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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414737/peer-norm-guesses-and-self-reported-attitudes-towards-performance-related-pay
#1
Nikolaos Georgantzis, Efi Vasileiou, Iordanis Kotzaivazoglou
Due to a variety of reasons, people see themselves differently from how they see others. This basic asymmetry has broad consequences. It leads people to judge themselves and their own behavior differently from how they judge others and others' behavior. This research, first, studies the perceptions and attitudes of Greek Public Sector employees towards the introduction of Performance-Related Pay (PRP) systems trying to reveal whether there is a divergence between individual attitudes and guesses on peers' attitudes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393687/biosimilars-for-the-management-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-economic-considerations
#2
Laszlo Gulacsi, Marta Pentek, Fanni Rencz, Valentin Brodszky, Petra Baji, Zsuzsanna Vegh, Krisztina B Gecse, Silvio Danese, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Peter L Lakatos
Biological drugs revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However, not all clinically eligible patients have access to biologicals, due to significant costs and budget impact. Biosimilars are highly comparable to their originator product in terms of clinical efficacy and safety. Biosimilars are priced 15-75% lower than their reference product, which makes them a less costly alternative and is expected to offer better patients access to biologicals...
April 6, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388484/making-punishment-palatable-belief-in-free-will-alleviates-punitive-distress
#3
Cory J Clark, Roy F Baumeister, Peter H Ditto
Punishing wrongdoers is beneficial for group functioning, but can harm individual well-being. Building on research demonstrating that punitive motives underlie free will beliefs, we propose that free will beliefs help justify punitive impulses, thus alleviating the associated distress. In Study 1, trait-level punitiveness predicted heightened levels of anxiety only for free will skeptics. Study 2 found that higher state-level incarceration rates predicted higher mental health issue rates, only in states with citizens relatively skeptical about free will...
April 4, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387572/changes-in-ideational-profiles-of-women-of-reproductive-age-in-urban-nigeria-the-role-of-health-communication
#4
Stella Babalola
Reproductive health indicators in Nigeria remain among the poorest in the world. Modern contraceptive prevalence rate has remained practically at the same level since 2003. Whereas contraceptive use is higher in urban compared with rural areas, the majority of urban women are not using a modern contraceptive method. Low contraceptive use in the country results from unfavorable ideational variables, including knowledge, values, beliefs, and norms. Ideational segmentation allows program planners to identify groups that are homogenous with respect to ideational variables and which have similar informational and skills strengthening needs...
March 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384657/metronomic-chemotherapy-vs-best-supportive-care-in-progressive-pediatric-solid-malignant-tumors-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Raja Pramanik, Sandeep Agarwala, Yogendra Kumar Gupta, Sanjay Thulkar, Sreenivas Vishnubhatla, Atul Batra, Deepa Dhawan, Sameer Bakhshi
Importance: Although oral metronomic chemotherapy is often used in progressive pediatric solid malignant tumors, a literature review reveals that only small single-arm retrospective or phase 1 and 2 studies have been performed. Skepticism abounds because of the lack of level 1 evidence. Objectives: To compare the effect of metronomic chemotherapy on progression-free survival (PFS) with that of placebo in pediatric patients with primary extracranial, nonhematopoietic solid malignant tumors that progress after at least 2 lines of chemotherapy...
April 6, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375808/skepticism-toward-emerging-infectious-diseases-and-influenza-vaccination-intentions-in-nurses
#6
Mathieu Maridor, Simon Ruch, Adrian Bangerter, Véronique Emery
Nurses generally show low compliance with vaccination recommendations. We assessed whether low vaccine acceptance is due to skeptical attitudes toward emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). Skepticism toward EIDs manifests as doubts about the real threat of emerging diseases and as distrust in the motives and the competence of institutions that fight these diseases. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study in 293 Swiss nurses using a newly developed scale to assess skepticism toward EIDs. Skepticism affected nurses' intentions to vaccinate themselves against seasonal influenza and against possible future pandemic influenza...
