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Current Research in Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451849/a-comprehensive-review-of-eggs-choline-and-lutein-on-cognition-across-the-life-span
#1
Taylor C Wallace
In 2030, one in five Americans will be older than 65 years, and with that an increase in the number of individuals who experience loss in cognitive capacity is to be expected. At the same time, nutrition within the first 1000 days postconception has been suggested to strongly influence cognitive outcomes across the life-span in humans. Eggs are a primary source of both choline and the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein in the western diet, and both have been suggested to influence cognitive function in humans. This comprehensive review critically examines the effects of eggs, choline, and lutein on cognition across the life-span...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445033/rett-syndrome-a-neurological-disorder-with-metabolic-components
#2
REVIEW
Stephanie M Kyle, Neeti Vashi, Monica J Justice
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurological disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 ( MECP2 ), a ubiquitously expressed transcriptional regulator. Despite remarkable scientific progress since its discovery, the mechanism by which MECP2 mutations cause RTT symptoms is largely unknown. Consequently, treatment options for patients are currently limited and centred on symptom relief. Thought to be an entirely neurological disorder, RTT research has focused on the role of MECP2 in the central nervous system...
February 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441119/diagnosis-monitoring-and-prevention-of-exposure-related-non-communicable-diseases-in-the-living-and-working-environment-dimopex-project-is-designed-to-determine-the-impacts-of-environmental-exposure-on-human-health
#3
REVIEW
Lygia Therese Budnik, Balazs Adam, Maria Albin, Barbara Banelli, Xaver Baur, Fiorella Belpoggi, Claudia Bolognesi, Karin Broberg, Per Gustavsson, Thomas Göen, Axel Fischer, Dorota Jarosinska, Fabiana Manservisi, Richard O'Kennedy, Johan Øvrevik, Elizabet Paunovic, Beate Ritz, Paul T J Scheepers, Vivi Schlünssen, Heidi Schwarzenbach, Per E Schwarze, Orla Sheils, Torben Sigsgaard, Karel Van Damme, Ludwine Casteleyn
The WHO has ranked environmental hazardous exposures in the living and working environment among the top risk factors for chronic disease mortality. Worldwide, about 40 million people die each year from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including cancer, diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular, neurological and lung diseases. The exposure to ambient pollution in the living and working environment is exacerbated by individual susceptibilities and lifestyle-driven factors to produce complex and complicated NCD etiologies...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435691/common-data-elements-collected-among-universities-for-sport-related-concussion-studies
#4
Jingzhen Yang, Corinne Peek-Asa, James M Noble, James Torner, Paul Schmidt, Martha L Cooper
BACKGROUND: Universities are increasingly implementing programs to effectively respond to and manage sport-related concussions (SRCs). One such effort is to develop common data elements (CDEs) and standardize data collection methods. The objectives of this study were to describe CDEs currently collected by Big Ten and Ivy League universities for SRC studies, and to compare the data collected with the core CDEs recommended by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)...
February 12, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433366/mode-of-birth-in-twins-data-and-reflections
#5
A Reitter, B A Daviss, M J Krimphove, K C Johnson, R Schlößer, F Louwen, A Bisits
Our primary objective was to compare neonatal and maternal outcomes in women with twin pregnancies, beyond 32 weeks, having a planned vaginal birth or a planned caesarean section (CS). This was a retrospective cohort study from a single tertiary centre over nine years. 534 sets of twins ≥32 + 0 weeks of gestation were included. 401 sets were planned vaginally and 133 sets were planned by CS. We compared a composite adverse perinatal outcome (perinatal mortality or serious neonatal morbidity; five minute APGAR score ≤4, neurological abnormality and need for intubation) and a composite maternal adverse outcome (major haemorrhage, trauma or infection) between the groups...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432246/evaluation-and-management-of-the-child-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Nicole Baumer, Sarah J Spence
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests. This article provides the tools to diagnose and manage patients with autism spectrum disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous condition with varying presentations, multiple etiologies, and a number of comorbidities that impact the course and management of the disorder...
February 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429858/-neuropathology-of-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-review-of-the-literature-and-proposal-of-a-protocol-for-neuropathological-examination
#7
Clémence Delteil, David Meyronet, Andre Maues de Paula, Anne Jouvet, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti
According to the French High Authority for Health, sudden unexpected death in infants (SUDI) is defined as "a sudden death that occurs in an infant, whereas nothing in its known history could have predicted it". This is an exclusion diagnosis. There are great interregional disparities despite the professional recommendations established in February 2007. For the examination of the brain, instructions are not adapted to current and research practice. The role of the pathologist, like anyone involved in SUDI, is to eliminate an abuse head trauma and to determine the cause of death...
