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Subfertility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141997/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-reveals-the-synergistic-effects-of-%C3%AE-defensin-family-members-on-sperm-maturation-in-rat-epididymis
#1
Chaobao Zhang, Yuchuan Zhou, Shengsong Xie, Qianqian Yin, Chunhua Tang, Zimei Ni, Jian Fei, Yonglian Zhang
The epididymis is a male reproductive organ involved in posttesticular sperm maturation and storage, but the mechanism underlying sperm maturation remains unclear. β-Defensins (Defbs) belong to a family of small, cysteine-rich, cationic peptides that are antimicrobial and modulate the immune response. A large number of Defb genes are expressed abundantly in the male reproductive tract, especially in the epididymis. We and other groups have shown the involvement of several Defb genes in regulation of sperm function...
November 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138526/stimulation-of-primordial-follicle-assembly-by-estradiol-17%C3%AE-requires-the-action-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-bmp2
#2
Prabuddha Chakraborty, Shyamal K Roy
Primordial follicle (PF) pool determines the availability of follicles for ovulation in all mammals. Premature depletion of the PF reserve leads to subfertility or infertility. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) promotes PF formation by facilitating oocyte and granulosa cell development. Estradiol-17β (E2) upregulates PF formation in developing hamster ovaries. However, if BMP2 mediates E2 effect is not known. We hypothesize that E2 facilitates the effect of BMP2 on somatic to granulosa cell transition. BMP2 and E2 together significantly upregulated the percentage of PFs in hamster fetal ovaries in vitro compared with either of the treatments alone...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131377/new-insights-of-subfertility-among-transplanted-women-immunosuppressive-drug-fk506-leads-to-calcium-leak-and-oocyte-activation-before-fertilization
#3
Linlin Liu, Man Yang, Naiqiang Wang, Li Li, Zi-Jiang Chen, Cong Zhang
FKBP12, known as FK506 binding protein, binds to immunosuppressive drug FK506, which must be taken by patients who received organ transplant. The side effect of FK506 is that women have difficulties in bearing a baby, so it is important to find the reason of their subfertility. This research explored the expression of FKBP12 in pre-implantation embryos and investigated its potential effect on reproduction. The results demonstrate that FKBP12 had good co-localization with endoplasmic reticulum and inositol-1, 4, 5- trisphosphate receptor in pre-implantation stages...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126187/med12-regulates-ovarian-steroidogenesis-uterine-development-and-maternal-effects-in-the-mammalian-egg
#4
Xinye Wang, Priya Mittal, Carlos A Castro, Gabriel Rajkovic, Aleksandar Rajkovic
The transcriptional factor MED12 is part of the essential mediator transcriptional complex that acts as a transcriptional coactivator in all eukaryotes. Missense gain of function mutations in human MED12 are associated with uterine leiomyomas, yet the role of MED12 deficiency in tumorigenesis and reproductive biology has not been fully explored. We generated a Med12 reproductive conditional knockout mouse model to evaluate its role in uterine mesenchyme, granulosa cells, and oocytes. Mice heterozygous for Med12 deficiency in granulosa cells and uterus (Med12fl/+ Amhr2-Cre) were subfertile, while mice homozygous for Med12 deficiency in granulosa cells and uterus (Med12fl/fl Amhr2-Cre) were infertile...
November 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118343/exosc10-rrp6-is-post-translationally-regulated-in-male-germ-cells-and-controls-the-onset-of-spermatogenesis
#5
Soazik P Jamin, Fabrice G Petit, Christine Kervarrec, Fatima Smagulova, Doris Illner, Harry Scherthan, Michael Primig
EXOSC10 is a catalytic subunit of the exosome that processes biologically active transcripts, degrades aberrant mRNAs and targets certain long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The yeast orthologue Rrp6 is required for efficient growth and gametogenesis, and becomes unstable during meiosis. However, nothing is known about the localization, stability and function of EXOSC10 in the rodent male germline. We detect the protein in nucleoli and the cytoplasm of mitotic and meiotic germ cells, and find that it transiently associates with the XY body, a structure targeted by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI)...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117321/the-international-glossary-on-infertility-and-fertility-care-2017
#6
Fernando Zegers-Hochschild, G David Adamson, Silke Dyer, Catherine Racowsky, Jacques de Mouzon, Rebecca Sokol, Laura Rienzi, Arne Sunde, Lone Schmidt, Ian D Cooke, Joe Leigh Simpson, Sheryl van der Poel
STUDY QUESTION: Can a consensus and evidence-driven set of terms and definitions be generated to be used globally in order to ensure consistency when reporting on infertility issues and fertility care interventions, as well as to harmonize communication among the medical and scientific communities, policy-makers, and lay public including individuals and couples experiencing fertility problems? SUMMARY ANSWER: A set of 283 consensus-based and evidence-driven terminologies used in infertility and fertility care has been generated through an inclusive consensus-based process with multiple stakeholders...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115761/diagnosis-and-management-of-children-with-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia
#7
Amanda Harris
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, genetic disorder of the motile cilia characterised by chronic lung disease, nasal and sinus disease, chronic ear infections with glue ear leading to possible hearing impairment, and subfertility. Half of patients have organ laterality defects. Despite symptoms being present from birth, PCD remains underdiagnosed. Early diagnosis and symptom management may reduce morbidity, improve quality of life and ensure children are adequately supported to meet their full potential...
