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Current Research in Neurology

Julie C Krzykwa, Alexis Olivas, Marlo K Sellin Jeffries
The fathead minnow fish embryo toxicity (FET) test has been proposed as a more humane alternative to current toxicity testing methods, as younger organisms are thought to experience less distress during toxicant exposure. However, the FET test protocol does not include endpoints that allow for the prediction of sublethal adverse outcomes, limiting its utility relative to other test types. Researchers have proposed the development of sublethal endpoints for the FET test to increase its utility. The present study 1) developed methods for previously unmeasured sublethal metrics in fathead minnows (i...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Tim B Dyrby, Giorgio Innocenti, Martin Bech, Henrik Lundell
Extracting microanatomical information beyond the image resolution of MRI would provide valuable tools for diagnostics and neuroscientific research. A number of mathematical models already suggest microstructural interpretations of diffusion MRI (dMRI) data. Examples of such microstructural features could be cell bodies and neurites, e.g. the axon's diameter or their orientational distribution for global connectivity analysis using tractography, and have previously only been possible to access through conventional histology of post mortem tissue or invasive biopsies...
June 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Samar S Ayache, Moussa A Chalah
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration. Throughout the disease process, patients may complain of a panel of sensory, motor, cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Fatigue is a debilitating manifestation of central nervous system diseases with physical, cognitive and psychosocial dimensions. In MS, fatigue could be very frequent concerning up to 90% of patients and may have a drastic impact on their quality of life...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Gro Killi Haugstad, Unni Kirste, Siv Leganger, Elin Haakonsen, Tor S Haugstad
Historic background and development of our somatocognitive approach Mensendieck physiotherapy of the Oslo School is a tradition of physiotherapy founded by the American physician Bess Mensendieck, a contemporary and fellow student of Sigmund Freud at the Paris School of Neurology. It builds on the principles of functional anatomy and the theories of motor learning. We have further developed the theory and practice from this physiotherapy tradition, challenged by the enormous load of patients with longstanding, incapacitating pain on western health care systems, by seeking to incorporate inspirational ideas from body oriented dynamic psychotherapy and cognitive psychotherapy...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Zahra Ebtehaj, Ali Hatef, Mohammad Malekmohammad, Mahmood Soltanolkotabi
Neural stimulation has widespread applications in investigating brain functions, restoring impaired neural functions and treating numerous neurological/psychiatric diseases. Using infrared pulses to stimulate neurons (Infrared Neural Stimulation, INS) offers a direct and noninvasive technique. Recent research has demonstrated that transient heating associated with the absorption of infrared light by the local aqueous medium around the cell membrane can stimulate nerves. One mechanism for this stimulation is due to a thermally induced increase in the membrane electrical capacitance which causes cell depolarization as well as action potential production under certain physiological conditions...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
David C Grabowski, Jesse Fishman, Imane Wild, Bruce Lavin
Epilepsy has a relatively high prevalence, and diagnosis and treatment are often challenging. Seizure freedom without significant side effects is the ultimate goal for both physicians and patients, but not always achievable. In those cases, the treatment goals of patients and providers may differ. In the United States, many clinicians continue to prescribe older AEDs, even though newer AEDs have a more desirable safety and tolerability profile, fewer drug-drug interactions, and are associated with lower epilepsy-related hospital visits...
May 26, 2018: Health Policy
Troy Morrison, Sara Jones, Ryan S Causby, Kerry Thoirs
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with hyperglycaemia and advanced glycosylation end-products. In the foot, the consequences of chronic or uncontrolled diabetes are micro and macrovascular disease, neuropathy, reduced joint mobility and structural and soft tissue changes that increase the risk of ulcer development and amputation. Diabetes foot assessment currently includes a comprehensive history, neurological and vascular assessments and examination focussed on dermatological and musculoskeletal abnormalities...
2018: PloS One
Francesca Graziano, C Caruso Bavisotto, A Marino Gammazza, Francesca Rappa, Everly Conway de Macario, Albert J L Macario, Francesco Cappello, Claudia Campanella, Rosario Maugeri, Domenico Gerardo Iacopino
The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/National Cancer Institute of Canada Phase III trial has validated as a current regimen for high-grade gliomas (HGG) a maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concurrent temozolamide. However, it is essential to balance maximal tumor resection with preservation of the patient’s neurological functions. Important developments in the fields of pre-operative and intra-operative neuro-imaging and neuro-monitoring have ameliorated the survival rate and the quality of life for patients affected by HGG...
June 14, 2018: Brain Sciences
Franz Hell, Thomas Köglsperger, Jan Mehrkens, Kai Boetzel
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapeutic option for the treatment of various neurological disorders and has been used successfully in movement disorders for over 25 years. However, the standard stimulation schemes have not changed substantially. Two major points of interest for the further development of DBS are target-structures and novel adaptive stimulation techniques integrating feedback signals. We describe recent research results on target structures and on neural and behavioural feedback signals for adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS), as well as outline future directions...
April 12, 2018: Curēus
Tim Luckett, Meera Agar, Michelle DiGiacomo, Caleb Ferguson, Lawrence Lam, Jane Phillips
Objective The aim of the present study was to compare the health status of South Australians with recent experience of caring for an adult with chronic disease with non-carers drawn from the same population. Methods Data were collected via the South Australian Health Omnibus, an annual population-based, cross-sectional survey. Respondents were asked whether they had provided care or support in the last 5 years to someone with cancer, heart disease, respiratory disease, mental illness, neurological disease or dementia...