February 8, 2018: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428834/uncensored-eeg-the-role-of-dc-potentials-in-neurobiology-of-the-brain
#8
REVIEW
Stjepana Kovac, Erwin-Josef Speckmann, Ali Gorji
Brain direct current (DC) potentials denote sustained shifts and slow deflections of cerebral potentials superimposed with conventional EEG waves and reflect alterations in the excitation level of the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures. Using galvanometers, such sustained displacement of the EEG baseline was recorded in the early days of electroencephalography. To stabilize the EEG baseline and eliminate artefacts, EEG was performed later by voltage amplifiers with high-pass filters that dismiss slow DC potentials...
February 8, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427112/planning-future-clinical-trials-for-machado-joseph-disease
#9
Jonas Alex Morales Saute, Laura Bannach Jardim
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3/Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD) is an autosomal dominant multiple neurological systems degenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion at ATXN3 gene. Only a few treatments were evaluated in randomized clinical trials (RCT) in SCA3/MJD patients, with a lack of evidence for both disease-modifying and symptomatic therapies. The present chapter discuss in detail major methodological issues for planning future RCT for SCA3/MJD. There are several potential therapies for SCA3/MJD with encouraging preclinical results...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422006/inhibition-of-neurogenesis-by-zika-virus-infection
#10
Fahim Ahmad, Amna Siddiqui, Mohammad A Kamal, Sayed S Sohrab
The association between Zika virus infection and neurological disorder has raised urgent global alarm. The ongoing epidemic has triggered quick responses in the scientific community. The first case of Zika virus was reported in 2015 from Brazil and now has spread over 30 countries. Nearly four hundred cases of travel-associated Zika virus infection have also been reported in the United States. Zika virus is primarily transmitted by mosquito belongs to the genus Aedes that are widely distributed throughout the world including the Southern United States...
February 1, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419328/brain-focused-ultrasound-what-s-the-fus-all-about-a-review-of-current-and-emerging-neurological-applications
#11
Laure Bretsztajn, Wladyslaw Gedroyc
Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) allows for precise non-invasive thermal ablation of target tissues for a wide range of clinical applications. It is an innovative and rapidly expanding technology which has already established itself as an effective and safe incisionless alternative in the treatment of various soft tissue tumours, with many more research studies underway to extend its therapeutic envelope. The non-invasiveness of the procedure makes FUS particularly attractive in functional neurosurgery, where existing treatment options are not suitable for all patients...
February 8, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412840/neurologic-changes-and-depression
#12
REVIEW
Ryan D Greene, Sophia Wang
This article covers current research on the relationship between depression and cognitive impairment in older adults. First, it approaches the clinical assessment of late-life depression and comorbid cognitive impairment. Cognitive risk factors for suicide are discussed. Research is then provided on neuropsychological changes associated with depression, discussing subjective cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia profiles. Additionally, literature regarding neuroimaging and biomarker findings in depressed older adults is presented...
March 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412125/the-endocannabinoid-system-and-heart-disease-the-role-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2
#13
Morad Hebi, Douglas P Thewke
Decades of research has provided evidence for the role of the endocannabinoid system in human health and disease. This versatile system, consisting of two receptors (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and metabolic enzymes has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states, ranging from neurological disorders to cancer. CB2 has gained much interest for its beneficial immunomodulatory role that can be obtained without eliciting psychotropic effects through CB1. Recent studies have shed light on a protective role of CB2 in cardiovascular disease, an ailment which currently takes more lives each year in Western countries than any other disease or injury...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411111/functional-morphology-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-health-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Stefan Liebner, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Yvonne Reiss, Karl H Plate, Dritan Agalliu, Gabriela Constantin
The adult quiescent blood-brain barrier (BBB), a structure organised by endothelial cells through interactions with pericytes, astrocytes, neurons and microglia in the neurovascular unit, is highly regulated but fragile at the same time. In the past decade, there has been considerable progress in understanding not only the molecular pathways involved in BBB development, but also BBB breakdown in neurological diseases. Specifically, the Wnt/β-catenin, retinoic acid and sonic hedgehog pathways moved into the focus of BBB research...
