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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670551/-the-two-brothers-reconciling-perceptual-cognitive-and-statistical-models-of-musical-evolution
#1
Steven Jan
While the "units, events and dynamics" of memetic evolution have been abstractly theorized (Lynch, 1998), they have not been applied systematically to real corpora in music. Some researchers, convinced of the validity of cultural evolution in more than the metaphorical sense adopted by much musicology, but perhaps skeptical of some or all of the claims of memetics, have attempted statistically based corpus-analysis techniques of music drawn from molecular biology, and these have offered strong evidence in favor of system-level change over time (Savage, 2017)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643573/beyond-polarization-using-q-methodology-to-explore-stakeholders-views-on-pesticide-use-and-related-risks-for-agricultural-workers-in-washington-state-s-tree-fruit-industry
#2
Nadine Lehrer, Gretchen Sneegas
Controversies in food and agriculture abound, with many portrayed as conflicts between polarized viewpoints. Framing such controversies as dichotomies, however, can at times obscure what might be a plurality of views and potential common ground on the subject. We used Q methodology to explore stakeholders' views about pesticide safety, agricultural worker exposure, and human health concerns in the tree fruit industry of central Washington State. Using a purposive sample of English and Spanish-speaking agricultural workers, industry representatives, state agencies, educators, and advocates (n = 41), participants sorted 45 statements on pesticide use and perceived human safety risks in the tree fruit industry in 2011...
January 2018: Agriculture and Human Values
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629849/driving-towards-ecotechnologies
#3
Devora A Najjar, Avery M Normandin, Elizabeth A Strait, Kevin M Esvelt
The prospect of using genetic methods to target vector, parasite, and reservoir species offers tremendous potential benefits to public health, but the use of genome editing to alter the shared environment will require special attention to public perception and community governance in order to benefit the world. Public skepticism combined with the media scrutiny of gene drive systems could easily derail unpopular projects entirely, especially given the potential for trade barriers to be raised against countries that employ self-propagating gene drives...
April 9, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624152/barriers-to-participation-in-global-surgery-academic-collaborations-and-possible-solutions-a-qualitative-study
#4
Parisa Nicole Fallah, Mark Bernstein
OBJECTIVE There is a global lack of access to surgical care, and this issue disproportionately affects those in low- and middle-income countries. Global surgery academic collaborations (GSACs) between surgeons in high-income countries and those in low- and middle-income countries are one possible sustainable way to address the global surgical need. The objective of this study was to examine the barriers to participation in GSACs and to suggest ways to increase involvement. METHODS A convenience sample of 86 surgeons, anesthesiologists, other physicians, residents, fellows, and nurses from the US, Canada, and Norway was used...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617887/e-cigarettes-comparing-the-possible-risks-of-increasing-smoking-initiation-with-the-potential-benefits-of-increasing-smoking-cessation
#5
Kenneth E Warner, David Mendez
Introduction: The public health community is divided regarding electronic cigarettes. Skeptics emphasize potential vaping-induced increases in smoking among children and possible health hazards for adults. Enthusiasts consider e-cigarettes much less dangerous than smoking and believe they increase adult smoking cessation. We compare potential health benefits and costs to put these two perspectives in context. Methods: Using a dynamic model that tracks the US adult population's smoking status and smoking-related deaths over time, we simulate the effects of vaping-induced smoking initiation and cessation on life-years saved or lost to the year 2070...
