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AKI epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900473/the-role-of-fluid-overload-in-the-prediction-of-outcome-in-acute-kidney-injury
#1
REVIEW
David T Selewski, Stuart L Goldstein
Our understanding of the epidemiology and the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) and fluid overload on outcomes has improved significantly over the past several decades. Fluid overload occurs commonly in critically ill children with and without associated AKI. Researchers in pediatric AKI have been at the forefront of describing the impact of fluid overload on outcomes in a variety of populations. A full understanding of this topic is important as fluid overload represents a potentially modifiable risk factor and a target for intervention...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863290/cardiorenal-acute-kidney-injury-epidemiology-presentation-causes-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Luca Di Lullo, Antonio Bellasi, Domenico Russo, Mario Cozzolino, Claudio Ronco
Cardiovascular disease and major cardiovascular events represent main cause of death in both acute and chronic kidney disease patients. Kidney and heart failure are common and frequently co-exist; this organ - organ interaction, also called organ cross-talk led to well-known definition of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Here we'll describe cardiovascular involvement in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Also known as type-3 CRS or acute reno-cardiac CRS, it occurs when AKI contributes and/or precipitates development of acute cardiac injury...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848094/aminoglycoside-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-children
#3
REVIEW
Stephen J McWilliam, Daniel J Antoine, Rosalind L Smyth, Munir Pirmohamed
Aminoglycoside antibiotics, in particular gentamicin and tobramycin, are still commonly used in paediatric clinical practice. These drugs cause nephrotoxicity, which particularly affects the proximal tubule epithelial cells due to selective endocytosis and accumulation of aminoglycosides via the multi-ligand receptor megalin. Recent epidemiological studies, using more widely accepted definitions of acute kidney injury (AKI), have suggested that AKI may occur in between 20 and 33 % of children exposed to aminoglycosides...
November 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829458/retrospective-epidemiological-study-of-canine-epilepsy-in-japan-using-the-international-veterinary-epilepsy-task-force-classification-2015-2003-2013-etiological-distribution-risk-factors-survival-time-and-lifespan
#4
Yuji Hamamoto, Daisuke Hasegawa, Shunta Mizoguchi, Yoshihiko Yu, Masae Wada, Takayuki Kuwabara, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Michio Fujita
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease in veterinary practice. However, contrary to human medicine, epilepsy classification in veterinary medicine had not been clearly defined until recently. A number of reports on canine epilepsy have been published, reflecting in part updated proposals from the human epilepsy organization, the International League Against Epilepsy. In 2015, the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) published a consensus report on the classification and definition of canine epilepsy...
November 9, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822672/obesity-acute-kidney-injury-and-outcome-of-critical-illness
#5
REVIEW
Helmut Schiffl, Susanne M Lang
Acute kidney injury is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome encompassing a spectrum of risk factors and acute insults, occurring in multiple settings and affecting both short-term and long-term outcomes. Obesity has become an epidemic. The available literature suggests that AKI is common in critically ill surgical or medical obese patients and that obesity is a novel risk factor for this acute renal syndrome. The pathophysiology of obesity-associated AKI is not completely understood. Obesity-related factors combined with the burden of other comorbidities in elderly obese patients may interact with known precipitating factors such as hypotension, nephrotoxins or sepsis and increase the susceptibility of this population to AKI...
November 7, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820742/epidemiology-and-pathophysiology-of-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#6
Dana Y Fuhrman, John A Kellum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a serious complication of cardiac surgery. An understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of AKI in cardiac surgery patients is crucial to early recognition and proper management. RECENT FINDINGS: The article will review the current criteria used for defining AKI and the most recently published incidence rates of AKI in the cardiac surgery population. Variables associated with AKI will be reviewed. The cause of cardiac surgery-associated AKI is multifactorial involving genetic factors as well as insults because of nephrotoxins, ischemia and reperfusion, cardiac dysfunction, venous congestion, inflammation, and oxidative stress...
November 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816158/management-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-pregnancy-for-the-obstetrician
#7
REVIEW
Anjali Acharya
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex disorder that occurs in several clinical settings. During pregnancy, there are additional unique conditions that contribute to AKI. The clinical manifestations of AKI during pregnancy range from a minimal elevation in serum creatinine to renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy, similar to AKI in the general population. Recent epidemiologic studies in the general population show an increase in mortality associated with AKI, particularly when dialysis is required...
