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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821209/cued-memory-reactivation-during-sws-abolishes-the-beneficial-effect-of-sleep-on-abstraction
#1
Nora Hennies, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Simon J Durrant, James N Cousins, Penelope A Lewis
Study Objectives: Extracting regularities from stimuli in our environment and generalizing these to new situations are fundamental processes in human cognition. Sleep has been shown to enhance these processes, possibly by facilitating reactivation-triggered memory reorganization. Here, we assessed whether cued reactivation during slow wave sleep (SWS) promotes the beneficial effect of sleep on abstraction of statistical regularities. Methods: We used an auditory statistical learning task, in which the benefit of sleep has been firmly established...
August 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821152/the-common-lavender-lavandula-angustifolia-mill-pectic-polysaccharides-modulate-phagocytic-leukocytes-and-intestinal-peyer-s-patch-cells
#2
Yordan N Georgiev, Berit S Paulsen, Hiroaki Kiyohara, Milan Ciz, Manol H Ognyanov, Ondrej Vasicek, Frode Rise, Petko N Denev, Haruki Yamada, Antonin Lojek, Vesselin Kussovski, Hilde Barsett, Albert I Krastanov, Irina Z Yanakieva, Maria G Kratchanova
Two pectic (chPS-L1, chPS-L2) and one polyphenolic (chPP-L) fractions were obtained from lavender flowers after boiling water extraction, exhaustive removing of alcohol-soluble molecules and SEC. chPS-L1 (52.4kDa) contains mainly low-acetylated and high-methoxylated homogalacturonans (HG), and smaller rhamnogalacturonan (RG) I backbone fragments rich in 1,3,5-branched arabinan and arabinogalactan (AG) II side chains. chPS-L2 (21.8kDa) contains predominantly similarly esterified HG, followed by RGI with AGII structures and RGII...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821149/solution-blow-spun-nanocomposites-of-poly-lactic-acid-cellulose-nanocrystals-from-eucalyptus-kraft-pulp
#3
Delne Domingos da Silva Parize, Juliano Elvis de Oliveira, Tina Williams, Delilah Wood, Roberto de Jesús Avena-Bustillos, Artur Piotr Klamczynski, Gregory Melvin Glenn, José Manoel Marconcini, Luiz Henrique Capparelli Mattoso
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were extracted from Eucalyptus kraft pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and esterified with maleic anhydride (CNCMA). The incorporation of sulfate ester groups on the cellulose surface resulted in higher stability of the nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions and lower thermal stability. Then, PLA/CNC and PLA/CNCMA nanocomposites were successfully obtained by solution blow spinning (SBS) using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as solvent. CNC and CNCMA indicated to be acting both as nucleating agents or growth inhibitors of PLA crystal and tends to favor the formation of PLA crystals of higher stability...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821148/a-pectic-polysaccharide-from-ligusticum-chuanxiong-promotes-intestine-antioxidant-defense-in-aged-mice
#4
Chao Huang, Xiyue Cao, Xingfu Chen, Yuping Fu, Yingguo Zhu, Zhengli Chen, Qihui Luo, Lixia Li, Xu Song, Renyong Jia, Zhongqiong Yin, Bin Feng, Yuanfeng Zou
The extensive prospects of polysaccharides in medicine and pharmaceuticals have elicited much interest. Ligusticum chuanxiong polysaccharides, previously extracted as neutral polysaccharides, exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, andantibacterial capacities in vitro. Here we show one pectic polysaccharide extracted from rhizome of L. chuanxiong(LCP-II-I). Structural analysis indicated its long homogalacturonan region is interrupted by rhamnogalacturonan type I, with arabinan and arabinogalactan type I as side chains...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821144/extraction-purification-and-structural-characterization-of-a-galactoglucomannan-from-the-gabiroba-fruit-campomanesia-xanthocarpa-berg-myrtaceae-family
#5
Shayla Fernanda Barbieri, Andrea Caroline Ruthes, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira Petkowicz, Rossana Catie Bueno de Godoy, Guilherme Lanzi Sassaki, Arquimedes Paixão Santana Filho, Joana Léa Meira Silveira
