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Current Research in Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667473/harnessing-neuroplasticity-modern-approaches-and-clinical-future
#1
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Joshua Kuruvilla, Anna Pick Kiong Ling
Neurological diseases and injuries to the nervous system may cause inadvertent damage to neuronal and synaptic structures. Such phenomenon would catastrophically accumulate, leading to the development of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders which might affect memory, cognition, and motoric functions. The body has various negative feedback systems which are able to induce beneficial neuroplastic changes in mediating some neuronal damage, however, such efforts are often not enough to ameliorate the derogatory changes...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665726/dexmedetomidine-mitigates-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation-through-up-regulation-of-programmed-cell-death-protein-1-in-a-rat-spinal-cord-injury-model
#2
Hefan He, Yingying Zhou, Yilin Zhou, Jiayuan Zhuang, Xu He, Siyuan Wang, Wenping Lin
Excessive neuroinflammation aggravates neurological damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Controlling neuroinflammation might favor neuroregeneration and tissue repair. Dexmedetomidine is reported to inhibit post-SCI neuroinflammation in previous research. In the current study, to determine the mechanisms by which dexmedetomidine inhibits neuroinflammation, we tested the effect of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride on microglia in vitro and in a rat SCI model. We found that dexmedetomidine hydrochloride up-regulated programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), an immunoregulatory molecule, in activated microglia but not in resting microglia...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663285/exosomes-in-acquired-neurological-disorders-new-insights-into-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Nicole Osier, Vida Motamedi, Katie Edwards, Ava Puccio, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kimbra Kenney, Jessica Gill
Exosomes are endogenous nanovesicles that play critical roles in intercellular signaling by conveying functional genetic information and proteins between cells. Exosomes readily cross the blood-brain barrier and have promise as therapeutic delivery vehicles that have the potential to specifically deliver molecules to the central nervous system (CNS). This unique feature also makes exosomes attractive as biomarkers in diagnostics, prognostics, and therapeutics in the context of multiple significant public health conditions, including acquired neurological disorders...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661944/atrial-fibrillation-burden-moving-beyond-atrial-fibrillation-as-a-binary-entity-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#4
REVIEW
Lin Y Chen, Mina K Chung, Larry A Allen, Michael Ezekowitz, Karen L Furie, Pamela McCabe, Peter A Noseworthy, Marco V Perez, Mintu P Turakhia
Our understanding of the risk factors and complications of atrial fibrillation (AF) is based mostly on studies that have evaluated AF in a binary fashion (present or absent) and have not investigated AF burden. This scientific statement discusses the published literature and knowledge gaps related to methods of defining and measuring AF burden, the relationship of AF burden to cardiovascular and neurological outcomes, and the effect of lifestyle and risk factor modification on AF burden. Many studies examine outcomes by AF burden classified by AF type (paroxysmal versus nonparoxysmal); however, quantitatively, AF burden can be defined by longest duration, number of AF episodes during a monitoring period, and the proportion of time an individual is in AF during a monitoring period (expressed as a percentage)...
April 16, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660942/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-the-metabolism-of-polyphenols-as-characterized-by-gnotobiotic-mice
#5
Giulio Maria Pasinetti, Risham Singh, Susan Westfall, Francis Herman, Jeremiah Faith, Lap Ho
A growing body of experimental data suggests that microbes in the gut influence behavior and can alter brain physiology and neurochemistry. Although promising, researchers are only starting to understand the potential of the gut microbiota for use in neurological disease. Recent evidence demonstrated that gastrointestinal activities are linked to mood disorders such as anxiety, depression, and most recently, cognitive functions in age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Studies from our group and others are uncovering new evidence suggesting that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the metabolism and bioavailability of certain dietary compounds and synthetic drugs...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658744/when-does-cognitive-decline-begin-a-systematic-review-of-change-point-studies-on-accelerated-decline-in-cognitive-and-neurological-outcomes-preceding-mild-cognitive-impairment-dementia-and-death
#6
Justin E Karr, Raquel B Graham, Scott M Hofer, Graciela Muniz-Terrera
Older adults who ultimately develop dementia experience accelerated cognitive decline long before diagnosis. A similar acceleration in cognitive decline occurs in the years before death as well. To evaluate preclinical and terminal cognitive decline, past researchers have incorporated change points in their analyses of longitudinal data, identifying point estimates of how many years prior to diagnosis or death that decline begins to accelerate. The current systematic review aimed to summarize the published literature on preclinical and terminal change points in relation to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and death, identifying the order in which cognitive and neurological outcomes decline and factors that modify the onset and rate of decline...
