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Current Research in Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108176/differential-housing-and-novelty-response-protection-and-risk-from-locomotor-sensitization
#1
Erik J Garcia, Tara N Haddon, Donald A Saucier, Mary E Cain
: High novelty seeking increases the risk for drug experimentation and locomotor sensitization. Locomotor sensitization to psychostimulants is thought to reflect neurological adaptations that promote the transition to compulsive drug taking. Rats reared in enrichment (EC) show less locomotor sensitization when compared to rats reared in isolation (IC) or standard conditions (SC). The current research study was designed to test if novelty response contributed locomotor sensitization and more importantly, if the different housing environments could change the novelty response to protect against the development of locomotor sensitization in both adolescence and adulthood...
January 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105952/movement-visualisation-in-virtual-reality-rehabilitation-of-the-lower-limb-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Luara Ferreira Dos Santos, Oliver Christ, Kedar Mate, Henning Schmidt, Jörg Krüger, Christian Dohle
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) based applications play an increasing role in motor rehabilitation. They provide an interactive and individualized environment in addition to increased motivation during motor tasks as well as facilitating motor learning through multimodal sensory information. Several previous studies have shown positive effect of VR-based treatments for lower extremity motor rehabilitation in neurological conditions, but the characteristics of these VR applications have not been systematically investigated...
December 19, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093982/pde7-selective-and-dual-inhibitors-advances-in-chemical-and-biological-research
#3
Agnieszka Jankowska, Artur Świerczek, Grażyna Chłoń-Rzepa, Maciej Pawłowski, Elżbieta Wyska
Phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) is an intracellular enzyme that specifically hydrolyses the second messenger, cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), into inactive non-cyclic nucleotide, 5'-AMP. To date, many structurally diverse compounds with PDE7 inhibitory properties have been described, including selective PDE7 inhibitors, dual PDE4/PDE7, PDE7/PDE8, and PDE7/GSK-3 inhibitors, and non-selective PDE inhibitors with high affinity for PDE7. Inhibitors of PDE7 provided beneficial effects in animal models of inflammatory and neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and many others...
16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087243/using-deep-learning-to-investigate-the-neuroimaging-correlates-of-psychiatric-and-neurological-disorders-methods-and-applications
#4
REVIEW
Sandra Vieira, Walter H L Pinaya, Andrea Mechelli
Deep learning (DL) is a family of machine learning methods that has gained considerable attention in the scientific community, breaking benchmark records in areas such as speech and visual recognition. DL differs from conventional machine learning methods by virtue of its ability to learn the optimal representation from the raw data through consecutive nonlinear transformations, achieving increasingly higher levels of abstraction and complexity. Given its ability to detect abstract and complex patterns, DL has been applied in neuroimaging studies of psychiatric and neurological disorders, which are characterised by subtle and diffuse alterations...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074545/development-and-testing-of-a-database-of-nih-research-funding-of-aapm-members-a-report-from-aapm-working-group-for-the-development-of-a-research-database-wgdrd
#5
Brendan Whelan, Eduardo Moros, Rebecca Fahrig, James Deye, Thomas Yi, Michael Woodward, Paul Keall, Jeff Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: To produce and maintain a database of National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) members, to perform a top level analysis of this data, and to make this data (hereafter referred to as the AAPM research database) available for the use of the AAPM and its members. METHODS: NIH funded research dating back to 1985 is available for public download through the NIH exporter website, and AAPM membership information dating back to 2002 was supplied by the AAPM...
January 11, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070115/proposal-for-a-prospective-registry-for-moyamoya-disease-in-japan
#6
Ken Kazumata, Masaki Ito, Haruto Uchino, Hiroshi Nishihara, Kiyohiro Houkin
The number of clinical research papers published worldwide on moyamoya disease (MMD) has increased recently. However, the majority of the literature comprises retrospective single-center studies collecting data on small numbers of patients. Several multi-center studies are ongoing in Japan; however, the current data are insufficient for comprehensively outlining the various characteristics of MMD. To enhance our knowledge on epidemiologic, vascular, and genetic aspects of MMD, a prospective multicenter registry will be established in Japan that will help to streamline clinical research as well as improve clinical treatments and long-term outcomes...