December 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805562/acute-kidney-injury-in-leptospirosis-the-kidney-disease-improving-global-outcomes-kdigo-criteria-and-mortality%C3%A2
#8
Flávio Teles, Júlia Vanessa de Mendonça Uchôa, Darina Mirelli Barreto Mendonça, André Falcão Pedrosa Costa
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most serious complications of leptospirosis. In recent years, studies have evaluated this complication using the risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage kidney disease and the acute kidney injury network classification systems. More recently, the kidney disease improving global outcomes (KDIGO) criteria have been developed to increase accuracy in detecting AKI. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with AKI and mortality in patients with leptospirosis, using KDIGO criteria...
November 2, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803367/management-of-post-operative-acute-kidney-injury
#9
S Bell, V C Ross, K A Zealley, F Millar, C Isles
Post-operative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of surgery with significant short- and long-term adverse consequences. The adoption of diagnostic criteria for AKI (RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO) has facilitated comparison of data reported by different centres, confirming that even mild AKI is associated with excess mortality. It remains unclear whether this is caused by the kidney injury itself or whether AKI is simply a marker of underlying disease severity. There is no trial evidence to support the use of any specific therapeutic intervention in post-operative AKI...
October 18, 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793961/acute-kidney-injury-in-the-era-of-the-aki-e-alert
#10
Jennifer Holmes, Timothy Rainer, John Geen, Gethin Roberts, Kate May, Nick Wilson, John D Williams, Aled O Phillips
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to use a national electronic AKI alert to define the incidence and outcome of all episodes of community- and hospital-acquired adult AKI. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: A prospective national cohort study was undertaken in a population of 3.06 million. Data were collected between March of 2015 and August of 2015. All patients with adult (≥18 years of age) AKI were identified to define the incidence and outcome of all episodes of community- and hospital-acquired AKI in adults...
October 28, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749903/regional-variation-in-acute-kidney-injury-requiring-dialysis-in-the-english-national-health-service-from-2000-to-2015-a-national-epidemiological-study
#11
Nitin V Kolhe, Richard J Fluck, Andrew W Muirhead, Maarten W Taal
BACKGROUND: The absence of effective interventions in presence of increasing national incidence and case-fatality in acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) warrants a study of regional variation to explore any potential for improvement. We therefore studied regional variation in the epidemiology of AKI-D in English National Health Service over a period of 15 years. METHOD: We analysed Hospital Episode Statistics data for all patients with a diagnosis of AKI-D, using ICD-10-CM codes, in English regions between 2000 and 2015 to study temporal changes in regional incidence and case-fatality...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703403/epidemiology-of-racing-injuries-in-thoroughbred-racehorses-with-special-reference-to-bone-fractures-japanese-experience-from-the-1980s-to-2000s
#12
Yousuke Maeda, Michiko Hanada, Masa-Aki Oikawa
This report describes the descriptive epidemiology of racing fractures that occurred from the 1980s to 2000s on racetracks of the Japan Racing Association (JRA). The incidence of racehorse fractures during flat racing was approximately 1-2%. Fractures occurring during a race are more likely to occur in a forelimb. Fractures mostly occur at the third and fourth corners of oval tracks and on the home stretch. They also occur more frequently at the time of changing the leading limb. Comparison of the incidence of racing fracture between before and after reconstruction of the geometrical configuration of a racetrack revealed that there was an outstanding reduction in the number of serious fractures in the year before and after reconstruction...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684854/a-nationwide-survey-of-clinical-characteristics-management-and-outcomes-of-acute-kidney-injury-aki-patients-with-and-without-preexisting-chronic-kidney-disease-have-different-prognoses
#13
Heng-Chih Pan, Pei-Chen Wu, Vin-Cent Wu, Ya-Fei Yang, Tao-Min Huang, Chih-Chung Shiao, Te-Chuan Chen, Der-Cherng Tarng, Jui-Hsiang Lin, Wei-Shun Yang, Chiao-Yin Sun, Chan-Yu Lin, Tzong-Shinn Chu, Mai-Szu Wu, Kwan-Dun Wu, Yung-Chang Chen, Chiu-Ching Huang
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in hospitalized patients. The International Society of Nephrology implemented the "0 by 25" initiative aimed at preventing deaths from treatable AKI worldwide by 2025 and conducted a global snapshot survey in 2014. We joined in the project and conducted this study to compare the epidemiology, risk factors, and prognosis between patients with pure AKI and those with acute-on-chronic kidney disease (ACKD). In this study, we prospectively collected demographic parameters and data on clinical characteristics, baseline comorbidities, management, and outcomes of 201 AKI patients in 18 hospitals in Taiwan from September 2014 to November 2014...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682843/epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-elderly-chinese-patients-a-subgroup-analysis-from-the-each-study
#14
Shuwang Ge, Sheng Nie, Zhangsuo Liu, Chunbo Chen, Yan Zha, Jing Qian, Bicheng Liu, Siyuan Teng, Anping Xu, Wei Bin, Xin Xu, Gang Xu
BACKGROUND: Information on acute kidney injury (AKI) in elderly hospitalized patients is limited. This study aims to assess the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of AKI in elderly Chinese patients. METHOD: The Epidemiology of AKI in Chinese Hospitalized adults (EACH) study is a multicenter, retrospective cohort study conducted in nine regional central hospitals across China. Patients aged more than 65 years were selected from the EACH study for this analysis...
