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Stroke ischemia reperfusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344983/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-4-methylcyclopentadecanonein-rats-submitted-to-ischemic-stroke
#1
Yan Jin, Fang Wei, Xiaoli Dai, Min Qi, Yukui Ma
The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of 4-methylcyclopentadecanone (4-MCPC) in rats suffering from a cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, the focal cerebral ischemia in rats was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h, and the rats were treated with 4-MCPC (8 mg/kg) just 0.5 h before reperfusion. The ischemic infarct volume was recorded 24 h after the MCAO. In addition, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the ischemic cerebral cortex were determined by ELISA, while nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit and expression of p-IκBα were investigated by western blotting...
January 18, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337146/apelin-13-attenuates-er-stress-mediated-neuronal-apoptosis-by-activating-g%C3%AE-i-g%C3%AE-q-ck2-signaling-in-ischemic-stroke
#2
Fei Wu, Jian Qiu, Yang Fan, Qiuling Zhang, Baohua Cheng, Yili Wu, Bo Bai
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury-induced neuronal apoptosis contributes to the death and disability in patients with ischemic stroke. However, underlying mechanisms remain elusive and it lacks effective treatment. Here we reported that the expression of casein kinase 2 (CK2) was significantly reduced in brains of middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MACO/R) model rats and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) model neurons, which was associated with the activation of eIF2-ATF4-CHOP signaling pathway, leading to neuronal apoptosis...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336466/magnolol-protects-against-ischemic-reperfusion-brain-damage-following-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#3
Sheng-Yang Huang, Shih-Huang Tai, Che-Chao Chang, Yi-Fang Tu, Chih-Han Chang, E-Jian Lee
In the present study, the neuroprotective potential of magnolol against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury was examined via in vivo and in vitro experiments. Magnolol exhibited strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, and significantly inhibited the production of interleukin‑6, tumor necrosis factor‑a and nitrite/nitrate (NOX) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 and RAW 264.7 cells when applied at concentrations of 10 and 50 µM, respectively. Magnolol (100 µM) also significantly attenuated oxygen‑glucose deprivation‑induced damage in neonatal rat hippocampal slice cultures, when administered up to 4 h following the insult...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331305/tigar-inhibits-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-inflammatory-response-of-astrocytes
#4
Jieyu Chen, Ding-Mei Zhang, Xing Feng, Jian Wang, Yuan-Yuan Qin, Tian Zhang, Qiao Huang, Rui Sheng, Zhong Chen, Mei Li, Zheng-Hong Qin
The inflammatory response of glial cells contributes to neuronal damage or repair after brain ischemia/reperfusion insult. We previously demonstrated a protective role of TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) in ischemic neuronal injury through increasing the flow of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The present study investigated the possible role of TIGAR in ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammatory response of astrocytes. Male ICR mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by 24 h reperfusion and cultured primary astrocytes were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation for 9 h followed by 24 h reoxygenation (OGD/R)...
January 10, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323038/electroacupuncture-improves-neurovascular-unit-reconstruction-by-promoting-collateral-circulation-and-angiogenesis
#5
Lei Shi, Hong-Mei Cao, Ying Li, Shi-Xin Xu, Yan Zhang, Yang Zhang, Zhe-Feng Jin
Acupuncture at Shuigou (GV26) shows good clinical efficacy for treating stroke, but its mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, a cerebral infarction model of ischemia/reperfusion injury received electroacupuncture at GV26 (15 Hz and 1 mA, continuous wave [biphasic pulses], for 5 minutes). Electroacupuncture effectively promoted regional cerebral blood flow on the infarct and non-infarct sides, increased infarct lesions, lectin, and number of blood vessels, upregulated von Willebrand factor and cell proliferation marker Ki67 expression, and diminished neurological severity score...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322481/influence-of-thrombolysis-on-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-blocking-platelet-adhesion-or-secretory-activity-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#6
Michael K Schuhmann, Peter Kraft, Michael Bieber, Axel Haarmann, György A Homola, Mirko Pham, Bernhard Nieswandt, Guido Stoll
In acute ischemic stroke (AIS), there is an alarming discrepancy between recanalization rates of up to 70% by combined recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) therapy and mechanical thrombectomy, and no clinical benefit in at least every second stroke patient. This is partly due to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In a translational approach, we used mice lacking dense- (Unc13d -/- ) or α-granules (Nbeal2 -/- ) and mice after blocking of platelet glycoprotein receptor (GP) Ib conferring protection from I/R injury...
