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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236220/automatic-lung-segmentation-in-functional-spect-images-using-active-shape-models-trained-on-reference-lung-shapes-from-ct
#1
Grigorios-Aris Cheimariotis, Mariam Al-Mashat, Kostas Haris, Anthony H Aletras, Jonas Jögi, Marika Bajc, Nicolaos Maglaveras, Einar Heiberg
OBJECTIVE: Image segmentation is an essential step in quantifying the extent of reduced or absent lung function. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a new tool for automatic segmentation of lungs in ventilation and perfusion SPECT images and compare automatic and manual SPECT lung segmentations with reference computed tomography (CT) volumes. METHODS: A total of 77 subjects (69 patients with obstructive lung disease, and 8 subjects without apparent perfusion of ventilation loss) performed low-dose CT followed by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) SPECT examination in a hybrid gamma camera system...
December 13, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235989/motion-vector-field-phase-to-amplitude-resampling-for-4d-motion-compensated-cone-beam-ct
#2
Sebastian Sauppe, Julian Kuhm, Marcus Brehm, Pascal Paysan, Dieter Seghers, Marc Kachelriess
We propose a phase-to-amplitude resampling (PTAR) method to reduce motion blurring in motion-compensated (MoCo) 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) image reconstruction, without increasing the computational complexity of the motion vector field (MVF) estimation approach. PTAR is able to improve the image quality in reconstructed 4D volumes including both regular and irregular respiration patterns. The PTAR approach starts with a robust phase gating procedure for the initial MVF estimation and then switches to a phase-adapted amplitude gating method...
December 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233960/multiplexed-in-vivo-homology-directed-repair-and-tumor-barcoding-enables-parallel-quantification-of-kras-variant-oncogenicity
#3
Ian P Winters, Shin-Heng Chiou, Nicole K Paulk, Christopher D McFarland, Pranav V Lalgudi, Rosanna K Ma, Leszek Lisowski, Andrew J Connolly, Dmitri A Petrov, Mark A Kay, Monte M Winslow
Large-scale genomic analyses of human cancers have cataloged somatic point mutations thought to initiate tumor development and sustain cancer growth. However, determining the functional significance of specific alterations remains a major bottleneck in our understanding of the genetic determinants of cancer. Here, we present a platform that integrates multiplexed AAV/Cas9-mediated homology-directed repair (HDR) with DNA barcoding and high-throughput sequencing to simultaneously investigate multiple genomic alterations in de novo cancers in mice...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228764/ultrasonographic-quantification-of-pleural-effusion-comparison-of-four-formulae
#4
Bolanle Olubunmi Ibitoye, Bukunmi Michael Idowu, Akinwumi Babatunde Ogunrombi, Babalola Ishmael Afolabi
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlations of ultrasonographically estimated volumes of pleural fluid with the actual effusion volume in order to determine the most reliable formula. Methods: In 32 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed pleural effusion, an ultrasound estimation was made of the volume of effusion using four different formulae, including two in the erect position and two in the supine position. Closed-tube thoracostomy drainage using a 28-Fr chest tube was performed...
October 18, 2017: Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224009/itraq-based-proteomics-analysis-of-acute-lung-injury-induced-by-oleic-acid-in-mice
#5
Xiaotao Xu, Qingwei Zhu, Rong Zhang, Yan Wang, Fangfang Niu, Wenying Wang, Dawei Sun, Aizhong Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) and the pathogenesis of oleic acid (OA)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. METHODS: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were injected with OA through the tail vein and sacrificed 6 hours after OA administration to identify protein expression levels in lung tissue using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology...