September 29, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661440/medication-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#15
Stuart L Goldstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article will review the current state of our understanding of nephrotoxic medication-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) and provide strategies to reduce its impact. RECENT FINDINGS: Nephrotoxic medications contribute to a substantial proportion of AKI in hospitalized patients. The previous perspective of nephrotoxic medication-associated AKI as a nonmodifiable necessary evil of providing appropriate therapy to ill patients had led to an incomplete understanding of its epidemiology and provided little impetus to reduce its occurrence...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659469/contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#16
REVIEW
Peter A McCullough, James P Choi, Georges A Feghali, Jeffrey M Schussler, Robert M Stoler, Ravi C Vallabahn, Ankit Mehta
Coronary angiography and percutaneous intervention rely on the use of iodinated intravascular contrast for vessel and chamber imaging. Despite advancements in imaging and interventional techniques, iodinated contrast continues to pose a risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) for a subgroup of patients at risk for this complication. There has been a consistent and graded signal of risk for associated outcomes including need for renal replacement therapy, rehospitalization, and death, according to the incidence and severity of CI-AKI...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634445/epidemiology-and-management-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-undergoing-transcatheter-arterial-chemoembolization
#17
Chen Xiaohong, Lv WenLv, Liu ZhongHua, Shen Bo, Cao XueSen, Nie YuXin, Yu JiaWei, Xu JiaRui, Ding XiaoQiang, Zou JianZhou
Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is an effective therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, acute kidney injury (AKI) may occur after TACE due to the contrast agent and cytotoxic anticancer drugs used in this procedure. Post-TACE AKI is not an unusual event, and may adversely affect patient outcome. Coexisting situations including cirrhosis, renal insufficiency, diabetes and hypertension play a role in the development of HCC, and may predispose patients to AKI after TACE. Most post-TACE are transient and reversible, while prolonged AKI may predict a decreased survival...
September 9, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578995/acute-kidney-injury-risk-factors-and-management-challenges-in-developing-countries
#18
REVIEW
Daniela Ponce, Andre Balbi
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major global health problem in both developed and developing nations, negatively affecting patient morbidity and responsible for an estimated 1.4 million deaths per year. Although the International Society of Nephrology set a goal of eliminating preventable deaths from AKI by 2025, implementation of this program in developing countries presents major challenges not only because of the lack of resources but also because of the scarce data addressing the epidemiology and causes of AKI in developing countries, the limited health care resources to diagnose and treat AKI, and the poor awareness of the impact of AKI on patient outcomes...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573728/heart-failure-and-kidney-dysfunction-epidemiology-mechanisms-and-management
#19
REVIEW
Joerg C Schefold, Gerasimos Filippatos, Gerd Hasenfuss, Stefan D Anker, Stephan von Haehling
Heart failure (HF) is a major health-care problem and the prognosis of affected patients is poor. HF often coexists with a number of comorbidities of which declining renal function is of particular importance. A loss of glomerular filtration rate, as in acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD), independently predicts mortality and accelerates the overall progression of cardiovascular disease and HF. Importantly, cardiac and renal diseases interact in a complex bidirectional and interdependent manner in both acute and chronic settings...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561896/genetic-support-for-the-causal-role-of-insulin-in-coronary-heart-disease
#20
Emmi Tikkanen, Matti Pirinen, Antti-Pekka Sarin, Aki S Havulinna, Satu Männistö, Juha Saltevo, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Juha Sinisalo, Annamari Lundqvist, Antti Jula, Veikko Salomaa, Samuli Ripatti
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Epidemiological studies have identified several traits associated with CHD, but few of these have been shown to be causal risk factors and thus suitable targets for treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the causal role of a large set of known CHD risk factors using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as instrumental variables. METHODS: Based on published genome-wide association studies (GWASs), we estimated the associations between the established risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, glycaemic traits and BP) and CHD with two complementary approaches: (1) using summary statistics from GWASs to analyse the accordance of SNP effects on risk factors and on CHD; and (2) individual-level analysis where we constructed genetic risk scores (GRSs) in a large Finnish dataset (N = 26,554, CHD events n = 4016)...
November 2016: Diabetologia
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