January 10, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315561/faim2-contributes-to-neuroprotection-by-erythropoietin-in-transient-brain-ischemia
#7
Daniel Komnig, Karen Gertz, Pardes Habib, Kay W Nolte, Tareq Meyer, Marc A Brockmann, Matthias Endres, Birgit Rathkolb, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Jörg B Schulz, Björn H Falkenburger, Arno Reich
Delayed cell death in the penumbra region of acute ischemic stroke occurs through apoptotic mechanisms, making it amenable to therapeutic interventions. Fas/CD95 mediates apoptotic cell death in response to external stimuli. In mature neurons, Fas/CD95 signaling is modulated by Fas-apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (Faim2), which reduces cell death in animal models of stroke, meningitis, and Parkinson disease. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been studied as a therapeutic strategy in ischemic stroke. Erythropoietin stimulates the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, which regulates Faim2 expression...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312600/mild-hypothermia-modulates-the-expression-of-nestin-and-caspase-3-in-the-sub-granular-zone-and-improves-neurological-outcomes-in-rats-with-ischemic-stroke
#8
Dan Yu, Xueying Wang, Feng Zhou, Liang Wang, Guoshuai Yang, Wei Zhong, Ying Li, Zhiping Zhou, Aiyue Wang, Yanhui Zhou
We assessed neurological outcomes, infarct volume, and the expression of nestin and caspase-3 in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion, with mild hypothermia (MH) treatment at the onset of ischemia in a MCAO rat model. Reperfusion began 2 hours after the MCAO model was set-up. MH treatment began at the onset of ischemia and was maintained for 4 hours. We evaluated neurological deficit score, brain infarct volumes, along with the immunohistochemical staining of nestin and caspase-3 in the sub-granular zone of the injured hemisphere on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14th day after the onset of ischemia...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307080/inhibition-of-peroxynitrite-induced-mitophagy-activation-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#9
Jinghan Feng, Xingmiao Chen, Binghe Guan, Caiming Li, Jinhua Qiu, Jiangang Shen
Activated autophagy/mitophagy has been intensively observed in ischemic brain, but its roles remain controversial. Peroxynitrite (ONOO-), as a representative of reactive nitrogen species, is considered as a critical neurotoxic factor in mediating cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but its roles in autophagy/mitophagy activation remain unclear. Herein, we hypothesized that ONOO- could induce PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy activation via triggering dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) recruitment to damaged mitochondria, contributing to cerebral I/R injury...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302794/evaluation-of-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-sirt3-in-experimental-stroke
#10
Rajkumar Verma, Rodney M Ritzel, Joshua Crapser, Brett D Friedler, Louise D McCullough
Sirtuins (Sirt) are a family of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins implicated in aging, cell cycle regulation, and metabolism. These proteins are involved in the epigenetic modification of neuromodulatory proteins after strokevia acetylation/deacetylation. The specific role of Sirt3, a mitochondrial sirtuin, in post-stroke injury has been relatively unexplored. Using male Sirt3 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type littermates (WT), we show that Sirt3 KO mice show significant neuroprotection at 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or stroke injury...
January 4, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299869/combination-therapy-with-low-dose-ivig-and-a-c1-esterase-inhibitor-ameliorates-brain-damage-and-functional-deficits-in-experimental-ischemic-stroke
#11
Xinzhi Chen, Thiruma V Arumugam, Yi-Lin Cheng, Jong-Hwan Lee, Srinivasulu Chigurupati, Mark P Mattson, Milan Basta
Acute ischemic stroke causes a high rate of deaths and permanent neurological deficits in survivors. Current interventional treatment, in the form of enzymatic thrombolysis, benefits only a small percentage of patients. Brain ischemia triggers mobilization of innate immunity, specifically the complement system and Toll-like receptors (TLRs), ultimately leading to an exaggerated inflammatory response. Here we demonstrate that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a scavenger of potentially harmful complement fragments, and C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), an inhibitor of complement activation, exert a beneficial effect on the outcome of experimental brain ischemia (I) and reperfusion (R) injury induced by transient occlusion of middle cerebral artery in mice...
January 3, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298658/hemopexin-promotes-angiogenesis-via-up-regulating-ho-1-in-rats-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#12
Beibei Dong, Zhishen Zhang, Keliang Xie, Yongyan Yang, Yuan Shi, Chenxu Wang, Yonghao Yu
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a critical pathophysiological change of ischemic stroke. Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a rate-limiting enzyme of eliminating excessive free heme by combining with hemopexin (HPX), a plasma protein contributing to alleviating infarct size due to ischemia stroke. This study was to investigate whether HPX could improve angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion via up-regulating HO-1. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham, MCAO, MCAO + Vehicle, MCAO + HPX and MCAO + HPX + protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX, an HO-1 inhibitor)...
January 3, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295526/inhibition-of-aquaporin-4-improves-the-outcome-of-ischaemic-stroke-and-modulates-brain-paravascular-drainage-pathways
#13
Ionica Pirici, Tudor Adrian Balsanu, Catalin Bogdan, Claudiu Margaritescu, Tamir Divan, Vacaras Vitalie, Laurentiu Mogoanta, Daniel Pirici, Roxana Octavia Carare, Dafin Fior Muresanu
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the most abundant water channel in the brain, and its inhibition before inducing focal ischemia, using the AQP4 inhibitor TGN-020, has been showed to reduce oedema in imaging studies. Here, we aimed to evaluate, for the first time, the histopathological effects of a single dose of TGN-020 administered after the occlusion of the medial cerebral artery (MCAO). On a rat model of non-reperfusion ischemia, we have assessed vascular densities, albumin extravasation, gliosis, and apoptosis at 3 and 7 days after MCAO...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291393/patchouli-alcohol-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-brain-injury-via-inhibiting-neuroinflammation-in-normal-and-obese-mice
#14
Li-Li Wei, Yong Chen, Qiong-Yang Yu, Yuhui Wang, George Liu
Almost all of the candidate drugs for ischemic stroke failed to be translated from bench to beside. One important reason is that animals used in experimental studies cannot mimic ischemic patients due to lack of comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Therefore, it is better to test candidate drugs not only in normal animals but also in animals with comorbidities. Patchouli alcohol (PA), a natural tricyclic sesquiterpene in the traditional Chinese herb Pogostemonisherba, is well recognized for its anti-inflammation function in various inflammatory diseases...