January 6, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065388/a-systematic-review-of-cognitive-function-and-psychosocial-well-being-in-school-age-children-with-narcolepsy
#7
REVIEW
Jane E Blackwell, Hetaf A Alammar, Anna R Weighall, Ian Kellar, Hannah M Nash
In August 2010, concerns were raised about an increase in the incidence rate of narcolepsy diagnosis in children and adolescents. Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological sleep disorder characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness and attacks of muscle weakness which are often precipitated by strong emotions, known as cataplexy. We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the consequences of narcolepsy on cognitive function and psychosocial well-being in school-age children. Eight studies published between 2005 and 2015 were eligible for inclusion in this review...
July 18, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055126/neuromodulation-therapies-for-alcohol-addiction-a-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Celeste A Azevedo, Antonios Mammis
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this review is to explore alternative neurological therapies in the treatment of alcohol use disorder; including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation, deep brain stimulation (DBS), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and the off-label use of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted through EBSCOhost regarding the neurological therapies in the treatment of alcoholism discussed in this paper...
January 5, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035841/rehabilitation-robotics-for-the-upper-extremity-review-with-new-directions-for-orthopaedic-disorders
#9
Renée M Hakim, Brandon G Tunis, Michael D Ross
The focus of research using technological innovations such as robotic devices has been on interventions to improve upper extremity function in neurologic populations, particularly patients with stroke. There is a growing body of evidence describing rehabilitation programs using various types of supportive/assistive and/or resistive robotic and virtual reality-enhanced devices to improve outcomes for patients with neurologic disorders. The most promising approaches are task-oriented, based on current concepts of motor control/learning and practice-induced neuroplasticity...
December 30, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024856/newcastle-disease-vaccines-a-solved-problem-or-a-continuous-challenge
#10
Kiril M Dimitrov, Claudio L Afonso, Qingzhong Yu, Patti J Miller
Newcastle disease (ND) has been defined by the World Organisation for Animal Health as infection of poultry with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Lesions affecting the neurological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive systems are most often observed. The control of ND must include strict biosecurity that prevents virulent NDV from contacting poultry, and also proper administration of efficacious vaccines. When administered correctly to healthy birds, ND vaccines formulated with NDV of low virulence or viral-vectored vaccines that express the NDV fusion protein are able to prevent clinical disease and mortality in chickens upon infection with virulent NDV...
December 16, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024556/current-and-future-status-of-extracorporeal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-for-in-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#11
REVIEW
Rohit K Singal, Deepa Singal, Joseph Bednarczyk, Yoan Lamarche, Gurmeet Singh, Vivek Rao, Hussein D Kanji, Rakesh C Arora, Rizwan A Manji, Eddy Fan, A Dave Nagpal
Numerous series, propensity-matched trials, and meta-analyses suggest that appropriate use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) for in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) can be lifesaving. Even with an antecedent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration in excess of 45 minutes, 30-day survival with favourable neurologic outcome using E-CPR is approximately 35%-45%. Survival may be related to age, duration of CPR, or etiology. Associated complications include sepsis, renal failure, limb and neurologic complications, hemorrhage, and thrombosis...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017129/kynurenine-system-and-multiple-sclerosis-pathomechanism-and-drug-targets-with-an-emphasis-on-laquinimod
#12
Zsófia Majláth, Ádám Annus, László Vécsei
Multiple sclerosis is a common chronic, disabling autoimmune neurological disease affecting mainly young adults. In its pathomechanism, neurodegenerative and acute inflammatory characteristics are both involved. Disease-modifying therapies aim to reduce relapse-rate and slow down the deterioration in neurological functions. The currently available therapies fail to exert neuroprotective effects and most of them are associated with potentially toxic side-effects, therefore, ongoing research aims to develop novel drug candidates to cover these therapeutic gaps...
December 23, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011793/protecting-the-premature-brain-current-evidence-based-strategies-for-minimising-perinatal-brain-injury-in-preterm-infants
#13
Charlotte L Lea, Adam Smith-Collins, Karen Luyt
Improving neurodevelopmental outcome for preterm infants is an important challenge for neonatal medicine. The disruption of normal brain growth and neurological development is a significant consequence of preterm birth and can result in physical and cognitive impairments. While advances in neonatal medicine have led to progressively better survival rates for preterm infants, there has only been a modest improvement in the proportion of surviving infants without neurological impairment, and no change in the proportion with severe disability...
December 23, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007064/the-society-of-thoracic-surgeons-congenital-heart-surgery-database-public-reporting-initiative
#14
REVIEW
Jeffrey P Jacobs
Three basic principles provide the rationale for the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Congenital Heart Surgery Database (CHSD) public reporting initiative: (1) Variation in congenital and pediatric cardiac surgical outcomes exist. (2) Patients and their families have the right to know the outcomes of the treatments that they will receive. (3). It is our professional responsibility to share this information with them in a format they can understand. The STS CHSD public reporting initiative facilitates the voluntary transparent public reporting of congenital and pediatric cardiac surgical outcomes using the STS CHSD Mortality Risk Model...