May 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372050/convergence-criteria-on-the-acoustic-velocity-continuity-in-a-panel-cavity-system
#7
Zhongyu Hu, Laurent Maxit, Li Cheng
Modal-based acoustoelastic formulation is regarded as the cornerstone of vibro-acoustics and has been widely used for coupling analyses of structure-cavity systems. The controversy and the skepticism surrounding the acoustic velocity continuity with the surrounding vibrating structures have been persistent, calling for a systematic investigation and clarification. This fundamental issue of significant relevance is addressed in this paper. Through numerical analyses and comparisons with wave-based exact solution, an oscillating convergence pattern of the calculated acoustic velocity is revealed...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370652/do-patients-trust-the-fda-a-survey-assessing-how-patients-view-the-generic-drug-approval-process
#8
Aaron S Kesselheim, Joshua J Gagne, Jessica M Franklin, Wesley Eddings, Lisa A Fulchino, Eric G Campbell
PURPOSE: Skepticism about the safety and effectiveness of certain generic drugs remains, particularly related to generic drugs that are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) using product-specific bioequivalence studies that differ from the standard testing pathway. The current study was designed to assess patient knowledge and perceptions of the generic drug approval process. METHODS: We conducted a survey of patients with 10 different chronic diseases...
March 31, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363033/using-an-internet-based-breast-cancer-risk-assessment-tool-to-improve-social-cognitive-precursors-of-physical-activity
#9
Stephanie L Fowler, William M P Klein, Linda Ball, Jaclyn McGuire, Graham A Colditz, Erika A Waters
BACKGROUND: Internet-based cancer risk assessment tools might serve as a strategy for translating epidemiological risk prediction research into public health practice. Understanding how such tools affect key social-cognitive precursors of behavior change is crucial for leveraging their potential into effective interventions. PURPOSE: To test the effects of a publicly available, Internet-based, breast cancer risk assessment tool on social-cognitive precursors of physical activity...
March 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346290/endoscopic-ear-surgery-for-external-auditory-canal-cholesteatoma
#10
Jörg Dähn, Lukas Anschuetz, Masaya Konishi, Mark Sayles, Marco Caversaccio, Patrick Dubach
BACKGROUND: Treatment of external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC) has been a question of debate. To our knowledge and according to a systematic review of endoscopic ear surgery (EES) in 2015, this study describes for the first time the technique and outcome by solely transcanal EES for EACC. STUDY METHOD: Retrospective case series, level of evidence IV. METHODS: Between October 2014 and December 2016, nine patients with unilateral EACC have been treated by EES...
March 24, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345946/objective-effects-of-knowledge-on-visual-perception
#11
Gary Lupyan
To what extent is what we perceive influenced by what we know? Although a large literature purports to show effects of knowledge, expectations, and other cognitive states on various aspects of perception, strong counterarguments have been advanced that these demonstrations are confounded by nonperceptual factors. For example, although letters are easier to recognize in meaningful words than meaningless letter strings, skepticism remains that such effects of knowledge on visual recognition mean that knowledge literally helps people see...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343849/oral-anticoagulant-therapy-for-older-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-review-of-current-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Mario Bo, Enrica Grisoglio, Enrico Brunetti, Yolanda Falcone, Niccolò Marchionni
Atrial fibrillation is more frequent in older patients, who have a higher risk of cardioembolic stroke and thromboembolism. Oral anticoagulant therapy is the standard of treatment for stroke prevention; however, under-prescription is still very common in older patients. The reasons underlying this phenomenon have not been systematically investigated, and true contraindications only partially account for it. An intimate skepticism on the real benefit-risk balance of oral anticoagulant therapy in the oldest patients seems to derive from the fact that most studies supporting it were conducted decades ago and included younger patients, with overall better functional and clinical status...
March 24, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343286/a-mimic-of-sexually-motivated-homicide-insect-stings-and-heat-exhaustion-in-a-forest
#13
Nancy X Liu, Michael S Pollanen
We report the case a woman who was found dead in a forest. The body was nude and the position of the body suggested a sexually motivated homicide. We concluded that death was not related to homicide, but was related to the conjunction of environmental factors, including insect stings, and acute psychosis. A medicolegal death investigation with postmortem examination was undertaken to determine cause of death. At the scene, the body was supine with legs spread apart and the knees flexed, exposing the external genitalia...
