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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332209/the-rapid-diagnosis-of-viral-respiratory-tract-infections-and-its-impact-on-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs
#1
Şiran Keske, Önder Ergönül, Faik Tutucu, Doruk Karaaslan, Erhan Palaoğlu, Füsun Can
We aimed to describe the potential benefit of new rapid molecular respiratory tests (MRT) in decreasing inappropriate antibiotic use among the inpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). We included patients from inpatient and outpatient departments who had ILI and performed MRT between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016 in a 265-bed private hospital in Istanbul. At the end of 2015, we implemented antimicrobial stewardship including systematic use of MRT. Then, we compared our observations between the year 2015 and the year 2016...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332148/occurrence-of-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-and-their-associated-environmental-risks-in-a-large-shallow-lake-in-north-china
#2
Panwei Zhang, Huaidong Zhou, Kun Li, Xiaohui Zhao, Qiaona Liu, Dongjiao Li, Gaofeng Zhao
Eighteen selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), consisting of five non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals (N-APs), four sulfonamides (SAs), four tetracyclines (TCs), four macrolides (MCs), and one quinolone (QN) were detected in water, pore water, and sediment samples from Baiyangdian Lake, China. A total of 31 water samples and 29 sediment samples were collected in March 2017. Caffeine was detected with 100% frequency in surface water, pore water, and sediment samples. Carbamazepine was detected with 100% frequency in surface water and sediment samples...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331832/investigations-on-a-cryopreservation-protocol-for-long-term-storage-of-psittacine-spermatozoa-using-cockatiel-semen-as-an-example
#3
H Schneider, D Fischer, K Failing, C Ehling, S Meinecke-Tillmann, A Wehrend, M Lierz
The aim of the present study was the establishment of an effective protocol for cryopreservation of psittacine semen. Therefore, pooled semen samples of 30 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) were diluted with modified Lake diluent (1:4), partitioned into four equal parts. Three portions were mixed with three cryoprotectants (dimethylacetamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol) in 4%, 8% and 12% final concentration, respectively, whereas the 4rth part served as control. Altogether, 96 incremental diluted semen samples were obtained for investigation...
December 16, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331279/dynamics-of-spatiotemporal-distribution-of-schistosomiasis-in-hubei-province-china
#4
Yan-Yan Chen, Jian-Bing Liu, Yong Jiang, Guo Li, Xiao-Wei Shan, Juan Zhang, Shun-Xiang Cai, Xi-Bao Huang
Schistosomiasis caused by parasitic flatworms of blood flukes, remains a major public health concern in China. The significant progress in controlling schistosomiasis in China over the past decades has resulted in the remarkable reduction in the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma japonicum infection to an extremely low level. Therefore, the elimination of schistosomiasis has been promoted by the Chinese national government. Hubei Province is the major endemic area, that is, along the middle and low reaches of the Yangtze River in the lake and marshland regions of southern China...
January 10, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330969/is-salinity-an-obstacle-for-biological-invasions
#5
Filipa Paiva, Andrea Barco, Yiyong Chen, Alireza Mirzajani, Farrah T Chan, Velda Lauringson, Miguel Baltazar-Soares, Aibin Zhan, Sarah A Bailey, Jamileh Javidpour, Elizabeta Briski
Invasions of freshwater habitats by marine and brackish species have become more frequent in recent years with many of those species originating from the Ponto-Caspian region. Populations of Ponto-Caspian species have successfully established in the North and Baltic Seas and their adjoining rivers, as well as in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River region. To determine if Ponto-Caspian taxa more readily acclimatize to and colonize diverse salinity habitats than taxa from other regions, we conducted laboratory experiments on 22 populations of eight gammarid species native to the Ponto-Caspian, Northern European and Great Lakes-St...
January 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330538/flux-of-the-biogenic-volatiles-isoprene-and-dimethyl-sulfide-from-an-oligotrophic-lake
#6
Michael Steinke, Bettina Hodapp, Rameez Subhan, Thomas G Bell, Dominik Martin-Creuzburg
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) affect atmospheric chemistry, climate and regional air quality in terrestrial and marine atmospheres. Although isoprene is a major BVOC produced in vascular plants, and marine phototrophs release dimethyl sulfide (DMS), lakes have been widely ignored for their production. Here we demonstrate that oligotrophic Lake Constance, a model for north temperate deep lakes, emits both volatiles to the atmosphere. Depth profiles indicated that highest concentrations of isoprene and DMS were associated with the chlorophyll maximum, suggesting that their production is closely linked to phototrophic processes...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329710/hydride-generation-coupled-with-thioglycolic-acid-coated-gold-nanoparticles-as-simple-and-sensitive-headspace-colorimetric-assay-for-visual-detection-of-sb-iii
#7
Tesfaye Tolessa, Zhi-Qiang Tan, Jing-Fu Liu
Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element which causes different health problems including cardiac problems and lung cancer in humans, and its levels in surface water can be noticeably increased to 100 μg/L typically in the proximity of anthropogenic sources. Thus, besides instrumental techniques, it is of great significance to develop a simple, sensitive and selective analytical method for direct analysis of Sb(III) at trace level without the need of any expensive and/or complicated instrumentations and sample preparation processes...