January 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000129/management-of-external-ventricular-drains-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-multi-institutional-survey
#15
David Y Chung, Thabele M Leslie-Mazwi, Aman B Patel, Guy A Rordorf
BACKGROUND: Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often develop hydrocephalus requiring an external ventricular drain (EVD). The best available evidence suggests that a rapid EVD wean and intermittent CSF drainage is safe, reduces complications, and shortens ICU and hospital length of stay as compared to a gradual wean and continuous drainage. However, optimal EVD management remains controversial and the baseline practice among neurological ICUs is unclear. Therefore, we sought to determine current institutional practices of EVD management for patients with aneurysmal SAH...
December 20, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995945/the-developing-landscape-of-diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarkers-for-spinal-cord-injury-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-blood
#16
REVIEW
C H Hulme, S J Brown, H R Fuller, J Riddell, A Osman, J Chowdhury, N Kumar, W E Johnson, K T Wright
STUDY DESIGN: Review study. OBJECTIVES: The identification of prognostic biomarkers of spinal cord injury (SCI) will help to assign SCI patients to the correct treatment and rehabilitation regimes. Further, the detection of biomarkers that predict permanent neurological outcome would aid in appropriate recruitment of patients into clinical trials. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current state-of-play in this developing field. SETTING: Studies from multiple countries were included...
December 20, 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994591/emerging-roles-for-the-immune-system-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
REVIEW
Celia A McKee, John R Lukens
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects an ever-growing population of all ages with long-term consequences on health and cognition. Many of the issues that TBI patients face are thought to be mediated by the immune system. Primary brain damage that occurs at the time of injury can be exacerbated and prolonged for months or even years by chronic inflammatory processes, which can ultimately lead to secondary cell death, neurodegeneration, and long-lasting neurological impairment. Researchers have turned to rodent models of TBI in order to understand how inflammatory cells and immunological signaling regulate the post-injury response and recovery mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982762/the-response-of-spinal-cord-ependymomas-to-bevacizumab-in-patients-with-neurofibromatosis-type-2
#18
Katrina A Morris, Shazia K Afridi, D Gareth Evans, Anke E Hensiek, Martin G McCabe, Mark Kellett, Dorothy Halliday, Pieter M Pretorius, Allyson Parry
OBJECTIVE People with neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) have a genetic predisposition to nervous system tumors. NF2-associated schwannomas stabilize or decrease in size in over half of the patients while they are receiving bevacizumab. NF2 patients treated with bevacizumab for rapidly growing schwannoma were retrospectively reviewed with regard to ependymoma prevalence and response to treatment. METHODS The records of 95 NF2 patients receiving bevacizumab were retrospectively reviewed with regard to spinal ependymoma prevalence and behavior...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980495/probiotics-and-disease-a-comprehensive-summary-part-1-mental-and-neurological-health
#19
REVIEW
Keren E Dolan, Heather J Finley, Cathleen M Burns, Margaret G Gasta, Crystal M Gossard, Emily C Parker, Jessica M Pizano, Christy B Williamson, Elizabeth A Lipski
This article series provides a literature review of the disease-specific probiotic strains studied in published clinical trials in humans and animals. The goal of the series is to provide clinically useful tools. The table designs allow for quick access to supportive data related to disease states and will be helpful as a guide for both researchers and clinicians. This first article (part 1) focuses on mental health and neurological conditions. Future articles in this series will review conditions related to cardiometabolic and fatigue syndromes; ear, nose, throat, respiratory, and infectious diseases; immune and dermatological conditions; cancer, gastrointestinal and genitourinary; followed by an article focused on food-based probiotic strains and nutritional supplements...
October 2016: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975343/need-for-better-diabetes-treatment-the-therapeutic-potential-of-nmda-receptor-antagonists
#20
A Welters, E Lammert, E Mayatepek, T Meissner
Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder in children and adolescents. Optimal control of blood glucose concentration is essential to prevent acute and diabetic long-term complications. The options to treat diabetes have clearly improved over the last decades, however, to date neither type 1 diabetes nor type 2 diabetes mellitus can be cured. Therefore, diabetes research aims at developing β-cell protective agents that prevent or even reverse diabetes onset. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) where they hold central roles in CNS function...
December 14, 2016: Klinische Pädiatrie
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