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amoxicillin otitis adults

Gail Hayward, Matthew J Thompson, Rafael Perera, Chris B Del Mar, Paul P Glasziou, Carl J Heneghan
BACKGROUND: The common cold is a frequent illness, which, although benign and self limiting, results in many consultations to primary care and considerable loss of school or work days. Current symptomatic treatments have limited benefit. Corticosteroids are an effective treatment in other upper respiratory tract infections and their anti-inflammatory effects may also be beneficial in the common cold. This updated review has included one additional study. OBJECTIVES: To compare corticosteroids versus usual care for the common cold on measures of symptom resolution and improvement in children and adults...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Adrian John Brink, Mark Cotton, Charles Feldman, Heather Finlayson, Raymond Friedman, Robin Green, Willy Hendson, Maurice Hockman, Gary Maartens, Shabir Madhi, Gary Reubenson, Eddie Silverbauer, Inge Zietsman
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate use of antibiotics for non-severe upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), most of which are viral, significantly adds to the burden of antibiotic resistance. Since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in 2009 in South Africa, the relative frequency of the major bacterial pathogens causing acute otitis media (AOM) and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) has changed. RECOMMENDATIONS: Since URTIs are mostly viral in aetiology and bacterial AOM and ABRS frequently resolve spontaneously, the guideline includes diagnostic criteria to separate viral from bacterial causes and hence, those patients not requiring antibiotics...
May 2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Kenji Suzuki, Yuichi Kurono, Katsuhisa Ikeda, Akira Watanabe, Aikichi Iwamoto, Kyoichi Totsuka, Mitsuo Kaku, Satoshi Iwata, Jun-ichi Kadota, Hideaki Hanaki
The Japanese Three Academic Societies Joint Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance Committee has conducted a nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and rates of isolation in 6 otolaryngological diseases. The surveillance program was conducted in the otorhinolaryngological departments of 29 universities, and their 26 affiliated hospitals. Patients suffering from acute otitis media, chronic otitis media, acute nasal sinusitis, chronic nasal sinusitis, acute tonsillitis, and peritonsillar abscess between January 2011 and June 2012 were investigated...
July 2015: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
S S Chhetri
To assess the symptoms and signs of acute otitis media and efficiency of simple antibiotics like amoxicillin in its treatment in the primary health care setup. This is a prospective longitudinal study including 204 patients from different institutions. Patients were diagnosed as suffering from acute otitis media when presented with earache, fever, fullness and or otorrhea. Patients were divided into two equal groups on basis of the treatment they received, Group A received only symptomatic treatment while Group B were given Amoxicillin (40 mg/kg/day) for 7 days...
September 2014: Nepal Medical College Journal: NMCJ
Dragana Lakić, Ivana Tadić, Marina Odalović, Ljiljana Tasić, Ana Sabo, Aleksandra Mećava
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory infections are the most common infections in children. The aims of the study were to analyze the use of antibiotics for respiratory infections in the period 2008-2010 in children's population in region of Niš and to estimate the rational use of antibiotics in relation to the recommendations of the National Guidelines for physicians in primary care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data source was a Pharmacy Niš database. Antibiotics prescriptions were selected for the following diagnoses: H65-H75 (acute otitis media, mastoiditis), J01 (acute sinusitis), J02-J03 (tonsillopharyngitis), J12-J18 (community acquired pneumonia), J20 (acute bronchitis), J32 (chronic sinusitis), J42 (chronic bronchitis)...
September 2014: Medicinski Pregled
Kathryn M Harmes, R Alexander Blackwood, Heather L Burrows, James M Cooke, R Van Harrison, Peter P Passamani
Acute otitis media is diagnosed in patients with acute onset, presence of middle ear effusion, physical evidence of middle ear inflammation, and symptoms such as pain, irritability, or fever. Acute otitis media is usually a complication of eustachian tube dysfunction that occurs during a viral upper respiratory tract infection. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common organisms isolated from middle ear fluid. Management of acute otitis media should begin with adequate analgesia...