March 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652625/the-opportunity-for-telehealth-to-support-neurological-healthcare
#7
Amanda M Cardinale
Neurological conditions affect one-third of Americans and are some of the most prevalent health issues in the country. Many sufferers have difficulty accessing treatment, however, advances in technology may be able to support availability, affordability, and convenience of care through telehealth services. This review outlines the current state of telemedicine in neurological healthcare, highlighting evidence-based research and use cases for digital services. Details on expenses associated with managing certain well-known conditions are included to shed light on the financial burden of disease and how telehealth can contribute to cost savings for patients and providers...
March 20, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651626/current-topics-in-the-management-of-acute-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Christopher D Shank, Beverly C Walters, Mark N Hadley
Acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) affects more than 250,000 people in the USA, with approximately 17,000 new cases each year. It continues to be one of the most significant causes of trauma-related morbidity and mortality. Despite the introduction of primary injury prevention education and vehicle safety devices, such as airbags and passive restraint systems, traumatic SCI continues to have a substantial impact on the healthcare system. Over the last three decades, there have been considerable advancements in the management of patients with traumatic SCI...
April 12, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650468/exploring-bacteroidetes-metabolic-key-points-and-immunological-tricks-of-our-gut-commensals
#9
REVIEW
Giulia Gibiino, Loris Riccardo Lopetuso, Franco Scaldaferri, Gianenrico Rizzatti, Cecilia Binda, Antonio Gasbarrini
Bacteroidetes are the largest phylum of Gram-negative bacteria inhabiting our gastrointestinal tract and are considered the leading players of the healthy state and sophisticated homeostasis safeguarded by gut microbiota. Furthermore, specific roles have been attributed to some Bacteroidetes genera in the development of immune dysregulation, systemic disease such as metabolic syndrome and also neurological disorders. Glycoproteins secretion, short fatty acids imbalance, toxins production and molecular mimicry are only a part of the functions exerted by these commensals interacting with the host...
March 20, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629988/early-evidence-of-sepsis-associated-hyperperfusion-a-study-of-cerebral-blood-flow-measured-with-mri-arterial-spin-labeling-in-critically-ill-septic-patients-and-control-subjects
#10
Marie-Hélène Masse, Marie Anne Richard, Frédérick D'Aragon, Charles St-Arnaud, Michael Mayette, Neill K J Adhikari, William Fraser, André Carpentier, Steven Palanchuck, David Gauthier, Luc Lanthier, Matthieu Touchette, Albert Lamontagne, Jean Chénard, Sangeeta Mehta, Yanick Sansoucy, Etienne Croteau, Martin Lepage, François Lamontagne
OBJECTIVES: Mechanisms underlying sepsis-associated encephalopathy remain unclear, but reduced cerebral blood flow, alone or in conjunction with altered autoregulation, is reported as a potential contributor. We compared cerebral blood flow of control subjects and vasopressor-dependent septic patients. DESIGN: Randomized crossover study. SETTING: MRI with arterial spin labeling. PATIENTS: Ten sedated septic patients on mechanical ventilation (four with controlled chronic hypertension) and 12 control subjects (six with controlled chronic hypertension) were enrolled...
