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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340440/bioaugmentation-with-hydrolytic-microbes-to-improve-the-anaerobic-biodegradability-of-lignocellulosic-agricultural-residues
#1
P Tsapekos, P G Kougias, S A Vasileiou, L Treu, S Campanaro, G Lyberatos, I Angelidaki
Bioaugmentation with hydrolytic microbes was applied to improve the methane yield of bioreactors fed with agricultural wastes. The efficiency of Clostridium thermocellum and Melioribacter roseus to degrade lignocellulosic matter was evaluated in batch and continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). Results from batch assays showed that C. thermocellum enhanced the methane yield by 34%. A similar increase was recorded in CSTR during the bioaugmentation period; however, at steady-state the effect was noticeably lower (7...
March 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339473/characterization-of-lignocellulolytic-activities-from-fungi-isolated-from-the-deep-sea-sponge-stelletta-normani
#2
Ramón Alberto Batista-García, Thomas Sutton, Stephen A Jackson, Omar Eduardo Tovar-Herrera, Edgar Balcázar-López, María Del Rayo Sánchez-Carbente, Ayixon Sánchez-Reyes, Alan D W Dobson, Jorge Luis Folch-Mallol
Extreme habitats have usually been regarded as a source of microorganisms that possess robust proteins that help enable them to survive in such harsh conditions. The deep sea can be considered an extreme habitat due to low temperatures (<5°C) and high pressure, however marine sponges survive in these habitats. While bacteria derived from deep-sea marine sponges have been studied, much less information is available on fungal biodiversity associated with these sponges. Following screening of fourteen fungi isolated from the deep-sea sponge Stelletta normani sampled at a depth of 751 metres, three halotolerant strains (TS2, TS11 and TS12) were identified which displayed high CMCase and xylanase activities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335528/pretreatment-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-with-ionic-liquids-and-ionic-liquid-based-solvent-systems
#3
REVIEW
Qidong Hou, Meiting Ju, Weizun Li, Le Liu, Yu Chen, Qian Yang
Pretreatment is very important for the efficient production of value-added products from lignocellulosic biomass. However, traditional pretreatment methods have several disadvantages, including low efficiency and high pollution. This article gives an overview on the applications of ionic liquids (ILs) and IL-based solvent systems in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. It is divided into three parts: the first deals with the dissolution of biomass in ILs and IL-based solvent systems; the second focuses on the fractionation of biomass using ILs and IL-based solvent systems as solvents; the third emphasizes the enzymatic saccharification of biomass after pretreatment with ILs and IL-based solvent systems...
March 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335221/mechanochemical-synthesis-of-tio%C3%A2-nanocomposites-as-photocatalysts-for-benzyl-alcohol-photo-oxidation
#4
Weiyi Ouyang, Ewelina Kuna, Alfonso Yepez, Alina M Balu, Antonio A Romero, Juan Carlos Colmenares, Rafael Luque
TiO₂ (anatase phase) has excellent photocatalytic performance and different methods have been reported to overcome its main limitation of high band gap energy. In this work, TiO₂-magnetically-separable nanocomposites (MAGSNC) photocatalysts with different TiO₂ loading were synthesized using a simple one-pot mechanochemical method. Photocatalysts were characterized by a number of techniques and their photocatalytic activity was tested in the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Extension of light absorption into the visible region was achieved upon titania incorporation...
May 18, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334391/sediment-anoxia-limits-microbial-driven-seagrass-carbon-remineralization-under-warming-conditions
#5
Stacey M Trevathan-Tackett, Justin R Seymour, Daniel A Nielsen, Peter I Macreadie, Thomas C Jeffries, Jonathan Sanderman, Jeff Baldock, Johanna M Howes, Andrew D L Steven, Peter Ralph
Seagrass ecosystems are significant carbon sinks, and their resident microbial communities ultimately determine the quantity and quality of carbon sequestered. However, environmental perturbations have been predicted to affect microbial-driven seagrass decomposition and subsequent carbon sequestration. Utilizing techniques including 16S-rDNA sequencing, solid-state NMR and microsensor profiling, we tested the hypothesis that elevated seawater temperatures and eutrophication enhance the microbial decomposition of seagrass leaf detritus and rhizome/root tissues...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331960/synthesis-gas-biorefinery
#6
N Dahmen, E Henrich, T Henrich
Synthesis gas or syngas is an intermediate, which can be produced by gasification from a variety of carbonaceous feedstocks including biomass. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen, the main constituents of syngas, can be subjected to a broad range of chemical and microbial synthesis processes, leading to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels as well as to platform and fine chemicals. Gasification of solid biomass differs from coal gasification by chemical composition, heating value, ash behavior, and other technical and biomass related issues...
