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Célia Ventura, Ana Filipa Lourenço, António Sousa-Uva, Paulo J T Ferreira, Maria João Silva
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are manufactured nanofibres that hold impressive expectations in forest, food, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries. CNF production and applications are leading to an increased human exposure and thereby it is of utmost importance to assess its safety to health. In this study, we screened the cytotoxic, immunotoxic and genotoxic effects of a CNF produced by TEMPO-mediated oxidation of an industrial bleached Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp on a co-culture of lung epithelial alveolar (A549) cells and monocyte-derived macrophages (THP-1 cells)...
April 18, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Hong-Zhen Jia, Xiu-Jun Peng
Corneal cross-linking (CXL) is a noninvasive therapeutic procedure for keratoconus that is aimed at improving corneal biomechanical properties by induction of covalent cross-links between stromal proteins. It is accomplished by ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation of the cornea, which is first saturated with photosensitizing riboflavin. It has been shown that standard epithelium-off CXL (S-CXL) is efficacious, and it has been recommended as the standard of care procedure for keratoconus. However, epithelial removal leads to pain, transient vision loss, and a higher risk of corneal infection...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Gina Prado-Prone, Phaedra Silva-Bermudez, Argelia Almaguer-Flores, Jorge A García-Macedo, Victor I García, Sandra E Rodil, Clemente Ibarra, Cristina Velasquillo
ZnO and Zn acetate nanoparticles were embedded in polycaprolactone coaxial-fibers and uniaxial-fibers matrices to develop potential antibacterial nanocomposite wound dressings. Morphology, composition, wettability, crystallinity and fiber structure of mats were characterized. Antibacterial properties of mats were tested against E. coli and S. aureus by turbidity and MTT assays. The effect of UVA illumination (prior to bacteria inoculation) on mats' antibacterial activity was also studied. Results showed that a coaxial-fibers design maintained nanoparticles distributed in the outer shell of fibers and, in general, enhanced the antibacterial effect of the mats, in comparison to conventional uniaxial-fibers mats...
April 16, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Tasanee Onkoksoong, Saowanee Jeayeng, Naravat Poungvarin, Saowalak Limsaengurai, Onusa Thamsermsang, Pinpat Tripatara, Pravit Akarasereenont, Uraiwan Panich
Thai herbal antipyretic 22 formula (APF22), a polyherbal formula, has been traditionally used to treat dermatologic problems including hyperpigmentation. Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet A (UVA) causes abnormal melanin production induced by photooxidative stress. This study thus aimed to investigate the protective effects of APF22 extracts and phenolic compounds, ferulic acid (FA), and gallic acid (GA; used as positive control and reference compounds), on melanogenesis through modulation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling and antioxidant defenses in mouse melanoma (B16F10) cells exposed to UVA...
April 19, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Elbashir Araud, Joanna L Shisler, Thanh H Nguyen
Two rotavirus (RV) strains (sialidase-resistant Wa and sialidase-sensitive OSU) were irradiated with simulated solar UVA and visible light in sensitizer-free phosphate buffered solution (lacking exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS)) or secondary effluent wastewater (producing ROS). Although light attenuated for up to 15% through the secondary effluent wastewater (SEW), the inactivation efficacies increased by 0.7 log10 for Wa and 2 log10 for OSU compared to those in sensitizer-free phosphate buffered solution (PBS) after 4 hrs of irradiation...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Mei Wang, Guangwei Shi, Chunxiang Bian, Muhammad Farrukh Nisar, Yingying Guo, Yan Wu, Wei Li, Xiao Huang, Xuemei Jiang, Jörg W Bartsch, Ping Ji, Julia Li Zhong
Brusatol (BR) is a potent inhibitor of Nrf2, a transcription factor that is highly expressed in cancer tissues and confers chemoresistance. UVA-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage both normal and cancer cells and may be of potential use in phototherapy. In order to provide an alternative method to treat the aggressive melanoma, we sought to investigate whether low-dose UVA with BR is more effective in eliminating melanoma cells than the respective single treatments. We found that BR combined with UVA led to inhibition of A375 melanoma cell proliferation by cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and triggers cell apoptosis...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Óscar L Rodríguez-Montaño, Carlos Julio Cortés-Rodríguez, Antonio E Uva, Michele Fiorentino, Michele Gattullo, Giuseppe Monno, Antonio Boccaccio
Enhancing the performance of scaffolds for bone regeneration requires a multidisciplinary approach involving competences in the fields of Biology, Medicine and Engineering. A number of studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of scaffolds design parameters on their mechanical and biological response. The possibilities offered by the additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate sophisticated and very complex microgeometries that until few years ago were just a geometrical abstraction, led many researchers to design scaffolds made from different unit cell geometries...
