily available, this work aimed to evaluate its hemicellulose fraction for the simultaneous production of xylitol and ethanol. The sisal fiber presented a higher hemicellulose content than other frequently-employed biomasses, such as sugarcane bagasse. A pretreatment with dilute acid and low temperatures was conducted in order to obtain the hemicellulose fraction...
January 10, 2018: Biomolecules
W Schutyser, T Renders, S Van den Bosch, S-F Koelewijn, G T Beckham, B F Sels
In pursuit of more sustainable and competitive biorefineries, the effective valorisation of lignin is key. An alluring opportunity is the exploitation of lignin as a resource for chemicals. Three technological biorefinery aspects will determine the realisation of a successful lignin-to-chemicals valorisation chain, namely (i) lignocellulose fractionation, (ii) lignin depolymerisation, and (iii) upgrading towards targeted chemicals. This review provides a summary and perspective of the extensive research that has been devoted to each of these three interconnected biorefinery aspects, ranging from industrially well-established techniques to the latest cutting edge innovations...
January 10, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Robert Lawrence Shahab, Jeremy S Luterbacher, Simone Brethauer, Michael Hans-Peter Studer
Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosic feedstocks to platform chemicals requires complex metabolic processes, which are commonly executed by single genetically engineered microorganisms. Alternatively, synthetic consortia can be employed to compartmentalize the required metabolic functions among different specialized microorganisms as demonstrated in this work for the direct production of lactic acid from lignocellulosic biomass. We composed an artificial cross-kingdom consortium and co-cultivated the aerobic fungus Trichoderma reesei for the secretion of cellulolytic enzymes with facultative anaerobic lactic acid bacteria...
January 8, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Karen O Osiro, Daniel P Brink, Celina Borgström, Lisa Wasserstrom, Magnus Carlquist, Marie F Gorwa-Grauslund
One of the challenges of establishing an industrially competitive process to ferment lignocellulose to value-added products using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is to get efficient mixed sugar fermentations. Despite successful metabolic engineering strategies, the xylose assimilation rates of recombinant S. cerevisiae remain significantly lower than for the preferred carbon source, glucose. Previously we established a panel of in vivo biosensor strains (TMB371X) where different promoters (HXT1/2/4p; SUC2p, CAT8p; TPS1p/2p, TEF4p) from the main sugar signaling pathways were coupled with the yEGFP3 gene, and observed that wild type S...
January 5, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Preenaa Moyer, Micholas Dean Smith, Nourredine Abdoulmoumine, Stephen C Chmely, Jeremy C Smith, Loukas Petridis, Nicole Labbé
The ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]Acetate) has been widely used for biomass processing, i.e., to pretreat, activate, or fractionate lignocellulosic biomass to produce soluble sugars and lignin. However, this IL does not achieve high biomass solubility, therefore minimizing the efficiency of biomass processing. In this study, [EMIM]Acetate and three other ILs composed of different 3-methylimidazolium cations and carboxylate anions ([EMIM]Formate, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium ([AMIM]) formate, and [AMIM]Acetate) were analyzed to relate their physicochemical properties to their biomass solubility performance...
January 9, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
C Veluchamy, V Wilson Raju, Ajay S Kalamdhad
A novel electrohydrolysis pretreatment enhances methane production from lignocellulose material during anaerobic digestion. A biochemical methane potential assay was carried out to determine the effect of direct current and the efficacy of electrohydrolysis pretreatment on biogas production. Methane yield was increased by 13.8%, to 301 ± 3 mL CH4/g VS, when lignocellulosic waste was pretreated with electrohydrolysis. A net energy gain of 13,224 kJ was realized after electrohydrolysis pretreatment, which was 1...
December 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Morgann C Reilly, Joonhoon Kim, Jed Lynn, Blake A Simmons, John M Gladden, Jon K Magnuson, Scott E Baker
Plant biomass, once reduced to its composite sugars, can be converted to fuel substitutes. One means of overcoming the recalcitrance of lignocellulose is pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. However, currently available commercial enzyme cocktails are inhibited in the presence of residual pretreatment chemicals. Recent studies have identified a number of cellulolytic enzymes from bacteria that are tolerant to pretreatment chemicals such as ionic liquids. The challenge now is generation of these enzymes in copious amounts, an arena where fungal organisms such as Aspergillus niger have proven efficient...
January 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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