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Robert P Sheridan
Several papers have appeared in which a ligand efficiency index instead of pIC50 is used as the activity in QSAR. The claim is that better fits and predictions are obtained with ligand efficiency. We show that the apparent superiority is a statistical artifact due to the fact that ligand efficiency indices are more or less correlated with the physical property included in their definition (number of non-hydrogens, ALOGP, TPSA, etc.), and that the property is easier to predict than the original pIC50.
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
(no author information available yet)
Layla Haidrani, writing in Learning Disability Practice, aims to debunk the myths and misconceptions that parents of children with Down's syndrome face.
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
Judith Nudelman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Lymphatic Research and Biology
Eric K Wei, Laura Sarff, Brad Spellberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
Francisco Fernandez-Navarro, Mariano Carbonero-Ruz, David Becerra Alonso, Mercedes Torres-Jimenez
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have traditionally been seen as black-box models, because, although they are able to find ``hidden'' relations between inputs and outputs with a high approximation capacity, their structure seldom provides any insights on the structure of the functions being approximated. Several research papers have tried to debunk the black-box nature of ANNs, since it limits the potential use of ANNs in many research areas. This paper is framed in this context and proposes a methodology to determine the individual and collective effects of the input variables on the outputs for classification problems based on the ANOVA-functional decomposition...
August 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Jeremy Howick, Patrick M Bossuyt, Jochen W L Cals
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 20, 2016: Family Practice
Efthimios Parasidis
Vaccine-hesitant parents are often portrayed as misinformed dilettantes clinging to unscientific Internet chatter and a debunked study that linked vaccines and autism. While this depiction may be an accurate portrayal of a small (but vocal) subset, scholars have unearthed a more complex picture that casts vaccine hesitancy in the context of broader notions of lack of trust in government and industry. At the same time, commentators have highlighted limitations of the vaccine injury compensation program and US Supreme Court Justices Sonia Sotomayor and Ruth Bader Ginsburg have argued that preemption laws that provide vaccine manufacturers with broad legal immunities create "a regulatory vacuum in which no one ensures that vaccine manufacturers adequately take account of scientific and technological advancements when designing or distributing their products...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
Carmen C Wolfe, Tyler W Barrett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Melanie Raffoul, Miranda Moore, Doug Kamerow, Andrew Bazemore
Primary care panel sizes are an important component of primary care practices. Determining the appropriate panel size has implications for patient access, physician workload, and care comprehensiveness and will have an impact on quality of care. An often quoted standard panel size is 2500. However, this number seems to arise in the literature anecdotally, without a basis in research. Subsequently, multiple studies observed that a panel size of 2500 is not feasible because of time constraints and results in incomplete preventive care and health care screening services...
July 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Marlena C Kruger, Frances M Wolber
The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a "brittle bone" disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency...
2016: Nutrients
Chris Bateman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Melissa Danesh, Miriam Keltz Pomeranz, Erin McMeniman, Jenny E Murase
The most recent reclassification of dermatoses of pregnancy includes polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, atopic eruption of pregnancy, and pemphigoid gestationis; intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, strictly not a dermatosis, was included in specific dermatoses of pregnancy for working purposes. Another dermatosis, pustular psoriasis of pregnancy, could be included for similar reasons. The nomenclature of these pregnancy-specific eruptions has been revised several times, generating potential confusion among practitioners...
May 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
Garth D Ehrlich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Gargi Bhattacharya, Margaret S Stockdale
This study examined the critique in public discourse that sexual harassment (SH) victim advocates, particularly women and feminists, ignore the quality of evidence in a SH claim and are reluctant to find evidence of a false accusation. To balance the inquiry, the study also examined whether right wing authoritarians (RWAs) also ignore evidence quality and presume such claims are false accusations. Participants were 961 U.S. adults (51% female) who completed an online experiment in which they read either a gender harassment (GH) or unwanted sexual attention (USA) scenario of hostile work environment SH and rated the scenario on severity, perceived guilt of the accused, belief that the accused should receive negative job consequences, and likelihood that the claimant was making a false accusation...
October 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Zosia A M Zielinski, Derek A Pratt
The longstanding dogma that cholesterol (chol) autoxidation gives chol 7-hydroperoxide (7-OOH) as the sole primary product is shown to be invalid. In fact, the epimers of each of chol 4-OOH, 6-OOH, and 7-OOH are readily formed. Although the C4-H bond that must be cleaved to produce the chol 4-OOH and 6-OOH products is significantly stronger than the C7-H bond, H-atom abstraction from C4 is facilitated by H-bond formation between the attacking peroxyl radical and the 3β-OH. Chol 5α-OOH is also formed, but only in the presence of a good H-atom donor...
June 8, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jessica L Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica R Serpico, Monisha Ahluwalia, Katie A Ports
PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus worldwide. Our purpose was to examine people's experiences with HPV using narratives posted on a website entitled, Experience Project. METHOD: We conducted a content analysis of 127 HPV narratives to identify stigma, emotion-focused and problem-focused coping, and misinformation. RESULTS: Negative self-image was the most commonly identified type of stigma. There were more instances of problem-focused than emotion-focused coping...
May 2016: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
Bilal Fawaz, Lauren Dickson, Alan Menter
Targeted BRAF inhibition with vemurafenib and dabrafenib has dramatically improved the survival rate in metastatic melanoma. These agents are now being tested for their efficacy against other tumors with BRAF mutations, including lung adenocarcinoma. While cutaneous adverse events are prevalent with BRAF inhibition, our patient, to our knowledge, is the first to develop a psoriatic eruption with BRAF inhibitors. We postulate that the elevation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and the paradoxical activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway due to BRAF inhibition may be responsible for the eruption...
October 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Aleksandra Augustynowicz, Eric L Maranda, Joseph Zullo, Louis Cai, Joaquin Jimenez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: JAMA Dermatology
David R Mandel, Philip E Tetlock
The scientific community often portrays science as a value-neutral enterprise that crisply demarcates facts from personal value judgments. We argue that this depiction is unrealistic and important to correct because science serves an important knowledge generation function in all modern societies. Policymakers often turn to scientists for sound advice, and it is important for the wellbeing of societies that science delivers. Nevertheless, scientists are human beings and human beings find it difficult to separate the epistemic functions of their judgments (accuracy) from the social-economic functions (from career advancement to promoting moral-political causes that "feel self-evidently right")...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Stephanie B Stockwell
Scientific literacy, marked by the ability and willingness to engage with scientific information, is supported through a new genre of citizen science-course-based research in association with undergraduate laboratories. A three-phased progressive learning module was developed to enhance student engagement in such contexts while supporting three learning outcomes: I) present an argument based on evidence, II) analyze science and scientists within a social context, and III) experience, reflect upon, and communicate the nature of scientific discovery...
March 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
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