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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747994/lignin-valorization-lignin-nanoparticles-as-high-value-bio-additive-for-multifunctional-nanocomposites
#1
Dong Tian, Jinguang Hu, Jie Bao, Richard P Chandra, Jack N Saddler, Canhui Lu
BACKGROUND: Although conversion of low value but high-volume lignin by-product to its usable form is one of the determinant factors for building an economically feasible integrated lignocellulose biorefinery, it has been challenged by its structural complexity and inhomogeneity. We and others have shown that uniform lignin nanoparticles can be produced from a wide range of technical lignins, despite the varied lignocellulosic biomass and the pretreatment methods/conditions applied. This value-added nanostructure lignin enriched with multifunctional groups can be a promising versatile material platform for various downstream utilizations especially in the emerging nanocomposite fields...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747008/enhanced-robustness-in-acetone-butanol-ethanol-fermentation-with-engineered-clostridium-beijerinckii-overexpressing-adhe2-and-ctfab
#2
Congcong Lu, Le Yu, Saju Varghese, Mingrui Yu, Shang-Tian Yang
Clostridium beijerinckii CC101 was engineered to overexpress aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE2) and CoA-transferase (ctfAB). Solvent production and acid assimilation were compared between the parental and engineered strains expressing only adhE2 (CC101-SV4) and expressing adhE2, ald and ctfAB (CC101-SV6). CC101-SV4 showed an early butanol production from glucose but stopped pre-maturely at a low butanol concentration of ∼6g/L. Compared to CC101, CC101-SV6 produced more butanol (∼12g/L) from glucose and was able to re-assimilate more acids, which prevented "acid crash" and increased butanol production, under all conditions studied...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746994/comparison-between-several-reactors-with-trametes-versicolor-immobilized-on-lignocellulosic-support-for-the-continuous-treatments-of-hospital-wastewater
#3
J Torán, P Blánquez, G Caminal
Hospital wastewater is a major source of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), which are not all removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants. White rot fungi can degrade PhACs, but their application has been limited to non-sterile conditions due to the competition with other microorganisms for growth. In this study, immobilization of Trametes versicolor on different lignocellulosic supports was studied as strategy to ensure fungal survival under continuous treatment conditions. A fluidized bed reactor and a trickling packed-bed reactor with T...
July 13, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745867/development-of-chemical-and-metabolite-sensors-for-rhodococcus-opacus-pd630
#4
Drew M DeLorenzo, William R Henson, Tae Seok Moon
Rhodococcus opacus PD630 is a non-model, gram positive bacterium that possesses desirable traits for biomass conversion, including consumption capabilities for lignocellulose-based sugars and toxic lignin-derived aromatic compounds, significant triacylglycerol accumulation, relatively rapid growth rate, and genetic tractability. However, few genetic elements have been directly characterized in R. opacus, limiting its application for lignocellulose bioconversion. Here, we report the characterization and development of genetic tools for tunable gene expression in R...
July 26, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738851/expression-and-secretion-of-fungal-endoglucanase-ii-and-chimeric-cellobiohydrolase-i-in-the-oleaginous-yeast-lipomyces-starkeyi
#5
Qi Xu, Eric P Knoshaug, Wei Wang, Markus Alahuhta, John O Baker, Shihui Yang, Todd Vander Wall, Stephen R Decker, Michael E Himmel, Min Zhang, Hui Wei
BACKGROUND: Lipomyces starkeyi is one of the leading lipid-producing microorganisms reported to date; its genetic transformation was only recently reported. Our aim is to engineer L. starkeyi to serve in consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) to produce lipid or fatty acid-related biofuels directly from abundant and low-cost lignocellulosic substrates. RESULTS: To evaluate L. starkeyi in this role, we first conducted a genome analysis, which revealed the absence of key endo- and exocellulases in this yeast, prompting us to select and screen four signal peptides for their suitability for the overexpression and secretion of cellulase genes...
