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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210086/evolution-is-linear-debunking-life-s-little-joke
#1
Ronald A Jenner
Linear depictions of the evolutionary process are ubiquitous in popular culture, but linear evolutionary imagery is strongly rejected by scientists who argue that evolution branches. This point is frequently illustrated by saying that we didn't evolve from monkeys, but that we are related to them as collateral relatives. Yet, we did evolve from monkeys, but our monkey ancestors are extinct, not extant. Influential voices, such as the late Stephen Jay Gould, have misled audiences for decades by falsely portraying the linear and branching aspects of evolution to be in conflict, and by failing to distinguish between the legitimate linearity of evolutionary descent, and the branching relationships among collateral relatives that result when lineages of ancestors diverge...
December 6, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202658/ambroise-par%C3%A3-1510-1590-and-his-innovative-work-on-the-treatment-of-war-injuries
#2
Konstantinos Markatos, Anna Tzivra, Spyridon Tsoutsos, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Marianna Karamanou, Georgios Androutsos
The purpose of this study is to summarize the innovations of Ambroise Paré (1510-1590) on the treatment of war wounds and improving amputation technique through ligature in arteries and veins. Ambroise Paré debunked the widely accepted idea that gun powder was poisonous for wounds. He also minimized the use of cautery of wounds by his dressing methods and the application of ligature during amputations. All these innovative rationales revolutionized the practice of war surgery during the Renaissance and paved the way for the introduction of modern surgery...
December 1, 2017: Surgical Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162038/a-qualitative-study-on-singaporean-women-s-views-towards-breast-cancer-screening-and-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-snps-gene-testing-to-guide-personalised-screening-strategies
#3
Xin Yi Wong, Kok Joon Chong, Janine A van Til, Hwee Lin Wee
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the top cancer by incidence and mortality in Singaporean women. Mammography is by far its best screening tool, but current recommended age and interval may not yield the most benefit. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to improve discriminatory accuracy of breast cancer risk assessment models. This study was conducted to understand Singaporean women's views towards breast cancer screening and SNPs gene testing to guide personalised screening strategies...
November 21, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123354/profile-of-patients-opting-for-palliative-care-in-india
#4
Prince John, Ravindra B Ghooi
Introduction: Understanding the profile of end users is a key input for designing a service. Centers that provide full-scale palliative care are few and far between in our country, and there is a need to open more centers to extend the services to a larger percentage of patients. Methods: Patient data from the inception of the center till January 2016 have been stored in a database. The data were mined, exported to Excel, and analyzed. Results: The data of 11,258 patients revealed the profile of patients, including their age, gender distribution, marital status, symptomology, and outcome...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029803/introduction-to-the-special-issue-unintended-effects-of-international-cooperation
#5
Dirk-Jan Koch, Lau Schulpen
The 'Evaluation and Program Planning' journal has contributed to the launch of an academic discussion of unintended effects of international cooperation, notably by publishing in 2016 articles by Bamberger, Tarsilla, & Hesse-Biber and by Jabeen. This special issue aims to take up the academic challenges as laid down by those authors, by providing among others a clear typology and applying it, by outlining various methodological options and testing them, and elaborating on suggestions on how to deal with the barriers that prevent unintended effects being taken into account...
October 6, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953758/part-i-muslims-social-inclusion-and-the-west-exploring-challenges-faced-by-stigmatized-groups
#6
Ahmed Hankir, Frederick R Carrick, Rashid Zaman
The rise of radicalisation, the 'demonization' of Muslims in the media and the immigration crisis in Europe have all contributed and colluded to heightened levels of Islamophobia in the West. The stigmatisation of Muslims can and has resulted in negative outcomes in this group such as elevated levels of psychological distress and an increase in hate crime and terrorist attacks perpetrated against Muslims from members of the far right. There are 1.6 billion Muslims on the planet and Islam is the fastest growing religion in the world...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953332/-the-physician-and-the-myths-about-vaccination
#7
Marie-Ève Bascaron, David Parrat
Doctors are sometimes challenged with doubts and worries concerning vaccination. These doubts can come from their patients, but also from their collegues. By reviewing scientific litterature, most myths concerning vaccination can be debunked. Existing tools can guide health care professionnals who are facing these issues by providing useful information. The current system leading to licensure of vaccine can generate mistrust: continuous monitoring of eventual adverse events following immunization permits to constantly reassess the safety of the available products...
