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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793816/effects-of-awareness-material-on-suicide-related-knowledge-and-the-intention-to-provide-adequate-help-to-suicidal-individuals
#1
Florian Arendt, Sebastian Scherr, Thomas Niederkrotenthaler, Sabrina Krallmann, Benedikt Till
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of educative media reports on the intention to provide help to suicidal individuals and on suicide-related knowledge. AIMS: To test whether material debunking widely shared myths influences knowledge and the intention to provide adequate help to others, and if such information reduces reading enjoyment. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial was utilized. Participants allocated to the intervention group were exposed to awareness material explicitly addressing suicide myths...
August 10, 2017: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759162/nurses-perceived-barriers-to-bedside-handover-and-their-implication-for-clinical-practice
#2
Georgia Tobiano, Jennifer A Whitty, Tracey Bucknall, Wendy Chaboyer
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Bedside handover during the change of shift allows nurses to visualize patients and facilitate patient participation, both purported to improve patient safety. But, bedside handover does not always occur and when it does, it may not involve the patient. AIM: To explore and understand barriers nurses perceive in undertaking bedside handover. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 200 nurses working on medical wards, recruited from two Australian hospitals, one private and one public...
July 31, 2017: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742163/debunking-in-a-world-of-tribes
#3
Fabiana Zollo, Alessandro Bessi, Michela Del Vicario, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli, Louis Shekhtman, Shlomo Havlin, Walter Quattrociocchi
Social media aggregate people around common interests eliciting collective framing of narratives and worldviews. However, in such a disintermediated environment misinformation is pervasive and attempts to debunk are often undertaken to contrast this trend. In this work, we examine the effectiveness of debunking on Facebook through a quantitative analysis of 54 million users over a time span of five years (Jan 2010, Dec 2014). In particular, we compare how users usually consuming proven (scientific) and unsubstantiated (conspiracy-like) information on Facebook US interact with specific debunking posts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707857/debunking-the-myth-of-low-incidence-of-intracranial-aneurysms-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa
#4
Tarek R Mansour, Maxwell Cooper, Bouthyna Issa, Tamara Maghathe, Yacine Medhkour, Azedine Medhkour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697640/on-bayesian-simplicity-in-human-visual-perceptual-organization
#5
Peter A van der Helm
A returning idea among some Bayesians in research on human visual perceptual organization is that the surprisal of something (i.e., the negative logarithm of its probability) expresses its complexity (i.e., the length of its shortest description). Bayes' rule is a powerful modeling tool and descriptive simplicity is a rich concept, but this idea is wishful thinking at best: If true, it would unify the simplicity and likelihood principles, which reflect two traditionally opposed schools of thought on perceptual organization...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653167/why-frankenstein-is-a-stigma-among-scientists
#6
Peter Nagy, Ruth Wylie, Joey Eschrich, Ed Finn
As one of the best known science narratives about the consequences of creating life, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818) is an enduring tale that people know and understand with an almost instinctive familiarity. It has become a myth reflecting people's ambivalent feelings about emerging science: they are curious about science, but they are also afraid of what science can do to them. In this essay, we argue that the Frankenstein myth has evolved into a stigma attached to scientists that focalizes the public's as well as the scientific community's negative reactions towards certain sciences and scientific practices...
June 26, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631171/qualitative-assessment-of-vaccination-hesitancy-among-members-of-the-apostolic-church-of-zimbabwe-a-case-study
#7
Z Machekanyanga, S Ndiaye, R Gerede, K Chindedza, C Chigodo, M E Shibeshi, J Goodson, F Daniel, L Zimmerman, R Kaiser
Vaccine hesitancy or lack of confidence in vaccines is considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. The rise and spread of measles outbreaks in southern Africa in 2009-2010 were linked to objections among Apostolic Church members, estimated at about 3.5 million in Zimbabwe as of 2014. To inform planning of interventions for a measles-rubella vaccination campaign, we conducted an assessment of the factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy using data from various stakeholders. Among nine districts in three regions of Zimbabwe, we collected data on religious attitudes toward, and perceptions of, vaccines through focus group discussions with health workers serving Apostolic communities and members of the National Expanded Programme on Immunization; semi-structured interviews with religious leaders; and open-ended questions in structured interviews with Apostolic parents/caregivers...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629648/ten-reasons-to-embrace-scientism
#8
Rik Peels
A strong version of scientism, such as that of Alex Rosenberg, says, roughly, that natural science reliably delivers rational belief or knowledge, whereas common sense sources of belief, such as moral intuition, memory, and introspection, do not. In this paper I discuss ten reasons that adherents of scientism have or might put forward in defence of scientism. The aim is to show which considerations could plausibly count in favour of scientism and what this implies for the way scientism ought to be formulated...