July 24, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738549/chemical-and-structural-characterization-of-char-development-during-lignocellulosic-biomass-pyrolysis
#6
Lihle D Mafu, Hein W J P Neomagus, Raymond C Everson, Christien A Strydom, Marion Carrier, Gregory N Okolo, John R Bunt
The chemical and structural changes of three lignocellulosic biomass samples during pyrolysis were investigated using both conventional and advanced characterization techniques. The use of ATR-FTIR as a characterization tool is extended by the proposal of a method to determine aromaticity, the calculation of both CH2/CH3 ratio and the degree of aromatic ring condensation ((R/C)u). With increasing temperature, the H/C and O/C ratios, XA and CH2/CH3 ratio decreased, while (R/C)u and aromaticity increased. The micropore network developed with increasing temperature, until the coalescence of pores at 1100°C, which can be linked to increasing carbon densification, extent of aromatization and/or graphitization of the biomass chars...
July 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737226/laser-induced-graphene-formation-on-wood
#7
Ruquan Ye, Yieu Chyan, Jibo Zhang, Yilun Li, Xiao Han, Carter Kittrell, James M Tour
Wood as a renewable naturally occurring resource has been the focus of much research and commercial interests in applications ranging from building construction to chemicals production. Here, a facile approach is reported to transform wood into hierarchical porous graphene using CO2 laser scribing. Studies reveal that the crosslinked lignocellulose structure inherent in wood with higher lignin content is more favorable for the generation of high-quality graphene than wood with lower lignin content. Because of its high electrical conductivity (≈10 Ω per square), graphene patterned on wood surfaces can be readily fabricated into various high-performance devices, such as hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution electrodes for overall water splitting with high reaction rates at low overpotentials, and supercapacitors for energy storage with high capacitance...
July 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736147/novel-multifunctional-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-in-co-compost-of-palm-oil-industry-waste
#8
Clament Fui Seung Chin, Yoshihide Furuya, Mohd Huzairi Mohd Zainudin, Norhayati Ramli, Mohd Ali Hassan, Yukihiro Tashiro, Kenji Sakai
Previously, a unique co-compost produced by composting empty fruit bunch with anaerobic sludge from palm oil mill effluent, which contributed to establishing a zero-emission industry in Malaysia. Little was known about the bacterial functions during the composting process and fertilization capacity of this co-compost. We isolated 100 strains from the co-compost on 7 types of enumeration media and screened 25 strains using in vitro tests for 12 traits, grouping them according to three functions: plant growth promoting (fixation of nitrogen; solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, and silicate; production of 3-indoleacetic acid, ammonia, and siderophore), biocontrolling (production of chitinase and anti-Ganoderma activity), and composting (degradation of lignin, xylan, and cellulose)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736145/the-thermochemical-conversion-of-non-lignocellulosic-biomass-to-form-biochar-a-review-on-characterizations-and-mechanism-elucidation
#9
REVIEW
De-Chang Li, Hong Jiang
Biochar obtained from non-lignocellulosic biomass (NLBM) has attracted wide interests in various fields like pollutants removal, catalysis, and energy storage. However, the thermochemical conversion processes from NLBM to non-lignocellulosic biochar (NLBC) have not been well summarized until now. To fill the knowledge gap, this review presents a systematical summary of NLBM characteristics, thermochemical behaviors of main components (e.g., C, O, N, P and metals), characterization methods for NLBC and conversion process, and the main applications of NLBC...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735312/effect-of-lyophilization-on-survivability-and-growth-kinetic-of-trichoderma-strains-preserved-on-various-agriculture-by-products
#10
Danuta Witkowska, Katarzyna Buska-Pisarek, Wojciech Łaba, Michał Piegza, Anna Kancelista