April 3, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329417/effects-of-alcohol-cues-on-mrs-glutamate-levels-in-the-anterior-cingulate
#8
Hu Cheng, Derek Kellar, Allison Lake, Peter Finn, George V Rebec, Shalmali Dharmadhikari, Ulrike Dydak, Sharlene Newman
Growing evidence suggests that glutamate neurotransmission plays a critical role in alcohol addiction. Cue-induced change of glutamate has been observed in animal studies but never been investigated in humans. This work investigates cue-induced change in forebrain glutamate in individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD). A total of 35 subjects (17 individuals with AUD and 18 healthy controls) participated in this study. The glutamate concentration was measured with single-voxel 1H-MR spectroscopy at the dorsal anterior cingulate...
January 10, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327645/identification-and-characterization-of-chitinolytic-bacteria-isolated-from-a-freshwater-lake
#9
Dinh Minh Tran, Hayuki Sugimoto, Dzung Anh Nguyen, Takeshi Watanabe, Kazushi Suzuki
To develop a novel type of biocontrol agent, we focus on bacteria that are characterized by both chitinase activity and biofilm development. Chitinolytic bacteria were isolated from sediments and chitin flakes immersed in the water of a sand dune lake, Sakata, in Niigata, Japan. Thirty-one isolates from more than 5100 isolated strains were examined chitinase activity and biofilm formation. Phylogenetic analysis of these isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most isolates belonged to the family Aeromonadaceae, followed by Paenibacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Neisseriaceae...
January 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327177/influence-of-sampling-frequency-and-load-calculation-methods-on-quantification-of-annual-river-nutrient-and-suspended-solids-loads
#10
Ahmed Elwan, Ranvir Singh, Maree Patterson, Jon Roygard, Dave Horne, Brent Clothier, Geoffrey Jones
Better management of water quality in streams, rivers and lakes requires precise and accurate estimates of different contaminant loads. We assessed four sampling frequencies (2 days, weekly, fortnightly and monthly) and five load calculation methods (global mean (GM), rating curve (RC), ratio estimator (RE), flow-stratified (FS) and flow-weighted (FW)) to quantify loads of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N), soluble inorganic nitrogen (SIN), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS), in the Manawatu River, New Zealand...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325068/emergence-of-non-falciparum-plasmodium-infection-despite-regular-artemisinin-combination-therapy-in-a-18-month-longitudinal-study-of-ugandan-children-and-their-mothers
#11
Martha Betson, Sarah Clifford, Michelle Stanton, Narcis B Kabatereine, J Russell Stothard
As part of a longitudinal cohort investigation of intestinal schistosomiasis and malaria in Ugandan children and their mothers on the shorelines of Lakes Victoria and Albert, we documented risk factors and morbidity associated with non-falciparum Plasmodium infections and the longitudinal dynamics of Plasmodium species in children. Host age, household location and P. falciparum infection were strongly associated with non-falciparum Plasmodium infections, and P. malariae infection was associated with splenomegaly...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324791/sediment-biomarkers-elucidate-the-holocene-ontogeny-of-a-shallow-lake
#12
T E Arnold, W F Kenney, J H Curtis, T S Bianchi, M Brenner
We carried out geochemical analyses on a sediment core from Lake Harris, Florida (USA) to identify sources of organic matter to the sediment throughout the Holocene, and relate changes in those sources to shifts in past climate and environmental conditions. We hypothesized that the sources of organic matter changed in response to regional hydrologic shifts following de-glaciation, and to human population expansion in the state during the 20th century. Hydroclimate shifts in Florida were related to: 1) a steady rise in relative sea level and the fresh water table that began in the early Holocene, 2) wetland formation and expansion ca...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324647/mapping-early-middle-and-late-rice-extent-using-sentinel-1a-and-landsat-8-data-in-the-poyang-lake-plain-china
#13
Haifeng Tian, Mingquan Wu, Li Wang, Zheng Niu
Areas and spatial distribution information of paddy rice are important for managing food security, water use, and climate change. However, there are many difficulties in mapping paddy rice, especially mapping multi-season paddy rice in rainy regions, including differences in phenology, the influence of weather, and farmland fragmentation. To resolve these problems, a novel multi-season paddy rice mapping approach based on Sentinel-1A and Landsat-8 data is proposed. First, Sentinel-1A data were enhanced based on the fact that the backscattering coefficient of paddy rice varies according to its growth stage...
January 11, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322690/microbially-mediated-aluminosilicate-formation-in-acidic-anaerobic-environments-a-cell-scale-chemical-perspective
#14
J Sánchez-España, K Wang, C Falagán, I Yusta, W D Burgos
Through the use of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with other complementary techniques (SEM, cryo-TEM, HRTEM, and EELS), we have studied the interaction of microorganisms inhabiting deep anoxic waters of acidic pit lakes with dissolved aluminum, silica, sulfate, and ferrous iron. These elements were close to saturation (Al, SiO2 ) or present at very high concentrations (0.12 m Fe(II), 0.12-0.22 m SO42- ) in the studied systems. The anaerobic conditions of these environments allowed investigation of geomicrobial interactions that are difficult to see in oxidized, Fe(III)-rich environments...
