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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097012/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-antibiotics-in-critically-ill-acute-kidney-injury-patients
#1
REVIEW
Welder Zamoner, Fernanda M de Freitas, Durval S S Garms, Mariele Gobo de Oliveira, André L Balbi, Daniela Ponce
Sepsis is the most common cause of death in critically ill patients and is associated with multiorgan failure, including acute kidney injury (AKI). This situation can require acute renal support and increase mortality. Therefore, it is essential to administer antimicrobials in doses that achieve adequate serum levels, avoiding both overdosing and drug toxicity as well as underdosing and the risk of antibiotic resistance and higher mortality. Currently, there are no validated guidelines on antibiotic dose adjustments in septic patients with AKI...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094329/fumarase-activity-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-biomarker-for-acute-kidney-injury
#2
Per Mose Nielsen, Abubakr Eldirdiri, Lotte Bonde Bertelsen, Hans Stødkilde Jørgensen, Jan Henrik Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Christoffer Laustsen
Renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), and at present, there is a lack of reliable biomarkers that can diagnose AKI and measure early progression because the commonly used methods cannot evaluate single-kidney IRI. Hyperpolarized [1,4-(13)C2]fumarate conversion to [1,4-(13)C2]malate by fumarase has been proposed as a measure of necrosis in rat tumor models and in chemically induced AKI rats. Here we show that the degradation of cell membranes in connection with necrosis leads to elevated fumarase activity in plasma and urine and secondly that hyperpolarized [1,4-(13)C2]malate production 24 h after reperfusion correlates with renal necrosis in a 40-min unilateral ischemic rat model...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091436/acute-kidney-injury-in-lagos-pattern-outcomes-and-predictors-of-in-hospital-mortality
#3
B T Bello, A A Busari, C O Amira, Y R Raji, R W Braimoh
CONTEXT: The pattern of acute kidney injury (AKI) differs significantly between developed and developing countries. AIMS: The aim of th study was to determine the pattern and clinical outcomes of AKI in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective review of hospital records of all patients with a diagnosis of AKI over a 20-month period. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Records of 54 patients were reviewed. Information retrieved included, bio-data, etiology of AKI, results of laboratory investigations, and patient outcomes...
February 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088183/incidence-aetiology-and-outcome-of-community-acquired-acute-kidney-injury-in-medical-admissions-in-malawi
#4
Rhys D R Evans, Ulla Hemmilä, Alison Craik, Mwayi Mtekateka, Fergus Hamilton, Zuze Kawale, Christopher J Kirwan, Hamish Dobbie, Gavin Dreyer
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data on Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) from low-income countries is sparse. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence, severity, aetiology, and outcomes of community-acquired AKI in Malawi. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of general medical admissions to a tertiary hospital in Blantyre between 27(th) April and 17(th) July 2015. All patients were screened on admission with a serum creatinine; those with creatinine above laboratory reference range were managed by the nephrology team...
January 14, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087012/to-be-or-not-to-be-a-rare-cause-of-aki-in-a-renal%C3%A2-allograft
#5
Yorg Al Azzi, Jillian Daleo, Geoffrey Dube
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073931/histones-and-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-enhance-tubular-necrosis-and-remote-organ-injury-in-ischemic-aki
#6
Daigo Nakazawa, Santhosh V Kumar, Julian Marschner, Jyaysi Desai, Alexander Holderied, Lukas Rath, Franziska Kraft, Yutian Lei, Yuichiro Fukasawa, Gilbert W Moeckel, Maria Lucia Angelotti, Helen Liapis, Hans-Joachim Anders
Severe AKI is often associated with multiorgan dysfunction, but the mechanisms of this remote tissue injury are unknown. We hypothesized that renal necroinflammation releases cytotoxic molecules that may cause remote organ damage. In hypoxia-induced tubular epithelial cell necrosis in vitro, histone secretion from ischemic tubular cells primed neutrophils to form neutrophil extracellular traps. These traps induced tubular epithelial cell death and stimulated neutrophil extracellular trap formation in fresh neutrophils...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072936/haptoglobin-and-free-haemoglobin-during-cardiac-surgery-is-there-a-link-to-acute-kidney-injury
#7
A J Wetz, E M Richardt, H Schotola, M Bauer, A Bräuer
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently observed after cardiac surgery (CS) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Multiple mechanisms underlie this phenomenon, including CPB-dependent haemolysis. Haemoglobin is released during haemolysis, and free haemoglobin (frHb) causes tubular cell injury after exceeding the binding capacity of haptoglobin (Hp). The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of perioperative changes in frHb and Hp levels on the incidence of CS-associated (CSA) AKI. After receiving local ethics committee approval and obtaining informed consent from our patients, we analysed the data pertaining to 154 patients undergoing CPB surgery...
