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Nancy L Schoenborn, Sarah E Van Pilsum Rasmussen, Qian-Li Xue, Jeremy D Walston, Mara A McAdams-Demarco, Dorry L Segev, Cynthia M Boyd
BACKGROUND: Frailty has been recognized as an important medical syndrome in older adults. Growing literature supports the clinical application of frailty but US older adults' perceptions of frailty have not been explored. We aim to examine perceptions and informational needs about frailty among older adults. METHODS: This was a qualitative study involving focus groups of community-dwelling older adults with diverse age and frailty status. We explored participants' beliefs and knowledge about frailty and informational needs about frailty as a medical syndrome...
February 13, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Chiara De Waure, Leuconoe Grazia Sisti, Andrea Poscia, Walter Ricciardi
Italy is witnessing relevant challenges in the field of prevention and control of vaccine-preventable diseases. The worrying and growing phenomenon of "vaccine-hesitancy" has contributed to the reduction of vaccination coverage, undermining goals reached thanks to vaccines introduction. The new Italian National Immunization Plan (NIP) 2017-2019 and the update of the list of Essential Care Levels (LEA), approved in the current year, extend the vaccination offer based on the latest scientific evidence with the introduction of new vaccines and the enlargement of target population...
September 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Donna F Stroup, C Kay Smith, Benedict I Truman
The methods section of a scientific article often receives the most scrutiny from journal editors, peer reviewers, and skeptical readers because it allows them to judge the validity of the results. The methods section also facilitates critical interpretation of study activities, explains how the study avoided or corrected for bias, details how the data support the answer to the study question, justifies generalizing the findings to other populations, and facilitates comparison with past or future studies. In 2006, the Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research (EQUATOR) Programme began collecting and disseminating guidelines for reporting health research studies...
December 2017: J Public Health Emerg
Adib Abu Hajer, Stefanie Wolff, Frank Benedix, Martin Hukauf, Th Manger, Christine Stroh
BACKGROUND: The population are getting older and obesity is growing. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is increasingly used worldwide but is still used with skepticism in the elderly. The purpose of our analysis is to judge the security of LSG in patients older than 60 years compared to patients younger than 60 years. METHODS: This retrospective review included data of all patients in Germany who underwent LSG between January 2005 and December 2016.The data were published online in the German Bariatric Surgery Registry...
February 7, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Hwa Yeon Park, Sin Ae Seo, Hyeyoung Yoo, Kiheon Lee
Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess medication adherence and its related factors among elderly people living alone with chronic diseases using a conceptual framework with the Belief about Medicines Questionnaire and the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale-Korean version. Participants and methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 3,326 elderly people living alone, who were enrolled in Seongnam Center for Home Health Care in South Korea...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Laura Mählmann, Sebastian Schee Gen Halfmann, Agnes von Wyl, Angela Brand
OBJECTIVE: To assess the willingness of older Swiss adults to share genetic data for research purposes and to investigate factors that might impact their willingness to share data. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 40 participants (19 male and 21 female) aged between 67 and 92 years, between December 2013 and April 2014 attending the Seniorenuniversität Zürich, Switzerland. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and anonymized...
February 7, 2018: Public Health Genomics
Davide Pacini, Giacomo Murana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Haytham Eloqayli
Despite the accumulating neuro-physiological evidence of myofascial pain, many clinicians are skeptical about its existence as a separate disease entity. No single theory can fully explain the four cardinal features of MPS; taut bands, local tenderness, local twitching and the characteristic pattern of referred pain. Bridging the gap between basic and clinical knowledge mandates coupling the local trigger point changes with the clinically seen distant somatically innervated referred pain. The main question addressed by the present theory is why do trigger points behave differently in comparison to the surrounding muscle tissue and are trigger points the primary problem or secondary to a primary pathology...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Mirja Quante, Neha Khandpur, Emily Z Kontos, Jessie P Bakker, Judith A Owens, Susan Redline
BACKGROUND: Daily behaviors such as sleep can be targeted by smartphone app-based interventions, with potential utility among young people of minority ethnic backgrounds who commonly access smartphone devices and are short sleepers. There is a need to understand the acceptability and youth's readiness to use apps to improve sleep, and to identify desired app components that would motivate engagement. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We conducted three focus group discussions (N = 27 total, age 14-18 years) within low- and middle-income ethnically diverse Boston neighborhoods...
February 5, 2018: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
Leah M Ranney, Kristen L Jarman, Hannah M Baker, Maihan Vu, Seth M Noar, Adam O Goldstein
Several health-related agencies administer national and targeted public education campaigns to provide health information and change health-related behaviors. The trust the public has in these agencies as the source of the message impacts the effectiveness of their communication campaigns. In this study, we explore the perceived trust of agencies that communicate health messages in the tobacco control field. As part of a larger tobacco regulatory science study, we conducted six 90-min focus groups comprising 41 participants...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Matthew J Hornsey, Emily A Harris, Kelly S Fielding
OBJECTIVE: Strengthening of antivaccination movements in recent decades has coincided with unprecedented increases in the incidence of some communicable diseases. Many intervention programs work from a deficit model of science communication, presuming that vaccination skeptics lack the ability to access or understand evidence. However, interventions focusing on evidence and the debunking of vaccine-related myths have proven to be either nonproductive or counterproductive. Working from a motivated reasoning perspective, we examine the psychological factors that might motivate people to reject scientific consensus around vaccination...
