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Current Research in Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534666/human-aminoacyl-trna-synthetases-in-diseases-of-the-nervous-system
#1
Jana Ognjenović, Miljan Simonović
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AaRSs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes that ensure accurate translation of the genetic information into functional proteins. These enzymes also execute a variety of non-canonical functions that are significant for regulation of diverse cellular processes and that reside outside the realm of protein synthesis. Associations between faults in AaRS-mediated processes and human diseases have been long recognized. Most recent research findings strongly argue that 10 cytosolic and 14 mitochondrial AaRSs are implicated in some form of pathology of the human nervous system...
May 23, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534221/measuring-outcomes-in-adult-spinal-deformity-surgery-a-systematic-review-to-identify-current-strengths-weaknesses-and-gaps-in-patient-reported-outcome-measures
#2
REVIEW
Sayf S A Faraj, Miranda L van Hooff, Roderick M Holewijn, David W Polly, Tsjitske M Haanstra, Marinus de Kleuver
PURPOSE: Adult spinal deformity (ASD) causes severe disability, reduces overall quality of life, and results in a substantial societal burden of disease. As healthcare is becoming more value based, and to facilitate global benchmarking, it is critical to identify and standardize patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). This study aims to identify the current strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in PROMs used for ASD. METHODS: Studies were included following a systematic search in multiple bibliographic databases between 2000 and 2015...
May 22, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532881/preliminary-evidence-of-regional-interdependent-inhibition-using-a-diaphragm-release-to-specifically-induce-an-immediate-hypoalgesic-effect-in-the-cervical-spine
#3
Calum A McCoss, Ross Johnston, Darren J Edwards, Charles Millward
In clinical practice, Osteopaths and Manual Therapists commonly direct treatment towards the diaphragm by the use of a 'Diaphragm Release'. Currently, there is paucity within the literature to support the use of this technique, specifically in pain outcomes. This research aims to support a neurophysiological mechanism based upon the osteopathic principle "The body is a unit". Demonstrating that directing treatment to distal tissue which is neurologically related can reduce pain in the originating spinal segments...
April 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530154/determining-electrode-placement-for-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-comparison-of-eeg-versus-tms-guided-methods
#4
Tonya L Rich, Jeremiah S Menk, Kyle D Rudser, Mo Chen, Gregg D Meekins, Edgar Peña, Timothy Feyma, Kay Bawroski, Christina Bush, Bernadette T Gillick
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly researched as an adjuvant to motor rehabilitation for children with hemiparesis. The optimal method for the primary motor cortex (M1) somatotopic localization for tDCS electrode placement has not been established. The objective, therefore, was to determine the location of the M1 derived using the 10/20 electroencephalography (EEG) system and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in children with hemiparesis (CWH) and a comparison group of typically developing children (TDC)...
May 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529879/beyond-the-raccoon-roundworm-the-natural-history-of-non-raccoon-baylisascaris-species-in-the-new-world
#5
REVIEW
Sarah G H Sapp, Pooja Gupta, Melissa K Martin, Maureen H Murray, Kevin D Niedringhaus, Madeleine A Pfaff, Michael J Yabsley
A total of 10 species of Baylisascaris, a genus of ascaridoid nematodes, occur worldwide and 6 of them occur in the New World. Most of the Baylisascaris species have a similar life cycle with carnivorous mammals or marsupials serving as definitive hosts and a smaller prey host serving as paratenic (or intermediate) hosts. However, one species in rodents is unique in that it only has one host. Considerable research has been conducted on B. procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, as it is a well-known cause of severe to fatal neurologic disease in humans and many wildlife species...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528670/glycine-receptor-drug-discovery
#6
Joseph W Lynch, Yan Zhang, Sahil Talwar, Argel Estrada-Mondragon
Postsynaptic glycine receptor (GlyR) chloride channels mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord and brain stem, although presynaptic and extrasynaptic GlyRs are expressed more widely throughout the brain. In humans, GlyRs are assembled as homo- or heteromeric pentamers of α1-3 and β subunits. GlyR malfunctions have been linked to a range of neurological disorders including hyperekplexia, temporal lobe epilepsy, autism, breathing disorders, and chronic inflammatory pain. Although it is possible that GlyRs may eventually be clinically targeted for a variety of neurological disorders, most research to date has focused on developing GlyR-targeted treatments for chronic pain...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528582/searching-the-web-a-survey-on-the-quality-of-advice-on-postnatal-sequelae-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-the-implication-of-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease
