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AKI epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088183/incidence-aetiology-and-outcome-of-community-acquired-acute-kidney-injury-in-medical-admissions-in-malawi
#1
Rhys D R Evans, Ulla Hemmilä, Alison Craik, Mwayi Mtekateka, Fergus Hamilton, Zuze Kawale, Christopher J Kirwan, Hamish Dobbie, Gavin Dreyer
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data on Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) from low-income countries is sparse. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence, severity, aetiology, and outcomes of community-acquired AKI in Malawi. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of general medical admissions to a tertiary hospital in Blantyre between 27(th) April and 17(th) July 2015. All patients were screened on admission with a serum creatinine; those with creatinine above laboratory reference range were managed by the nephrology team...
January 14, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994853/hiv-and-kidney-diseases-35-years-of-history-and-consequences
#2
REVIEW
Pedro Campos, Alberto Ortiz, Karina Soto
Kidney diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are often misdiagnosed. Despite reductions in morbidity and mortality owing to widespread use of highly effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are still more common in these patients than in the general population, and are associated with poor health outcomes. HIV-associated nephropathy and HIV immune complex kidney diseases are the more recognizable HIV-related kidney diseases...
December 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977430/long-term-consequences-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-the-perioperative-setting
#3
Carlos E Palant, Richard L Amdur, Lakhmir S Chawla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies indicate that acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are interconnected syndromes. Although the majority of patients who suffer an episode of AKI will recover laboratory indices suggesting complete or near complete recovery of renal function, a significant portion of post-AKI survivors will develop major kidney events, including development of late-stage CKD, need for renal replacement therapies, and death. RECENT FINDINGS: Our review highlights epidemiology of adverse post-AKI events, association of AKI with late development of nonrenal adverse outcomes, use of bedside equations that facilitate prognostication of adverse renal outcomes of AKI, and how variability in serum creatinine values in individual patients, even among those with normal baseline renal function may indicate risk for the development of CKD...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974972/acute-kidney-injury-in-diabetes-mellitus
#4
REVIEW
D Patschan, G A Müller
Diabetes mellitus (DM) significantly increases the overall morbidity and mortality, particularly by elevating the cardiovascular risk. The kidneys are severely affected as well, partly as a result of intrarenal athero- and arteriosclerosis but also due to noninflammatory glomerular damage (diabetic nephropathy). DM is the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease in our society. Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a clinical and prognostic problem of fundamental importance since incidences have been increased in recent years while mortality has not substantially been improved...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933451/association-between-adjuvant-chemotherapy-and-risk-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-elderly-women-diagnosed-with-early-stage-breast-cancer
#5
Shuling Li, Jiannong Liu, Beth A Virnig, Allan J Collins
PURPOSE: We studied elderly Medicare enrollees newly diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer to examine the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: Using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study including women diagnosed with stages I-III breast cancer at ages 66-89 years between 1992 and 2007. We performed one-to-one matching on time-dependent propensity score on the day of adjuvant chemotherapy initiation within 6 months after the first cancer-directed surgery based on the estimated probability of chemotherapy initiation at each day for each patient, using a Cox proportional hazards model...