June 14, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Tao Wang, Li Zhuan, Zhuo Liu, Ming-Chao Li, Jun Yang, Shao-Gang Wang, Ji-Hong Liu, Qing Ling, Wei-Min Yang, Zhang-Qun Ye
Background: Currently available evaluation criteria for penile tumescence and rigidity have been fraught with controversy. In this study, we sought to establish normative Chinese evaluation criteria for penile tumescence and rigidity by utilizing audiovisual sexual stimulation and RigiScan™ test (AVSS-Rigiscan test) with the administration of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor. Methods: A total of 1169 patients (aged 18-67 years) complained of erectile dysfunction (ED) underwent AVSS-RigiScan test with the administration of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor...
June 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Roberta Ferrucci, Alberto Priori
The cerebellum plays a fundamental role in movement execution and motor control in humans. Because of multiple cerebellar connections and a broad variety of motor and nonmotor functions, the field of cerebellar stimulation with noninvasive techniques has gained success among researchers in the last few years. These techniques allow investigation of the neural network noninvasively, collecting more information on cerebellar physiology and pathophysiology. Several studies have highlighted the therapeutic potential of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) - repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation of the brain - in patients with neurologic diseases...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Anna E Kirkland, Gabrielle L Sarlo, Kathleen F Holton
Magnesium is well known for its diverse actions within the human body. From a neurological standpoint, magnesium plays an essential role in nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. It also functions in a protective role against excessive excitation that can lead to neuronal cell death (excitotoxicity), and has been implicated in multiple neurological disorders. Due to these important functions within the nervous system, magnesium is a mineral of intense interest for the potential prevention and treatment of neurological disorders...
June 6, 2018: Nutrients
Brenton Hordacre
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown great promise as a neuromodulatory intervention capable of improving behavioral outcomes in a range of neurological and psychiatric populations. Evidence indicates that the neuromodulatory effect of stimulation may be cumulative, with greater improvements in behavior observed following multiple treatment sessions. However, the requirement to attend clinical or research departments for multiple treatment sessions may present a barrier for many people, particularly those with greater disability or living remotely...
June 7, 2018: Brain Sciences
Mark Yarborough, Annelien Bredenoord, Flavio D'Abramo, Nanette C Joyce, Jonathan Kimmelman, Ubaka Ogbogu, Emily Sena, Daniel Strech, Ulrich Dirnagl
Millions of people worldwide currently suffer from serious neurological diseases and injuries for which there are few, and often no, effective treatments. The paucity of effective interventions is, no doubt, due in large part to the complexity of the disorders, as well as our currently limited understanding of their pathophysiology. The bleak picture for patients, however, is also attributable to avoidable impediments stemming from quality concerns in preclinical research that often escape detection by research regulation efforts...
June 6, 2018: PLoS Biology
Zhifeng Zhong, Jing Han, Jizhou Zhang, Qing Xiao, Juan Hu, Lidian Chen
The primary objective of this review article was to summarize comprehensive information related to the neuropharmacological activity, mechanisms of action, toxicity, and safety of salidroside in medicine. A number of studies have revealed that salidroside exhibits neuroprotective activities, including anti-Alzheimer's disease, anti-Parkinson's disease, anti-Huntington's disease, anti-stroke, anti-depressive effects, and anti-traumatic brain injury; it is also useful for improving cognitive function, treating addiction, and preventing epilepsy...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Alberto J Espay, Selma Aybek, Alan Carson, Mark J Edwards, Laura H Goldstein, Mark Hallett, Kathrin LaFaver, W Curt LaFrance, Anthony E Lang, Tim Nicholson, Glenn Nielsen, Markus Reuber, Valerie Voon, Jon Stone, Francesca Morgante
Importance: Functional neurological disorders (FND) are common sources of disability in medicine. Patients have often been misdiagnosed, correctly diagnosed after lengthy delays, and/or subjected to poorly delivered diagnoses that prevent diagnostic understanding and lead to inappropriate treatments, iatrogenic harm, unnecessary and costly evaluations, and poor outcomes. Observations: Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder/Conversion Disorder was adopted by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, replacing the term psychogenic with functional and removing the criterion of psychological stress as a prerequisite for FND...
June 4, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Raymond Farah, Hayat Haraty, Ziad Salame, Youssef Fares, David M Ojcius, Najwane Said Sadier
Current research efforts on neurological diseases are focused on identifying novel disease biomarkers to aid in diagnosis, provide accurate prognostic information and monitor disease progression. With advances in detection and quantification methods in genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, saliva has emerged as a good source of samples for detection of disease biomarkers. Obtaining a sample of saliva offers multiple advantages over the currently tested biological fluids as it is a non-invasive, painless and simple procedure that does not require expert training or harbour undesirable side effects for the patients...
April 2018: Biomedical Journal
Sujoy Ghosh Hajra, Careesa C Liu, Xiaowei Song, Shaun D Fickling, Teresa P L Cheung, Ryan C N D'Arcy
BACKGROUND: For nearly four decades, the N400 has been an important brainwave marker of semantic processing. It can be recorded non-invasively from the scalp using electrical and/or magnetic sensors, but largely within the restricted domain of research laboratories specialized to run specific N400 experiments. However, there is increasing evidence of significant clinical utility for the N400 in neurological evaluation, particularly at the individual level. To enable clinical applications, we recently reported a rapid evaluation framework known as "brain vital signs" that successfully incorporated the N400 response as one of the core components for cognitive function evaluation...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Eileen M Condon
PROBLEM: Incorporating biomarkers of chronic stress into pediatric research studies may help to explicate the links between exposure to adversity and lifelong health, but there are currently very few parameters to guide nurse researchers in choosing appropriate biomarkers of chronic stress for use in research with children and adolescents. METHODS: Biomarkers of chronic stress are described, including primary mediators (glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and cytokines) and secondary outcomes (neurologic, immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and anthropometric) of the chronic stress response...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
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