September 27, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951119/fake-news-and-post-truth-pronouncements-in-general-and-in-early-human-development
#8
REVIEW
Victor Grech
Fake news and post-truth pronouncements are increasingly common, and are unfortunately also progressively being applied to the sciences, including the medical sciences. This editorial briefly reviews this unsavoury trend and highlights recent debunking of fake truths in early human development. Science is arguably the last metanarrative with any significant cachet in the postmodern period. We, as scientists, must strive to ensure that our work is transparent and of the highest possible standard so as to continue to uphold science's integrity and probity...
December 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934907/the-use-of-assistive-technologies-after-stroke-is-debunking-the-myths-about-the-elderly
#9
Marija Tomšič, Barbara Domajnko, Melita Zajc
Background Through the concept of ageism, we highlight and explain how the society prejudices the elderly. WHO classifies 12 most common stereotypes pertaining to old age. Elderly people are being excluded from social life due to their chronological age rather than any actual reduced physical and/or mental ability. Some of these stereotypes are directly related to the (un)willingness and the ability of the elderly to use technology in everyday life. Objectives The study presented in this article aims to explain the phenomenon of technology use among elderly people who had had a stroke...
September 22, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922795/a-lady-in-proper-proportions-feminism-lytton-strachey-and-florence-nightingale-s-reputation-1918-39
#10
James Southern
Lytton Strachey's Eminent Victorians has long been regarded as a watershed in attitudes to Victorian culture, widely seen as having instigated a revolutionary backlash against the values and heroes of the Victorian era in England. Its impact, however, on the reputations of his four subjects-Thomas Arnold, General Gordon, Cardinal Manning and Florence Nightingale-has been subjected to surprisingly little scholarly attention. Drawing on the work of gender historians, this article reassesses Strachey's effect on the reputation of Nightingale, using biographies and contemporary reviews of Eminent Victorians...
March 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912088/sip-and-spit-or-sip-and-swallow-choice-of-method-differentially-alters-taste-intensity-estimates-across-stimuli
#11
Cordelia A Running, John E Hayes
While the myth of the tongue map has been consistently and repeatedly debunked in controlled studies, evidence for regional differences in suprathreshold intensity has been noted by multiple research groups. Given differences in physiology between the anterior and posterior tongue (fungiform versus foliate and circumvallate papillae) and differences in total area stimulated (anterior only versus whole tongue, pharynx, and epiglottis), small methodological changes (sip and spit versus sip and swallow) have the potential to substantially influence data...
November 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900879/darwinism-in-metaethics-what-if-the-universal-acid-cannot-be-contained
#12
Eleonora Severini, Fabio Sterpetti
The aim of this article is to explore the impact of Darwinism in metaethics and dispel some of the confusion surrounding it. While the prospects for a Darwinian metaethics appear to be improving, some underlying epistemological issues remain unclear. We will focus on the so-called Evolutionary Debunking Arguments (EDAs) which, when applied in metaethics, are defined as arguments that appeal to the evolutionary origins of moral beliefs so as to undermine their epistemic justification. The point is that an epistemic disanalogy can be identified in the debate on EDAs between moral beliefs and other kinds of beliefs, insofar as only the former are regarded as vulnerable to EDAs...
September 12, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895452/debunking-a-meta-analysis-of-the-psychological-efficacy-of-messages-countering-misinformation
#13
Man-Pui Sally Chan, Christopher R Jones, Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Dolores Albarracín
This meta-analysis investigated the factors underlying effective messages to counter attitudes and beliefs based on misinformation. Because misinformation can lead to poor decisions about consequential matters and is persistent and difficult to correct, debunking it is an important scientific and public-policy goal. This meta-analysis ( k = 52, N = 6,878) revealed large effects for presenting misinformation ( ds = 2.41-3.08), debunking ( ds = 1.14-1.33), and the persistence of misinformation in the face of debunking ( ds = 0...