In this study, we isolated and structurally characterized, for the first time, a galactoglucomannan (GGM) from the pulp of gabiroba, a Myrtaceae family species. The HPSEC-MALLS-RI analysis showed a homogeneous polysaccharide with molar mass of 25,340gmol(-1). The monosaccharide composition showed that the GGM consisted of Man:Glc:Gal in a molar ratio of 1:1:0.6. Methylation and 1D and 2D NMR analyses suggested that the main chain of the GGM consisted of β-d-Glcp and β-d-Manp units (1→4)-linked. The α-d-Galp substitutions occur mainly at O-6 position of β-d-Manp units...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821131/carboxymethyl-cellulose-production-from-sugarcane-bagasse-with-steam-explosion-pulping-experimental-modeling-and-optimization
#6
Loghman Golbaghi, Mehrdad Khamforoush, Tahmasb Hatami
The sugarcane bagasse was used for producing carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and obtaining high-molecular-mass hemicellulose as co-product. To this end, the steam explosion process was employed. It was found that the optimum operating conditions are the temperature of 187.15°C, NaOH/bagasse ratio of 39% (w/w), and retention time (RT) of 10min. Next, the obtained cellulose in the optimized condition was extracted and purified, and it was subsequently converted to CMC according to Williamson etherification technique...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821127/a-comparative-study-on-cellulose-nanocrystals-extracted-from-bleached-cotton-and-flax-and-used-for-casting-films-with-glycerol-and-sorbitol-plasticisers
#7
Emilia Csiszár, Sebestyén Nagy
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were released from bleached cotton and flax by a sulphuric acid hydrolysis with about 40 and 34% yield, respectively. The rod-like cotton-CNC particles were slightly longer and wider and had a less pronounced aggregation ability in aqueous suspension than the flax-CNC ones. Films were cast from the CNC suspensions with sorbitol and glycerol plasticisers. The concept behind this research was to explore how the plasticisers - with similar structure but different molecular weight - and their concentrations affect the perceptible and measured properties of CNC films...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821111/a-facile-sodium-alginate-based-approach-to-improve-the-mechanical-properties-of-recycled-fibers
#8
Yuan-Yuan Bai, Yan-Hao Lei, Xiao-Jun Shen, Jing Luo, Chun-Li Yao, Run-Cang Sun
The application of recycled fibers is steadily increasing in various paper products recently. It is necessary to improve the mechanical properties of paper products made from these fibers. An eco-friendly polymeric additive, sodium alginate (SA), was prepared from waste seaweeds and developed as functional additives. The properties of SA were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravity analysis, gel permeation chromatography, and compared with the commercial SA...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821099/xyloglucan-gelation-induced-by-enzymatic-degalactosylation-kinetics-and-the-effect-of-the-molar-mass
#9
Caroline Novak Sakakibara, Maria Rita Sierakowski, Christophe Chassenieux, Taco Nicolai, Rilton Alves de Freitas
Gelation kinetics of aqueous solutions of xyloglucan (XG) extracted from H. courbaril seeds were investigated, in-situ, during enzymatic removal of galactose units by oscillatory shear rheological measurements, at different XG and enzyme (β-galactosidase) concentrations. Increasing the enzyme concentration (Cenz) led to an increase of the gelation rate. Master curves of the evolution of the storage shear modulus at different Cenz could be formed by time-Cenz superposition showing that Cenz influenced the kinetics, but not the gelation process and the final gel stiffness...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821098/physical-chemical-characteristics-and-potential-use-of-a-novel-alginate-zein-hydrogel-as-the-sorption-phase-for-polar-organic-compounds
#10
Natara D B Castilhos, Naiara M F M Sampaio, Bruno C da Silva, Izabel C Riegel-Vidotti, Marco T Grassi, Bruno J G Silva
