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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631171/qualitative-assessment-of-vaccination-hesitancy-among-members-of-the-apostolic-church-of-zimbabwe-a-case-study
#1
Z Machekanyanga, S Ndiaye, R Gerede, K Chindedza, C Chigodo, M E Shibeshi, J Goodson, F Daniel, L Zimmerman, R Kaiser
Vaccine hesitancy or lack of confidence in vaccines is considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. The rise and spread of measles outbreaks in southern Africa in 2009-2010 were linked to objections among Apostolic Church members, estimated at about 3.5 million in Zimbabwe as of 2014. To inform planning of interventions for a measles-rubella vaccination campaign, we conducted an assessment of the factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy using data from various stakeholders. Among nine districts in three regions of Zimbabwe, we collected data on religious attitudes toward, and perceptions of, vaccines through focus group discussions with health workers serving Apostolic communities and members of the National Expanded Programme on Immunization; semi-structured interviews with religious leaders; and open-ended questions in structured interviews with Apostolic parents/caregivers...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629648/ten-reasons-to-embrace-scientism
#2
Rik Peels
A strong version of scientism, such as that of Alex Rosenberg, says, roughly, that natural science reliably delivers rational belief or knowledge, whereas common sense sources of belief, such as moral intuition, memory, and introspection, do not. In this paper I discuss ten reasons that adherents of scientism have or might put forward in defence of scientism. The aim is to show which considerations could plausibly count in favour of scientism and what this implies for the way scientism ought to be formulated...
June 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611700/brain-knowledge-and-the-prevalence-of-neuromyths-among-prospective-teachers-in-greece
#3
Marietta Papadatou-Pastou, Eleni Haliou, Filippos Vlachos
Although very often teachers show a great interest in introducing findings from the field of neuroscience in their classrooms, there is growing concern about the lack of academic instruction on neuroscience on teachers' curricula because this has led to a proliferation of neuromyths. We surveyed 479 undergraduate (mean age = 19.60 years, SD = 2.29) and 94 postgraduate students (mean age = 28.52 years, SD = 7.16) enrolled in Departments of Education at the University of Thessaly and the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590778/accounts-for-unprotected-sex-with-partners-met-online-from-heterosexual-men-and-women-from-large-us-metropolitan-areas
#4
Karolynn Siegel, Étienne Meunier, Helen-Maria Lekas
For about 30 years, soon after the onset of the AIDS epidemic, sexual-health messaging has emphasized personal responsibility for using condoms to protect from acquiring or transmitting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. Those who did not use condoms during casual sexual encounters may therefore feel compelled to offer to others aware of their behavior what sociologists have called "accounts," an impression-management strategy to avoid unfavorable judgment. We analyzed accounts-excuses and justifications-from qualitative interviews with 150 adults who had unprotected sex in the past 3 months with at least two different partners met online (ages 18-50, mean: 33...
June 7, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582398/effects-of-low-powered-rf-sweep-between-0-01-20-ghz-on-female-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-a-collective-behaviour-analysis
#5
Abdul Halim Poh, Mahmoud Moghavvemi, M M Shafiei, C S Leong, Yee Ling Lau, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan, Majid Bakhtiari, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla Hassan
There are many products claiming to be an electronic solution towards repelling mosquitoes. Several reviews were published in debunking these claims. However, there is a lack of a systematic study on effects of electromagnetic (EM) or more specifically, radio frequency (RF) waves against mosquitoes due to the conclusions made in those years. Therefore, we attempt to establish a fundamental study on female Aedes Aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquitoes by quantifying the collective behavior of the mosquitoes against a continuous stream of low-powered RF signals via a broadband horn antenna using image processing methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550030/debunking-the-delusion-that-precision-oncology-is-an-illusion
#6
Vivek Subbiah, Razelle Kurzrock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545482/a-plea-to-provide-best-evidence-in-trials-under-sample-size-restrictions-the-example-of-pioglitazone-to-resolve-leukoplakia-and-erythroplakia-in-fanconi-anemia-patients
#7
Florian Lasch, Kristina Weber, Mwe Mwe Chao, Armin Koch
In planning a clinical trial for demonstrating the efficacy of pioglitazone to resolve leukoplakia and erythroplakia in Fanconi anemia patients we had to discuss the need for a randomized controlled trial particularly under sample-size restrictions as very promising results were available from a single-arm clinical trial. Unfortunately, at a later stage, we had to suffer from the fact that single-arm clinical trials may sometimes mislead. When revisiting our planning at a later stage of a grant application, results of a randomized controlled trial had become available which were less impressive, but may still be of clinical interest...
