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Igor S Pessi, Yannick Lara, Benoit Durieu, Pedro de C Maalouf, Elie Verleyen, Annick Wilmotte
The terrestrial Antarctic Realm has recently been divided into 16 Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions (ACBRs) based on environmental properties and the distribution of biota. Despite their prominent role in the primary production and nutrient cycling in Antarctic lakes, cyanobacteria were only poorly represented in the biological dataset used to delineate these ACBRs. Here we provide a first high-throughput sequencing (HTS) insight into the spatial distribution of benthic cyanobacterial communities in Antarctic lakes located in four distinct, geographically distant ACBRs and covering a range of limnological conditions...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Yanmeng Shi, Shi Che, Kuan Zhou, Supeng Ge, Ziqi Pi, Timothy Espiritu, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Yafis Barlas, Roger Lake, Chun Ning Lau
As the Fermi level and band structure of two-dimensional materials are readily tunable, they constitute an ideal platform for exploring the Lifshitz transition, a change in the topology of a material's Fermi surface. Using tetralayer graphene that host two intersecting massive Dirac bands, we demonstrate multiple Lifshitz transitions and multiband transport, which manifest as a nonmonotonic dependence of conductivity on the charge density n and out-of-plane electric field D, anomalous quantum Hall sequences and Landau level crossings that evolve with n, D, and B...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Kenneth Fung, Johanna Lake, Lee Steel, Kelly Bryce, Yona Lunsky
Few studies have examined interventions or therapeutic processes that may help parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) manage their stress. This study examines the impact of a brief Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) group intervention, led by parents, among a cohort of 33 mothers of children with ASD. Changes in ACT process measures (psychological flexibility, cognitive fusion, values) were evaluated at pre, post, and 3 months following the intervention. Mothers reported significant improvement post-intervention in psychological flexibility, cognitive fusion, and value-consistent activities in multiple life domains, including parenting, relationships, and self-care...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Richard Potts, Anna K Behrensmeyer, J Tyler Faith, Christian A Tryon, Alison S Brooks, John E Yellen, Alan L Deino, Rahab Kinyanjui, Jennifer B Clark, Catherine Haradon, Naomi E Levin, Hanneke J M Meijer, Elizabeth G Veatch, R Bernhart Owen, Robin W Renaut
Development of the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) before 300 thousand years ago (ka) raises the question of how environmental change influenced the evolution of behaviors characteristic of early Homo sapiens We use temporally well-constrained sedimentological and paleoenvironmental data to investigate environmental dynamics before and after the appearance of the early MSA in the Olorgesailie Basin, Kenya. In contrast to the Acheulean archeological record in the same basin, MSA sites are associated with a dramatically different faunal community, more pronounced erosion-deposition cycles, tectonic activity, and enhanced wet-dry variability...
March 15, 2018: Science
Pankaj Soni, Pravata K Pradhan, T R Swaminathan, Neeraj Sood
A cell line, designated as PHF, has been established from caudal fin of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. The cell line was developed using explant method and PHF cells have been subcultured for more than 72 passages over a period of 14 months. The cells were able to grow at temperatures between 24 and 32° C, with an optimum temperature of 28° C. The growth rate of PHF cells was directly proportional to FBS concentration, with optimum growth observed at 20% FBS concentration. On the basis of immunophenotyping assay, PHF cells were confirmed to be of epithelial type...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Sarah J Adamowicz, María Cristina Marinone, Silvina Menu Marque, Jeffery W Martin, Daniel C Allen, Michelle N Pyle, Patricio R De Los Ríos-Escalante, Crystal N Sobel, Carla Ibañez, Julio Pinto, Jonathan D S Witt
Ancient lakes are renowned for their exceptional diversity of endemic species. As model systems for the study of sympatric speciation, it is necessary to understand whether a given hypothesized species flock is of monophyletic or polyphyletic origin. Here, we present the first molecular characterization of the Hyalella (Crustacea: Amphipoda) species complex of Lake Titicaca, using COI and 28S DNA sequences, including samples from the connected Small and Large Lakes that comprise Lake Titicaca, as well as from a broader survey of southern South American sites...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Yan Lu, Lianjie Meng, Yan Gao, Dongli Liao, Yongxin Li, Yongxing Ai, Yuqin Ma, Cong Yu
Metal ions sensing play critical roles in environmental monitoring and in biology. In this assay, we report the development of a facile fluorometric method for the sensing of Ag+ ions via the in situ formation of metal coordination polymer, based on the selective interactions of GSH with Ag+ . The formation of coordination polymer with net multiple negative charges in an aqueous buffer solution (Tris-HAc, pH 9.0) resulted in aggregation and fluorescence quenching of a cationic perylene probe. The difference in emission intensity spurred us to develop a new strategy for sensing Ag+ ions...
