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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236828/mary-broadfoot-walker-83-years-since-a-historical-discovery
#1
Vitor Martinez de Carvalho, Eduardo de Almeida Guimarães Nogueira, Gleysson Rodrigues Rosa, Yara Dadalti Fragoso
Mary Broadfoot Walker was a Scottish physician who, in 1935, described in great detail the effect of an anticholinesterase drug (physostigmine) on the signs and symptoms of myasthenia gravis. An original five-minutes movie is available online and the skepticism of her contemporary British medical doctors is understandable when the drastic effect of the treatment is shown in this movie. What Mary Walker taught us, more than eight decades ago, about myasthenia gravis continues to be the basis of a pharmacological diagnostic test and treatment of this disease...
November 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236527/paradoxical-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-trust-in-inpatient-and-community-adolescents
#2
Amanda Venta, Carolyn Ha, Salome Vanwoerden, Elizabeth Newlin, Lane Strathearn, Carla Sharp
Research suggests that oxytocin, a neuropeptide implicated in attachment, is a promising clinical tool because it increases affiliation and attachment behaviors, which are reduced in a range of psychiatric disorders. Oxytocin has been recommended as a psychiatric treatment for adolescents, but this remains largely unstudied. Skepticism is warranted, based on mixed findings in adults and absence of data across development. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of intranasal oxytocin on attachment-related and non-attachment-related trust in an interactive game, determining how this effect differs among inpatient adolescents and healthy controls and whether this effect is moderated by attachment security...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231847/natural-knockouts-natural-selection-knocked-out
#3
Peter Borger
In functional genomics studies, research is dedicated to unveiling the function of genes using gene-knockouts, model organisms in which a gene is artificially inactivated. The idea is that, by knocking out the gene, the provoked phenotype would inform us about the function of the gene. Still, the function of many genes cannot be elucidated, because disruption of conserved sequences, including protein-coding genes, often does not directly affect the phenotype. Since the phenomenon was first observed in the early nineties of the last century, these so-called 'no-phenotype knockouts' have met with great skepticism and resistance by died-in-the-wool selectionists...
December 12, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218306/adolescents-responses-to-a-school-based-prevention-program-promoting-healthy-eating-at-school
#4
Roel C J Hermans, Hanneke de Bruin, Junilla K Larsen, Fréderike Mensink, Annet C Hoek
Background: To improve the effectiveness of school-based programs that aim to promote adolescents' healthy food choices, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. This study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents' food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a specific school-based prevention program, i.e., the Dutch "Healthy School Canteen Program." Methods: This study used a mixed-methods research design...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217316/prevention-of-feline-injection-site-sarcomas-is-there-a-scientific-foundation-for-vaccine-recommendations-at-this-time
#5
REVIEW
Philip H Kass
Recently published guidelines have made specific vaccine recommendations purported to potentially reduce the incidence of feline injection-site sarcomas (FISS). These recommendations have largely been based on experimental models of inflammation under different vaccine formulations. In none of these studies did sarcomas occur. It is scientifically untenable to address FISS risk based on propensity of vaccines to elicit differential inflammatory responses if none of those responses led to sarcoma development...
December 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215800/microencapsulation-for-the-cell-therapy-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-the-interplay-between-common-beliefs-prejudices-and-real-progress
#6
EDITORIAL
Riccardo Calafiore
When Anthony Sun (1) showed, for the first time in 1980, that intraperitoneal graft of allogeneic rat pancreatic islet containing alginate-poly-L-lysine microcapsules, reversed hyperglycemia in not immunosuppressed diabetic rats, a new era for the cell therapy of diabetes had started. As a unique and unmatched result, years later, Sun replied success in diabetic primates, that upon intraperitoneal transplant of microencapsulated porcine islets, showed long-term remission of hyperglycemia. However, at that time, the international academic and scientific community greeted with skepticism such a revolutionary approach...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207458/implementation-of-problem-based-learning-in-medical-education-in-korea
#7
Sanghee Yeo, Bong Hyun Chang
PURPOSE: This study aims to identify how problem-based learning (PBL) has been implemented in Korean medical education, and how it is evaluated by each medical school. METHODS: For this study, a total of 40 medical schools in Korea were surveyed via e-mail. The survey tool was a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions which was developed independently by the researchers. RESULTS: Of the 40 medical schools, 35 schools were implementing PBL programs in their medical curriculum, while five were found not currently to be running the program...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206945/exploring-practices-and-perceptions-of-alcohol-use-during-pregnancy-in-england-and-sweden-through-a-cross-cultural-lens
#8
Lisa Schölin, Karen Hughes, Mark A Bellis, Charli Eriksson, Lorna Porcellato
Background: Qualitative studies have aimed to understand why some women continue to drink during pregnancy; however, there is a lack of comparative cross-cultural research. We aimed to explore perceptions and practices of alcohol use during pregnancy in England and Sweden. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 parents in Merseyside, England and 22 parents in Örebro County, Sweden. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and translated...