September 11, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112778/clinical-application-of-hysteroscopic-hydrotubation-for-unexplained-infertility-in-the-mare
#8
Y Inoue, M Sekiguchi
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic techniques for oviductal obstruction in the mare are limited. Non-surgical and retrograde flushing may be an attractive alternative to current treatment methods for oviductal blockage. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate hysteroscopic selective hydrotubation as a treatment option for presumptive equine oviductal blockage. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Ten ml of saline was flushed through the oviducts in 28 standing sedated mares, which had reproductive histories of unexplained subfertility, by inserting a catheter into the uterotubal junction under endoscopic guidance...
November 7, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108881/phospholipase-c-zeta-and-calcium-oscillations-at-fertilisation-the-evidence-applications-and-further-questions
#9
REVIEW
Junaid Kashir, Michail Nomikos, F Anthony Lai
Oocyte activation is a fundamental event at mammalian fertilisation, initiated by a series of characteristic calcium (Ca(2+)) oscillations in mammals. This characteristic pattern of Ca(2+) release is induced in a species-specific manner by a sperm-specific enzyme termed phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ). Reduction or absence of functional PLCζ within sperm underlies male factor infertility in humans, due to mutational inactivation or abrogation of PLCζ protein expression. Underlying such clinical implications, a significant body of evidence has now been accumulated that has characterised the unique biochemical and biophysical properties of this enzyme, further aiding the unique clinical opportunities presented...
October 27, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102151/age-at-orchiopexy-for-undescended-testis-in-the-united-states
#10
Kibileri Williams, Lauren Baumann, Adil Shah, Fizan Abdullah, Emilie K Johnson, Tolulope A Oyetunji
PURPOSE: Undescended testis (UDT) is the most common congenital anomaly of the male genitalia. The American Urological Association guidelines recommend orchiopexy by age 18months to ameliorate the risk of subfertility. The study aim was to assess adherence to these guidelines on a national level. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed both the State Ambulatory Surgery Database (SASD) in 2012 and the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) for 2015. All patients aged 18years or less with a diagnosis of UDT who underwent orchiopexy were included...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082423/obstetric-and-perinatal-outcomes-in-subfertile-patients-who-conceived-following-low-technology-interventions-for-fertility-enhancement-a-comprehensive-review
#11
Stefano Palomba, Susanna Santagni, Jessica Daolio, Karen Gibbins, Francesco Antonino Battaglia, Giovanni Battista La Sala, Robert M Silver
PURPOSE: Low technology interventions for fertility enhancement (LTIFE) are strategies that avoid retrieval, handling, and manipulation of female gametes. The definition of LTIFE is yet to be widely accepted and clarified, but they are commonly used in milder cases of infertility and subfertility. Based on these considerations, the aim of the present study was comprehensively to review and investigate the obstetric and perinatal outcomes in subfertile patients who underwent LTIFE. METHODS: A literature search up to May 2017 was performed in IBSS, SocINDEX, Institute for Scientific Information, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar...
October 29, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082109/supporting-the-one-carbon-cycle-restores-ovarian-reserve-in-subfertile-women-absence-of-correlation-with-urinary-bisphenol-a-concentration
#12
Erica Silvestris, Marc Cohen, Dominique Cornet, Laetitia Jacquesson-Fournols, Patrice Clement, Jacques Chouteau, Marc Schneider, Thierry Besnard, Yves Ménézo
Environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA), induce DNA methylation errors and oxidative stress, and alter fertility. Animal studies have demonstrated that supporting the one-carbon cycle (1-CC) with appropriate dietary supplements can reduce the effects of EDCs. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), a marker of ovarian functionality, has been tested in subfertile female patients, to control this hypothesis in humans. Fifty-five women with a history of 3-7 years of infertility, with at least two assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment failures, and low serum levels of AMH were enrolled in the study...
2017: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079751/a-missense-mutation-in-slc26a3-is-associated-with-human-male-subfertility-and-impaired-activation-of-cftr
#13
Satu Wedenoja, Ahlam Khamaysi, Liana Shimshilashvili, Shireen Anbtawe-Jomaa, Outi Elomaa, Jorma Toppari, Pia Höglund, Kristiina Aittomäki, Christer Holmberg, Outi Hovatta, Juha S Tapanainen, Ehud Ohana, Juha Kere
Chloride absorption and bicarbonate excretion through exchange by the solute carrier family 26 member 3 (SLC26A3) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are crucial for many tissues including sperm and epithelia of the male reproductive tract. Homozygous SLC26A3 mutations cause congenital chloride diarrhea with male subfertility, while homozygous CFTR mutations cause cystic fibrosis with male infertility. Some homozygous or heterozygous CFTR mutations only manifest as male infertility...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079275/endometriosis-especially-mild-disease-a-risk-factor-for-miscarriages
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Alexandra Sabrina Kohl Schwartz, Monika Martina Wölfler, Vera Mitter, Martina Rauchfuss, Felix Haeberlin, Markus Eberhard, Stephanie von Orelli, Bruno Imthurn, Patrick Imesch, Daniel Fink, Brigitte Leeners
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of miscarriage in women with endometriosis (WwE) compared with disease-free control women (CW). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis nested in a retrospective observational study (n = 940). SETTING: Hospitals and associated private practices. PATIENT(S): Previously pregnant women (n = 268) within reproductive age in matched pairs. INTERVENTION(S): Retrospective analysis of surgical reports and self-administered questionnaires...