May 25, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509570/learners-perspectives-on-the-provision-of-condoms-in-south-african-public-schools
#8
W E de Bruin, S Panday-Soobrayan
A stubborn health challenge for learners in South African public schools concerns sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). In 2015, the Department of Basic Education (DBE) proposed the provision of condoms and SRHR-services to learners in schools. This study aimed to contribute to the finalisation and implementation of DBE's policy by exploring learners' perspectives on the provision of condoms and SRHR-services in schools. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted with learners (n = 116) from 33 public schools, to assess their attitudes, social influences, and needs and desires regarding condom provision and SRHR-services in schools...
May 16, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497720/neuroscience-and-ethics
#9
S Matthew Liao
A number of people believe that results from neuroscience have the potential to settle seemingly intractable debates concerning the nature, practice, and reliability of moral judgments. In particular, Joshua Greene has argued that evidence from neuroscience can be used to advance the long-standing debate between consequentialism and deontology. This paper first argues that charitably interpreted, Greene's neuroscientific evidence can contribute to substantive ethical discussions by being part of an epistemic debunking argument...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493466/-it-s-fast-it-s-quick-it-stops-me-being-sick-how-to-influence-preparation-of-opioid-tablets-for-injection
#10
Lise Lafferty, Carla Treloar, Nick van Breda, Maureen Steele, Sarah Hiley, Ian Flaherty, Allison Salmon
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Injection of pharmaceutical opioids (PO) among people who inject drugs has increased in many countries. The common method for preparing PO tablets for injection uses heat, resulting in greater particulate matter and therefore increased risk of local infection risk and damage to veins and organs. A cold preparation process has fewer risks, but this preparation method is not commonly used. This study seeks to explore how people who inject PO learn to prepare injections and how health promotion efforts could influence practice...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461959/the-role-of-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#11
AliSina Shahi, Javad Parvizi
The role of serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as the first line for evaluating a patient with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) has been debunked.We are living in the era of biomarkers for the diagnosis of PJI, and to that effect, several biomarkers have been introduced such as synovial fluid alpha defensin and leukocyte esterase.The synovial fluid leukocyte esterase test has a low cost, is accessible, and has provided promising results for diagnosing PJI.There is an urgent need for an accurate and reliable serum biomarker for diagnosing patients with PJI...
July 2016: EFORT Open Rev
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435474/the-vision-of-industrie-4-0-in-the-making-a-case-of-future-told-tamed-and-traded
#12
Sabine Pfeiffer
Since industrial trade fair Hannover Messe 2011, the term "Industrie 4.0" has ignited a vision of a new Industrial Revolution and has been inspiring a lively, ongoing debate among the German public about the future of work, and hence society, ever since. The discourse around this vision of the future eventually spread to other countries, with public awareness reaching a temporary peak in 2016 when the World Economic Forum's meeting in Davos was held with the motto "Mastering the Fourth Industrial Revolution...
