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Diagnostic tool

Qin Zhang, Qing Zhang, Bing-Qi Sun, Chang Liu, An-Na Su, Xiao-Han Wang, Na Liu, Juan Zhang, Jian Kang, Gang Hou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Delayed diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) contribute to poor outcomes, especially for endobronchial TB (EBTB), which typically leads to tracheobronchial stenosis. Finding rapid and accurate diagnostic tools for EBTB is crucial. GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/rifampin (RIF) was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a standard molecular biological diagnostic technique for MTB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosing EBTB and for evaluating RIF resistance...
April 24, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Takahiko Matsushita, Koji Tsuchibuchi, Tetsuo Koyama, Ken Hatano, Koji Matsuoka
Bivalent glycoconjugates have a minimal valence with avidity potential on protein-carbohydrate interactions as well as simplicity of chemical structures enabling simple synthesis with low cost. Understanding the way to maximize the affinities of bivalent glycoconjugates is important for the development of cost-effective tools for therapeutic and diagnostic research. However, there has been little discussion about the effects of constraints imposed from ligand scaffolds on the binding abilities. We synthesized three kinds of biantennary N-acetylglucosamine glycosides with different scaffolds using isobutenyl bis(propargyl)ether as a common scaffold precursor...
April 19, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Dipali G Sashital
CRISPR-Cas systems have provided revolutionary tools for genome editing. The discovery of Cas proteins with alternative activities has now enabled sensitive and robust tools for detecting nucleic acids. Recent reports harnessing these new CRISPR-Cas technologies display their potential for providing low-cost and practical diagnostic tools for pathogen and disease detection.
April 24, 2018: Genome Medicine
Y Lin, H Ding, Y Zhuang, Y Zhang, Y L Zhu, W P Wang
Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of two-dimensional shear wave elastography(2D-SWE)in the assessment of hepatic fibrosis in a large-scale clinical setting. Methods: A total of 1 079 subjects who underwent partial hepatectomy were examined with 2D-SWE to measure liver stiffness before operation and the liver stiffness measurements were compared with histologic findings.The published cutoff values of liver stiffness examined with 2D-SWE were used as a reference, as 7.2, 9.2, and 10.4 kPa for diagnosing substantial fibrosis(S2), severe fibrosis(S3), and cirrhosis(S4), respectively...
April 17, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Birgit Spiess, Nicole Naumann, Norbert Galuschek, Sébastien Rinaldetti, Ute Kossak-Roth, Irina Tarnopolscaia, Elena Felde, Alice Fabarius, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann, Susanne Saußele, Wolfgang Seifarth
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is state of the art in molecular monitoring of minimal residual disease in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this context, maintenance of assay fidelity and detection of technical inaccuracy are crucial. Beside multiple common negative controls for the clinical sample preparations, quality control charts (QCC) are a common validation tool to sustain high process quality by continuously recording of qRT-PCR control parameters. Here, we report on establishment and benefit of QCC in qRT-PCR-based CML diagnostics...
2018: PloS One
Halima Dabaja-Younis, Yael Ben-Arie-Weintrob, Eytan Z Blumenthal, Imad Kassis
Uveitis is an inflammatory disease of the intraocular structures involving various parts of the eye. Delays in diagnosis or treatment can lead to severe and irreversible vision loss. There are many causes leading to the development of uveitis, including: infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune and idiopathic sources. Uveitis is rarer in children than in other age groups and its diagnosis is challenging and treatment is complex. This disease might present at later stages after vision damage is already present. Uveitis and decreased vision may be the presenting symptom and/or sign of various inflammatory diseases, which would become fully expressed many years later...