November 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886668/conceptual-origins-current-practice-and-views-of-wide-awake-hand-surgery
#14
Donald H Lalonde
This article reviews historical background, essential practice principles, and the new emerging area of wide awake hand surgery. It outlines the reasons that wide awake, local anaesthesia, no tourniquet surgery has emerged so quickly in the last 10 years over the world. I explain the origin of the concepts and some of the challenges of getting the technique accepted; in particular, the debunking of the myth of epinephrine danger in the finger. I review the most recent developments in several operations in this rapidly changing field of the tourniquet-free approach...
November 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878990/human-altruism-evolution-and-moral-philosophy
#15
William J FitzPatrick
This paper has two central aims. The first is to explore philosophical complications that arise when we move from (i) explaining the evolutionary origins of genetically influenced traits associated with human cooperation and altruism, to (ii) explaining present manifestations of human thought, feeling and behaviour involving cooperation and altruism. While the former need only appeal to causal factors accessible to scientific inquiry, the latter must engage also with a distinctive form of explanation, i.e. reason-giving explanation, which in turn raises important philosophical questions, the answers to which will affect the nature of the ultimate explanations of our moral beliefs and related actions...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793816/effects-of-awareness-material-on-suicide-related-knowledge-and-the-intention-to-provide-adequate-help-to-suicidal-individuals
#16
Florian Arendt, Sebastian Scherr, Thomas Niederkrotenthaler, Sabrina Krallmann, Benedikt Till
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of educative media reports on the intention to provide help to suicidal individuals and on suicide-related knowledge. AIMS: To test whether material debunking widely shared myths influences knowledge and the intention to provide adequate help to others, and if such information reduces reading enjoyment. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial was utilized. Participants allocated to the intervention group were exposed to awareness material explicitly addressing suicide myths...
August 10, 2017: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759162/nurses-perceived-barriers-to-bedside-handover-and-their-implication-for-clinical-practice
#17
Georgia Tobiano, Jennifer A Whitty, Tracey Bucknall, Wendy Chaboyer
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Bedside handover during the change of shift allows nurses to visualize patients and facilitate patient participation, both purported to improve patient safety. But, bedside handover does not always occur and when it does, it may not involve the patient. AIM: To explore and understand barriers nurses perceive in undertaking bedside handover. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 200 nurses working on medical wards, recruited from two Australian hospitals, one private and one public...
July 31, 2017: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742163/debunking-in-a-world-of-tribes
#18
Fabiana Zollo, Alessandro Bessi, Michela Del Vicario, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli, Louis Shekhtman, Shlomo Havlin, Walter Quattrociocchi
Social media aggregate people around common interests eliciting collective framing of narratives and worldviews. However, in such a disintermediated environment misinformation is pervasive and attempts to debunk are often undertaken to contrast this trend. In this work, we examine the effectiveness of debunking on Facebook through a quantitative analysis of 54 million users over a time span of five years (Jan 2010, Dec 2014). In particular, we compare how users usually consuming proven (scientific) and unsubstantiated (conspiracy-like) information on Facebook US interact with specific debunking posts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707857/debunking-the-myth-of-low-incidence-of-intracranial-aneurysms-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa
#19
Tarek R Mansour, Maxwell Cooper, Bouthyna Issa, Tamara Maghathe, Yacine Medhkour, Azedine Medhkour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697640/on-bayesian-simplicity-in-human-visual-perceptual-organization
#20
Peter A van der Helm
A returning idea among some Bayesians in research on human visual perceptual organization is that the surprisal of something (i.e., the negative logarithm of its probability) expresses its complexity (i.e., the length of its shortest description). Bayes' rule is a powerful modeling tool and descriptive simplicity is a rich concept, but this idea is wishful thinking at best: If true, it would unify the simplicity and likelihood principles, which reflect two traditionally opposed schools of thought on perceptual organization...
January 1, 2017: Perception
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