March 12, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Qingfei Zeng, Erik Jeppesen, Xiaohong Gu, Zhigang Mao, Huihui Chen
The spatial-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their source, and potential health risks were determined in overlying water and surface sediments from Chinese Lake Guchenghu, adjacent commercial mitten crab ponds and the connected Wushen Canal to assess the contamination profile of the area. The total PAHs concentrations in sediment and water were 86.7-1790 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) and 184-365 ng L-1 in summer and 184-3140 ng g-1 dw and 410-1160 ng L-1 in winter. Two- and 3-ring PAHs were the predominant compounds in water, while PAHs with 4-6 rings dominated in the sediment at both upstream and downstream sites...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Ian Hewson, Kalia S I Bistolas, Jason B Button, Elliot W Jackson
Decades of research have demonstrated the crucial importance of viruses in freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies have focused on the seasonal dynamics and potential hosts of RNA viruses. We surveyed microbial-sized (i.e. 5-0.2 μm) mixed community plankton transcriptomes for RNA viral genomes and investigated their distribution between microbial and macrobial plankton over a seasonal cycle across three temperate lakes by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). A total of 30 contigs bearing similarity to RNA viral genomes were recovered from a global assembly of 30 plankton RNA libraries...
2018: PloS One
Eugeniya I Bekker, Dmitry P Karabanov, Yan R Galimov, Christoph R Haag, Tatiana V Neretina, Alexey A Kotov
Species with a large geographic distributions present a challenge for phylogeographic studies due to logistic difficulties of obtaining adequate sampling. For instance, in most species with a Holarctic distribution, the majority of studies has concentrated on the European or North American part of the distribution, with the Eastern Palearctic region being notably understudied. Here, we study the phylogeography of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna Straus, 1820 (Crustacea: Cladocera), based on partial mitochondrial COI sequences and using specimens from populations spread longitudinally from westernmost Europe to easternmost Asia, with many samples from previously strongly understudied regions in Siberia and Eastern Asia...
2018: PloS One
Irena F Creed, Ann-Kristin Bergström, Charles G Trick, Nancy B Grimm, Dag O Hessen, Jan Karlsson, Karen A Kidd, Emma Kritzberg, Diane M McKnight, Erika C Freeman, Oscar E Senar, Agneta Andersson, Jenny Ask, Martin Berggren, Mehdi Cherif, Reiner Giesler, Erin R Hotchkiss, Pirkko Kortelainen, Monica M Palta, Tobias Vrede, Gesa A Weyhenmeyer
Northern ecosystems are experiencing some of the most dramatic impacts of global change on Earth. Rising temperatures, hydrological intensification, changes in atmospheric acid deposition and associated acidification recovery, and changes in vegetative cover are resulting in fundamental changes in terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages. The effects of global change are readily observed in alterations in the supply of dissolved organic matter (DOM) - the messenger between terrestrial and lake ecosystems - with potentially profound effects on the structure and function of lakes...
March 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Junling Long, H S Ku, Xian Wu, Xiu Gu, Russell E Lake, Mustafa Bal, Yu-Xi Liu, David P Pappas
Quantum networks will enable extraordinary capabilities for communicating and processing quantum information. These networks require a reliable means of storage, retrieval, and manipulation of quantum states at the network nodes. A node receives one or more coherent inputs and sends a conditional output to the next cascaded node in the network through a quantum channel. Here, we demonstrate this basic functionality by using the quantum interference mechanism of electromagnetically induced transparency in a transmon qubit coupled to a superconducting resonator...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Hongyi Qin, Cheng Han, Zhiwei Jin, Ling Wu, Huan Deng, Guangwei Zhu, Wenhui Zhong
AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore the vertical distribution traits of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacterial relative abundance and community composition along the oxic/anoxic sediment profiles in a shallow lake. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Illumina Miseq-based sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reactions were utilized to analyze relative abundance of anammox hydrazine synthase (hzsβ) gene in comparison with bacterial 16S rRNA genes, anammox bacterial relative abundance (the number of anammox sequences divided by total number of sequences), community composition and diversity in sediments...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
María de Jesús González-Guadarrama, Ma Aurora Armienta-Hernández, André H Rosa
Aiming to determine the relationship between source and complexing capacity, humic substances obtained from three sites (Sorocaba and Itapanhau Brasilian rivers, and Xochimilco Lake in Mexico) were studied. Copper, manganese, zinc and arsenic complexing capacity were determined for the three substances under various pH conditions. Results showed similar complexing capacity for the three elements depending on the chemistry of each one and on the physico-chemical conditions. Speciation diagrams showed that these conditions affect both, the humic substances, and the transition metals and arsenic...