November 30, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198350/editorial-commentary-healthy-skepticism-an-invaluable-trait
#9
EDITORIAL
Richard L Angelo
Using a switching stick from the posterior portal is a frequently employed method of identifying the location for the subscapularis split for a shoulder arthroscopic Latarjet. However, in a recent cadaveric study, in none of the 20 specimens studied did this technique result in the split being placed in the preferred position-the junction of the superior two-thirds and the inferior one-third of the subscapularis. As a result, if the position of the coracoid graft is too superior, the anteroinferior extension of the glenoid arc and the vector of the conjoined sling may be suboptimal and fail to restrain humeral head translation...
December 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198134/if-we-build-it-will-they-come-perceptions-of-hiv-cure-related-research-by-people-living-with-hiv-in-four-u-s-cities-a-qualitative-focus-group-study
#10
Laurie Novick Sylla, David Evans, Jeff Taylor, Adam Lloyd Gilbertson, David Palm, Judith D Auerbach, Karine Dube
Global interest and investment in the search for an HIV cure has increased. Research has focused on what experts refer to as a sterilizing or eradicating cure, where HIV is eliminated from the body, and on what is often called a functional cure, where HIV remains, kept durably suppressed in the absence of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Many believe that a functional cure is likely to be found first. HIV cure studies will require active participation by people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Their desires and perceptions will be important to effectively recruit study participants and for uptake of any future strategy that demonstrates safety and efficacy...
December 3, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197036/cancer-genetic-counseling-communication-with-low-income-chinese-immigrants
#11
Janice Ka Yan Cheng, Claudia Guerra, Rena J Pasick, Dean Schillinger, Judith Luce, Galen Joseph
As genetics and genomics become part of mainstream medicine, these advances have the potential to either reduce or exacerbate health disparities. Relatively, little research has explored the quality of genetic counseling communication experienced by limited English proficiency patients, especially Chinese Americans. We observed and audio recorded genetic counseling appointments (n = 40) of low-income, limited English-proficient Chinese patients (n = 25) and conducted post-visit interviews (n = 17) using stimulated recall to examine patient understanding of the communication...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195072/platelets-on-your-marks-get-set-migrate
#12
Sarah K Bambach, Tim Lämmermann
The idea that anucleate platelets display autonomous migration has long been viewed with skepticism. Gaertner et al. provide in vivo evidence that platelets undergo active migration at sites of thrombus formation and in inflamed liver sinusoids. Integrin-dependent migration allows platelets to scavenge and bundle fibrin-bound material, including intravascular bacteria.
November 30, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193745/us-news-media-and-climate-change-in-the-era-of-us-president-trump
#13
David J Park
The Trump administration's strategy to disengage and downplay the Paris Climate Agreement will likely result in a slight decrease in the already low levels of US news media global warming coverage. This is because significant limitations with the news media's ability to adequately cover climate change predated the administration. First, studies indicate that advertising interests and editors have always challenged journalists' abilities to adequately report on climate change issues. Instead of climate change stories, editors often prefer more sensational topics that garner higher ratings and approval with advertisers...