April 2018: Harefuah
Ashley N D Meyer, Pamela J Thompson, Arushi Khanna, Samir Desai, Benji K Mathews, Elham Yousef, Anita V Kusnoor, Hardeep Singh
Objective: Mobile applications for improving diagnostic decision making often lack clinical evaluation. We evaluated if a mobile application improves generalist physicians' appropriate laboratory test ordering and diagnosis decisions and assessed if physicians perceive it as useful for learning. Methods: In an experimental, vignette study, physicians diagnosed 8 patient vignettes with normal prothrombin times (PT) and abnormal partial thromboplastin times (PTT)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Neil S Lagali, Stephan Allgeier, Pedro Guimarães, Reza A Badian, Alfredo Ruggeri, Bernd Köhler, Tor Paaske Utheim, Beatrice Peebo, Magnus Peterson, Lars B Dahlin, Olov Rolandsson
A dense nerve plexus in the clear outer window of the eye, the cornea, can be imaged in vivo to enable non-invasive monitoring of peripheral nerve degeneration in diabetes. However, a limited field of view of corneal nerves, operator-dependent image quality, and subjective image sampling methods have led to difficulty in establishing robust diagnostic measures relating to the progression of diabetes and its complications. Here, we use machine-based algorithms to provide wide-area mosaics of the cornea's subbasal nerve plexus (SBP) also accounting for depth (axial) fluctuation of the plexus...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Data
Michelle F Huffaker, Michael Carchia, Bronwyn U Harris, William C Kethman, Todd E Murphy, Charlotte C D Sakarovitch, FeiFei Qin, David N Cornfield
RATIONALE: Asthma management depends on prompt identification of symptoms, which challenges both patients and providers. In asthma, a misapprehension of health between exacerbations can compromise compliance. Thus, there is a need for a tool that permits objective longitudinal monitoring without increasing the burden of patient compliance. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether changes in nocturnal physiology are associated with asthma symptoms in pediatric patients...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Thomas R Carey, Kristen L Cotner, Brian Li, Lydia L Sohn
Advancements in microfluidic technologies have led to the development of many new tools for both the characterization and sorting of single cells without the need for exogenous labels. Label-free microfluidics reduce the preparation time, reagents needed, and cost of conventional methods based on fluorescent or magnetic labels. Furthermore, these devices enable analysis of cell properties such as mechanical phenotype and dielectric parameters that cannot be characterized with traditional labels. Some of the most promising technologies for current and future development toward label-free, single-cell analysis and sorting include electronic sensors such as Coulter counters and electrical impedance cytometry; deformation analysis using optical traps and deformation cytometry; hydrodynamic sorting such as deterministic lateral displacement, inertial focusing, and microvortex trapping; and acoustic sorting using traveling or standing surface acoustic waves...
April 24, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
J Liu, S-Z Wang, Q-L Wang, J-G Du, B-B Wang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the placental exosome levels of normal pregnant women and pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in different gestational stages, and further investigate the effects of exosomes on the release of cytokines from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 20 pregnant women, including 13 normal pregnant women and seven pregnant women with GDM were selected. Blood samples were collected during the three gestational stages (from week 11 to week 14 in the first trimester, from week 22 to week 24 in the second trimester, and from week 32 to week 36 in the third trimester)...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
M Bianchetti, S Peralta, R Nicita, S E Aragona, G Ciprandi
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very common disorder. As there is no gold standard diagnostic tool, patient-based strategy is adopted in clinical practice. In this regard, there are questionnaires able to easily and rapidly assess symptom severity directly by the patient. The GERD Impact Scale (GIS) and the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) have been validated as diagnostic tools in routine clinical care. The present study aimed to correlate RIS values with GIS scores in a large cohort of GERD patients visited at gastroenterological clinics...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Laura Anfossi, Fabio Di Nardo, Margherita Profiti, Chiara Nogarol, Simone Cavalera, Claudio Baggiani, Cristina Giovannoli, Giulia Spano, Ezio Ferroglio, Walter Mignone, Sergio Rosati
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic infectious disease with a severe impact on humans and animals. Infection is transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, and several domestic and wild mammals act as reservoirs for the infection, so the prompt detection of infected hosts is crucial to preventing and controlling the spread of the disease and its transmission to humans. A rapid and portable tool for VL diagnosis based on the lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) technology is described herein. The device exploits a highly specific chimeric recombinant antigen as the recognition element for capturing anti-leishmanial antibodies, and protein A labelled with gold nanoparticles as the signal reporter...