A novel alginate based hydrogel was successfully prepared and tested for the solid phase microextraction of medium-to-high polarity compounds, when supported in a polypropylene (PP) fiber. Pure alginate when added onto the surface of the PP fiber, resulted in a significant improvement in the extraction efficiency of the analytes (except for β-estradiol). The alginate hydrogel was modified upon the incorporation of a small amount of zein, a corn protein. Interestingly, the alginate/zein-supported hydrogel was capable of successfully extracting compounds with low partition constant (Kow), such as 17-α-ethinyl estradiol, progesterone and estriol, since the initial water uptake decreased dramatically in this gel, therefore, leaving the alginate hydroxyl groups more available to interact with the polar compounds...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821095/an-o-acetyl-glucomannan-from-the-rhizomes-of-curculigo-orchioides-structural-characterization-and-anti-osteoporosis-activity-in-vitro
#11
Xueqian Wang, Mengliu Zhang, Dawei Zhang, Shumei Wang, Chunyan Yan
Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduction in bone mass and bone mineral density, which weakens the bone. Due to the side effects associated with drugs that are currently used to treat this disease, an increasing number of studies have focused on the research of effective ingredients derived from natural products. In particular, polysaccharides extracted from Chinese herbal medicines have received increasing attention. In this study, we isolated a homogeneous polysaccharide (COP90-1) from the dried rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides, a famous traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used in China, and determined its structure using the combined methods of chemical and spectral analyses...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821089/preparation-and-evaluation-of-chitosan-alginate-porous-microspheres-bletilla-striata-polysaccharide-composite-hemostatic-sponges
#12
Chao Wang, Wenfeng Luo, Puwang Li, Sidong Li, Ziming Yang, Zhang Hu, Yangyang Liu, Ningjian Ao
We prepared a novel hemostatic material using chitosan (CS), alginate, and Bletilla striata, which showed good biocompatibility and hemostatic properties. Alginate-calcium porous microspheres (Alg) were prepared by emulsification/cross-linking methods, and Bletilla striata polysaccharide (Bsp) was extracted from the tubers by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. To improve the water absorption and accelerate the blood coagulation, Alg and Bsp were mixed with chitosan solution to form CS/Alg and CS/Alg/Bsp composite sponges by lyophilization...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821082/recycling-of-pre-hydrolysis-liquor-to-improve-the-concentrations-of-hemicellulosic-saccharides-during-water-pre-hydrolysis-of-aspen-woodchips
#13
Zongquan Li, Jungang Jiang, Yingjuan Fu, Zhaojiang Wang, Menghua Qin
In this study, the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) was recycled during aspen chip water pre-hydrolysis, and the effects of PHL recycling on the extraction and accumulation of the hemicellulosic saccharides especially that with high molecular weight in the PHL were studied. The results showed that the concentration of hemicellulose saccharides in PHL depended on the pre-hydrolysis temperature and PHL recycling times. Compared to the unrecycled PHL, the concentration of hemicellulosic saccharides in PHL increased significantly when recycling PHL once or twice at 170°C...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821070/effect-of-oxidation-time-on-the-properties-of-cellulose-nanocrystals-from-hybrid-poplar-residues-using-the-ammonium-persulfate
#14
Hua Jiang, Yu Wu, Binbin Han, Yang Zhang
This work was to investigate the influence of time on the properties of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) during the ammonium persulfate (APS) oxidation of hybrid poplar residues (HPHL). The CNCs at the different times were characterized by different techniques. The results showed that CNCs were thinned and shortened with increased oxidation time, and their yield, crystallinity index and zeta potential increased, however, these properties stayed constant after the APS oxidation for 16h. At this time, the CNC yield was more than 50%, and the CNCs had a zeta potential of -48...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821062/cell-wall-polysaccharides-from-pulp-and-peel-of-cubiu-a-pectin-rich-fruit
#15
Cristiane Colodel, Rosane Maria das Graças Bagatin, Talita Maria Tavares, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira Petkowicz