April 11, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Marco de Curtis, Laura Uva, Vadym Gnatkovsky, Laura Librizzi
Potassium channels dysfunction and altered genes encoding for molecules involved in potassium homeostasis have been associated with human epilepsy. These observations are in agreement with a control role of extracellular potassium on neuronal excitability and seizure generation. Epileptiform activity, in turn, regulates potassium homeostasis through mechanisms that are still not well established. We review here how potassium-associated processes are regulated in the brain and examine the mechanisms that support the role of potassium in triggering epileptiform activities...
April 10, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Neena Philips, Jovinna Chalensouk-Khaosaat, Salvador Gonzalez
Skin aging/photoaging is associated with altered the structure of collagen and elastin fibers, and increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and elastase. Nicotinamide and its derivatives, 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide, 2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxynicotinamide, and 3-hydroxypicolinamide (collectively niacin derivatives) stimulate fibrillar collagen and heat shock proteins in dermal fibroblasts. The goal of this research was to extend the understanding of the anti-skin aging mechanism of these niacin derivatives through the stimulation of elastin (at the protein and promoter levels), fibrillin (1 and 2) in nonirradiated or ultraviolet (UVA) radiated dermal fibroblasts, and through the direct inhibition of MMP (1, 3, and 9) and elastase activities...
January 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Science
Stephanie Nisbet
Data were generated from three studies to assess the tolerability and acceptability of a prototype cosmetic lip balm. Dermatological assessments of topical compatibility (primary and cumulative irritability and sensitization), photoirritant and topical photosensitizer potential, and acceptability for safe use of a prototype cosmetic lip balm on sensitive skin are summarized. In Study 1, the product was applied to the volunteers' backs under a semiocclusive patch followed by patch removal/reapplication over 6 weeks to assess the irritant and allergic potential of the product...
January 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Science
Wu Dayang, Pang Dongbo
AIM: To explore the osmolytes expression in UVA stressed human retinal pigment epithelial cells. METHODS: Osmolyte transporters and VEGF mRNA were determined by realtime PCR. Osmolyte uptake were measured by radioimmunoassay. VEGF concentrations were determined by immunoassay and ELISA. Osmolyte transporter TAUT were silenced by siRNA technology. RESULTS: Hypertonicity accelerated osmolyte betaine uptake, myoinositol uptake and taurine uptake, compared to normotonic stress...
April 15, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
York Kamenisch, Irina Ivanova, Konstantin Drexler, Mark Berneburg
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a plethora of effects on human tissues. In the UV spectrum, wavelengths above 320nm fall into the UVA-range and for these it has been shown that they induce reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA mutations and are capable to induce melanoma in mice. In addition to this it was recently shown that UVA irradiation and UVA-induced ROS also increase glucose metabolism of melanoma cells. UVA irradiation causes a persistent increase in glucose consumption, accompanied by increased glycolysis, increased lactic acid production and activation of the pentose phosphate pathway...
April 15, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Edoardo Marrani, Ivan Foeldvari, Jordi Anton Lopez, Rolando Cimaz, Gabriele Simonini
OBJECTIVE: Localized scleroderma is a skin fibrosing disorder that, if untreated, may result in severe disability. The purpose of this systematic review is to compare the present evidence concerning the effectiveness of Methotrexate versus phototherapy, alone or associated with Psoralen, in childhood localized scleroderma. METHOD: A systematic search between January 1996 and May 2017 was performed to identify studies investigating the efficacy of Methotrexate (MTX) or phototherapy (UVA) for treating localized scleroderma with onset ≤18 years...
