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Heart remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346407/relaxin-reverses-inflammatory-and-immune-signals-in-aged-hearts
#1
Brian Martin, Beth Ann Gabris-Weber, Rajiv Reddy, Guillermo Romero, Ansuman Chattopadhyay, Guy Salama
BACKGROUND: 'Healthy' aging drives structural and functional changes in the heart including maladaptive electrical remodeling, fibrosis and inflammation, which lower the threshold for cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Despite mixed results in recent clinical trials, Relaxin-therapy for 2-days could reduce mortality by 37% at 180-days post-treatment, in patients with acute decompensated HF. Relaxin's short life-span (hours) but long-lasting protective actions led us to test the hypothesis that relaxin acts at a genomic level to reverse maladaptive remodeling in aging and HF...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345195/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-pulmonary-hypertension-cause-effect-or-both
#2
Jeffrey D Marshall, Isabel Bazan, Yi Zhang, Wassim H Fares, Patty J Lee
Pulmonary hypertension describes a heterogeneous disease defined by increased pulmonary artery pressures, and progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance due to pathologic remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature involving pulmonary endothelial cells, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells.  This process occurs under various conditions, and though these populations vary, the clinical manifestations are the same: progressive dyspnea, increases in right ventricular (RV) afterload and dysfunction, RV-pulmonary artery uncoupling, and right-sided heart failure with systemic circulatory collapse...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344827/molecular-imaging-of-cardiac-remodelling-after-myocardial-infarction
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Curley, Begoña Lavin Plaza, Ajay M Shah, René M Botnar
Myocardial infarction and subsequent heart failure is a major health burden associated with significant mortality and morbidity in western societies. The ability of cardiac tissue to recover after myocardial infarction is affected by numerous complex cellular and molecular pathways. Unbalance or failure of these pathways can lead to adverse remodelling of the heart and poor prognosis. Current clinical cardiac imaging modalities assess anatomy, perfusion, function, and viability of the myocardium, yet do not offer any insight into the specific molecular pathways involved in the repair process...
January 17, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344374/cardioprotection-by-an-anti-masp-2-antibody-in-a-murine-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#4
James E Clark, Thomas Dudler, Michael S Marber, Wilhelm Schwaeble
Background: Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. Many approaches have been investigated to counteract the pathological consequences associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cardiac remodelling. It is accepted that inflammation, and therefore activation of the complement pathway, is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of this injury, and many attempts have been made to ameliorate the infarction and consequent dysfunction using anticomplement therapy, with mixed success...
2018: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342503/the-molecular-basis-for-dysregulated-activation-of-nkx2-5-in-vascular-remodelling-of-systemic-sclerosis
#5
Athina Dritsoula, Ioannis Papaioannou, Sandra G Guerra, Carmen Fonseca, Javier Martin, Ariane L Herrick, David J Abraham, Christopher P Denton, Markella Ponticos
OBJECTIVE: NKX2-5 is a homeobox transcription factor required for the formation of the heart and vessels during development, with significant postnatal downregulation and reactivation in disease states characterised by vascular remodelling. In this study, we sought to investigate mechanisms that activate NKX2-5 expression in diseased vessels, such as scleroderma associated pulmonary hypertension (SSc-PH), and identify genetic variability that potentially underlies susceptibility to specific vascular complications...
January 17, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341932/synthetic-extracellular-matrix-mimic-hydrogel-improves-efficacy-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-for-ischemic-cardiomyopathy
#6
Maria Chiara Ciuffreda, Giuseppe Malpasso, Cindy Chokoza, Deon Bezuidenhout, Kyle P Goetsch, Manuela Mura, Federica Pisano, Neil H Davies, Massimiliano Gnecchi
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) repair infarcted hearts mainly through paracrine mechanisms. Low cell engraftment limits the release of soluble paracrine factors (SF) over time and, consequently, MSC efficacy. We tested whether a synthetic extracellular matrix mimic, a hydrogel containing heparin (H-HG), could ameliorate MSC engraftment and binding/release of SF, thus improving MSC therapy efficacy. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro, rat bone-marrow MSC (rBM-MSC) were seeded and grown into H-HG...