Growth of four Trichoderma strains were tested on lignocellulosic by-products in solid state fermentation (SSF). The strains were also analyzed for their survival rate and growth after lyophilization on these carriers. All applied monocomponent and bicomponent media were substrates for the production and preservation of Trichoderma biomass. However, the maximum number of colony forming units (CFU/g dm) was acquired on bicomponent media based on dried grass and beet pulp or grass with corn cobs, when compared to monocomponent media...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735007/lignocellulosic-micro-nanofibers-from-wood-sawdust-applied-to-recycled-fibers-for-the-production-of-paper-bags
#11
Quim Tarrés, Neus Pellicer, Ana Balea, Noemi Merayo, Carlos Negro, Angeles Blanco, Marc Delgado-Aguilar, Pere Mutjé
In the present work, lignocellulosic micro/nanofibers (LCMNF) were produced from pine sawdust. For that, pine sawdust was submitted to alkali treatment and subsequent bleaching stages, tailoring its chemical composition with the purpose of obtaining effective LCMNF. The obtained LCMNF were characterized and incorporated to recycled cardboard boxes with the purpose of producing recycled paper. The obtained results showed that it was possible to obtain LCMNF with the same reinforcing potential than those cellulose nanofibers (CNF) prepared by oxidative or other chemical methods In fact, the obtained papers increased the breaking length of recycled cardboard from 3338m to 5347m, being a value significantly higher than the requirements to produce paper bags...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734590/evaluation-of-electricity-generation-from-lignin-residue-and-biogas-in-cellulosic-ethanol-production
#12
Gang Liu, Jie Bao
This study takes the first insight on the rigorous evaluation of electricity generation based on the experimentally measured higher heating value (HHV) of lignin residue, as well as the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) of wastewater. For producing one metric ton of ethanol fuel from five typical lignocellulose substrates, including corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and poplar sawdust, 1.26-1.85tons of dry lignin residue is generated from biorefining process and 0...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734034/protein-features-as-determinants-of-wild-type-glycoside-hydrolase-thermostability
#13
Henrik Marcus Geertz-Hansen, Lars Kiemer, Morten Nielsen, Kiril Stanchev, Nikolaj Blom, Søren Brunak, Thomas Nordahl Petersen
Thermostable enzymes for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels have significant advantages over enzymes with more moderate themostability due to the challenging application conditions. Experimental discovery of thermostable enzymes is highly cost intensive, and the development of in-silico methods guiding the discovery process would be of high value. To develop such an in-silico method and provide the data foundation of it, we determined the melting temperatures of 602 fungal glycoside hydrolases from the families GH5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 43 and AA9 (formerly GH61)...
July 22, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733938/molecular-cloning-heterologous-expression-and-functional-characterization-of-a-cellulolytic-enzyme-cel-prii-from-buffalo-rumen-metagenome
#14
Ravi K Shah, Amrutlal K Patel, Deepti M Davla, Ishan K Parikh, Ramalingam B Subramanian, Kamlesh C Patel, Subhash J Jakhesara, Chaitanya G Joshi
A cellulase encoding gene, Cel PRII, was identified from Mehsani buffalo rumen metagenome, and cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS. The 1170 bp full length gene encodes a 389 residue polypeptide (Cel PRII) containing a catalytic domain belonging to glycosyl hydrolase (GH) 5 family. The fusion protein consisting of the Cel PRII, thioredoxin tag and 6x Histidine tag with predicted molecular weight of 63 kDa when recovered from inclusion bodies under denaturing conditions, exhibited cellulolytic activity against carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733280/construction-and-optimization-of-a-heterologous-pathway-for-protocatechuate-catabolism-in-escherichia-coli-enables-bioconversion-of-model-aromatic-compounds
#15
Sonya M Clarkson, Richard J Giannone, Donna M Kridelbaugh, James G Elkins, Adam M Guss, Joshua K Michener
The production of biofuels from lignocellulose yields a substantial lignin byproduct stream that currently has few applications. Biological conversion of lignin-derived compounds into chemicals and fuels has the potential to improve the economics of lignocellulose-derived biofuels, but few microbes are able both to catabolize lignin-derived aromatic compounds and generate valuable products. While Escherichia coli has been engineered to produce a variety of fuels and chemicals, it is incapable of catabolizing most aromatic compounds...
