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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229433/adalimumab-a-review-in-non-infectious-non-anterior-uveitis
#1
Sheridan M Hoy
Adalimumab (Humira(®)) is a tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor available in various countries worldwide, including the USA, Japan and those of the EU, for the treatment of non-infectious intermediate, posterior and panuveitis in adults. It is the first biological agent approved for this indication. In two multinational, phase III studies in adults with active and inactive disease, subcutaneous adalimumab significantly reduced the risk of treatment failure relative to placebo following the tapered withdrawal of corticosteroid therapy...
February 22, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223716/preoperative-red-cell-distribution-width-and-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-predict-survival-in-patients-with-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#2
Zheng Li, Na Hong, Melissa Robertson, Chen Wang, Guoqian Jiang
Several parameters of preoperative complete blood count (CBC) and inflammation-associated blood cell markers derived from them have been reported to correlate with prognosis in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but their prognostic importance and optimal cutoffs are still needed be elucidated. Clinic/pathological parameters, 5-year follow-up data and preoperative CBC parameters were obtained retrospectively in 654 EOC patients underwent primary surgery at Mayo Clinic. Cutoffs for neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were optimized by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223291/ctrp7-deletion-attenuates-obesity-linked-glucose-intolerance-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-hepatic-stress
#3
Pia S Petersen, Xia Lei, Risa M Wolf, Susana Rodriguez, Stefanie Y Tan, Hannah C Little, Michael A Schweitzer, Thomas H Magnuson, Kimberley E Steele, G William Wong
Chronic low-grade inflammation and cellular stress are important contributors to obesity-linked metabolic dysfunction. Here, we uncover an immune-metabolic role for C1q/TNF-related protein 7 (CTRP7), a secretory protein of the C1q family with previously unknown function. In obese humans, circulating CTRP7 levels were markedly elevated and positively correlated with BMI, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance index, hemoglobin A1c, and triglyceride levels. Expression of CTRP7 in liver was also significantly upregulated in obese humans and positively correlated with gluconeogenic genes...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213010/the-pathogenesis-and-pathophysiology-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-deductions-from-a-three-part-longitudinal-metabolomics-study-in-china
#4
REVIEW
Kai P Law, Hua Zhang
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that is first recognised during pregnancy, with no evidence of pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of GDM has been rising steadily over the past few decades, coinciding with the ongoing epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although GDM normally disappears after delivery, women who have been previously diagnosed with GDM are at a greater risk of developing gestational diabetes in subsequent pregnancies, and type 2 diabetes later in life...
February 14, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210913/dietary-and-commercialized-fructose-sweet-or-sour
#5
REVIEW
Aslihan Yerlikaya, Tuncay Dagel, Christopher King, Masanari Kubawara, Miguel A Lanaspa, Ana Andres-Hernando, Adrian Covic, Jacek Manitius, Alan A Sag, Mehmet Kanbay
Metabolic syndrome and diabetes are main health problems of modern life in the twenty-first century. Alarming ratios of global prevalence lead to conduct more and more researches about etiological factors and pathogenesis. Disease mechanism is elementary for advancing more efficient and practicable treatment methods. Concurrent increase in both fructose consumption with Western diet and metabolic syndrome has revealed fructose hypothesis that suggests fructose as one of etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, etc...
February 16, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209760/glucoraphanin-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-browning-and-reduction-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-mice
#6
Naoto Nagata, Liang Xu, Susumu Kohno, Yusuke Ushida, Yudai Aoki, Ryohei Umeda, Nobuo Fuke, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Mayumi Nagashimada, Chiaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Low-grade sustained inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, therapeutic approaches to improve systemic energy balance and chronic inflammation in obesity are limited. Pharmacological activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, Nrf2 inducers are not clinically available owing to safety concerns. Thus, we examined whether dietary glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199741/melatonin-prevents-obesity-through-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#7
Pengfei Xu, Jialin Wang, Fan Hong, Sheng Wang, Xi Jin, Tingting Xue, Li Jia, Yonggong Zhai
Excess weight and obesity are severe public health threats worldwide. Recent evidence demonstrates that gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to obesity and its comorbidities. The body weight-reducing and energy balancing effects of melatonin have been reported in several studies, but to date, no investigations toward examining whether the beneficial effects of melatonin are associated with gut microbiota have been carried out. In this study, we show that melatonin reduces body weight, liver steatosis, and low-grade inflammation as well as improving insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197336/embracing-the-gut-microbiota-the-new-frontier-for-inflammatory-and-infectious-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Lieke Wj van den Elsen, Hazel C Poyntz, Laura S Weyrich, Wayne Young, Elizabeth E Forbes-Blom
The gut microbiota provides essential signals for the development and appropriate function of the immune system. Through this critical contribution to immune fitness, the gut microbiota has a key role in health and disease. Recent advances in the technological applications to study microbial communities and their functions have contributed to a rapid increase in host-microbiota research. Although it still remains difficult to define a so-called 'normal' or 'healthy' microbial composition, alterations in the gut microbiota have been shown to influence the susceptibility of the host to different diseases...