January 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338868/survival-and-reoperation-pattern-after-20%C3%A2-years-of-experience-with-aortic-valve-sparing-root-replacement-in-patients-with-tricuspid-and-bicuspid-valves
#7
Stefan Klotz, Sina Stock, Hans-Hinrich Sievers, Michael Diwoky, Michael Petersen, Ulrich Stierle, Doreen Richardt
OBJECTIVE: Remodeling or reimplantation are established operative techniques of aortic valve-sparing root replacement. Long-term follow-up is necessary comparing tricuspid and bicuspid aortic valves. METHODS: A total of 315 patients (tricuspid, n = 225, bicuspid, n = 89, quadricuspid, n = 1; remodeling, n = 101, reimplantation, n = 214) were evaluated. Mean follow-up was 10.1 ± 5.6 and 6.4 ± 4.2 years for the remodeling and reimplantation group, respectively...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337094/vitamin-d-attenuates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction-in-mice
#8
Liang Zhang, Xiao Yan, Jie Bai, Tesfaldet Habtemariam Hidru, Qing-Shan Wang, Hui-Hua Li
Vitamin D (VD) and its analogues play critical roles in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that VD exerts a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. However, the beneficial effect of VD on pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction and its underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophic remodeling in mice were induced by pressure overload. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography, and myocardial histology was detected by H&E and Masson's trichrome staining...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337052/sweet-yet-underappreciated-proteoglycans-and-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-in-heart-disease
#9
REVIEW
Geir Christensen, Kate M Herum, Ida G Lunde
Extracellular matrix remodeling is extensive in several heart diseases and hampers cardiac filling, often leading to heart failure. Proteoglycans have over the last two decades emerged as molecules with important roles in matrix remodeling and fibrosis in the heart. Here we discuss and review current literature on proteoglycans that have been studied in cardiac remodeling. The small leucine rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are located within the extracellular matrix and are organizers of the matrix structure. Membrane-bound proteoglycans, such as syndecans and glypicans, act as receptors and direct cardiac fibroblast signaling...
January 11, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335891/serum-bilirubin-concentration-is-associated-with-left-ventricular-remodeling-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-cohort-study
#10
Tomoaki Inoue, Noriyuki Sonoda, Shinsuke Hiramatsu, Shinichiro Kimura, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Toyoshi Inoguchi
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that serum bilirubin concentration is inversely associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between serum bilirubin concentration and left ventricular geometry, however, has not been investigated in patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: In this cohort study, 158 asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without overt heart disease were enrolled. Left ventricular structure and function were assessed using echocardiography...
January 15, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335616/roles-of-angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor-in-mice-with-fetal-growth-restriction
#11
Toshifumi Yamauchi, Masaki Mogi, Harumi Kan-No, Bao-Shuai Shan, Akinori Higaki, Li-Juan Min, Takashi Higaki, Jun Iwanami, Ei-Ichi Ishii, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Our previous report indicated that vascular injury enhances vascular remodeling in fetal growth restriction (FGR) mice. The angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) is relatively highly expressed in fetal mice. Therefore, we investigated the roles of AT2R in FGR-induced cardiovascular disease using AT2R knockout (AT2KO) mice. Dams (wild-type and AT2KO mice) were fed an isocaloric diet containing 20% protein (NP) or 8% protein (LP) until delivery. Arterial blood pressure, body weight, and histological changes in organs were investigated in offspring...
January 15, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334670/genetic-ablation-of-trpv1-exacerbates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy
#12
Beihua Zhong, Jack Rubinstein, Shuangtao Ma, Donna H Wang
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels expressed in sensory nerves may regulate vascular tone and cardiovascular function via their anti-inflammatory effects by releasing neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Inflammation plays a role in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and TRPV1 activation may be key to cardiac inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that TRPV1 modulates inflammatory processes to protect the heart from pressure overload-induced hypertrophy and inflammatory responses...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333636/in-search-of-markers-of-pulmonary-vascular-remodelling-in-pulmonary-hypertension-due-to-left-heart-disease
#13
EDITORIAL
Emmanouil Tampakakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332590/the-potential-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-cardiac-hypertrophy-a-narrative-review
#14
Abeer Rababa H, Ashley Guillory, Rima Mustafa, Tamara Hijjawi
BACKGROUND: A common phenotype associated with heart failure is the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to stress, such as hypertension, coronary vascular disease, or myocardial infarction. The most critical pathophysiological conditions involved may include dilated hypertrophy, fibrosis and contractile malfunction. The intricate pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy have been the core of several scientific studies, which may help in opening a new avenue in preventive and curative procedures...