To investigate the polysaccharides of cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum D.) fruits, pulp and peel were subjected to sequential extractions using different solvents, giving rise to pectins heterogeneous with respect to their structural characteristics, xylan, arabinogalactoxyloglucans and glucomannans. Chemical, physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses were used to characterize the polysaccharides obtained. Pectins with uronic acid content of commercial grade were obtained from the peel of cubiu fruits using water (25°C and 100°C) and EDTA and from its pulp using water (100°C)...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821059/characterization-of-alkali-treated-and-untreated-new-cellulosic-fiber-from-saharan-aloe-vera-cactus-leaves
#16
Balaji A N, Nagarajan K J
The aim of this study is to examine the use of new natural fibers, which are extracted from the Saharan aloe vera cactus plant leaves as reinforcement in polymer composites. The physicochemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the Saharan Aloe Vera Cactus Leaves (SACL) fibers are investigated, through the effect of alkali treatment. The contents of α-cellulose, hemicellulose, wax and moisture present in SACL fibers were characterized by standard test methods The mechanical properties of SACL fibers were measured through single fiber tensile test...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821049/corrigendum-to-rapeseed-straw-as-a-renewable-source-of-hemicelluloses-extraction-characterization-and-film-formation-carbohydr-polym-133-2015-179-186
#17
Antonia Svärd, Elisabet Brännvall, Ulrica Edlund
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821047/structural-analysis-and-immunomodulatory-effect-of-polysaccharide-from-atractylodis-macrocephalae-koidz-on-bovine-lymphocytes
#18
Wei Xu, Ran Guan, Fushan Shi, Aifang Du, Songhua Hu
RAMP60, RAMP70, RAMP80 and RAMPtp extracted from the rhizome of Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz. were chemically analyzed and tested for their lymphocyte stimulation. Among them, only RAMPtp was found to induce proliferation of lymphocytes from bovine supramammary lymph node (SMLN). It was found that RAMPtp was homogeneous polysaccharide with Mn of 1.867×10(3) by GPC analysis, composed of glucose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose and galactose, with mass percentages of 60.67%, 14.99%, 10.61%, 8.83% and 4.90%, respectively by HPLC analysis, connected by 1, 3-linked β-D Galp and 1, 6-linked β-D Galp residues by NMR analysis and was amorphous in structure by SEM analysis...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821039/processes-involving-selective-precipitation-for-the-recovery-of-purified-pectins-from-mango-peel
#19
Andreas Nagel, Carina Winkler, Reinhold Carle, Hans-Ulrich Endress, Christine Rentschler, Sybille Neidhart
Three methods for the recovery of purified pectins from directly dried mango peel were developed, using selective precipitation of mango pectin in propan-2-ol (IPA) of adequate volume concentrations for purification. Yields, composition, macromolecular and gelling properties of the resultant pectins were compared. Effluent analyses proved postextractive removal of fruit exudate arabinogalactans. The recovery processes involved (A) washing of raw-pectin powder in IPA of defined volume concentration, (B) fractional alcoholic precipitation of dissolved raw pectin, or (C) selective pectin precipitation from the hot-acid extract of mango peel in adequately diluted IPA...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821024/optimization-of-dextran-production-by-weissella-cibaria-nitcsk4-using-response-surface-methodology-genetic-algorithm-based-technology
#20
J Kanimozhi, I Ganesh Moorthy, R Sivashankar, V Sivasubramanian
The most influencing factor on dextran production by Weissella cibaria NITCSK4 were screened using Plackett Burman design at 95% confidence limit with higher value of co-efficient of determination (R(2)) 99.58%. The combined effects of significant factors, namely, sucrose, temperature, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) and yeast extract were studied and optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The input parameters of non-linear models predicted by RSM were subsequently optimized using the genetic algorithm (GA) for obtaining a maximum dextran yield...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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