December 8, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221318/lung-densitometry-why-how-and-when
#6
REVIEW
Mario Mascalchi, Gianna Camiciottoli, Stefano Diciotti
Lung densitometry assesses with computed tomography (CT) the X-ray attenuation of the pulmonary tissue which reflects both the degree of inflation and the structural lung abnormalities implying decreased attenuation, as in emphysema and cystic diseases, or increased attenuation, as in fibrosis. Five reasons justify replacement with lung densitometry of semi-quantitative visual scales used to measure extent and severity of diffuse lung diseases: (I) improved reproducibility; (II) complete vs. discrete assessment of the lung tissue; (III) shorter computation times; (IV) better correlation with pathology quantification of pulmonary emphysema; (V) better or equal correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFT)...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219887/short-term-automated-quantification-of-radiologic-changes-in-the-characterization-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-versus-nonspecific-interstitial-pneumonia-and-prediction-of-long-term-survival
#7
Federica De Giacomi, Sushravya Raghunath, Ronald Karwoski, Brian J Bartholmai, Teng Moua
PURPOSE: Fibrotic interstitial lung diseases presenting with nonspecific and overlapping radiologic findings may be difficult to diagnose without surgical biopsy. We hypothesized that baseline quantifiable radiologic features and their short-term interval change may be predictive of underlying histologic diagnosis as well as long-term survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) presenting without honeycombing versus nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty biopsy-confirmed IPF and 20 biopsy-confirmed NSIP patients with available high-resolution chest computed tomography 4 to 24 months apart were studied...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212238/quantification-of-circulating-cell-free-dna-to-predict-patient-survival-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Myung Han Hyun, Jae Sook Sung, Eun Joo Kang, Yoon Ji Choi, Kyong Hwa Park, Sang Won Shin, Sung Yong Lee, Yeul Hong Kim
We used computed tomography (CT) to explore the prognostic value of cell-free (cf) DNA quantification and its predictive efficacy over time after chemotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In total, 177 NSCLC patients were enrolled in a prospective biomarker trial. Consecutive paired blood collection was performed to determine cfDNA concentrations at baseline CT and throughout serial follow-ups. The best cfDNA cut-off value to predict progression-free and overall survival was determined using X-tile analysis...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208759/the-role-of-multidetector-computed-tomography-and-the-forced-oscillation-technique-in-assessing-lung-damage-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis
#9
Letícia S Lacerda, Agnaldo J Lopes, Alysson R S Carvalho, Alan R M Guimarães, Mônica C Firmida, Marcos C S Castro, Roberto Mogami, Pedro L Melo
BACKGROUND: With increased survival rates and the consequent emergence of an adult population with cystic fibrosis (CF), developing novel tools for periodic evaluations of these patients has become a new challenge. Thus, we sought to determine the contribution of lung-volume quantification using multidetector computed tomography (CT) in adults with CF and to investigate the association between structural changes and functional abnormalities. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which 21 adults with CF and 22 control subjects underwent lung-volume quantification using multidetector CT...
December 5, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206760/development-of-noninvasive-in-vivo-approach-to-assess-vascular-permeability-in-inflammation-using-fluorescence-imaging
#10
Takashi Shimazui, Taka-Aki Nakada, Lisa Fujimura, Akemi Sakamoto, Masahiko Hatano, Shigeto Oda
INTRODUCTION: In vivo fluorescence imaging can quantify vascular permeability without requiring sacrifice of animals. However, use of this noninvasive approach for vascular permeability assessment in remote organ injury caused by systemic inflammatory disease has not been reported. METHODS: Evans blue (EB) and Genhance 750 fluorescent dye were mixed and injected into mice. The lung as a remote organ and the footpad as a noninvasive observational site were assessed in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced systemic inflammation mouse model and compared with sham and hydrocortisone pretreated (CLP + HC) mouse models...
December 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202136/explaining-radiological-emphysema-subtypes-with-unsupervised-texture-prototypes-mesa-copd-study
#11
Jie Yang, Elsa D Angelini, Benjamin M Smith, John H M Austin, Eric A Hoffman, David A Bluemke, R Graham Barr, Andrew F Laine
Pulmonary emphysema is traditionally subcategorized into three subtypes, which have distinct radiological appearances on computed tomography (CT) and can help with the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Automated texture-based quantification of emphysema subtypes has been successfully implemented via supervised learning of these three emphysema subtypes. In this work, we demonstrate that unsupervised learning on a large heterogeneous database of CT scans can generate texture prototypes that are visually homogeneous and distinct, reproducible across subjects, and capable of predicting accurately the three standard radiological subtypes...