October 1, 2013: American Family Physician
E Meyer, A Whitelaw, O Edkins, J J Fagan
BACKGROUND: Chronic otorrhoea is difficult to treat, with treatment in South Africa (SA) being protocol driven and generally initiated at the primary healthcare level. There is a lack of local studies that focus on the bacteriology and antimicrobial sensitivities of chronic otorrhoea, which underpins the management advice offered. AIMS: To determine the microbiological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility of patients with chronic otorrhoea and the validity of the Department of Health's (DoH) current guideline...
July 2013: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Dane Breker, Nicolaas I Bohnen
We report a case of bilateral occipitotemporal and thalamic hypometabolism on FDG PET in a 19-year-old male patient who presented with altered mental status. He had a history of static encephalopathy and presented with visual hallucinations and decreased verbal output, sleep, and appetite 7 days after starting amoxicillin for otitis media. Extensive evaluation failed to demonstrate any infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune-mediated (including negative testing for NMDA receptor antibody), paraneoplastic, or toxic-metabolic etiology...
July 2013: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Marion Murphy, Colin P Bradley, Stephen Byrne
BACKGROUND: Information about antibiotic prescribing practice in primary care is not available for Ireland, unlike other European countries. The study aimed to ascertain the types of antibiotics and the corresponding conditions seen in primary care and whether general practitioners (GPs) felt that an antibiotic was necessary at the time of consultation. This information will be vital to inform future initiatives in prudent antibiotic prescribing in primary care. METHODS: Participating GPs gathered data on all antibiotics prescribed by them in 100 consecutive patients' consultations as well as data on the conditions being treated and whether they felt the antibiotic was necessary...
2012: BMC Family Practice
Bor-Jen Lee, Chia-Yi Chen, Sung-Yuan Hu, Yu-Tse Tsan, Tzu-Chieh Lin, Lee-Min Wang
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus, a mite-transmitted zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an endemic disease in Taiwan and may be potentially fatal if diagnosis is delayed. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We encountered a 23-year-old previously healthy Taiwanese male soldier presenting with the right ear pain after training in the jungle and an eleven-day history of intermittent high fever up to 39°C. Amoxicillin/clavulanate was prescribed for otitis media at a local clinic...
2011: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sarah Christian-Kopp, Madhumita Sinha, David I Rosenberg, Anita W Eisenhart, Fred W McDonald
BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics 2004 guidelines on diagnosis and management of acute otitis media (OM) recommends use of high-dose amoxicillin for the treatment of acute uncomplicated OM. With rising childhood obesity, recommended amoxicillin dose of 80 to 90 mg/kg per day often exceed standard adult dose of 1500 mg/d. OBJECTIVE: To study prescribing patterns of primary care physicians for amoxicillin in the treatment of OM. To assess opinions of American Academy of Pediatrics subcommittee members who participated in guideline formulation...
January 2010: Pediatric Emergency Care
Robertino M Mera, Linda A Miller, Heather Amrine-Madsen, Daniel F Sahm
BACKGROUND: The impact of the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine over antimicrobial resistance has not been well established. The present study models the changes in resistance over time for all major classes of antibiotics. METHODS: Susceptibility data on a total of 129,652 isolates from The Surveillance Network surveillance database during the period 1996-2007 were available for analysis, as well as age, specimen source, inpatient or outpatient location, and census region...
December 2009: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Micheline Roussel-Delvallez, Véronique Vernet-Garnier, Sandra Bourdon, Michel Brun, Blandine Cattier, Catherine Chanal, Hubert Chardon, Monique Chomarat, Jacques Croizé, Marie-Claude Demachy, Pierre-Yves Donnio, Philippe Dupont, Thierry Fosse, Alain Gravet, Bernadette Grignon, Geneviève Laurans, Jeanne Maugein, André Péchinot, Marie-Françoise Prère, Pierre-Henri Thoreux, Michel Vergnaud, Michèle Weber, Bruno Coignard, Laurent Gutmann, Emmanuelle Varon, Marie-Cécile Ploy
Antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) are described around the world. The present national surveillance study report analyzes more than 6000 Sp strains, isolated from adults across France in 2001 and 2003, from blood cultures (3086 in 2001 and 3164 in 2003), cerebrospinal fluid (respectively, 238 and 240), or middle ear fluid (respectively, 110 and 100). The proportion of isolates with reduced susceptibility to penicillin fell significantly between 2001 and 2003 from 46.5% to 43.9%. The proportion of high-level resistant strains to penicillin minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC > 1 mg/L), amoxicillin, and cefotaxime (MIC > 2 mg/L) slightly decreased but remained low: 10...