March 23, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331545/metabolic-engineering-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-to-produce-a-reduced-viscosity-oil-from-lignocellulose
#7
Tam N T Tran, Rebecca J Breuer, Ragothaman Avanasi Narasimhan, Lucas S Parreiras, Yaoping Zhang, Trey K Sato, Timothy P Durrett
BACKGROUND: Acetyl-triacylglycerols (acetyl-TAGs) are unusual triacylglycerol (TAG) molecules that contain an sn-3 acetate group. Compared to typical triacylglycerol molecules (here referred to as long chain TAGs; lcTAGs), acetyl-TAGs possess reduced viscosity and improved cold temperature properties, which may allow direct use as a drop-in diesel fuel. Their different chemical and physical properties also make acetyl-TAGs useful for other applications such as lubricants and plasticizers...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331542/expression-of-a-heat-stable-nadph-dependent-alcohol-dehydrogenase-from-thermoanaerobacter-pseudethanolicus-39e-in-clostridium-thermocellum-1313-results-in-increased-hydroxymethylfurfural-resistance
#8
Sun-Ki Kim, Joseph Groom, Daehwan Chung, James Elkins, Janet Westpheling
BACKGROUND: Resistance to deconstruction is a major limitation to the use of lignocellulosic biomass as a substrate for the production of fuels and chemicals. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), the use of microbes for the simultaneous hydrolysis of lignocellulose into soluble sugars and fermentation of the resulting sugars to products of interest, is a potential solution to this obstacle. The pretreatment of plant biomass, however, releases compounds that are inhibitory to the growth of microbes used for CBP...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330308/construction-of-aspergillus-niger-integrated-with-cellulase-gene-from-ampullaria-gigas-spix-for-improved-enzyme-production-and-saccharification-of-alkaline-pretreated-rice-straw
#9
Peizhou Yang, Haifeng Zhang, Lili Cao, Zhi Zheng, Shaotong Jiang
Aspergillus niger is an important microorganism that has been used for decades to produce extracellular enzymes. In this study, a novel Aspergillus niger strain integrated with a eukaryotic expression vector harboring the gpd-Shi promoter of shiitake mushrooms and cellulase gene of Ampullaria gigas Spix was engineered to improve cellulase production for the achievement of highly efficient saccharification of agricultural residues. In one strain, designated ACShi27, which exhibited the highest total cellulase expression, total cellulase, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and xylanase expression levels were 1...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330307/effect-of-particle-size-moisture-content-and-supplements-on-selective-pretreatment-of-cotton-stalks-by-daedalea-flavida-and-enzymatic-saccharification
#10
Harmanpreet Meehnian, Asim K Jana, Mithu Maiti Jana
A large amount of cotton stalk waste biomass with high cellulose content are incinerated by the farmers causing air pollution. The high cellulose content of cotton stalks can be converted to fermentable sugars by fungal delignification pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and enzymatic saccharification. The effect of particle size, moisture content, and media supplements was studied for delignification of cotton stalks by Daedalea flavida MTCC 145 (DF-2) in solid-state fermentation. The highest lignolytic enzyme activities, optimal lignin degradation 29...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330274/evaluation-of-some-lignocellulosic-byproducts-of-food-industry-for-microbial-xylitol-production-by-candida-tropicalis
#11
Kubra Eryasar, Seda Karasu-Yalcin
Some lignocellulosic food byproducts such as potato peels, wheat bran, barley bran and chestnut shells were evaluated as potential sources of xylose for microbial xylitol production by yeasts. Potential yeast strains were selected after screening xylitol production of some indigenous yeasts in a defined fermentation medium. Candida tropicalis strains gave the highest results with 83.28 and 54.07 g/L xylitol production from 100 g/L xylose. Lignocellulosic materials were exposed to acid hydrolysis at different conditions...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330211/cellulase-production-using-natural-medium-and-its-application-on-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-thermo-chemically-pretreated-biomass
#12
Shivani Sharma, Vinay Sharma, Arindam Kuila
Lignocellulosic bioethanol is an important renewable fuel for transportation purpose. Commercial production of lignocellulosic bioethanol mainly depends on cost of cellulase production, efficient pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis process. In the present study cellulase production from Aspergillus niger under submerged fermentation (SmF) was optimized using coconut water as natural medium. Maximum cellulase production (0.53 IU/mL) was achieved within 3 days of incubation using 8 % (w/v) waste paper and 0...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330208/purification-and-characterization-of-%C3%AE-mannanase-from-aspergillus-terreus-and-its-applicability-in-depolymerization-of-mannans-and-saccharification-of-lignocellulosic-biomass
#13
Hemant Soni, Hemant Kumar Rawat, Brett I Pletschke, Naveen Kango
Aspergillus terreus FBCC 1369 was grown in solid-state culture under statistically optimized conditions. β-Mannanase was purified to apparent homogeneity by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. A purification factor of 10.3-fold was achieved, with the purified enzyme exhibiting specific activity of 53 U/mg protein. The purified β-mannanase was optimally active at pH 7.0 and 70 °C and displayed stability over a broad pH range of 4.0-8.0 and a 30 min half-life at 80 °C. The molecular weight of β-mannanase was calculated as ~49 kDa by SDS-PAGE...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330203/evaluation-of-several-ionic-liquids-for-in-situ-hydrolysis-of-empty-fruit-bunches-by-locally-produced-cellulase