January 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195648/hematology-and-biochemistry-of-aging-evidence-of-anemia-of-the-elderly-in-old-dogs
#9
Lauren B Radakovich, Stephen C Pannone, Matthew P Truelove, Christine S Olver, Kelly S Santangelo
BACKGROUND: Effects of aging on hematologic and biochemical variables are well described in people. Anemia of the elderly is attributed to iron deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, chronic kidney disease, myelodysplasia, or idiopathic causes. Limited studies have examined these variables in aging dogs, but they have typically examined single breeds in research settings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify differences in CBC and biochemistry values between adult and aged dogs of many breeds...
February 13, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194257/is-p53-involved-in-tissue-specific-insulin-resistance-formation
#10
REVIEW
Justyna Strycharz, Jozef Drzewoski, Janusz Szemraj, Agnieszka Sliwinska
p53 constitutes an extremely versatile molecule, primarily involved in sensing the variety of cellular stresses. Functional p53 utilizes a plethora of mechanisms to protect cell from deleterious repercussions of genotoxic insults, where senescence deserves special attention. While the impressive amount of p53 roles has been perceived solely by the prism of antioncogenic effect, its presence seems to be vastly connected with metabolic abnormalities underlain by cellular aging, obesity, and inflammation. p53 has been found to regulate multiple biochemical processes such as glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, lipolysis, lipogenesis, β-oxidation, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen synthesis...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193830/il-6-regulates-m2-polarization-and-local-proliferation-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages-in-obesity
#11
Julia Braune, Ulrike Weyer, Constance Hobusch, Jan Mauer, Jens C Brüning, Ingo Bechmann, Martin Gericke
Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue (AT) and an increase of AT macrophages (ATMs) that is linked to the onset of type 2 diabetes. We have recently shown that focal sites of inflammation around dying adipocytes, so-called crown-like structures, exhibit a unique microenvironment for macrophage proliferation. Interestingly, locally proliferating macrophages were not classically activated (M1), but they exhibited a rather alternatively activated (M2) immune phenotype. In this study, we established organotypic cell cultures of AT explants to study the impact of cytokine treatment on local ATM proliferation, without the bias of early monocyte recruitment...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193578/a-food-based-approach-that-targets-interleukin-6-a-key-regulator-of-chronic-intestinal-inflammation-and-colon-carcinogenesis
#12
Abigail Sido, Sridhar Radhakrishnan, Sung Woo Kim, Elisabeth Eriksson, Frank Shen, Qunhua Li, Vadiraja Bhat, Lavanya Reddivari, Jairam K P Vanamala
Studies have shown a causal link between high-calorie diet (HCD) and colon cancer. However, molecular mechanisms are not fully elucidated. To understand etiology of HCD-induced colon carcinogenesis, we screened 10 pathways linked to elevated colonic cell proliferation and chronic inflammation in an HCD-consuming human-relevant pig model. We observed elevated colonic mucosal interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in HCD-consuming pigs compared to standard diet controls (SD, P=.04), and IL-6 strongly correlated with Ki-67 proliferative index and zone, early biomarkers of colon cancer risk (r=0...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193219/the-effect-of-an-antenatal-lifestyle-intervention-in-overweight-and-obese-women-on-circulating-cardiometabolic-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-secondary-analyses-from-the-limit-randomised-trial
#13
Lisa J Moran, Louise M Fraser, Tulika Sundernathan, Andrea R Deussen, Jennie Louise, Lisa N Yelland, Rosalie M Grivell, Anne Macpherson, Matthew W Gillman, Jeffrey S Robinson, Julie A Owens, Jodie M Dodd
BACKGROUND: Maternal overweight and obesity during pregnancy is associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and a low-grade state of chronic inflammation. The aim of this pre-specified analysis of secondary outcome measures was to evaluate the effect of providing antenatal dietary and lifestyle advice on cardiometabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre trial in which pregnant women who were overweight or obese were randomised to receive either Lifestyle Advice or Standard Care...
February 14, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192001/moderators-of-the-relationship-between-frequent-family-demands-and-inflammation-among-adolescents
#14
Cynthia S Levine, Lauren C Hoffer, Edith Chen
OBJECTIVE: Frequent demands from others in relationships are associated with worse physiological and health outcomes. The present research investigated 2 potential moderators of the relationship between frequency of demands from one's family and inflammatory profiles among adolescents: (a) closeness of adolescents' relationships with their families, and (b) the frequency with which adolescents provided help to their families. METHOD: Two hundred thirty-four adolescents, ages 13-16 (Mage = 14...