March 14, 2018: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
J P Russo, A Ipiña, J F Palazzolo, A B Cannavó, R D Piacentini, B Niklasson
BACKGROUND: Photoallergic contact dermatitis (PACD) to oxybenzone was reported for the first time in 1980. Oxybenzone is the most common photoallergen in the United States and Canada and the fourth most common .in Europe. There are no studies or data on the prevalence of oxybenzone PACD in Argentina. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of photosensitive patients with PACD to oxybenzone. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 35 patients with photosensitivity reactions confirmed by photopatch testing at the Research Center of Hospital Público San Martín in La Plata, Argentina, in 2015 and 2016...
April 11, 2018: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Saroj Kumar Amar, Shruti Goyal, Ajeet K Srivastav, Deepti Chopra, Ratan Singh Ray
Benzophenone-2 (BP2), a common ingredient of sunscreens formulation is widely used as UV filter. We have assessed the photogenotoxic and photocytotoxic potential of BP2. Photostability test showed that BP2 is unstable under UV exposure. Cell proliferation assay revealed that viability of HaCaT cells significantly reduced under UVA, UVB and sunlight exposure. DCF fluorescence intensity proved intracellular ROS generation capacity of BP2 under sunlight, UVA and UVB irradiation. Photodynamic degradation of guanine base of DNA is promoted by BP2 under UV treatment...
April 4, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Andrea Angius, Paolo Uva, Insa Buers, Manuela Oppo, Alessandro Puddu, Stefano Onano, Ivana Persico, Angela Loi, Loredana Marcia, Wolfgang Höhne, Gianmauro Cuccuru, Giorgio Fotia, Manila Deiana, Mara Marongiu, Hatice Tuba Atalay, Sibel Inan, Osama El Assy, Leo M E Smit, Ilyas Okur, Koray Boduroglu, Gülen Eda Utine, Esra Kılıç, Giuseppe Zampino, Giangiorgio Crisponi, Laura Crisponi, Frank Rutsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Elvira Mächler, Maslin Osathanunkul, Florian Altermatt
The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) as a species detection tool is attracting attention from both scientific and applied fields, especially for detecting invasive or rare species. In order to use eDNA as an efficient and reliable tool, however, we need to understand its origin and state as well as factors affecting its degradation. Various biotic and abiotic environmental factors have been proposed to affect degradation of eDNA in aquatic environments and thus to influence detection rates of species. Here, we were interested in two of them, namely UV light, which can break down DNA, and the presence of filter feeders, which can remove DNA and DNA-bound particles...
2018: PloS One
Wen-Juan Yi, Meng-Yun Su, Ying Shi, Shan Jiang, Shi-Zheng Xu, Tie-Chi Lei
Melanosomes are membrane-bound intracellular organelles that are uniquely generated by melanocytes (MCs) in the basal layer of human epidermis. Highly pigmented mature melanosomes are transferred from melanocytes (MCs) to keratinocytes (KCs), and then positioned in the supra-nuclear region to ensure protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, the molecular mechanism underlying melanosome (or melanin pigment) transfer remains enigmatic. Emerging evidence shows that exo-/endo-cytosis of the melanosome core (termed melanocore) has been considered as the main transfer manner between MCs and KCs...
April 6, 2018: Cell Cycle
Barsha Roy, Hemamalini Chandrasekaran, Suresh Palamadai Krishnan, Natarajan Chandrasekaran, Amitava Mukherjee
There has recently been an increase in the usage of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). P25 TiO2 NPs, a mixture of anatase and rutile phase in 3:1 ratio, are generally used for photocatalytic applications because both phases exhibit a synergistic effect on the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 NPs. In the present study, increased toxicity of UVA-pre-irradiated P25 TiO2 NPs on freshwater algae Scenedesmus obliquus was assessed under visible light and dark exposure conditions at actual low concentrations (0.3, 3 and 35 μM of Ti)...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Arthur Bertachi, Aleix Beneyto, Charrise M Ramkissoon, Josep Vehí
BACKGROUND: Moderate physical activity improves overall health conditions in subjects with type 1 diabetes. However, insulin management during and after exercise is challenging due to the effects of exercise on glycemic control. Artificial pancreas (AP) systems aim to automatically control blood glucose levels, but exercise-induced hypoglycemia is a major challenge for these systems, especially in uni-hormonal configurations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of several feed-forward (FF) actions to prevent exercise-induced hypoglycemia in a closed-loop setting...
April 2, 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
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