2017: Nanoethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396647/evidence-based-higher-education-is-the-learning-styles-myth-important
#13
Philip M Newton, Mahallad Miah
The basic idea behind the use of 'Learning Styles' is that learners can be categorized into one or more 'styles' (e.g., Visual, Auditory, Converger) and that teaching students according to their style will result in improved learning. This idea has been repeatedly tested and there is currently no evidence to support it. Despite this, belief in the use of Learning Styles appears to be widespread amongst schoolteachers and persists in the research literature. This mismatch between evidence and practice has provoked controversy, and some have labeled Learning Styles a 'myth...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375675/evaluating-the-one-in-five-statistic-women-s-risk-of-sexual-assault-while-in-college
#14
Charlene L Muehlenhard, Zoë D Peterson, Terry P Humphreys, Kristen N Jozkowski
In 2014, U.S. president Barack Obama announced a White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault, noting that "1 in 5 women on college campuses has been sexually assaulted during their time there." Since then, this one-in-five statistic has permeated public discourse. It is frequently reported, but some commentators have criticized it as exaggerated. Here, we address the question, "What percentage of women are sexually assaulted while in college?" After discussing definitions of sexual assault, we systematically review available data, focusing on studies that used large, representative samples of female undergraduates and multiple behaviorally specific questions...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368669/costs-trends-and-related-factors-in-treating-lung-cancer-patients-in-67-hospitals-in-guangxi-china
#15
Li-Fang Zhou, Mao-Xin Zhang, Ling-Qian Kong, Gary H Lyman, Ke Wang, Wei Lu, Qi-Ming Feng, Bo Wei, Lue Ping Zhao
Lung cancer is a common disease with high mortality in China. Recent economic advances have led to improved medical capabilities, while costs associated with treating this disease have increased. Such change contributes to a commonly held belief that healthcare costs are out of control. However, few studies have examined this issue. Here, we use 34,678 hospitalization summary reports from 67 Guangxi hospitals (period 2013-2016) to document costs, temporal trends, and associated factors. Findings from this study are surprising in that they debunk the myth of uncontrolled healthcare costs...
May 28, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353031/abortion-for-fetal-defects-two-current-arguments
#16
Susana Nuccetelli
A common utilitarian argument in favor of abortion for fetal defects rests on some controversial assumptions about what counts as a life worth living. Yet critics of abortion for fetal defects are also in need of an argument free from controversial assumptions about the future child's quality of life. Christopher Kaczor (in: Kaczor (ed), The ethics of abortion: women's rights, human life, and the question of justice, Routledge, New York, 2011) has devised an analogy that apparently satisfies this condition...
March 28, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350041/debunking-the-myth-of-wool-allergy-reviewing-the-evidence-for-immune-and-non-immune-cutaneous-reactions
#17
Michaela Zallmann, Pete K Smith, Mimi L K Tang, Lynda J Spelman, Jennifer L Cahill, Gabriele Wortmann, Constance H Katelaris, Katrina J Allen, John C Su
Although wool is commonly believed to cause irritant (non-immune) and hypersensitivity (immune) cutaneous reactions, the evidence basis for this belief and its validity for modern garments have not been critically examined. Publications from the last 100 years, using MEDLINE and Google Scholar, were analysed for evidence that wool causes cutaneous reactions, both immune-mediated (atopic dermatitis exacerbation, contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis) and non-immune-mediated (irritant contact dermatitis, itch)...
March 28, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317641/debunking-myths-the-utilisation-of-antibiotics-in-primary-care-in-spain
#18
Carles Llor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283235/debunking-dogma-the-arduous-task-of-writing-aats-consensus-guidelines
#19
EDITORIAL
Robert James Cerfolio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170084/debunking-occam-s-razor-diagnosing-multiple-genetic-diseases-in-families-by-whole-exome-sequencing
#20
Tugce B Balci, Taila Hartley, Yanwei Xi, David A Dyment, Chandree L Beaulieu, Francois P Bernier, Lucie Dupuis, Gabriella Horvath, Roberto Mendoza-Londono, Chitra Prasad, Julie Richer, Xiao-Ru Yang, Christine M Armour, Eric Bareke, Bridget A Fernandez, Hugh J McMillan, Ryan Lamont, Jacek Majewski, Jillian Parboosingh, A Narayan Prasad, Tony Rupar, Jeremy Schwartzentruber, Amanda C Smith, Martine Tétreault, A Micheil Innes, Kym M Boycott
Recent clinical whole exome sequencing (WES) cohorts have identified unanticipated multiple genetic diagnoses in single patients. However, the frequency of multiple genetic diagnoses in families is largely unknown. We set out to identify the rate of multiple genetic diagnoses in probands and their families referred for analysis in two national research programs in Canada. We retrospectively analyzed WES results for 802 undiagnosed probands referred over the past five years in either the FORGE or Care4Rare Canada WES sequencing initiatives...
February 7, 2017: Clinical Genetics
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