April 6, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625968/2018-update-of-the-eular-recommendations-for-the-management-of-beh%C3%A3-et-s-syndrome
#11
Gulen Hatemi, Robin Christensen, Dongsik Bang, Bahram Bodaghi, Aykut Ferhat Celik, Farida Fortune, Julien Gaudric, Ahmet Gul, Ina Kötter, Pietro Leccese, Alfred Mahr, Robert Moots, Yesim Ozguler, Jutta Richter, David Saadoun, Carlo Salvarani, Francesco Scuderi, Petros P Sfikakis, Aksel Siva, Miles Stanford, Ilknur Tugal-Tutkun, Richard West, Sebahattin Yurdakul, Ignazio Olivieri, Hasan Yazici
Several new treatment modalities with different mechanisms of action have been studied in patients with Behçet's syndrome (BS). The aim of the current effort was to update the recommendations in the light of these new data under the auspices of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Standing Committee for Clinical Affairs. A task force was formed that included BS experts from different specialties including internal medicine, rheumatology, ophthalmology, dermatology, neurology, gastroenterology, oral health medicine and vascular surgery, along with a methodologist, a health professional, two patients and two fellows in charge of the systematic literature search...
April 6, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625628/advanced-robotic-therapy-integrated-centers-artic-an-international-collaboration-facilitating-the-application-of-rehabilitation-technologies
#12
Hubertus J A van Hedel, Giacomo Severini, Alessandra Scarton, Anne O'Brien, Tamsin Reed, Deborah Gaebler-Spira, Tara Egan, Andreas Meyer-Heim, Judith Graser, Karen Chua, Daniel Zutter, Raoul Schweinfurther, J Carsten Möller, Liliana P Paredes, Alberto Esquenazi, Steffen Berweck, Sebastian Schroeder, Birgit Warken, Anne Chan, Amber Devers, Jakub Petioky, Nam-Jong Paik, Won-Seok Kim, Paolo Bonato, Michael Boninger
BACKGROUND: The application of rehabilitation robots has grown during the last decade. While meta-analyses have shown beneficial effects of robotic interventions for some patient groups, the evidence is less in others. We established the Advanced Robotic Therapy Integrated Centers (ARTIC) network with the goal of advancing the science and clinical practice of rehabilitation robotics. The investigators hope to exploit variations in practice to learn about current clinical application and outcomes...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623859/non-invasive-cerebellar-stimulation-in-cerebellar-disorders
#13
Roberta Ferrucci, Ciara Di Nuzzo, Fabiana Ruggiero, Francesca Cortese, Ilaria Cova, Alberto Priori
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) might be a valuable therapeutic approach for neurological diseases by modifying the cortical activity in the human brain and promoting neural plasticity. Currently, researchers are exploring the use of NIBS on the cerebellum to promote functional neural changes in cerebellar disorders. In the presence of cerebellar dysfunction, several movement disorders, such as kinetic tremor, ataxia of gait, limb dysmetria and oculomotor deficits, become progressively more disabling in daily life, and no pharmacological treatments currently exist...
April 3, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620698/complex-polypharmacy-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-before-a-psychiatric-hospitalization-prescribing-patterns-and-associated-clinical-features
#14
Brandon A Gaudiano, Carolina Guzman Holst, Alexandra Morena, Lauren E Reeves, Valerie J Sydnor, Gary Epstein-Lubow, Lauren M Weinstock
BACKGROUND: Current evidence-based guidelines provide unclear support for many common polypharmacy practices in schizophrenia. Excessive or complex polypharmacy (≥4 psychotropics) has been studied in patients with bipolar disorder, but not in schizophrenia to date. METHODS: We conducted a digital medical record data extraction of 829 patients consecutively admitted to a psychiatric hospital and diagnosed as having schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. RESULTS: In those prescribed psychiatric medication preadmission, 28...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619534/-unmet-needs-of-family-dementia-caregivers-of-persons-with-dementia-primary-medical-care
#15
REVIEW
I Zwingmann, W Hoffmann, B Michalowsky, D Wucherer, T Eichler, S Teipel, A Dreier-Wolfgramm, I Kilimann, J R Thyrian
BACKGROUND: Results of current research studies revealed that providing informal care for people with dementia (PwD) is associated with caregivers' burden and a variety of health impairments. In order to provide optimal support for family caregivers of PwD, general practitioners and specialists should be able to identify caregivers' unmet needs in primary care. OBJECTIVES: The present article provides an overview of unmet needs of family caregivers that are relevant for general practitioners as well as specialists in neurology, psychiatry, psychotherapy and psychosomatics...