2017: Medical Computer Vision and Bayesian and Graphical Models for Biomedical Imaging: MICCAI 2016 International Workshops, MCV and BAMBI, Athens, Greece, October 21, 2016, Revised Selected Papers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197547/further-studies-of-unsuspected-emphysema-in-non-smoking-asthmatics-with-persistent-expiratory-airflow-obstruction
#12
Arthur F Gelb, Alfred Yamamoto, Eric K Verbeken, Mark J Schein, Roxanna Moridzadeh, Diem Tran, Christine Fraser, Richard Barbers, Wafaa Elatre, Michael N Koss, Eric F Glassy, Jay A Nadel
BACKGROUND: Previously, we and other investigators have described reversible loss of lung elastic recoil in acute and persistent loss in moderate-to-severe, chronic, treated asthmatics who never smoked, and its adverse effect on maximal expiratory airflow. In 4 consecutive autopsies, the pathophysiologic mechanism(s)has been unsuspected mild, diffuse, middle and upper lobe centrilobular emphysema. METHODS: We performed prospective studies (5-22 years) in 25(12F) chronic asthmatics age 55±15 yr who never smoked, with persistent moderate-to-severe expiratory obstruction...
November 29, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197298/pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-distribution-study-of-10-methoxycamptothecin-in-rats-following-intragastric-administration
#13
Jian Zheng, Yong Ji, Changmin Shao, Lijia Jing, Yang Wang
Natural bioactive derivatives of camptothecin (CPT), 10-methoxycamptothecin (MCPT) and 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) have been confirmed to possess high antitumor activities. MCPT could be metabolized to HCPT in vivo. The HPLC method for the quantification of MCPT and HCPT was established and validated, and the pharmacokinetics and the tissue distribution of MCPT in rats after i.v. administration have been well carried out in our previous studies. To improve the further understanding of the in vivo behavior of MCPT, a rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of MCPT and HCPT in plasma and tissue samples, and the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution as well as the bioavailability of MCPT after i...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191462/exposure-of-tropoelastin-to-peroxynitrous-acid-gives-high-yields-of-nitrated-tyrosine-residues-di-tyrosine-cross-links-and-altered-protein-structure-and-function
#14
Georg Degendorfer, Christine Y Chuang, Michele Mariotti, Astrid Hammer, Gerald Hoefler, Per Hägglund, Ernst Malle, Steven Wise, Michael J Davies
Elastin is an abundant extracellular matrix protein in elastic tissues, including the lungs, skin and arteries, and comprises 30-57% of the aorta by dry mass. The monomeric precursor, tropoelastin (TE), undergoes complex processing during elastogenesis to form mature elastic fibers. Peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH), a potent oxidizing and nitrating agent, is formed in vivo from superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Considerable evidence supports ONOOH formation in the inflamed artery wall, and a role for this species in the development of human atherosclerotic lesions, with ONOOH-damaged extracellular matrix implicated in lesion rupture...