February 1, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Juan A Rodriguez, Jeffrey M Zigman
Hyperphagia and obesity are the best-known manifestations of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and are responsible for most of the overall morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Yet these PWS symptoms remain poorly understood and without effective pharmacologic therapies. Mouse models attempting to recapitulate both the genetic alterations and marked hyperphagia plus obesity of PWS have been enigmatic, leading to skepticism about the use of mouse models to investigate PWS. In this issue of the JCI, Polex-Wolf and colleagues challenge the skeptics by successfully inducing hyperphagia following bilateral mediobasal hypothalamic deletion of the Snord116 gene from adult mice...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Mary Bates
Although the overall incidence of colon cancer has been falling over the past few decades, a pair of recent studies revealed a startling trend. In February 2017, researchers published a report showing that colon cancer rates were rising among younger adults. Some skeptics suggested the spike might simply reflect earlier detection and not necessarily represent a real increase in the disease. But a follow-up study found that Gen-Xers and millenials aren't just getting cancer diagnoses earlier; they are dying from colon cancer at slightly higher rates than in previous decades...
January 2018: IEEE Pulse
Christiane Völter, Lisa Götze, Michael Falkenstein, Stefan Dazert, Jan Peter Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Due to the demographic changes neurocognition has become an important issue also in the field of hearing rehabilitation. BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a neurocognitive test using computer based tasks with regard to the elderly with and without hearing loss and its practicability for the daily clinical ENT setting. PATIENTS: 171 patients of both genders with normal hearing or a profound hearing loss were enrolled in the study: 90 middleaged persons were between 50 and 64 years (57...
January 22, 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Melissa L Button, Nikoo Norouzian, Henny A Westra, Michael J Constantino, Martin M Antony
OBJECTIVE: Addressing methodological shortcomings of prior work on process expectations, this study examined client process expectations both prospectively and retrospectively following treatment. Differences between clients receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus motivational interviewing integrated with CBT (MI-CBT) were also examined. METHOD: Grounded theory analysis was used to study narratives of 10 participants (N = 5 CBT, 5 MI-CBT) who completed treatment for severe generalized anxiety disorder as part of a larger randomized controlled trial...
January 22, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Akihiro Shiina, Tomihisa Niitsu, Aiko Sato, Soichiro Omiya, Takako Nagata, Aika Tomoto, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Yoshito Igarashi, Masaomi Iyo
AIM: To evaluate the effect of educational intervention on individuals' knowledge of and attitudes toward forensic mental health. METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward various ideas about forensic mental health. The respondents attended a 1-h seminar regarding forensic mental health after answering the questionnaire. On completion of the seminar, the respondents answered another questionnaire containing many of the same questions as contained in the pre-seminar questionnaire...
December 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
Sungjong Roh, Laura N Rickard, Katherine A McComas, Daniel J Decker
Building on research in motivated reasoning and framing in science communication, we examine how messages that vary attribution of responsibility (human vs animal) and temporal orientation (now vs in the next 10 years) for wildlife disease risk influence individuals' conservation intentions. We conducted a randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of US adults ( N = 355), which revealed that for people low in biospheric concern, messages that highlighted both human responsibility for and the imminent nature of the risk failed to enhance conservation intentions compared with messages highlighting animal responsibility...
February 2018: Public Understanding of Science
Rongrong Wu, Xinyang Hu, Jian'an Wang
Ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) remain major public health problems with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances, current therapeutic approaches are unable to rescue the extensive and irreversible loss of cardiomyocytes caused by severe ischemia. Over the past 16 years, stem cell-based therapy has been recognized as an innovative strategy for cardiac repair/regeneration and functional recovery after IHDs. Although substantial preclinical animal studies using a variety of stem/progenitor cells have shown promising results, there is a tremendous degree of skepticism in the clinical community as many stem cell trials do not confer any beneficial effects...
January 13, 2018: Stem Cells
Jian Zhang, Zhaofeng Ding, Cheng Tan, Kevin Huang, Oscar O Bernal, Pei-Chun Ho, Gerald D Morris, Adrian D Hillier, Pabitra K Biswas, Stephen P Cottrell, Hui Xiang, Xin Yao, Douglas E MacLaughlin, Lei Shu
The origin of the pseudogap region below a temperature T* is at the heart of the mysteries of cuprate high-temperature superconductors. Unusual properties of the pseudogap phase, such as broken time-reversal and inversion symmetry are observed in several symmetry-sensitive experiments: polarized neutron diffraction, optical birefringence, dichroic angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, second harmonic generation, and polar Kerr effect. These properties suggest that the pseudogap region is a genuine thermodynamic phase and are predicted by theories invoking ordered loop currents or other forms of intra-unit-cell (IUC) magnetic order...
January 2018: Science Advances
Amanda K Baumle
Lawyers who practice family law for LGBT clients are key players in the tenuous and evolving legal environment surrounding same-sex marriage recognition. Building on prior research on factors shaping the professional identities of lawyers generally, and activist lawyers specifically, I examine how practice within a rapidly changing, patchwork legal environment shapes professional identity for this group of lawyers. I draw on interviews with 21 LGBT family lawyers to analyze how the unique features of LGBT family law shape their professional identities and practice, as well as their predictions about the development of the practice in a post-Obergefell world...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
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