June 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611700/brain-knowledge-and-the-prevalence-of-neuromyths-among-prospective-teachers-in-greece
#9
Marietta Papadatou-Pastou, Eleni Haliou, Filippos Vlachos
Although very often teachers show a great interest in introducing findings from the field of neuroscience in their classrooms, there is growing concern about the lack of academic instruction on neuroscience on teachers' curricula because this has led to a proliferation of neuromyths. We surveyed 479 undergraduate (mean age = 19.60 years, SD = 2.29) and 94 postgraduate students (mean age = 28.52 years, SD = 7.16) enrolled in Departments of Education at the University of Thessaly and the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590778/accounts-for-unprotected-sex-with-partners-met-online-from-heterosexual-men-and-women-from-large-us-metropolitan-areas
#10
Karolynn Siegel, Étienne Meunier, Helen-Maria Lekas
For about 30 years, soon after the onset of the AIDS epidemic, sexual-health messaging has emphasized personal responsibility for using condoms to protect from acquiring or transmitting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. Those who did not use condoms during casual sexual encounters may therefore feel compelled to offer to others aware of their behavior what sociologists have called "accounts," an impression-management strategy to avoid unfavorable judgment. We analyzed accounts-excuses and justifications-from qualitative interviews with 150 adults who had unprotected sex in the past 3 months with at least two different partners met online (ages 18-50, mean: 33...
July 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582398/effects-of-low-powered-rf-sweep-between-0-01-20-ghz-on-female-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-a-collective-behaviour-analysis
#11
Abdul Halim Poh, Mahmoud Moghavvemi, M M Shafiei, C S Leong, Yee Ling Lau, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan, Majid Bakhtiari, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla Hassan
There are many products claiming to be an electronic solution towards repelling mosquitoes. Several reviews were published in debunking these claims. However, there is a lack of a systematic study on effects of electromagnetic (EM) or more specifically, radio frequency (RF) waves against mosquitoes due to the conclusions made in those years. Therefore, we attempt to establish a fundamental study on female Aedes Aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquitoes by quantifying the collective behavior of the mosquitoes against a continuous stream of low-powered RF signals via a broadband horn antenna using image processing methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550030/debunking-the-delusion-that-precision-oncology-is-an-illusion
#12
Vivek Subbiah, Razelle Kurzrock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545482/a-plea-to-provide-best-evidence-in-trials-under-sample-size-restrictions-the-example-of-pioglitazone-to-resolve-leukoplakia-and-erythroplakia-in-fanconi-anemia-patients
#13
Florian Lasch, Kristina Weber, Mwe Mwe Chao, Armin Koch
In planning a clinical trial for demonstrating the efficacy of pioglitazone to resolve leukoplakia and erythroplakia in Fanconi anemia patients we had to discuss the need for a randomized controlled trial particularly under sample-size restrictions as very promising results were available from a single-arm clinical trial. Unfortunately, at a later stage, we had to suffer from the fact that single-arm clinical trials may sometimes mislead. When revisiting our planning at a later stage of a grant application, results of a randomized controlled trial had become available which were less impressive, but may still be of clinical interest...