January 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071653/prophylactic-orthosteric-inhibition-of-leukocyte-integrin-cd11b-cd18-prevents-long-term-fibrotic-kidney-failure-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#8
Abbas Dehnadi, A Benedict Cosimi, Rex Neal Smith, Xiangen Li, José L Alonso, Terry K Means, M Amin Arnaout
Ischaemic acute kidney injury (AKI), an inflammatory disease process, often progresses to chronic kidney disease (CKD), with no available effective prophylaxis. This is in part due to lack of clinically relevant CKD models in non-human primates. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of the archetypal innate immune receptor CD11b/CD18 prevents progression of AKI to CKD in cynomolgus monkeys. Severe ischaemia-reperfusion injury of the right kidney, with subsequent periods of the left ureter ligation, causes irreversible right kidney failure 3, 6 or 9 months after AKI...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068947/urinary-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-in-the-evaluation-of-patent-ductus-arteriosus-and-aki-in-very-preterm-neonates-a-cohort-study
#9
Anna Sellmer, Bodil H Bech, Jesper V Bjerre, Michael R Schmidt, Vibeke E Hjortdal, Gitte Esberg, Søren Rittig, Tine B Henriksen
BACKGROUND: A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is frequently found in very preterm neonates and is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. A shunt across a PDA can result in an unfavorable distribution of the cardiac output and may in turn result in poor renal perfusion. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (U-NGAL) is a marker of renal ischemia and may add to the evaluation of PDA. Our primary aim was to investigate if U-NGAL is associated with PDA in very preterm neonates...
January 10, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063928/mir-107-induces-tnf-%C3%AE-secretion-in-endothelial-cells-causing-tubular-cell-injury-in-patients-with-septic-acute-kidney-injury
#10
Shanshan Wang, Zengdi Zhang, Jun Wang, Hongjun Miao
Activation of endothelial cells plays a key role in septic acute kidney injury (AKI). This study investigated the role of miRNA in endothelial-induced tubular cell injury in sepsis. Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) from septic AKI, non-septic AKI, septic non-AKI patients and healthy volunteers were isolated and cultured, and HK2 cells were exposed to CEC-conditioned medium. CEC-conditioned medium prepared from septic AKI patients led to cell shrinkage, decreased E-cadherin, the release of NAG and cell apoptosis in HK2 cells...
January 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062569/inhibition-of-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-5-integrin-attenuates-vascular-permeability-and-protects-against-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Amy McCurley, Stella Alimperti, Silvia B Campos-Bilderback, Ruben M Sandoval, Jenna E Calvino, Taylor L Reynolds, Catherine Quigley, Joshua W Mugford, William J Polacheck, Ivan G Gomez, Jennifer Dovey, Graham Marsh, Angela Huang, Fang Qian, Paul H Weinreb, Brian M Dolinski, Shaun Moore, Jeremy S Duffield, Christopher S Chen, Bruce A Molitoris, Shelia M Violette, Michael A Crackower
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of AKI. This common clinical complication lacks effective therapies and can lead to the development of CKD. The αvβ5 integrin may have an important role in acute injury, including septic shock and acute lung injury. To examine its function in AKI, we utilized a specific function-blocking antibody to inhibit αvβ5 in a rat model of renal IRI. Pretreatment with this anti-αvβ5 antibody significantly reduced serum creatinine levels, diminished renal damage detected by histopathologic evaluation, and decreased levels of injury biomarkers...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061831/acute-kidney-injury-as-an-independent-risk-factor-for-unplanned-90-day-hospital-readmissions
#12
Simon Sawhney, Angharad Marks, Nick Fluck, David J McLernon, Gordon J Prescott, Corri Black
BACKGROUND: Reducing readmissions is an international priority in healthcare. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common, serious and also a global concern. This analysis evaluates AKI as a candidate risk factor for unplanned readmissions and determines the reasons for readmissions. METHODS: GLOMMS-II is a large population cohort from one health authority in Scotland, combining hospital episode data and complete serial biochemistry results through data-linkage. 16453 people (2623 with AKI and 13830 without AKI) from GLOMMS-II who survived an index hospital admission in 2003 were used to identify the causes of and predict readmissions...
January 6, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060746/mitochondrial-deficiency-impairs-hypoxic-induction-of-hif-1-transcriptional-activity-and-retards-tumor-growth
#13
Masaru Koido, Naomi Haga, Aki Furuno, Satomi Tsukahara, Junko Sakurai, Yuri Tani, Shigeo Sato, Akihiro Tomida
Mitochondria can be involved in regulating cellular stress response to hypoxia and tumor growth, but little is known about that mechanistic relationship. Here, we show that mitochondrial deficiency severely retards tumor xenograft growth with impairing hypoxic induction of HIF-1 transcriptional activity. Using mtDNA-deficient ρ0 cells, we found that HIF-1 pathway activation was comparable in slow-growing ρ0 xenografts and rapid-growing parental xenografts. Interestingly, we found that ex vivo ρ0 cells derived from ρ0 xenografts exhibited slightly increased HIF-1α expression and modest HIF-1 pathway activation regardless of oxygen concentration...