#14
Amal Ahmed Elgharbawy, Md Zahangir Alam, Nassereldeen Ahmad Kabbashi, Muhammad Moniruzzaman, Parveen Jamal
Lignocellulosic biomasses, exhibit resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis due to the presence of lignin and hemicellulose. Ionic liquids proved their applicability in lignin degradation, however, ionic liquid removal has to be performed to proceed to hydrolysis. Therefore, this study reports an in situ hydrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) that combined an ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. For enzyme production, palm kernel cake (PKC) was used as the primary media for microbial cellulase (PKC-Cel) from Trichoderma reesei (RUTC30)...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330198/pretreatment-and-enzymatic-process-modification-strategies-to-improve-efficiency-of-sugar-production-from-sugarcane-bagasse
#15
Siddhartha Pal, Shereena Joy, Kalpana D Trimukhe, Pramod S Kumbhar, Anjani J Varma, Sasisanker Padmanabhan
Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis play a critical role in the economic production of sugars and fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we evaluated diverse pilot-scale pretreatments and different post-pretreatment strategies for the production of fermentable sugars from sugarcane bagasse. For the pretreatment of bagasse at pilot-scale level, steam explosion without catalyst and combination of sulfuric and oxalic acids at low and high loadings were used. Subsequently, to enhance the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated bagasse, three different post-pretreatment process schemes were investigated...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330185/agave-atrovirens-fibers-as-substrate-and-support-for-solid-state-fermentation-for-cellulase-production-by-trichoderma-asperellum
#16
Naivy Y Nava-Cruz, Juan C Contreras-Esquivel, Miguel A Aguilar-González, Alberto Nuncio, Raúl Rodríguez-Herrera, Cristóbal N Aguilar
Many efforts have been made to produce cellulase with better features and conditions, and filamentous fungi have played an important role in the bioprocess, growing in liquid and solid cultures with sugarcane bagasse, corn stover and others lignocellulosic materials. In the present study, Agave atrovirens fibers were partially characterized, thermal pretreated and used as support, substrate and inducer source for cellulolytic complex production by four strains of the genus Trichoderma, where T. asperellum was selected as the best option for this process after evaluating the enzyme activity and the invasion capacity on the pretreated Agave fibers...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330103/profiling-and-production-of-hemicellulases-by-thermophilic-fungus-malbranchea-flava-and-the-role-of-xylanases-in-improved-bioconversion-of-pretreated-lignocellulosics-to-ethanol
#17
Manju Sharma, Chhavi Mahajan, Manpreet S Bhatti, Bhupinder Singh Chadha
This study reports thermophilic fungus Malbranchea flava as a potent source of xylanase and xylan-debranching accessory enzymes. M. flava produced high levels of xylanase on sorghum straw containing solidified culture medium. The optimization of culture conditions for production of hemicellulases was carried out using one factor at a time approach and Box-Behnken design of experiments with casein (%), inoculum age (h) and inoculum level (ml) as process variables and xylanase, β-xylosidase, acetyl esterases and arabinofuranosidase as response variables...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325333/physicochemical-properties-of-carum-copticum-essential-oil-loaded-chitosan-films-containing-organic-nanoreinforcements
#18
Eisa Jahed, Mohammad Alizadeh Khaledabad, Hadi Almasi, Reza Hasanzadeh
The aim of this research was to prepare of bionanocomposite films based on chitosan (CH) incorporated with Carum copticum essential oil and reinforced with cellulose nanofibers (CNF) or lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNF). The FTIR analysis showed new interactions in bionanocomposites. AFM and SEM analyses showed an increased roughness for bionanocomposites but suggested good dispersion of CNF and LCNF in CH matrix. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the degree of crystallinity was increased by addition of CNF/LCNF...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324632/high-lignocellulosic-ethanol-yield-at-high-biomass-loading-is-possible
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323280/defining-the-functional-traits-that-drive-bacterial-decomposer-community-productivity
#20
Rachael Evans, Anna M Alessi, Susannah Bird, Simon J McQueen-Mason, Neil C Bruce, Michael A Brockhurst
Microbial communities are essential to a wide range of ecologically and industrially important processes. To control or predict how these communities function, we require a better understanding of the factors which influence microbial community productivity. Here, we combine functional resource use assays with a biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) experiment to determine whether the functional traits of constituent species can be used to predict community productivity. We quantified the abilities of 12 bacterial species to metabolise components of lignocellulose and then assembled these species into communities of varying diversity and composition to measure their productivity growing on lignocellulose, a complex natural substrate...
March 21, 2017: ISME Journal
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