#7
S Perzel, H Huebner, W Rascher, C Menendez-Castro, A Hartner, F B Fahlbusch
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are pregnancy complications associated with morbidity in later life. Despite a growing body of evidence from current research on developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD), little information is currently provided to parents on long-term metabolic, cardiovascular and neurologic consequences. As parents strongly rely on internet-based health-related information, we examined the quality of information on IUGR/FGR sequelae and DOHaD in webpages used by laypersons...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523558/epigenome-editing-in-the-brain
#8
Pavel Bashtrykov, Albert Jeltsch
Epigenome editing aims for an introduction or removal of chromatin marks at a defined genomic region using artificial EpiEffectors resulting in a modulation of the activity of the targeted functional DNA elements. Rationally designed EpiEffectors consist of a targeting DNA-binding module (such as a zinc finger protein, TAL effector, or CRISPR/Cas complex) and usually, but not exclusively, a catalytic domain of a chromatin-modifying enzyme. Epigenome editing opens a completely new strategy for basic research of the central nervous system and causal treatment of psychiatric and neurological diseases, because rewriting of epigenetic information can lead to the direct and durable control of the expression of disease-associated genes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508717/expanding-the-haitian-rehabilitation-workforce-employment-situation-and-perceptions-of-graduates-from-three-rehabilitation-technician-training-programs
#9
Nancy Descôteaux, Valérie Chagnon, Xin Di Dong, Eric Ellemo, Alessandra Hamelin, Evans Juste, Xavier Laplante, Allison Miron, Philippe Morency, Katherine Samuel, David Charles, Matthew Hunt
PURPOSE: This article examines the employment situation and perceptions of graduates from three rehabilitation technician (RT) programs in Haiti. METHODS: In this mixed method study, 74 of 93 recent graduates completed a questionnaire, and 20 graduates participated in an in-depth qualitative interview. We analyzed survey results using descriptive statistics. We used a qualitative description approach and analyzed the interviews using constant comparative techniques...
February 25, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507011/influence-of-diet-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
M José Bagur, M Antonia Murcia, Antonia M Jiménez-Monreal, Josep A Tur, M Mar Bibiloni, Gonzalo L Alonso, Magdalena Martínez-Tomé
Nutrition is considered to be a possible factor in the pathogenesis of the neurological disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Nutrition intervention studies suggest that diet may be considered as a complementary treatment to control the progression of the disease; a systematic review of the literature on the influence of diet on MS was therefore conducted. The literature search was conducted by using Medlars Online International Literature (MEDLINE) via PubMed and Scopus. Forty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506927/connecting-minds-and-sharing-emotions-through-mimicry-a-neurocognitive-model-of-emotional-contagion
#11
REVIEW
Eliska Prochazkova, Mariska E Kret
During social interactions, people tend to automatically align with or mimic their interactor's facial expressions, vocalizations, postures, and other bodily states. Automatic mimicry might be implicated in empathy, affiliation, and empathy, and is impaired in several pathologies. Despite a growing body of literature on its phenomenology, the function and underlying mechanisms of mimicry remain poorly understood. The current review puts forward a new Neurocognitive Model of Emotional Contagion (NMEC) demonstrating how basic automatic mimicry can give rise to emotional contagion...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495952/deep-and-profound-hypothermia-in-haemorrhagic-shock-friend-or-foe-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Samuel E Moffatt, S J B Mitchell, J L Walke
INTRODUCTION: Survival in exsanguinating cardiac arrest patients is poor, as is neurological outcome in survivors. Hypothermia has traditionally been seen as harmful to trauma patients and associated with increased mortality; however, there has been speculation that cooling to very low temperatures (≤20°C) could be used to treat haemorrhagic trauma patients by the induction of a suspended animation period through extreme cooling, which improves survival and preserves neurological function...
May 11, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494715/the-click-test-a-novel-tool-to-quantify-the-age-related-decline-of-fast-motor-sequencing-of-the-thumb
#13
Florian Bodranghien, Helene Mahé, Benjamin Baude, Mario U Manto, Yves Busegnies, Stéphane Camut, Christophe Habas, Peter Marien, Giovanni de Marco, Kim van Dun
BACKGROUND: The thumb plays a critical role for manual tasks during the activities of daily life and the incidence of neurological or musculoskeletal disorders affecting the voluntary movements of the thumb is high in the elderly. There is currently no tool to assess repetitive motor sequencing of the thumb during ageing. OBJECTIVES: To report a novel procedure (the Click Test) assessing the effects of ageing on fast motor sequencing of the thumb. METHODS: Healthy subjects (n = 252; mean age +/- SD: 49...