July 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731473/ninety-nine-de-novo-assembled-genomes-from-the-moose-alces-alces-rumen-microbiome-provide-new-insights-into-microbial-plant-biomass-degradation
#16
Olov Svartström, Johannes Alneberg, Nicolas Terrapon, Vincent Lombard, Ino de Bruijn, Jonas Malmsten, Ann-Marie Dalin, Emilie El Muller, Pranjul Shah, Paul Wilmes, Bernard Henrissat, Henrik Aspeborg, Anders F Andersson
The moose (Alces alces) is a ruminant that harvests energy from fiber-rich lignocellulose material through carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) produced by its rumen microbes. We applied shotgun metagenomics to rumen contents from six moose to obtain insights into this microbiome. Following binning, 99 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belonging to 11 prokaryotic phyla were reconstructed and characterized based on phylogeny and CAZyme profile. The taxonomy of these MAGs reflected the overall composition of the metagenome, with dominance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726354/high-performance-of-agaricus-blazei-fungus-for-the-biological-pre-treatment-of-elephant-grass
#17
Thais Dal Picolli, Kaliane Regalin Aver, Roselei Claudete Fontana, Marli Camassola
Biological pre-treatment seems to be promising being an eco-friendly process, with no inhibitor generated during the process. The potential for elephant grass pre-treatment with white degradation fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus blazei, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus djamor, in isolated or mixed cultures of these strains, was evaluated. The highest activities of enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass (laccases, endoglucanases, xylanases and β-glucosidases) were observed for A...
July 20, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725574/sugar-acid-and-furfural-quantification-in-a-sulphite-pulp-mill-feedstock-product-and-hydrolysate-analysis-by-hplc-rid
#18
Tamara Llano, Natalia Quijorna, Ana Andrés, Alberto Coz
Waste from pulp and paper mills consist of sugar-rich fractions comprising hemicellulose derivatives and cellulose by-products. A complete characterisation of the waste streams is necessary to study the possibilities of an existing mill. In this work, four chromatographic methods have been developed to obtain the most suitable chromatographic method conditions for measuring woody feedstocks, lignocellulosic hydrolysates and cellulose pulp in sulphite pulping processes. The analysis of major and minor monosaccharides, aliphatic carboxylic acids and furfurals has been optimised...
September 2017: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724257/efficient-coproduction-of-gluconic-acid-and-xylonic-acid-from-lignocellulosic-hydrolysate-by-zn-ii-selective-inhibition-on-whole-cell-catalysis-by-gluconobacter-oxydans
#19
Xuelian Zhou, Xin Zhou, Lu Huang, Rou Cao, Yong Xu
With Zn(II)-selective inhibition on the whole-cell catalysis of Gluconobacter oxydans NL71, gluconic acid and xylonic acid were coproduced efficiently from the hydrolysate of corn stover. Further metabolism of gluconic acid to the by-product 2-ketogluconic acid was prevented by addition of 10g/L ZnCl2. Remarkably, yields of 93.91% of gluconic acid and 93.36% of xylonic acid were obtained with the supplement of ZnCl2 in the synthetic medium, without by-product production. After optimization of the concentrations of ZnCl2 and inocula of the strain, maximum amounts of gluconic acid and xylonic acid were coproduced at titers of 63...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721652/effects-of-liquid-hot-water-pretreatment-on-enzymatic-hydrolysis-and-physicochemical-changes-of-corncobs
#20
Saksit Imman, Navadol Laosiripojana, Verawat Champreda
Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment is an efficient chemical-free strategy for enhancing enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass for conversion to fuels and chemicals in biorefinery. In this study, effects of LHW on removals of hemicelluloses and lignin from corncobs were studied under varying reaction conditions. LHW pretreatment at 160 °C for 10 min promoted the highest levels of hemicellulose solubilization into the liquid phase, resulting into the maximized pentose yield of 58.8% in the liquid and more than 60% removal of lignin from the solid, with 73...
July 19, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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