January 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332571/role-of-heart-rate-reduction-in-the-management-of-myocarditis
#15
Chen Guang-Yi, Ge Li-Sha, Li Yue-Chun
The morbidity of myocarditis demonstrates an upward tendency by years, is commonly defined as the inflammation of myocytes and is caused by multiple factors. With the development of the molecular biological technique, great breakthroughs in the diagnosis and understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of myocarditis have recently been achieved. Several questions remain unresolved, however, including standard treatment approaches to myocarditis, which remain controversial and ambiguous. Heart rate, as an independent risk factor, has been shown to be related to cardiac disease...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331057/manifestations-and-mechanisms-of-myocardial-lipotoxicity-in-obesity
#16
Arthur C Sletten, Linda R Peterson, Jean E Schaffer
Environmental and socioeconomic changes over the past thirty years have contributed to a dramatic rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Heart disease is among the most serious health risks of obesity, with increases in both atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and heart failure among obese individuals. In this review, we focus on primary myocardial alterations in obesity that include hypertrophic remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity-associated perturbations in myocardial and systemic lipid metabolism are important contributors to cardiovascular complications of obesity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330215/mir-195-regulates-metabolism-in-failing-myocardium-via-alterations-in-sirt3-expression-and-mitochondrial-protein-acetylation
#17
Xiaokan Zhang, Ruiping Ji, Xianghai Liao, Estibaliz Castillero, Peter J Kennel, Danielle L Brunjes, Marcus Franz, Sven Möbius-Winkler, Konstantinos Drosatos, Isaac George, Emily I Chen, Paolo C Colombo, P Christian Schulze
Background -Heart failure (HF) leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities of the failing myocardium coupled with an energy-depleted state and cardiac remodeling. The mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of mitochondrial function through regulating the mitochondrial acetylome. Interestingly, unique cardiac and systemic miRNAs have been shown to play an important role in cardiac remodeling by modulating key signaling elements in the myocardium...
January 12, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330085/inflammation-following-acute-myocardial-infarction-multiple-players-dynamic-roles-and-novel-therapeutic-opportunities
#18
REVIEW
Sang-Bing Ong, Sauri Hernández-Reséndiz, Gustavo E Crespo-Avilan, Regina T Mukhametshina, Xiu-Yi Kwek, Hector A Cabrera-Fuentes, Derek J Hausenloy
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the heart failure that often follows, are major causes of death and disability worldwide. As such, new therapies are required to limit myocardial infarct (MI) size, prevent adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, and reduce the onset of heart failure following AMI. The inflammatory response to AMI, plays a critical role in determining MI size, and a persistent pro-inflammatory reaction can contribute to adverse post-MI LV remodeling, making inflammation an important therapeutic target for improving outcomes following AMI...
January 9, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327894/cell-therapy-for-heart-disease-current-status-and-future-directions
#19
Arunpreet Kahlon, Gaurang Vaidya, Roberto Bolli
Treatment of ischemic heart disease has evolved considerably over time, seeing a technological impetus in recent times. Prompt diagnosis and progressively earlier reperfusion of the infarct artery have become the cornerstone of the early myocardial ischemia management. However, treatment of post-infarction sequelae resulting from ischemic damage sustained within the myocardium remains a considerable challenge. In this setting, stem cell therapy has emerged as an exciting regenerative modality with a promise to arrest or even reverse the pathological myocardial remodeling...
January 10, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327671/tissue-engineered-heart-valves-a-call-for-mechanistic-studies
#20
Kevin Blum, Joseph Drews, Christopher K Breuer
Heart valve disease carries a substantial risk of morbidity and mortality. Outcomes are significantly improved by valve replacement, but currently-available mechanical and biological replacement valves are associated with complications of their own. Mechanical valves have a high rate of thromboembolism and require lifelong anticoagulation. Biological prosthetic valves have a much shorter lifespan, and are prone to tearing and degradation. Both types of valves lack the capacity for growth, making them particularly problematic in pediatric patients...
January 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
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