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Low-grade inflammation

Carlo Luca Romanò, Delia Romanò, Ilaria Morelli, Lorenzo Drago
Biofilms have a tremendous impact on industrial machines working in moist environments, while in biological systems their effect is further complicated by the host's response.Implant-related infections are a complex process, starting with bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, followed by the variable interaction between host, implant, microorganisms and their by-products. Depending on the balance of these factors, different clinical presentations are observed, which may eventually, at times, shift from one into the other...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Carla R Scanzello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory changes in joint tissues can be detected by modern imaging techniques in osteoarthritis patients, but may be clinically subtle compared with many other types of arthritis. These changes associate with disease progression and clinical severity, and many inflammatory mediators may have biomarker utility. Moreover, a number of inflammatory mechanisms play a role in animal models of disease, but it is still not clear which mechanisms predominate and might be therapeutically manipulated most effectively...
October 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Ummugulsum Can, Muammer Buyukinan, Asuman Guzelant, Ayse Ugur, Adnan Karaibrahimoglu, Sukrıye Yabancıun
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a chronic and multifactorial syndrome characterized by a low-grade chronic inflammation, and a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In our study, we aimed to investigate the serum levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG), platelet factor-4 (PF-4), fetuin-A, serum amyloid P (SAP) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in an adolescent population with MetS...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Jinho Shin
Since the introduction of visit to visit blood pressure variability (VVBPV) for cardiovascular outcome, it has long been awaited for prospective intervention trial to reduce VVBPV for evidence based medicine. But because of several hurdles, most importantly, pending measure to reduce VVBPV, such trial may not be available in the near future. It means that current understanding on the VVBPV is not casual but related to the cardiovascular outcome.Waiting for more sound evidence, which can be remained in a clinician's mind struggling not to be indifferent for potential benefit? Firstly, the most important potential confounder in spite of the strict statistical analyses to be published may be the mean blood pressure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Masatsugu Horiuchi
Hypertensive patients have greater chances of such cardiovascular events as stroke, coronary heart disease, heart or renal failure, peripheral artery disease, and dementia. It is also well recognized that diabetes increases the cardiovascular risks in concert with hypertension. Therefore, main goals for an innovation of anti-hypertensive therapy would be to achieve further risk reduction by targeting the functional, metabolic, and structural alterations associated with hypertension. Professors Dzau and Braunwald et al proposed the concept of "the cardiovascular disease continuum" in 1991, and that hypertension may trigger the chain of events, leading to end-stage heart disease; however, this concept was quite new at that time, and there was some discussion whether "the cardiovascular disease continuum" is true or not...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ligia J Dominguez, Mario Barbagallo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical and cognitive frailty are interrelated and synergistic syndromes more frequently seen in old age, which represent intermediate stages between aging successfully and disability. Poor nutrition is a fundamental determinant for both conditions, while various dietary components are proposed to prevent and/or improve them. This updated review discusses the possible influence of nutritional factors on cognitive frailty and its potential mediators. RECENT FINDINGS: Oxidative stress, low-grade systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation, and altered autophagy, all associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, are proposed mechanisms to explain the influence of nutrition on cognitive health...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Yun Li, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Ilia Kritikou, Maria Basta, Slobodanka Pejovic, Jordan Gaines, Edward O Bixler
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Objective and subjective measures of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) are only weakly associated. No study, however, has examined whether these two measures of EDS differ in terms of underlying mechanisms and prognostic value. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., interleukin-6 (IL-6) appear to promote sleepiness/fatigue, while the stress hormone cortisol promotes vigilance. We hypothesized that objective sleepiness is associated with increased levels of IL-6 and decreased levels of cortisol...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Job Verdonschot, Mark Hazebroek, Jort Merken, Yannick Debing, Robert Dennert, Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca, Stephane Heymans
Over the last decade, parvovirus B19 (B19V) has frequently been linked to the pathogenesis of myocarditis (MC) and its progression towards dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The exact role of the presence of B19V and its load remains controversial, as this virus is also found in the heart of healthy subjects. Moreover, the prognostic relevance of B19V prevalence in endomyocardial biopsies still remains unclear. As a result, it is unclear whether the presence of B19V should be treated. This review provides an overview of recent literature investigating the presence of B19V and its pathophysiological relevance in MC and DCM, as well as in normal hearts...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
Marialaura Bonaccio, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, George Pounis, Amalia De Curtis, Simona Costanzo, Mariarosaria Persichillo, Chiara Cerletti, Maria Benedetta Donati, Giovanni de Gaetano, Licia Iacoviello
Low-grade inflammation is associated with increased risk of chronic degenerative disease but its relationship with mortality is less explored. We aimed at evaluating, at a large epidemiological level, the possible association of low-grade inflammation, as measured by a composite score, with overall mortality risk. We conducted a population-based prospective investigation on 20,337 adult subjects free from major haematological disease and acute inflammatory status, randomly recruited from the general population of the Moli-sani study...