February 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#6
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921036/acute-kidney-injury-in-asia
#7
REVIEW
Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disorder and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of the climate and of the socioeconomic and developmental status in Asia has a great influence on the etiology and presentation of AKI in different regions. In view of the International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative, more and more attention has been paid to AKI in Asian countries. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900473/the-role-of-fluid-overload-in-the-prediction-of-outcome-in-acute-kidney-injury
#8
REVIEW
David T Selewski, Stuart L Goldstein
Our understanding of the epidemiology and the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) and fluid overload on outcomes has improved significantly over the past several decades. Fluid overload occurs commonly in critically ill children with and without associated AKI. Researchers in pediatric AKI have been at the forefront of describing the impact of fluid overload on outcomes in a variety of populations. A full understanding of this topic is important as fluid overload represents a potentially modifiable risk factor and a target for intervention...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863290/cardiorenal-acute-kidney-injury-epidemiology-presentation-causes-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Luca Di Lullo, Antonio Bellasi, Domenico Russo, Mario Cozzolino, Claudio Ronco
Cardiovascular disease and major cardiovascular events represent main cause of death in both acute and chronic kidney disease patients. Kidney and heart failure are common and frequently co-exist; this organ - organ interaction, also called organ cross-talk led to well-known definition of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Here we'll describe cardiovascular involvement in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Also known as type-3 CRS or acute reno-cardiac CRS, it occurs when AKI contributes and/or precipitates development of acute cardiac injury...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848094/aminoglycoside-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Stephen J McWilliam, Daniel J Antoine, Rosalind L Smyth, Munir Pirmohamed
Aminoglycoside antibiotics, in particular gentamicin and tobramycin, are still commonly used in paediatric clinical practice. These drugs cause nephrotoxicity, which particularly affects the proximal tubule epithelial cells due to selective endocytosis and accumulation of aminoglycosides via the multi-ligand receptor megalin. Recent epidemiological studies, using more widely accepted definitions of acute kidney injury (AKI), have suggested that AKI may occur in between 20 and 33 % of children exposed to aminoglycosides...
November 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829458/retrospective-epidemiological-study-of-canine-epilepsy-in-japan-using-the-international-veterinary-epilepsy-task-force-classification-2015-2003-2013-etiological-distribution-risk-factors-survival-time-and-lifespan
#11
Yuji Hamamoto, Daisuke Hasegawa, Shunta Mizoguchi, Yoshihiko Yu, Masae Wada, Takayuki Kuwabara, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Michio Fujita
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease in veterinary practice. However, contrary to human medicine, epilepsy classification in veterinary medicine had not been clearly defined until recently. A number of reports on canine epilepsy have been published, reflecting in part updated proposals from the human epilepsy organization, the International League Against Epilepsy. In 2015, the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) published a consensus report on the classification and definition of canine epilepsy...
November 9, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822672/obesity-acute-kidney-injury-and-outcome-of-critical-illness
#12
REVIEW
Helmut Schiffl, Susanne M Lang
Acute kidney injury is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome encompassing a spectrum of risk factors and acute insults, occurring in multiple settings and affecting both short-term and long-term outcomes. Obesity has become an epidemic. The available literature suggests that AKI is common in critically ill surgical or medical obese patients and that obesity is a novel risk factor for this acute renal syndrome. The pathophysiology of obesity-associated AKI is not completely understood. Obesity-related factors combined with the burden of other comorbidities in elderly obese patients may interact with known precipitating factors such as hypotension, nephrotoxins or sepsis and increase the susceptibility of this population to AKI...
November 7, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820742/epidemiology-and-pathophysiology-of-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#13
Dana Y Fuhrman, John A Kellum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a serious complication of cardiac surgery. An understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of AKI in cardiac surgery patients is crucial to early recognition and proper management. RECENT FINDINGS: The article will review the current criteria used for defining AKI and the most recently published incidence rates of AKI in the cardiac surgery population. Variables associated with AKI will be reviewed. The cause of cardiac surgery-associated AKI is multifactorial involving genetic factors as well as insults because of nephrotoxins, ischemia and reperfusion, cardiac dysfunction, venous congestion, inflammation, and oxidative stress...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816158/management-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-pregnancy-for-the-obstetrician
#14
REVIEW
Anjali Acharya
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex disorder that occurs in several clinical settings. During pregnancy, there are additional unique conditions that contribute to AKI. The clinical manifestations of AKI during pregnancy range from a minimal elevation in serum creatinine to renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy, similar to AKI in the general population. Recent epidemiologic studies in the general population show an increase in mortality associated with AKI, particularly when dialysis is required...
December 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805562/acute-kidney-injury-in-leptospirosis-the-kidney-disease-improving-global-outcomes-kdigo-criteria-and-mortality%C3%A2
#15
Flávio Teles, Júlia Vanessa de Mendonça Uchôa, Darina Mirelli Barreto Mendonça, André Falcão Pedrosa Costa
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most serious complications of leptospirosis. In recent years, studies have evaluated this complication using the risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage kidney disease and the acute kidney injury network classification systems. More recently, the kidney disease improving global outcomes (KDIGO) criteria have been developed to increase accuracy in detecting AKI. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with AKI and mortality in patients with leptospirosis, using KDIGO criteria...