February 6, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407456/a-stereotaxic-breed-averaged-symmetric-t2w-canine-brain-atlas-including-detailed-morphological-and-volumetrical-data-sets
#15
Björn Nitzsche, Johannes Boltze, Eberhard Ludewig, Thomas Flegel, Martin J Schmidt, Johannes Seeger, Henryk Barthel, Olivia W Brooks, Matthew J Gounis, Michael H Stoffel, Sabine Schulze
Stereotaxic systems and automatic tissue segmentation routines enable neuronavigation as well as reproducible processing of neuroimage datasets. Such systems have been developed for humans, non-human-primates, sheep, and rodents, but not for dogs. Although dogs share important neurofunctional and -anatomical features with humans, and in spite of their importance in translational neuroscience, little is known about the variability of the canine brain morphology and, possibly related, function. Moreover, we lack templates, tissue probability maps (TPM), and stereotaxic brain labels for implementation in standard software utilities such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM)...
January 30, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405900/development-and-validation-of-a-probe-hybridization-reverse-transcription-quantitative-pcr-for-detection-of-mamastrovirus-2-in-domestic-cats
#16
Hannah G Williams, Kirstin A Cook, Patricia E Lawler, Linda L Archer, Karen Schaedel, Natalie Isaza, James F X Wellehan
Astroviruses are viral pathogens that have been associated with enteric and neurologic disease in a variety of species. The domestic cat is a prominent host, with reports of astroviral infection being both highly prevalent and widely distributed in the feline population. Despite the potential for inducing significant disease, especially within shelter environments, there is currently only one reliable method of detection: standard reverse-transcription PCR using pan-astrovirus degenerate primers (consensus RT-PCR) with product sequencing...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403431/acquired-sleep-related-hypermotor-epilepsy-with-disrupted-white-matter-tracts-assessed-by-multishell-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Zahari N Tchopev, Ping-Hong Yeh, Greg W Morgan, Eric Meyer, Johanna M Wolf, John M Ollinger, Gerard P Riedy, Lisa C Young
Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) (previously frontal lobe epilepsy) is a rare seizure disorder commonly misdiagnosed or unrecognized, causing negative patient sequelae. While usually reported in familial studies, it is more commonly acquired. Diagnosis is a challenge due to its low incidence in comparison with the more common sleep disorders or psychogenic etiologies in the differential diagnosis. Diagnosis is scaled on degree of certainty based on described or clinically documented semiology, with video EEG as a helpful, but not necessary, adjunct...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402826/when-to-screen-ischaemic-stroke-patients-for-cancer
#18
Henriette Aurora Selvik, Anna Therese Bjerkreim, Lars Thomassen, Ulrike Waje-Andreassen, Halvor Naess, Christopher Elnan Kvistad
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke can be the first manifestation of cancer and it is therefore important to ascertain which stroke patients should be considered for cancer-diagnostic investigations. We aimed to determine the frequency of active cancer in patients with acute ischemic stroke and to compare clinical findings in stroke patients with active cancer to ischemic stroke patients with no history of cancer. Finally, we aimed to develop a predictive and feasible score for clinical use to uncover underlying malignancy...
January 9, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399335/progress-in-research-on-intracranial-multiple-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas
#19
Yunbao Guo, Jing Yu, Ying Zhao, Jinlu Yu
Intracranial multiple dural arteriovenous fistulas (MDAVFs) are rare lesions that are difficult to treat. The key factors involved in the development of MDAVFs remain unknown. At present, the majority of reports on intracranial MDAVFs are confined to case reports and small case series, and thus understanding of MDAVFs is limited. The current review assesses the available literature to date with the aim of reviewing the progress in research on intracranial MDAVFs. Intracranial MDAVFs may be divided into two types: Synchronous and metachronous...
January 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397452/update-on-the-treatment-of-spontaneous-intraparenchymal-hemorrhage-medical-and-interventional-management
#20
REVIEW
Thomas J Cusack, J Ricardo Carhuapoma, Wendy C Ziai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) is a prominent challenge faced globally by neurosurgeons, neurologists, and intensivists. Over the past few decades, basic and clinical research efforts have been undertaken with the goal of delineating biologically and evidence-based practices aimed at decreasing mortality and optimizing the likelihood of meaningful functional outcome for patients afflicted with this devastating condition. Here, the authors review the medical and surgical approaches available for the treatment of spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage, identifying areas of recent progress and ongoing research to delineate the scope and scale of IPH as it is currently understood and treated...
February 3, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
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