October 14, 2016: Haematologica
Edith Lahner, Bruno Annibale
Diverticular disease (DD) is a common gastrointestinal condition. Clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to symptomatic uncomplicated or complicated DD. Symptoms related to uncomplicated DD are not specific and may be indistinguishable from those of irritable bowel syndrome. Low-grade inflammation, altered intestinal microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, and abnormal colonic motility have been identified as factors potentially contributing to symptoms. Probiotics may modify the gut microbial balance leading to health benefits...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
G Hurtado-Alvarado, E Domínguez-Salazar, L Pavon, J Velázquez-Moctezuma, B Gómez-González
Sleep is a vital phenomenon related to immunomodulation at the central and peripheral level. Sleep deficient in duration and/or quality is a common problem in the modern society and is considered a risk factor to develop neurodegenerative diseases. Sleep loss in rodents induces blood-brain barrier disruption and the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Several reports indicate that sleep loss induces a systemic low-grade inflammation characterized by the release of several molecules, such as cytokines, chemokines, and acute-phase proteins; all of them may promote changes in cellular components of the blood-brain barrier, particularly on brain endothelial cells...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Christian Wächter, Lee E Eiden, Nedye Naumann, Candan Depboylu, Eberhard Weihe
BACKGROUND: The majority of investigations on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) neglect the cerebellum in spite of emerging evidence for its role in higher cognitive functions and dysfunctions in common neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We systematically investigated the molecular and cellular responses of the cerebellum as contributors to lentiviral infection-induced neurodegeneration, in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model for HIV infection and HAND...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Sunderajhan Sekar, Ross Crawford, Yin Xiao, Indira Prasadam
Osteoarthritis is a progressive, age-related disease characterized by the degradation of the cartilage, abnormal bone remodelling, and joint pain eventually leading to disability. The occurrence of clinically diagnosed OA and the incidence of disability show geographic variations, which suggests that lifestyle and factors such as diet play a vital role in the formation and progression of OA. Obesity is associated with a state of low-grade inflammation and increased plasma concentrations of fatty acids such as the saturated fatty acids (SFA)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Helena de Fatima Magliarelli, Mariette Matondo, Gergő Mészáros, Alexander Goginashvili, Eric Erbs, Zhirong Zhang, Michael Mihlan, Christian Wolfrum, Ruedi Aebersold, Izabela Sumara, Romeo Ricci
Adaptation to changes in nutrient availability is crucial for cells and organisms. Posttranslational modifications of signaling proteins are very dynamic and are therefore key to promptly respond to nutrient deprivation or overload. Herein we screened for ubiquitylation of proteins in the livers of fasted and refed mice using a comprehensive systemic proteomic approach. Among 1641 identified proteins, 117 were differentially ubiquitylated upon fasting or refeeding. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and secretory proteins were enriched in the livers of refed mice in part owing to an ER-stress-mediated response engaging retro-translocation and ubiquitylation of proteins from the ER...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Man K S Lee, Laurent Yvan-Charvet, Seth L Masters, Andrew J Murphy
Obesity is now recognised as a chronic, low-grade inflammatory disease contributing to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multiple mechanisms leading to the low grade inflammation in this setting have been suggested. Due to the complexity and interconnection of inflammatory and metabolic responses, there also remains a need to fully elucidate the inflammatory mechanisms that control obesity and associated metabolic disorders. One important avenue in the field that has gained great attention is the interleukin (IL)-1 superfamily of cytokines that consist of IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-33...
October 7, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
Morteza Pourfarzam, Fouzieh Zadhoush, Masoumeh Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation. It plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). It is unclear whether diabetic patients with MetS confer elevated CVD risk and outcomes beyond the impact of individual's components of MetS. The aim of this study is to highlight the central role of IR, inflammation, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio, and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in T2DM with MetS...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
Ali Ugur Uslu, Bahattin Aydin, Sevket Balta, Ozlem Yonem, Tunahan Uncu, Dogan Seven
INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is a systemic disorder that can lead to liver inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. The mean platelet volume (MPV) is widely used as an inflammatory marker to evaluate the platelet function and the status of systemic inflammation. AIM: To determine the pre- and post-treatment MPV values in CHC patients who were administered a 48-week antiviral therapy based on systemic inflammation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We enrolled 28 patients, diagnosed with CHC genotype 1b, who received a 48-week antiviral therapy and attended regular follow-up, and 28 healthy individuals...
2016: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Devin M Boe, Lisbeth A Boule, Elizabeth J Kovacs
The world is undergoing an unprecedented shift in demographics, with the number of individuals over the age of 60 projected to reach 2 billion or more by 2050, representing 22% of the global population. The elderly are at a higher risk for chronic disease and more susceptible to infection, due in part to age-related dysfunction of the immune system resulting from low-grade chronic inflammation known as "inflamm-aging". The innate immune system of older individuals exhibits a diminished ability to respond to microbial threats and clear infections, resulting in a greater occurrence of many infectious diseases in the elderly...
October 6, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Xiaoxuan Zheng, Hongkai Xiong, Yong Li, Baohui Han, Jiayuan Sun
Autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) shows good sensitivity in detecting dysplasia and bronchopulmonary cancer. However, the poor specificity of AFB would lead to excessive biopsy. The aim of the study is to establish a more effective quantitative method (optimal identification index and reference value) for characterizing the AFB images within the region of interest and discuss AFB's significance in the diagnosis of central-type lung cancer. A total of 218 suspected lung cancer patients were enrolled in this study...
October 5, 2016: Cancer Medicine
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