December 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803367/management-of-post-operative-acute-kidney-injury
#16
S Bell, V C Ross, K A Zealley, F Millar, C Isles
Post-operative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of surgery with significant short- and long-term adverse consequences. The adoption of diagnostic criteria for AKI (RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO) has facilitated comparison of data reported by different centres, confirming that even mild AKI is associated with excess mortality. It remains unclear whether this is caused by the kidney injury itself or whether AKI is simply a marker of underlying disease severity. There is no trial evidence to support the use of any specific therapeutic intervention in post-operative AKI...
October 18, 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793961/acute-kidney-injury-in-the-era-of-the-aki-e-alert
#17
Jennifer Holmes, Timothy Rainer, John Geen, Gethin Roberts, Kate May, Nick Wilson, John D Williams, Aled O Phillips
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to use a national electronic AKI alert to define the incidence and outcome of all episodes of community- and hospital-acquired adult AKI. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: A prospective national cohort study was undertaken in a population of 3.06 million. Data were collected between March of 2015 and August of 2015. All patients with adult (≥18 years of age) AKI were identified to define the incidence and outcome of all episodes of community- and hospital-acquired AKI in adults...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749903/regional-variation-in-acute-kidney-injury-requiring-dialysis-in-the-english-national-health-service-from-2000-to-2015-a-national-epidemiological-study
#18
Nitin V Kolhe, Richard J Fluck, Andrew W Muirhead, Maarten W Taal
BACKGROUND: The absence of effective interventions in presence of increasing national incidence and case-fatality in acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) warrants a study of regional variation to explore any potential for improvement. We therefore studied regional variation in the epidemiology of AKI-D in English National Health Service over a period of 15 years. METHOD: We analysed Hospital Episode Statistics data for all patients with a diagnosis of AKI-D, using ICD-10-CM codes, in English regions between 2000 and 2015 to study temporal changes in regional incidence and case-fatality...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703403/epidemiology-of-racing-injuries-in-thoroughbred-racehorses-with-special-reference-to-bone-fractures-japanese-experience-from-the-1980s-to-2000s
#19
Yousuke Maeda, Michiko Hanada, Masa-Aki Oikawa
This report describes the descriptive epidemiology of racing fractures that occurred from the 1980s to 2000s on racetracks of the Japan Racing Association (JRA). The incidence of racehorse fractures during flat racing was approximately 1-2%. Fractures occurring during a race are more likely to occur in a forelimb. Fractures mostly occur at the third and fourth corners of oval tracks and on the home stretch. They also occur more frequently at the time of changing the leading limb. Comparison of the incidence of racing fracture between before and after reconstruction of the geometrical configuration of a racetrack revealed that there was an outstanding reduction in the number of serious fractures in the year before and after reconstruction...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684854/a-nationwide-survey-of-clinical-characteristics-management-and-outcomes-of-acute-kidney-injury-aki-patients-with-and-without-preexisting-chronic-kidney-disease-have-different-prognoses
#20
Heng-Chih Pan, Pei-Chen Wu, Vin-Cent Wu, Ya-Fei Yang, Tao-Min Huang, Chih-Chung Shiao, Te-Chuan Chen, Der-Cherng Tarng, Jui-Hsiang Lin, Wei-Shun Yang, Chiao-Yin Sun, Chan-Yu Lin, Tzong-Shinn Chu, Mai-Szu Wu, Kwan-Dun Wu, Yung-Chang Chen, Chiu-Ching Huang
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in hospitalized patients. The International Society of Nephrology implemented the "0 by 25" initiative aimed at preventing deaths from treatable AKI worldwide by 2025 and conducted a global snapshot survey in 2014. We joined in the project and conducted this study to compare the epidemiology, risk factors, and prognosis between patients with pure AKI and those with acute-on-chronic kidney disease (ACKD). In this study, we prospectively collected demographic parameters and data on clinical characteristics, baseline comorbidities, management, and outcomes of 201 AKI patients in 18 hospitals in Taiwan from September 2014 to November 2014...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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