September 2009: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Peter Arrow
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of enamel defects in the first permanent molars among children in Western Australia is higher than that reported for some European countries. The cause(s) of the defects, both white diffuse opacities and demarcated opacities, with or without hypoplasia, continue to be investigated. A recent review identified childhood illnesses and exposure to environmental toxins as putative causal factors for the occurrence of demarcated opacities (usually in association with hypoplasia)...
October 2009: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Laurent Dortet, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Claire Poyart, Josette Raymond et al.
We have studied 457 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in 2007 from adults and children. For all isolates, both latex agglutination and molecular capsular typing were performed. Antibiotic resistance patterns were determined. S. pneumoniae 19A was the most frequently isolated serotype (34.7%) both in children and adults. It represented 12.8% of the strains isolated from invasive infections in adults and 27.0% in children and 63.6% (110/173) of strains isolated from acute otitis media. Between children and adults, no difference concerning antibiotic susceptibility was observed for penicillin, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and erythromycin in strains isolated from invasive diseases...
September 2009: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Noemia U L Tavares, Andréa D Bertoldi, Ana Luiza Muccillo-Baisch
This paper describes antimicrobial prescription, clinical indications, and seasonal characteristics in primary health care. We performed a cross-sectional study in family health units in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in July 2005 and January 2006. All medical prescriptions (n = 2,877) were analyzed, and the prevalence rates for antimicrobial prescription in winter and summer were 30.4% (95%CI: 28.5-32.4) and 21% (95%CI: 19.1-22.9), respectively. The most frequently prescribed antimicrobials were amoxicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim...
August 2008: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Peter S Roland, Barbara P Belcher, Robert Bettis, Reynaldo L Makabale, Peter J Conroy, G Michael Wall, Sheryl Dupre, Susan Potts, Gail Hogg, Kaye Weber
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate clinical equivalence (statistical noninferiority) of topical ciprofloxacin and hydrocortisone (CHC, Cipro HC) and topical neomycin/polymyxin b/hydrocortisone (NPH, Cortisporin) with systemic amoxicillin (AMX, Amoxil), for treatment of acute otitis externa (AOE). DESIGN: Randomized, active-control, observer-blind, multicenter trial. PATIENTS: Altogether, 206 patients were enrolled (CHC, 106; NPH + AMX, 100). Patients were > or =1 year of age, had AOE >2 days with at least mild symptoms, and gave informed consent...
July 2008: American Journal of Otolaryngology
David S Y Ong, Marijke M Kuyvenhoven, Liset van Dijk, Theo J M Verheij
OBJECTIVES: To describe specific diagnoses for which systemic antibiotics are prescribed, to assess adherence of antibiotic choice to national guidelines and to assess consistency among general practitioners (GPs) in prescribed volumes of antibiotics for respiratory, ear and urinary tract disorders. METHODS: The cross-sectional study included 174 GPs from 89 general practices. Data were derived from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2) in 2001...
September 2008: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
M Bertrand, J-F Mangez, O Choussy, D Dehesdin, J-P Marie
INTRODUCTION: During surgical procedure, antibioprophylaxis is known to decrease bacterial proliferation and limit postoperative complications such as infections. In France, antibiotic prescription guidelines have been established for ear surgery, but applied with discrepancies. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the necessity of antibioprophylaxis in ear surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of two consecutives series of ear surgery with two different antibioprophylaxis protocols...
June 2008: Annales D'oto-laryngologie et de Chirurgie Cervico Faciale
Richard Bax
Amoxicillin/clavulanate was first launched as a three times daily dosage for the treatment of a range of community-acquired infections. A decade later, it became necessary to introduce a twice daily dosage for reasons of convenience, compliance and to remain competitive with other recently launched antibacterials. Twice daily formulations of amoxicillin/clavulanate were developed in which the amount of amoxicillin was increased relative to clavulanate to provide equivalent bacteriological and clinical efficacy with no change in the safety profile...
December 2007: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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