May 25, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509570/learners-perspectives-on-the-provision-of-condoms-in-south-african-public-schools
#14
W E de Bruin, S Panday-Soobrayan
A stubborn health challenge for learners in South African public schools concerns sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). In 2015, the Department of Basic Education (DBE) proposed the provision of condoms and SRHR-services to learners in schools. This study aimed to contribute to the finalisation and implementation of DBE's policy by exploring learners' perspectives on the provision of condoms and SRHR-services in schools. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted with learners (n = 116) from 33 public schools, to assess their attitudes, social influences, and needs and desires regarding condom provision and SRHR-services in schools...
May 16, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497720/neuroscience-and-ethics
#15
S Matthew Liao
A number of people believe that results from neuroscience have the potential to settle seemingly intractable debates concerning the nature, practice, and reliability of moral judgments. In particular, Joshua Greene has argued that evidence from neuroscience can be used to advance the long-standing debate between consequentialism and deontology. This paper first argues that charitably interpreted, Greene's neuroscientific evidence can contribute to substantive ethical discussions by being part of an epistemic debunking argument...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493466/-it-s-fast-it-s-quick-it-stops-me-being-sick-how-to-influence-preparation-of-opioid-tablets-for-injection
#16
Lise Lafferty, Carla Treloar, Nick van Breda, Maureen Steele, Sarah Hiley, Ian Flaherty, Allison Salmon
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Injection of pharmaceutical opioids (PO) among people who inject drugs has increased in many countries. The common method for preparing PO tablets for injection uses heat, resulting in greater particulate matter and therefore increased risk of local infection risk and damage to veins and organs. A cold preparation process has fewer risks, but this preparation method is not commonly used. This study seeks to explore how people who inject PO learn to prepare injections and how health promotion efforts could influence practice...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461959/the-role-of-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#17
AliSina Shahi, Javad Parvizi
The role of serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as the first line for evaluating a patient with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) has been debunked.We are living in the era of biomarkers for the diagnosis of PJI, and to that effect, several biomarkers have been introduced such as synovial fluid alpha defensin and leukocyte esterase.The synovial fluid leukocyte esterase test has a low cost, is accessible, and has provided promising results for diagnosing PJI.There is an urgent need for an accurate and reliable serum biomarker for diagnosing patients with PJI...
July 2016: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435474/the-vision-of-industrie-4-0-in-the-making-a-case-of-future-told-tamed-and-traded
#18
Sabine Pfeiffer
Since industrial trade fair Hannover Messe 2011, the term "Industrie 4.0" has ignited a vision of a new Industrial Revolution and has been inspiring a lively, ongoing debate among the German public about the future of work, and hence society, ever since. The discourse around this vision of the future eventually spread to other countries, with public awareness reaching a temporary peak in 2016 when the World Economic Forum's meeting in Davos was held with the motto "Mastering the Fourth Industrial Revolution...
2017: Nanoethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396647/evidence-based-higher-education-is-the-learning-styles-myth-important
#19
Philip M Newton, Mahallad Miah
The basic idea behind the use of 'Learning Styles' is that learners can be categorized into one or more 'styles' (e.g., Visual, Auditory, Converger) and that teaching students according to their style will result in improved learning. This idea has been repeatedly tested and there is currently no evidence to support it. Despite this, belief in the use of Learning Styles appears to be widespread amongst schoolteachers and persists in the research literature. This mismatch between evidence and practice has provoked controversy, and some have labeled Learning Styles a 'myth...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375675/evaluating-the-one-in-five-statistic-women-s-risk-of-sexual-assault-while-in-college
#20
Charlene L Muehlenhard, Zoë D Peterson, Terry P Humphreys, Kristen N Jozkowski
In 2014, U.S. president Barack Obama announced a White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault, noting that "1 in 5 women on college campuses has been sexually assaulted during their time there." Since then, this one-in-five statistic has permeated public discourse. It is frequently reported, but some commentators have criticized it as exaggerated. Here, we address the question, "What percentage of women are sexually assaulted while in college?" After discussing definitions of sexual assault, we systematically review available data, focusing on studies that used large, representative samples of female undergraduates and multiple behaviorally specific questions...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
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