November 27, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189398/quantification-of-the-effect-of-shuttling-on-computed-tomography-perfusion-parameters-by-investigation-of-aortic-inputs-on-different-table-positions-from-shuttle-mode-scans-of-lung-and-liver-tumors
#15
Payel Ghosh, Adam G Chandler, Brian P Hobbs, Jia Sun, John Rong, David Hong, Vivek Subbiah, Filip Janku, Aung Naing, Wen-Jen Hwu, Chaan S Ng
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of shuttling on computed tomography perfusion (CTp) parameters derived from shuttle-mode body CT images using aortic inputs from different table positions. METHODS: Axial shuttle-mode CT scans were acquired from 6 patients (10 phases, 2 nonoverlapping table positions 1.4 seconds apart) after contrast agent administration. Artifacts resulting from the shuttling motion were corrected with nonrigid registration before computing CTp maps from 4 aortic levels chosen from the most superior and inferior slices of each table position scan...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181429/lung-nodule-volume-quantification-and-shape-differentiation-with-an-ultra-high-resolution-technique-on-a-photon-counting-detector-computed-tomography-system
#16
Wei Zhou, Juan Montoya, Ralf Gutjahr, Andrea Ferrero, Ahmed Halaweish, Steffen Kappler, Cynthia McCollough, Shuai Leng
An ultra-high resolution (UHR) mode, with a detector pixel size of [Formula: see text] relative to isocenter, has been implemented on a whole body research photon-counting detector (PCD) computed tomography (CT) system. Twenty synthetic lung nodules were scanned using UHR and conventional resolution (macro) modes and reconstructed with medium and very sharp kernels. Linear regression was used to compare measured nodule volumes from CT images to reference volumes. The full-width-at-half-maximum of the calculated curvature histogram for each nodule was used as a shape index, and receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to differentiate sphere- and star-shaped nodules...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176936/role-of-microrna-33a-in-regulating-the-expression-of-pd-1-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#17
Laura Boldrini, Mirella Giordano, Cristina Niccoli, Franca Melfi, Marco Lucchi, Alfredo Mussi, Gabriella Fontanini
Background: MiRNAs are vital in functioning as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors in the cell cycle. Target transcripts for immune checkpoint molecules such as PD-1/PD-L1 and (programmed cell death-1/its ligand and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4) have proven to be beneficial against several solid tumors, including lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: Simultaneous quantification of the expression level of miR-33a and PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA4 mRNAs with NanoString technology was performed in 88 lung adenocarcinoma specimens...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173762/quantification-of-plasma-egfr-mutations-in-patients-with-lung-cancers-comparison-of-the-performance-of-arms-plus-and-droplet-digital-pcr
#18
Lin Wang, Qiaomei Guo, Wenjun Yu, Lihua Qiao, Mingna Zhao, Chenzi Zhang, Xiaomeng Hu, Guohua Yang, Liwen Xiong, Jiatao Lou
OBJECTIVES: EGFR mutation is a key factor to predict EGFR-TKI efficacy. However, a significant number of advanced patients do not have sufficient tumor specimens for molecular testing. Also, there is a lack of quantitative assay to analyze the mutant abundance. This study aims to evaluate the detection efficiency and clinical feasibility of a new platform, namely ARMS-Plus, for the detection and quantification of EGFR mutations in plasma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The detection limit of ARMS-Plus was assessed by detecting spiked mutant plasmids which were serially diluted with normal human genomic DNA...
December 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173016/fast-asymmetric-and-nonhomogeneous-clearance-of-sic-nanoaerosol-assessed-by-micro-particle-induced-x-ray-emission
#19
Omar Lozano, Julien L Colaux, Julie Laloy, Lütfiye Alpan, Jean-Michel Dogné, Stéphane Lucas
AIM: To study the biopersistence of a silicon carbide (SiC) nanoaerosol in rat lungs, as time-dependent clearance and spatial distribution. MATERIALS & METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed 6 h/day during 5 days to a SiC nanoaerosol at 4.91 mg SiC/l. SiC biopersistence in rat lungs sections was assessed over 28 days by micro-particle-induced x-ray emission (μPIXE) as 2D maps and by particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) for whole-lung quantification. 2D maps were analyzed for SiC spatial distribution as skewness and kurtosis...
November 27, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164889/comparison-of-quantitative-mass-spectrometry-platforms-for-monitoring-kinase-atp-probe-uptake-in-lung-cancer
#20
Melissa A Hoffman, Bin Fang, Eric B Haura, Uwe Rix, John M Koomen
Recent developments in instrumentation and bioinformatics have led to new quantitative mass spectrometry platforms including LC-MS/MS with data-independent acquisition (DIA) and targeted analysis using parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-PRM), which provide alternatives to well-established methods, such as LC-MS/MS with data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and targeted analysis using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM). These tools have been used to identify signaling perturbations in lung cancers and other malignancies, supporting the development of effective kinase inhibitors and, more recently, providing insights into therapeutic resistance mechanisms and drug repurposing opportunities...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
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