May 10, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490912/update-on-the-treatment-of-narcolepsy-clinical-efficacy-of-pitolisant
#14
REVIEW
Michael W Calik
Narcolepsy is a neurological disease that affects 1 in 2,000 individuals and is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). In 60-70% of individuals with narcolepsy, it is also characterized by cataplexy or a sudden loss of muscle tone that is triggered by positive or negative emotions. Narcolepsy decreases the quality of life of the afflicted individuals. Currently used drugs treat EDS alone (modafinil/armodafinil, methylphenidate, and amphetamine), cataplexy alone ("off-label" use of antidepressants), or both EDS and cataplexy (sodium oxybate)...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489610/invasive-and-noninvasive-means-of-measuring-intracranial-pressure-a-review
#15
Xuan Zhang, Joshua Medow, Bermans Iskandar, Fa Wang, Mehdi Shokoueinejad, Joyce Koueik, John Webster
Measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) can be invaluable in the management of critically ill patients. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by the choroid plexus in the brain ventricles (a set of communicating chambers), after which it circulates through the different ventricles and exits into the subarachnoid space (SAS) around the brain, where it is reabsorbed into the venous system. If the fluid does not drain out of the brain or get reabsorbed, the ICP increases, which may lead to brain damage or death...
May 10, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484983/ischemic-preconditioning-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#16
REVIEW
Maranatha Ayodele, Sebastian Koch
Preconditioning is the premise that controlled preemptive exposure to sub-lethal doses of a stressor and can condition an organism or organ to later withstand a lethal dose. This process relies on marshaling endogenous survival resources that have evolved as part of an organism's evolutionary struggle to overcome at times harsh environmental conditions. This preconditioning response occurs through activation of myriad complex mechanisms that run the gamut from alterations in gene expression to the de novo synthesis and post-translational modification of proteins, and it may occur across exposure to a wide variety of stressors (i...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474982/posttraumatic-epilepsy-long-term-follow-up-of-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Amit Keret, Odeya Bennett-Back, Guy Rosenthal, Tal Gilboa, Moatasim Shweiki, Yigal Shoshan, Mony Benifla
OBJECTIVE Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a known complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The true incidence of PTE in children is still uncertain, because most research has been based primarily on adults. This study aimed to determine the true incidence of PTE in a pediatric population with mild TBI (MTBI) and to identify risk factors for the development of epileptic events. METHODS Data were collected from electronic medical records of children 0-17 years of age, who were admitted to a single medical center between 2007 and 2009 with a diagnosis of MTBI...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469645/the-translational-importance-of-establishing-biomarkers-of-human-spinal-cord-injury
#18
REVIEW
Sanam Salimi Elizei, Brian K Kwon
The evaluation of such novel therapies for acute spinal cord injury in clinical trials is extremely challenging. Our current dependence upon the clinical assessment of neurologic impairment renders many acute SCI patients ineligible for trials because they are not examinable. Furthermore, the difficulty in predicting neurologic recovery based on the early clinical assessment forces investigators to recruit large cohorts to have sufficient power. Biomarkers that objectively classify injury severity and better predict neurologic outcome would be valuable tools for translational research...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468534/successful-aging-in-community-seniors-and-stroke-survivors-current-and-future-strategies
#19
Rujvi Kamat, Colin A Depp, Dilip V Jeste
There is growing evidence to suggest that aging is accompanied by enhancement in psychosocial well-being, despite age-related declines in physical and cognitive functioning. A small but growing body of research has reported on positive trajectories of well-being, and its determinants, among community-dwelling seniors as well as in people with specific diseases such as stroke. Current strategies for promoting successful aging include physical, cognitive and social activities, healthy lifestyle, social support, and positive traits such as resilience and optimism...
June 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468530/the-epigenetics-of-epilepsy-and-its-progression
#20
Rebecca M Hauser, David C Henshall, Farah D Lubin
Epilepsy is a common and devastating neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked spontaneous seizures. One leading hypothesis for the development and progression of epilepsy is that large-scale changes in gene transcription and protein expression contribute to aberrant network restructuring and hyperexcitability, resulting in the genesis of repeated seizures. Current research shows that epigenetic mechanisms, including posttranslational alterations to the proteins around which DNA is coiled, chemical modifications to DNA, and the activity of various noncoding RNA molecules exert important influences on these gene networks in experimental epilepsy...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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