December 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290948/puerarin-attenuates-locomotor-and-cognitive-deficits-as-well-as-hippocampal-neuronal-injury-through-the-pi3k-akt1-gsk-3%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-in-an-in-vivo-model-of-cerebral-ischemia
#15
Jinhao Tao, Yuehua Cui, Yu Duan, Nan Zhang, Congmin Wang, Fayong Zhang
Ischemic stroke causes irreversible damage to the brain. The hippocampus is a vulnerable region and plays an important role in cognition and locomotor activity. Puerarin is a phytoestrogen that has beneficial effects in treating neurological disorders. How puerarin protects against hippocampal injury and its molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Transient global brain ischemia was induced by 4-vessel occlusion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were pretreated with puerarin alone or together with LY294002 (an PI3K inhibitor) before ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288767/surprising-outcomes-in-cannabinoid-cb1-cb2-receptor-double-knockout-mice-in-two-models-of-ischemia
#16
Sara Jane Ward, Francesca Castelli, Zachary W Reichenbach, Ronald F Tuma
AIMS: We tested the hypothesis that CB1/CB2 receptor double knockout would produce significant increases in infarct size and volume and significant worsening in clinical score, using two mouse models, one of permanent ischemia and one of ischemia/reperfusion. MAIN METHODS: Focal cerebral infarcts were created using either photo induced permanent injury or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Infarct volume and motor function were evaluated in cannabinoid receptor 1/cannabinoid receptor 2 double knockout mice...
December 27, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277912/a-hemorrhagic-transformation-model-of-mechanical-stroke-therapy-with-acute-hyperglycemia-in-mice
#17
David Couret, Steeve Bourane, Aurélie Catan, Brice Nativel, Cynthia Planesse, Anne-Claire Dorsemans, Imade Ait-Arsa, Maxime Cournot, Philippe Rondeau, Jessica Patche, Alexy Tran-Dinh, Gilles Lambert, Nicolas Diotel, Olivier Meilhac
Clinical benefit for mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in stroke was recently demonstrated in multiple large prospective studies. Acute hyperglycemia is an important risk factor of poor outcome in stroke patients, including those that underwent MT. The aim of this therapy is to achieve a complete reperfusion in a short time, given that reperfusion damage is dependent on the duration of ischemia. Here, we investigated the effects of acute hyperglycemia in a mouse model of ischemic stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277709/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-protects-against-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-an-experimental-model-of-stroke
#18
Janet M Menzie-Suderam, Payam Mohammad-Gharibani, Jigar Modi, Zea Ma, Rui Tao, Howard Prentice, Jang-Yen Wu
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is an endogenous growth factor that exhibits a diverse range of neuroprotective mechanisms against a variety of neurological disorders including ischemic stroke. We investigated the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of G-CSF against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced apoptosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 90 minutes. Rats were injected with G-CSF (n= 15; 50ug/kg body weight s.c.) for 4 days, starting 24 hours post-MCAO and brains were harvested after 4 days reperfusion (n=16)...
December 22, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275501/baicalin-attenuates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-hemorrhagic-transformation-and-improves-neurological-outcome-in-ischemic-stroke-rats-with-delayed-t-pa-treatment-involvement-of-onoo-mmp-9-pathway
#19
Hansen Chen, Binghe Guan, Xi Chen, Xingmiao Chen, Caiming Li, Jinhua Qiu, Dan Yang, Ke Jian Liu, Suhua Qi, Jiangang Shen
Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) has a restrictive therapeutic window within 4.5 h after ischemic stroke with the risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) and neurotoxicity when it is used beyond the time window. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that baicalin, an active compound of medicinal plant, could attenuate HT in cerebral ischemia stroke with delayed t-PA treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 4.5 h and then continuously received t-PA infusion (10 mg/kg) for 0...
December 23, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262429/blood-pressure-management-for-acute-ischemic-and-hemorrhagic-stroke-the-evidence
#20
Sang-Bae Ko, Byung-Woo Yoon
Hypertension is the most common modifiable risk factor for stroke (both ischemic and hemorrhagic types). In the hyperacute phase, a majority of patients shows an elevated blood pressure (BP) at the time of presentation because of sympathetic hyperactivity or a physiological response to tissue ischemia. Therefore, BP may decrease spontaneously in a few hours and may drop further when complete recanalization is achieved. In stroke guidelines, an elevated BP is usually left untreated up to a systolic BP (SBP) of 220 mm Hg and a diastolic BP of 120 mm Hg...
December 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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