November 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076705/analysis-of-high-caesarean-section-rates-the-second-step-after-audits-using-the-ten-group-classification-system
#15
Malik Goonewardene, M Peiris, S Kariyawasam, S Mallawaaratchi, D Kadawathage, L Sanjeewa, P Widanapathirana, I Sandeepani
Objective: To identify possible methods of reducing high caesarean section rates in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: Analysis of birth weight of neonates, maternal age and indications for caesarean section in the groups identified by a modification of Robson’s 10 Group Classification of caesarean section (TGCS), which contribute significantly to the high caesarean section rates in the University Obstetric Unit, Teaching Hospital Mahamodara, Galle Sri Lanka during 2010 - to 2014...
September 30, 2017: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067046/subclinical-hypothyroidism-frequency-clinical-presentations-and-treatment-indications
#16
Mubashir Alam Khan, Tasnim Ahsan, Urooj Lal Rehman, Rukhshanda Jabeen, Saad Farouq
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency, modes of clinical presentation and indications for replacement therapy in a cohort of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). METHODS: This study was conducted at the Endocrine and Diabetes Unit of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre from September 2007 - October 2015. This was a retrospective chart analysis of prospectively collected data in whichthe medical records of 4448 patients who had presented to the Endocrine Clinic from 2007 to 2015 were reviewed...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066530/regulation-of-porcupine-dependent-wnt-signaling-is-essential-for-uterine-development-and-fertility
#17
Omar Farah, Steffen Biechele, Janet Rossant, Daniel Dufort
Six members of the Wnt family are expressed in the female reproductive tract. Their collective function ensures proper development of the uterus, preparing it for pregnancy during adulthood. Here we take advantage of the fact that Porcn, a prerequisite for all Wnt secretion, is located on the X chromosome to generate females that were mosaic for Porcn throughout the reproductive tract. Porcnflox/x females were mated with progesterone receptor (Pgr)-Cre males (PgrCre/+) to generate females that were heterozygous for Porcupine in all tissues of the female reproductive tract, which resulted in mosaicism due to random X-inactivation...
October 24, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065772/the-impact-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-on-sperm-parameters-and-male-fertility-a-comprehensive-study
#18
M Moazenchi, M Totonchi, R Salman Yazdi, K Hratian, M A Mohseni Meybodi, M Ahmadi Panah, M Chehrazi, A Mohseni Meybodi
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), an obligate intracellular bacterium, requires living cells to replicate. Half of men infected with CT are asymptomatic. CT infection can persist for up to four years within couples and affect their fertility. Chlamydia infection in men acts as a reservoir for transmission to women and can cause urinary tract inflammation, sperm DNA damage, and acute epididymitis. Semen samples from 1080 subfertile patients with normal and abnormal spermograms were examined to detect the presence of CT...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064078/defective-wnt3-expression-by-testicular-sertoli-cells-compromise-male-fertility
#19
Sayon Basu, Satya Pal Arya, Abul Usmani, Bhola Shankar Pradhan, Rajesh Kumar Sarkar, Nirmalya Ganguli, Mansi Shukla, Kamal Mandal, Surendra Singh, Kanchan Sarda, Subeer S Majumdar
Testicular Sertoli cells make a niche for the division and differentiation of germ cells. Sertoli cells respond to increased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) levels at the onset of puberty by producing paracrine factors which affect germ cells and trigger robust onset of spermatogenesis. Such paracrine support to germ cells is absent during infancy, despite Sertoli cells being exposed to high FSH and T within the infant testis. This situation is similar to certain cases of male idiopathic infertility where post-pubertal Sertoli cells fail to support germ cell division and differentiation in spite of endogenous or exogenous hormonal support...
October 24, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062796/controlled-ovarian-hyperstimulation-with-intrauterine-insemination-is-more-successful-after-r-hcg-administration-than-spontaneous-lh-surge
#20
Evan Taerk, Edward Hughes, Cassandra Greenberg, Michael Neal, Shilpa Amin, Mehrnoosh Faghih, Megan Karnis
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether clinical pregnancy rate is affected by timing intrauterine insemination (IUI) according to serum LH surge, r-hCG trigger, or a combination of LH surge and r-hCG trigger in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) cycles for patients with a variety of infertility etiologies. METHODS: The last 365 consecutive COH-IUI cycles performed at ONE Fertility Burlington in 2014 were reviewed and categorized according to method of IUI timing...
July 2017: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
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