January 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055004/comprehensive-genotyping-in-dyslipidemia-mendelian-dyslipidemias-caused-by-rare-variants-and-mendelian-randomization-studies-using-common-variants
#14
REVIEW
Hayato Tada, Masa-Aki Kawashiri, Masakazu Yamagishi
Dyslipidemias, especially hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, are important causal risk factors for coronary artery disease. Comprehensive genotyping using the 'next-generation sequencing' technique has facilitated the investigation of Mendelian dyslipidemias, in addition to Mendelian randomization studies using common genetic variants associated with plasma lipids and coronary artery disease. The beneficial effects of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering therapies on coronary artery disease have been verified by many randomized controlled trials over the years, and subsequent genetic studies have supported these findings...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039523/high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-i-and-nt-probnp-as-predictors-of-incident-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-the-finrisk-study
#15
Juho Tynkkynen, Jussi A Hernesniemi, Tiina Laatikainen, Aki S Havulinna, Perttu Salo, Stefan Blankenberg, Tanja Zeller, Veikko Salomaa
Cardiac troponin and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are known to associate with incident dementia. The purpose of our study was to examine whether high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-TnI) and NT-proBNP are associated with incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) independently of each other. Our study was a part of the national population-based health examination survey, FINRISK 1997, with a total sample of 7114 subjects, including 407 incident dementia cases and 319 AD cases during the follow-up time of 18 years...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035621/implications-of-dynamic-changes-in-mir-192-expression-in-ischemic-acute-kidney-injury
#16
Lulu Zhang, Yuan Xu, Song Xue, Xudong Wang, Huili Dai, Jiaqi Qian, Zhaohui Ni, Yucheng Yan
PURPOSE: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) with poor outcomes. While many important functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in various diseases, few studies reported miRNAs in acute kidney IRI, especially the dynamic changes in their expression and their implications during disease progression. METHODS: The expression of miR-192, a specific kidney-enriched miRNA, was assessed in both the plasma and kidney of IRI rats at different time points after kidney injury and compared to renal function and kidney histological changes...
December 29, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034548/acute-kidney-injury-in-the-fetus-and-neonate
#17
REVIEW
Arwa Nada, Elizabeth M Bonachea, David J Askenazi
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an under-recognized morbidity of neonates; the incidence remains unclear due to the absence of a unified definition of AKI in this population and because previous studies have varied greatly in screening for AKI with serum creatinine and urine output assessments. Premature infants may be born with less than half of the nephrons compared with term neonates, predisposing them to chronic kidney disease (CKD) early on in life and as they age. AKI can also lead to CKD, and premature infants with AKI may be at very high risk for long-term kidney problems...
December 26, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034287/the-ignored-role-of-intraoperative-hypotension-in-producing-postoperative-acute-kidney-injury-an-obligatory-appeal-for-more-preventative-nephrology
#18
Macaulay Amechi Chukwukadibia Onuigbo, Nneoma Agbasi
Intraoperative hypotension (IOH) invariably follows the induction of general anesthesia. There is this general consensus that IOH is beneficial - less bleeding, less blood transfusions, shorter surgery times - and absent adverse consequences on renal, hepatic and neurological functions. Nevertheless, a critical review of the literature revealed that past research studied younger patients with normal kidney function, short surgery times while excluding patients with advanced CKD and uncontrolled hypertension...
December 29, 2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025487/indoxyl-sulfate-as-a-mediator-involved-in-dysregulation-of-pulmonary-aquaporin-5-in-acute-lung-injury-caused-by-acute-kidney-injury
#19
Nozomi Yabuuchi, Masataka Sagata, Chika Saigo, Go Yoneda, Yuko Yamamoto, Yui Nomura, Kazuhiko Nishi, Rika Fujino, Hirofumi Jono, Hideyuki Saito
High mortality of acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with acute lung injury (ALI), which is a typical complication of AKI. Although it is suggested that dysregulation of lung salt and water channels following AKI plays a pivotal role in ALI, the mechanism of its dysregulation has not been elucidated. Here, we examined the involvement of a typical oxidative stress-inducing uremic toxin, indoxyl sulfate (IS), in the dysregulation of the pulmonary predominant water channel, aquaporin 5 (AQP-5), in bilateral nephrectomy (BNx)-induced AKI model rats...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024839/pink1-parkin-mediated-mitophagy-play-a-protective-role-in-cisplatin-induced-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-injury
#20
Chuanyan Zhao, Zhuyun Chen, Xueqiang Xu, Xiaofei An, Suyan Duan, Zhimin Huang, Chengning Zhang, Lin Wu, Bo Zhang, Aihua Zhang, Changying Xing, Yanggang Yuan
Cisplatin often causes acute kidney injury (AKI) in the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main reasons for cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Previous study showed that Pink1 and Parkin play central roles in regulating the mitophagy, which is a key protective mechanism by specifically eliminating dysfunctional or damaged mitochondria. However, the mechanisms that modulate mitophagy in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Pink1/Parkin pathway in mitophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction and renal proximal tubular cells injury during cisplatin treatment...
December 23, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
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