February 13, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191600/molecular-characterisation-of-tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-its-potential-connection-with-lipoprotein-lipase-and-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-in-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#15
Man Zhou, Hai-Feng Mi, Wen-Bin Liu, Ye-Yang Wu, Kai-Zhou Wang, Guang-Zhen Jiang
Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is one kind of cytokines which is related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. TNF-α cDNA was cloned from the liver of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) through real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The full-length cDNA of TNF-α covered 1467 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 723 bp, which encodes 240 amino acids. It possessed the TNF family signature IIIPDDGIYFVYSQ. After the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge test, a graded tissue-specific expression pattern of TNF-α was observed and there was high expression abundance in the kidney, brain and liver...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190771/obesity-induced-metabolic-stress-leads-to-biased-effector-memory-cd4-t-cell-differentiation-via-pi3k-p110%C3%AE-akt-mediated-signals
#16
Claudio Mauro, Joanne Smith, Danilo Cucchi, David Coe, Hongmei Fu, Fabrizia Bonacina, Andrea Baragetti, Gaia Cermenati, Donatella Caruso, Nico Mitro, Alberico L Catapano, Enrico Ammirati, Maria P Longhi, Klaus Okkenhaug, Giuseppe D Norata, Federica M Marelli-Berg
Low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity leads to cardiovascular complications, caused partly by infiltration of adipose and vascular tissue by effector T cells. The signals leading to T cell differentiation and tissue infiltration during obesity are poorly understood. We tested whether saturated fatty acid-induced metabolic stress affects differentiation and trafficking patterns of CD4(+) T cells. Memory CD4(+) T cells primed in high-fat diet-fed donors preferentially migrated to non-lymphoid, inflammatory sites, independent of the metabolic status of the hosts...
January 30, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187526/secondary-bile-acid-induced-dysbiosis-promotes-intestinal-carcinogenesis
#17
Hailong Cao, Mengque Xu, Wenxiao Dong, Baoru Deng, Sinan Wang, Yujie Zhang, Shan Wang, Shenhui Luo, Weiqiang Wang, Yanrong Qi, Jianxin Gao, Xiaocang Cao, Fang Yan, Bangmao Wang
The gut microbiota plays an important role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis is associated with intestinal tumorigenesis. Deoxycholic acid (DCA), a secondary bile acid increased by a western diet, is associated with intestinal carcinogenesis. However, evidence relating bile acids, intestinal microbiota and tumorigenesis is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of DCA on induction of intestinal dysbiosis and its roles in intestinal carcinogenesis. Alteration of the composition of the intestinal microbiota was induced in DCA-treated mice, which was accompanied by impaired intestinal barrier, gut low grade inflammation and tumor progression...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187313/il-20-contributes-to-low-grade-inflammation-and-weight-gain-in-the-psammomys-obesus
#18
Helena Cucak, Lise Høj Thomsen, Alexander Rosendahl
The metabolic syndrome has been demonstrated in gene deficient animals, e.g. db/db mice, to include a systemic inflammation leading to insulin resistance, obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). To determine the importance of inflammation in obesity and diabetes, in a normal non-genetically modified species, an intervention study with neutralizing anti-IL-20 antibodies was conducted in the spontaneous T2D model Psammomys obesus. All IL-20 receptor chains were expressed on protein level in the Psammomys obesus. Neutralization of IL-20 did not modulate blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin levels or lymphocyte numbers after five weeks treatment although a trend to reduced weight gain rate was observed upon anti-IL-20 treatment...
February 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182687/lunasin-attenuates-obesity-related-inflammation-in-raw264-7-cells-and-3t3-l1-adipocytes-by-inhibiting-inflammatory-cytokine-production
#19
Chia-Chien Hsieh, Mei-Jia Chou, Chih-Hsuan Wang
Obesity has become a major threat to public health and is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, which leads to various pathological developments. Lunasin, a natural seed peptide, exhibits several biological activities, such as anti-carcinogenesis, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. However, the mechanism of action of lunasin in obesity-related inflammation has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore whether lunasin could reduce the inflammation induced by obesity-related mediators in RAW264...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182098/antioxidant-immunomodulating-and-microbial-modulating-activities-of-the-sustainable-and-ecofriendly-spirulina
#20
REVIEW
Alberto Finamore, Maura Palmery, Sarra Bensehaila, Ilaria Peluso
The highly nutritional and ecofriendly Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive properties. Spirulina contains functional compounds, such as phenolics, phycocyanins, and polysaccharides, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects. Studies conducted on Spirulina suggest that it is safe in healthy subjects, but attitude to eating probably affects the acceptability of Spirulina containing foods. Although the antioxidant effect of Spirulina is confirmed by the intervention studies, the concerted modulation of antioxidant and inflammatory responses, suggested by in vitro and animal studies, requires more confirmation in humans...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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