April 4, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618994/toward-a-neuroscientific-understanding-of-play-a-dimensional-coding-framework-for-analyzing-infant-adult-play-patterns
#16
Dave Neale, Kaili Clackson, Stanimira Georgieva, Hatice Dedetas, Melissa Scarpate, Sam Wass, Victoria Leong
Play during early life is a ubiquitous activity, and an individual's propensity for play is positively related to cognitive development and emotional well-being. Play behavior (which may be solitary or shared with a social partner) is diverse and multi-faceted. A challenge for current research is to converge on a common definition and measurement system for play - whether examined at a behavioral, cognitive or neurological level. Combining these different approaches in a multimodal analysis could yield significant advances in understanding the neurocognitive mechanisms of play, and provide the basis for developing biologically grounded play models...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618218/nih-toolbox%C3%A2-emotion-batteries-for-children-factor-based-composites-and-norms
#17
Emily W Paolillo, Benjamin S McKenna, Cindy J Nowinski, Michael L Thomas, Vanessa L Malcarne, Robert K Heaton
The recently released National Institutes of Health Toolbox (NIHTB) batteries for neurological and behavioral function were designed to serve as standardized, common measures in clinical and epidemiological research. The current study aimed to examine constructs assessed by the self-report and parental proxy-report scales in the NIHTB Emotion Battery (NIHTB-EB) for Children by using factor analyses on data from the U.S. national normative sample of 2,916 English-speaking children. This battery contains 31 scales designed to assess both positive and negative aspects of social and emotional functioning that are considered developmentally relevant at each of three age ranges (3-7, 8-12, and 13-17 years)...
April 1, 2018: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602467/role-of-apolipoprotein-e-in-the-tangled-mystery-of-pain
#18
Harjot Dhillon, Sargun Singh
Pain is one of the common and debilitating health manifestations associated with the majority of diseased conditions, thus making it a serious health concern worldwide. While trying to decipher the cryptic mechanism of pain in hope to provide better gene-based therapeutics, researchers have concluded pain to be of multigenic origin making it hard to cure. Apolipoprotein E is a protein coded by APOE gene containing 4 exons, located on chromosome 19q13.2. It is among the key regulators of various crucial body functions such as lipid transport, apoptosis, vitamin k pathway, and cognition, hence, it is highly suspected to play a pivotal role in the nociception process...
May 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596066/sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-incidence-risk-factors-and-proposed-mechanisms
#19
Steven P Ellis, Charles Ákos Szabó
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder associated with increased morbidity and mortality, including premature death from different causes. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, or SUDEP, is one of the most common causes of death in people with epilepsy and originally brought to light by medical examiners. It accounts for 5% to 30% of all deaths in individuals with epilepsy and up to 50% in individuals with medically refractory epilepsy. It is commonly associated with a history of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and may be mitigated by other electroclinical risk factors, such as postictal electroencephalographic suppression, prone position, altered heart rate variability, conduction abnormalities, gender, or antiepileptic medications, to name a few...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595449/routine-low-dose-continuous-or-nocturnal-oxygen-for-people-with-acute-stroke-three-arm-stroke-oxygen-supplementation-rct
#20
Christine Roffe, Tracy Nevatte, Jon Bishop, Julius Sim, Cristina Penaloza, Susan Jowett, Natalie Ives, Richard Gray, Phillip Ferdinand, Girish Muddegowda
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Hypoxia is common after stroke and is associated with worse outcomes. Oxygen supplementation could prevent hypoxia and secondary brain damage. OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess whether or not routine low-dose oxygen supplementation in patients with acute stroke improves outcome compared with no oxygen; and (2) to assess whether or not oxygen given at night only, when oxygen saturation is most likely to be low, is more effective than continuous supplementation...
March 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
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