January 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321870/contrasting-genetic-metrics-and-patterns-among-naturalized-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-in-two-patagonian-lakes-differentially-impacted-by-trout-aquaculture
#15
Cristian B Canales-Aguirre, Lisa W Seeb, James E Seeb, María I Cádiz, Selim S Musleh, Ivan Arismendi, Gonzalo Gajardo, Ricardo Galleguillos, Daniel Gomez-Uchida
Different pathways of propagation and dispersal of non-native species into new environments may have contrasting demographic and genetic impacts on established populations. Repeated introductions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to Chile in South America, initially through stocking and later through aquaculture escapes, provide a unique setting to contrast these two pathways. Using a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms, we found contrasting genetic metrics and patterns among naturalized trout in Lake Llanquihue, Chile's largest producer of salmonid smolts for nearly 50 years, and Lake Todos Los Santos (TLS), a reference lake where aquaculture has been prohibited by law...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321692/geobacteraceae-are-important-members-of-mercury-methylating-microbial-communities-of-sediments-impacted-by-waste-water-releases
#16
Andrea G Bravo, Jakob Zopfi, Moritz Buck, Jingying Xu, Stefan Bertilsson, Jeffra K Schaefer, John Poté, Claudia Cosio
Microbial mercury (Hg) methylation in sediments can result in bioaccumulation of the neurotoxin methylmercury (MMHg) in aquatic food webs. Recently, the discovery of the gene hgcA, required for Hg methylation, revealed that the diversity of Hg methylators is much broader than previously thought. However, little is known about the identity of Hg-methylating microbial organisms and the environmental factors controlling their activity and distribution in lakes. Here, we combined high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and hgcA genes with the chemical characterization of sediments impacted by a waste water treatment plant that releases significant amounts of organic matter and iron...
January 10, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321574/impact-of-climate-change-and-human-activity-on-soil-landscapes-over-the-past-12-300-years
#17
Leo Rothacker, Anthony Dosseto, Alexander Francke, Allan R Chivas, Nathalie Vigier, Anna M Kotarba-Morley, Davide Menozzi
Soils are key to ecosystems and human societies, and their critical importance requires a better understanding of how they evolve through time. However, identifying the role of natural climate change versus human activity (e.g. agriculture) on soil evolution is difficult. Here we show that for most of the past 12,300 years soil erosion and development were impacted differently by natural climate variability, as recorded by sediments deposited in Lake Dojran (Macedonia/Greece): short-lived ( < 1,000 years) climatic shifts had no effect on soil development but impacted soil erosion...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321297/gradual-plasticity-alters-population-dynamics-in-variable-environments-thermal-acclimation-in-the-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhartdii
#18
Colin T Kremer, Samuel B Fey, Aldo A Arellano, David A Vasseur
Environmental variability is ubiquitous, but its effects on populations are not fully understood or predictable. Recent attention has focused on how rapid evolution can impact ecological dynamics via adaptive trait change. However, the impact of trait change arising from plastic responses has received less attention, and is often assumed to optimize performance and unfold on a separate, faster timescale than ecological dynamics. Challenging these assumptions, we propose that gradual plasticity is important for ecological dynamics, and present a study of the plastic responses of the freshwater green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as it acclimates to temperature changes...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320442/optimization-of-fermentation-conditions-and-bench-scale-for-improvement-of-a-novel-glycoprotein-gp-1-production-by-streptomyces-kanasenisi-zx01
#19
Yong Zhou, Xin Zhou, Dai-Lin Yu, Bu Sang, Jun-Tao Feng, Li-Rong Han, Xing Zhang
GP-1 is a novel glycoprotein produced by Streptomyces kanasenisi ZX01 that was isolated from soil near Kanas Lake with significant bioactivity against tobacco mosaic virus. However, extremely low fermentation production has largely hindered further research and market applications on glycoprotein GP-1. In this study, response surface methodology was used to optimize fermentation conditions in a shake flask for higher glycoprotein GP-1 production. When the optimized fermentation conditions were inoculum volume of 6%, initial pH of 6...
January 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319530/coomassie-blue-g250-for-visualization-of-active-bacteria-from-lake-environment-and-culture
#20
Bartosz Kiersztyn, Waldemar Siuda, Ryszard Chróst
Bacteria play a fundamental role in the cycling of nutrients in aquatic environments. A precise distinction between active and inactive bacteria is crucial for the description of this process. We have evaluated the usefulness of Coomassie Blue G250 for fluorescent staining of protein containing potentially highly active bacteria. We found that the G250 solution has excitation and emission properties appropriate for direct epifluorescence microscopy observations. It enables fast and effective fluorescent visualization of living, protein-rich bacteria, both in freshwater environment and culture...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
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