March 29, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614874/consumer-attitudes-toward-animal-welfare-friendly-products-and-willingness-to-pay-exploration-of-mexican-market-segments
#6
Genaro C Miranda-de la Lama, Laura X Estévez-Moreno, Morris Villarroel, Adolfo A Rayas-Amor, Gustavo A María, Wilmer S Sepúlveda
The study aim was to identify consumer segmentation based on nonhuman animal welfare (AW) attitudes and their relationship with demographic features and willingness to pay (WTP) for welfare-friendly products (WFP) in Mexico. Personal interviews were conducted with 843 Mexican consumers who stated they purchased most of the animal products in their home. Respondents were selected using a quota sampling method with age, gender, education, and origin as quota control variables. The multivariate analysis suggested there were three clusters or consumer profiles labeled "skeptical," "concerned," and "ethical," which helped explain the association between AW attitudes, some demographic variables, and WTP for WFP...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602185/stakeholder-perspectives-regarding-transfer-of-free-maternity-services-to-national-health-insurance-fund-in-kenya-implications-for-universal-health-coverage
#7
Timothy Abuya, Francis Obare, Dennis Matanda, Mardieh L Dennis, Ben Bellows
BACKGROUND: Kenya is developing strategies to finance health care through prepayment to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). Plans to transfer free maternity services (FMS) from the Ministry of Health to the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) are a step towards UHC. We examined views of health workers and women regarding the transition of FMS to NHIF to inform the process. METHODS: In-depth interviews among 14 facility-level managers and providers, 11 county-level managers, and 21 focus group discussions with women who gave birth before and after the introduction of FMS...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600723/-civil-skepticism-and-the-social-construction-of-knowledge-a-case-in-dendroclimatology
#8
Meritxell Ramírez-I-Ollé
Early Science and Technology Studies (STS) scholars recognized that the social construction of knowledge depends on skepticism's parasitic relationship to background expectations and trust. Subsequent generations have paid less empirical attention to skepticism in science and its relationship with trust. I seek to rehabilitate skepticism in STS - particularly, Merton's view of skepticism as a scientific norm sustained by trust among status peers - with a study of what I call 'civil skepticism'. The empirical grounding is a case in contemporary dendroclimatology and the development of a method ('Blue Intensity') for generating knowledge about climate change from trees...
March 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596574/efficacy-and-safety-of-autologous-fat-transfer-in-facial-reconstructive-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Todor K Krastev, Jip Beugels, Juliette Hommes, Andrzej Piatkowski, Irene Mathijssen, Rene van der Hulst
Importance: The use of autologous fat transfer (AFT) or lipofilling for correcting contour deformities is seen as one of the major breakthroughs in reconstructive plastic surgery. Its applications in facial reconstructive surgery have been of particular interest owing to the prospect of achieving autologous reconstruction by a minimally invasive approach. However, its unpredictability and variable degree of resorption have limited its utility and much skepticism still exists regarding its efficacy...
March 29, 2018: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592847/investigating-the-extent-to-which-patients-should-control-access-to-patient-records-for-research-a-deliberative-process-using-citizens-juries
#10
Mary P Tully, Kyle Bozentko, Sarah Clement, Amanda Hunn, Lamiece Hassan, Ruth Norris, Malcolm Oswald, Niels Peek
BACKGROUND: The secondary use of health data for research raises complex questions of privacy and governance. Such questions are ill-suited to opinion polling where citizens must choose quickly between multiple-choice answers based on little information. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this project was to extend knowledge about what control informed citizens would seek over the use of health records for research after participating in a deliberative process using citizens' juries...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29591537/is-ego-depletion-real-an-analysis-of-arguments
#11
Malte Friese, David D Loschelder, Karolin Gieseler, Julius Frankenbach, Michael Inzlicht
An influential line of research suggests that initial bouts of self-control increase the susceptibility to self-control failure (ego depletion effect). Despite seemingly abundant evidence, some researchers have suggested that evidence for ego depletion was the sole result of publication bias and p-hacking, with the true effect being indistinguishable from zero. Here, we examine (a) whether the evidence brought forward against ego depletion will convince a proponent that ego depletion does not exist and (b) whether arguments that could be brought forward in defense of ego depletion will convince a skeptic that ego depletion does exist...