March 14, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shuai Zhao, Jun-Jie Liu, Samiran Banerjee, Na Zhou, Zhen-Yong Zhao, Ke Zhang, Chang-Yan Tian
While saline soils account for 6.5% of the total land area globally, it comprises about 70% of the area in northwestern China. Microbiota in these saline soils are particularly important because they are critical to maintaining ecosystem services. However, little is known about the microbial diversity and community composition in saline soils. To investigate the distribution patterns and edaphic determinants of bacterial communities in saline soils, we collected soil samples across the hypersaline Ebinur Lake shoreline in northwestern China and assessed soil bacterial communities using bar-coded pyrosequencing...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Poul Christoffersen, Marion Bougamont, Alun Hubbard, Samuel H Doyle, Shane Grigsby, Rickard Pettersson
Supraglacial lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet are expanding inland, but the impact on ice flow is equivocal because interior surface conditions may preclude the transfer of surface water to the bed. Here we use a well-constrained 3D model to demonstrate that supraglacial lakes in Greenland drain when tensile-stress perturbations propagate fractures in areas where fractures are normally absent or closed. These melt-induced perturbations escalate when lakes as far as 80 km apart form expansive networks and drain in rapid succession...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Ben A Wagstaff, Edward S Hems, Martin Rejzek, Jennifer Pratscher, Elliot Brooks, Sakonwan Kuhaudomlarp, Ellis C O'Neill, Matthew I Donaldson, Steven Lane, John Currie, Andrew M Hindes, Gill Malin, J Colin Murrell, Robert A Field
Prymnesium parvum is a toxin-producing microalga that causes harmful algal blooms globally, which often result in large-scale fish kills that have severe ecological and economic implications. Although many toxins have previously been isolated from P. parvum , ambiguity still surrounds the responsible ichthyotoxins in P. parvum blooms and the biotic and abiotic factors that promote bloom toxicity. A major fish kill attributed to P. parvum occurred in Spring 2015 on the Norfolk Broads, a low-lying set of channels and lakes (Broads) found on the East of England...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Maelle Sevellec, Nicolas Derome, Louis Bernatchez
BACKGROUND: It is well established that symbionts have considerable impact on their host, yet the investigation of the possible role of the holobiont in the host's speciation process is still in its infancy. In this study, we compared the intestinal microbiota among five sympatric pairs of dwarf (limnetic) and normal (benthic) lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis representing a continuum in the early stage of ecological speciation. We sequenced the 16s rRNA gene V3-V4 regions of the intestinal microbiota present in a total of 108 wild sympatric dwarf and normal whitefish as well as the water bacterial community from five lakes to (i) test for differences between the whitefish intestinal microbiota and the water bacterial community and (ii) test for parallelism in the intestinal microbiota of dwarf and normal whitefish...
March 14, 2018: Microbiome
Sahar Dalahmeh, Sana Tirgani, Allan John Komakech, Charles B Niwagaba, Lutz Ahrens
Occurrence and concentrations of 26 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were evaluated in wastewater, surface water, soil and crop plants (yam (Dioscorea spp.), maize (Zea mays) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)) in Nakivubo wetland and Lake Victoria at Kampala, Uganda. ∑PFAS concentrations in effluent from Bugolobi wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were higher (5.6-9.1ngL-1 ) than in the corresponding influent (3.4-5.1ngL-1 ), indicating poor removal of PFASs within the WWTP. ∑PFAS concentrations decreased by a factor of approximately five between Nakivubo channel (8...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
E G Moura Júnior, A Pott, W Severi, C S Zickel
We evaluated the response of the biomass of aquatic macrophytes under limnological changes after water level fluctuation (WLF) of two tropical reservoirs (R1 and R2), located in northeastern Brazil. Initially we tested the hypothesis that post-WLF limnological conditions and biomass of macrophytes increase or decrease, depending on the variable or species. We monitored a 4 × 50 m permanent plot, in four expeditions per period (pre- or post-WLF), assessing species biomass and 10 limnological variables. We utilized 0...
March 12, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
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