March 25, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335491/health-and-wellbeing-of-occupants-in-highly-energy-efficient-buildings-a-field-study
#14
Peter Wallner, Peter Tappler, Ute Munoz, Bernhard Damberger, Anna Wanka, Michael Kundi, Hans-Peter Hutter
Passive houses and other highly energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, ventilation systems in such houses are regarded with a certain degree of skepticism by parts of the public due to alleged negative health effects. Within a quasi-experimental field study, we investigated if occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) experience different health, wellbeing and housing satisfaction outcomes and if associations with indoor air quality exist. We investigated 123 modern homes (test group: with mechanical ventilation; control group: naturally ventilated) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in the same geographic area and price range...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334476/implementing-guidelines-for-preventing-identifying-and-treating-adolescent-overweight-and-obesity-school-nurses-perceptions-of-the-challenges-involved
#15
Sølvi Helseth, Kirsti Riiser, Bettina Holmberg Fagerlund, Nina Misvaer
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to gain a better understanding of school nurses' perceptions of the challenges involved in implementing national guidelines on managing overweight and obesity in adolescents. BACKGROUND: National guidelines for the management of childhood overweight and obesity are developed in many countries to translate scientific knowledge into practice. However, several challenges are involved in their implementation. DESIGN AND METHODS: A qualitative design with focus group interviews was chosen for data collection...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333613/collaborative-management-of-neurocognitive-disorders-in-primary-care-explorations-of-an-attempt-at-culture-change
#16
Lewis Mehl-Madrona, Barbara Mainguy
INTRODUCTION: Minor neurocognitive disorder (MiND; previously mild cognitive impairment) is a transitional zone between normal cognitive function and early stages of major neurocognitive disorder (previously called dementia). Of people with MiND, 5% to 10% progress to major neurocognitive disorder. Simple interventions such as memory activities, balance exercises, and anti-inflammatory diets have been shown to improve cognitive ability. Also, education and support in group settings have proved beneficial for patients with MiND...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327213/are-stereotypes-accurate-a-perspective-from-the-cognitive-science-of-concepts
#17
Lin Bian, Andrei Cimpian
In his 2012 book, Jussim suggests that people's beliefs about various groups (i.e., their stereotypes) are largely accurate. We unpack this claim using the distinction between generic and statistical beliefs - a distinction supported by extensive evidence in cognitive psychology, linguistics, and philosophy. Regardless of whether one understands stereotypes as generic or statistical beliefs about groups, skepticism remains about the rationality of social judgments.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326457/minimally-invasive-surgical-approaches-for-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-recent-trends
#18
REVIEW
Georgios D Lianos, Dimitrios K Christodoulou, Konstantinos H Katsanos, Christos Katsios, Georgios K Glantzounis
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic resection for cancer represents a real challenge for every surgeon. Recent improvements in laparoscopic experience, minimally invasive surgical techniques and instruments make now the minimally invasive approach a real "triumph." There is no doubt that minimally invasive surgery has replaced with great success conventional surgery in many fields, including surgical oncology. METHODS AND RESULTS: However, its progress in pancreatic resection for adenocarcinoma has been dramatically slow...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320337/barriers-and-facilitators-to-use-of-non-pharmacological-treatments-in-chronic-pain
#19
William C Becker, Lindsey Dorflinger, Sara N Edmond, Leila Islam, Alicia A Heapy, Liana Fraenkel
BACKGROUND: Consensus guidelines recommend multi-modal chronic pain treatment with increased uptake of non-pharmacological pain treatment modalities (NPMs). We aimed to identify the barriers and facilitators to uptake of evidence-based NPMs from the perspectives of patients, nurses and primary care providers (PCPs). METHODS: We convened eight separate groups and engaged each in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT) in which participants: (1) created an individual list of barriers (and, in a subsequent round, facilitators) to uptake of NPMs; (2) compiled a group list from the individual lists; and (3) anonymously voted on the top three most important barriers and facilitators...
March 20, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303503/outcomes-of-omega-loop-gastric-bypass-6-years-experience-of-1520-cases
#20
Osama Taha, Mahmoud Abdelaal, Mohamed Abozeid, Awny Askalany, Mohamed Alaa
BACKGROUND: Omega loop gastric bypass (OLGB) has been viewed with skepticism after the failure of the "old Mason loop." During the past 15 years, a growing number of authors worldwide approved that OLGB is a safe and effective procedure, which appears clearly from the operative outcome and long-term follow-up of consecutive cohort studies of patients who underwent OLGB. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of OLGB at the bariatric center of our university hospital between 2009 and 2015...
March 16, 2017: Obesity Surgery
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