April 23, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Thomas Obinchemti Egbe, Fidelia Mbi Kobenge, Metogo Mbengono Junette Arlette, Eugene Belley-Priso
Background: Pyosalpinges (a complication of pelvic inflammatory disease) is infection of the fallopian tubes and the morbidity associated with it has major health implications. We are reporting a case of pyosalpinges diagnosed after hysterosalpingography and managed by laparoscopic surgery at the Douala General Hospital, Cameroon. Case presentation: A 29-year-old single woman, an assistant nurse of the Douala tribe in Cameroon. She is G1P0010 and came to our attention because of secondary infertility of three years duration...
2018: Fertility Research and Practice
Jiyeon Kim, Soyoung Youn, Byeongil Choi, Kyung Hae Jung, Seung Do Ahn, Sook Yeon Hwang, Seockhoon Chung, Jaedam Lee
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS) as a screening tool for the breast cancer patients with psychological distress. Methods: All of 64 patients with breast cancer participated in this study. Patients' depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) when the DDS was applied to the partipicants. Results: Depressed patients used more enclosure in the Feeling drawings ( P = 0...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Ali Nour-Neamatollahi, Seyed Davar Siadat, Shamsi Yari, Alireza Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Nayereh Ebrahimzadeh, Farzam Vaziri, Abolfazl Fateh, Morteza Ghazanfari, Farid Abdolrahimi, Shahin Pourazar, Ahmadreza Bahrmand
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , acid fast bacilli from the family of Mycobacteriaceae , is the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis, as a communicable disease, remains a serious public health threat, killing more than one million people globally every year. Primary diagnosis of tuberculosis bacilli (TB) relies mainly on microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB), but the method suffers from low sensitivity and the results largely depend on the technician's skill. New diagnostic tools are necessary to be introduced for rapid and accurate detection of the bacilli in sputum samples...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Patryk J Woytala, Agata Sebastian, Katarzyna Błach, Jurand Silicki, Piotr Wiland
Septic arthritis is an inflammation of a joint caused directly by various microorganisms. It is often characterized by many unspecific symptoms. Bacteria is the most often etiological factor. We present a case report of a 76-years old woman with a unilateral septic arthritis of the sacroiliac joint. Bacterial sacroiliitis should be taken into account in patients with sacroiliitis and fever onset. Proper diagnosis can be very often difficult and delayed but fast implementation of antibiotic therapy is extremely important in the treatment process...
2018: Reumatologia
Katharina D C Stärk, Agnieszka Pękala, Petra Muellner
Diagnostic tools for the identification and confirmation of animal diseases have been evolving rapidly over the last decade, with diseases of aquatic animals being no exception. Hence, case definitions used in surveillance may now include molecular and genomic components and ultimately be based on the entire genome of a pathogen. While the opportunities brought on by this change in our ability to define and differentiate organisms are manifold, there are also challenges. These include the need to consider typing tool characteristics during sampling design, but also the re-thinking of diagnostic protocols and standards for the meaningful interpretation of the increasingly complex data presented to surveillance managers...
April 17, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Matthew L Speltz, Kathleen A Kapp-Simon, Alexis L Johns, Erin R Wallace, Brent R Collett, Leanne Magee, Brian G Leroux, Daniela V Luquetti, Carrie L Heike
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether infant cases with craniofacial microsomia (CFM) evidence poorer neurodevelopmental status than demographically similar infants without craniofacial diagnoses ("controls"), and to examine cases' neurodevelopmental outcomes by facial phenotype and hearing status. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, observational study of 108 cases and 84 controls aged 12-24 months. Participants were assessed by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition and the Preschool Language Scales-Fifth Edition (PLS-5)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Michael Gottlieb, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is potentially deadly and can present subtly with signs and symptoms overlapping with other clinical conditions. Delayed diagnosis can be fatal. OBJECTIVE: This review provides an evidence-based summary of the current data for the evaluation and management of RMSF in the emergency department. DISCUSSION: RMSF occurs through transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii by an infected tick. Exposure in the United States occurs most commonly from April to September, and high-risk locations include wooded, shrubby, or grassy areas...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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