March 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584476/advanced-driver-assistance-systems-for-teen-drivers-teen-and-parent-impressions-perceived-need-and-intervention-preferences
#12
Eve Weiss, Megan Fisher Thiel, Nahida Sultana, Chloe Hannan, Thomas Seacrist
OBJECTIVE: From the advent of airbags to electronic stability control, technological advances introduced into automobile design have significantly reduced injury and death from motor vehicle crashes. These advances are especially pertinent among teen drivers, a population whose leading cause of death is motor vehicle crashes. Recently developed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have the potential to compensate for skill deficits and reduce overall crash risk. Yet, ADAS is only effective if drivers are willing to use it...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575590/resistance-to-discontinuing-breast-cancer-screening-in-older-women-a-qualitative-study
#13
Ashley J Housten, Monique R Pappadis, Shilpa Krishnan, Susan C Weller, Sharon H Giordano, Therese B Bevers, Robert J Volk, Diana S Hoover
OBJECTIVE: Screening mammography is associated with reduced breast cancer-specific mortality; however, among older women, evidence suggests that the potential harms of screening may outweigh the benefits. We used a qualitative approach to examine the willingness of older women from different racial/ethnic groups to discontinue breast cancer screening. METHODS: Women >70 years of age who reported having a screening mammogram in the past three years and/or reported that they intended to continue screening in the future were recruited for in-depth interviews...
March 25, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575165/integrating-the-fundamentals-of-care-framework-in-baccalaureate-nursing-education-an-example-from-a-nursing-school-in-denmark
#14
Siri Voldbjerg, Britt Laugesen, Iben Bøgh Bahnsen, Lone Jørgensen, Ingrid Maria Sørensen, Mette Grønkjaer, Erik Elgaard Sørensen
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To describe and discuss the process of integrating the Fundamentals of Care framework in a baccalaureate nursing education at a School of Nursing in Denmark. BACKGROUND: Nursing education plays an essential role in educating nurses to work within health care systems in which a demanding workload on nurses results in fundamental nursing care being left undone. Newly graduated nurses often lack knowledge and skills to meet the challenges of delivering fundamental care in clinical practice...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571663/pint-sized-public-relations-the-development-of-reputation-management
#15
Ike M Silver, Alex Shaw
Until recently, many psychologists were skeptical that young children cared about reputation. New evidence suggests that by age five, children begin to understand the broad importance of reputation and to engage in surprisingly sophisticated impression management. These findings prompt exciting new questions about the development of a fundamental social competency.
February 19, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571449/u-shaped-dietary-sodium-associated-incidence-of-chronic-kidney-disease-cautions-against-salt-overrestriction-in-hypertension
#16
Niels Graudal
In this population study salt intake is not associated with development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in individuals with normal blood pressure, whereas in hypertensive individuals both low and high salt intakes are associated with increased incidence of CKD, similar to U-shaped associations between salt intake and mortality found in previous studies. The results contribute to the skepticism, which has questioned the present public health policy to reduce salt intake below 5.8 g.
April 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565849/sky-gods-for-skeptics
#17
Michael Shermer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Scientific American
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561212/sowing-the-seeds-of-skepticism-russian-state-news-and-anti-gmo-sentiment
#18
Shawn F Dorius, Carolyn J Lawrence-Dill
Biotech news coverage in English-language Russian media fits the profile of the Russian information warfare strategy described in recent military reports. This raises the question of whether Russia views the dissemination of anti-GMO information as just one of many divisive issues it can exploit as part of its information war, or if GMOs serve more expansive disruptive purposes. Distinctive patterns in Russian news provide evidence of a coordinated information campaign that could turn public opinion against genetic engineering...
March 21, 2018: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554991/historical-precedents-for-the-dsm-iii-bereavement-exclusion-criteria-for-major-depression
#19
Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: I review the historical antecedents of the two key features of the bereavement exclusion (BE) for major depression (MD) criteria initially proposed in DSM-III: (i) a context-dependent approach to the evaluation of MD which required that the diagnosis be given only when course, symptoms and signs are 'out of proportion' to experienced adversities, and (ii) bereavement is the sole adversity for which this context-dependent approach should be utilized. METHODS: A review of 49 textbook and review articles on depression or melancholia published 1880-1960...
March 20, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521528/coverage-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-german-press-1993-2013
#20
Evgeniya Boklage, Markus Lehmkuhl
The present study explores the coverage of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and its associated risks in the German press between 1993 and 2013. Using quantitative content analysis, we explored the corpus of newspaper articles to evaluate the quality of risk reporting. Our findings show an overall increase in the quality of risk-related information: articles contain more substantiating statements describing objectively cognizable phenomena with absolute numbers, prevalences, estimations, and tendencies over time...
March 9, 2018: Health Communication
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