November 29, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191107/not-all-skepticism-is-equal-exploring-the-ideological-antecedents-of-science-acceptance-and-rejection
#14
Bastiaan T Rutjens, Robbie M Sutton, Romy van der Lee
Many topics that scientists investigate speak to people's ideological worldviews. We report three studies-including an analysis of large-scale survey data-in which we systematically investigate the ideological antecedents of general faith in science and willingness to support science, as well as of science skepticism of climate change, vaccination, and genetic modification (GM). The main predictors are religiosity and political orientation, morality, and science understanding. Overall, science understanding is associated with vaccine and GM food acceptance, but not climate change acceptance...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190986/the-relationship-between-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-obesity-hypoventilation-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Chaoling Liu, Mao-Sheng Chen, Hui Yu
Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome are two similar diseases. Obstructive Sleep Apnea has been receiving more and more attention while the diagnostic rate of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome is not high. Few studies directly evaluated the relationship between them. We systematically analyzed the relevance of the two diseases. MEDLINE®, EMBASE® and the Cochrane Library were carried out to find studies until May 2017. Pooled mean difference and 95% confidence interval were calculated to evaluate the value of clinical and physiologic variables in the prediction of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190143/perceptions-of-tobacco-control-media-campaigns-among-smokers-with-lower-socioeconomic-status
#16
Anna McCullough, Clare Meernik, Hannah Baker, Kristen Jarman, Barbara Walsh, Adam Goldstein
People with low socioeconomic status (SES) in the United States have disparately high rates of smoking and experience disproportionately high burdens of smoking-related disease. Tobacco control media campaigns are a critical strategy for reducing tobacco use prevalence, but evidence is mixed about the optimal use of mass media to reach and promote tobacco use cessation among people with low SES. Improved understanding of the factors influencing how low-SES tobacco users evaluate tobacco control media campaigns may inform development of more effective messages and strategies...
November 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176088/hope-and-resentment
#17
Jamie Lindemann Nelson
A common challenge for both health-care providers and policymakers is to deal with people as people, rather than merely as biological or social problems to be managed. In terms introduced in P. F. Strawson's much-discussed essay "Freedom and Resentment" (1962), the difficulty is to maintain a reactive "participant stance," rather than a solely objective perspective, toward those with whom they have difficulties. Vaccine resistance and refusal provides a particularly pointed instance of this challenge: there is evidence that suggests standard methods of rational persuasion tend to be ineffective, even counter-productive, in easing skepticism about the safety, effectiveness, or appropriateness of vaccines and vaccine regimens...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173081/varicella-virus-vaccination-in-the-united-states
#18
Jana Shaw, Anne A Gershon
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the cause of chickenpox (varicella) and shingles (zoster), and was once responsible for over 4 million infections in the United States annually. The development of a live attenuated VZV vaccine was initially viewed with extreme skepticism. Nonetheless, a VZV vaccine was developed in the 1970s by Takahashi and his colleagues in Japan and was eventually licensed in the US. It is now known to be one of the safest and most effective vaccines available and is administered worldwide...
November 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162136/no-long-term-effect-of-a-2-days-intervention-on-how-to-prepare-homemade-food-on-toddlers-skepticism-for-new-food-and-intake-of-fruits-and-vegetables-and-sweet-beverages-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
C Beinert, S Hernes, M Haugen, N C Øverby
OBJECTIVE: Optimal nutrition from early age reduces the risk of developing non-communicable diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effect on toddlers' fruit and vegetable intake and sweet beverages, and skepticism for new food, of a 2-days' intervention on how to prepare homemade food for toddlers. RESULTS: The effect of the cooking intervention was evaluated by a randomized, controlled trial where 110 parents of 4-6 months old infants were included...
November 21, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161529/developing-a-serious-videogame-for-preteens-to-motivate-hpv-vaccination-decision-making-land-of-secret-gardens
#20
Joan R Cates, Bernard F Fuemmeler, Sandra J Diehl, Laurie L Stockton, Jeannette Porter, Chioma Ihekweazu, Arshya S Gurbani, Tamera Coyne-Beasley
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is routinely recommended for ages 11-12, yet in 2016 only 49.5% of women and 37.5% of men had completed the three-dose series in the United States. Offering information and cues to action through a serious videogame for preteens may foster HPV vaccination awareness, information seeking, and communication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An iterative process was used to develop an interactive videogame, Land of Secret Gardens...
November 21, 2017: Games for Health
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