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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053106/issues-in-quantification-of-registered-respiratory-gated-pet-ct-in-the-lung
#1
Vesna Cuplov, Beverley Fiona Holman, Jamie R McClelland, Marc Modat, Brian F Hutton, Kris Thielemans
PET/CT quantification of lung tissue is limited by several difficulties: the lung density and local volume changes during respiration, the anatomical mismatch between PET and CT and the relative contributions of tissue, air and blood to the PET signal (the tissue fraction effect). Air Fraction Correction (AFC) has been shown to improve PET image quantification in the lungs. Methods to correct for the movement and anatomical mismatch involve respiratory gating and image registration techniques. While conventional registration methods only account for spatial mismatch, the Jacobian determinant of the deformable registration transformation field can be used to estimate local volume changes and could therefore potentially be used to correct (i...
October 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044946/aquaporin-1-inhibition-reduces-metastatic-formation-in-a-mouse-model-of-melanoma
#2
Laura Simone, Concetta Domenica Gargano, Francesco Pisani, Antonio Cibelli, Maria Grazia Mola, Antonio Frigeri, Maria Svelto, Grazia Paola Nicchia
Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is a proangiogenic water channel protein promoting endothelial cell migration. We previously reported that AQP1 silencing by RNA interference reduces angiogenesis-dependent primary tumour growth in a mouse model of melanoma. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that AQP1 inhibition also affects animal survival and lung nodule formation. Melanoma was induced by injecting B16F10 cells into the back of C57BL6J mice. Intratumoural injection of AQP1 siRNA and CTRL siRNA was performed 10 days after tumour cell implantation...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043785/elevated-exposures-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-other-organic-mutagens-in-ottawa-firefighters-participating-in-emergency-on-shift-fire-suppression
#3
Jennifer L A Keir, Umme S Akhtar, David M J Matschke, Tracy L Kirkham, Hing Man Chan, Pierre Ayotte, Paul A White, Jules M Blais
Occupational exposures to combustion emissions were examined in Ottawa Fire Service (OFS) firefighters. Paired urine and dermal wipe samples (i.e., pre- and post-event) as well as personal air samples and fire event questionnaires were collected from 27 male OFS firefighters. A total of 18 OFS office workers were used as additional controls. Exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other organic mutagens were assessed by quantification of urinary PAH metabolite levels, levels of PAHs in dermal wipes and personal air samples, and urinary mutagenicity using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test)...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040022/added-value-of-a-single-fast-20-second-deep-inspiration-breath-hold-acquisition-in-fdg-pet-ct-in-the-assessment-of-lung-nodules
#4
Nicolas Balamoutoff, Benjamin Serrano, Florent Hugonnet, Nicolas Garnier, Benoît Paulmier, Marc Faraggi
Purpose To compare the accuracy of a single 20-second deep-inspiration breath hold (DIBH) in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) to that with conventional free-breathing (FB) whole-body PET/CT for the assessment, characterization, and quantification of lung lesions in terms of the blurring effect of respiratory motion. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. A preclinical study was performed in a test population of 19 patients to evaluate the feasibility and consistency of DIBH techniques compared with phase-based respiratory gating (PBRG)...
October 17, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038592/in-vivo-imaging-of-lung-inflammation-with-neutrophil-specific-68-ga-nano-radiotracer
#5
Juan Pellico, Ana V Lechuga-Vieco, Elena Almarza, Andrés Hidalgo, Cristina Mesa-Nuñez, Irene Fernández-Barahona, Juan A Quintana, Juan Bueren, Jose A Enríquez, Jesús Ruiz-Cabello, Fernando Herranz
In vivo detection and quantification of inflammation is a major goal in molecular imaging. Furthermore, cell-specific detection of inflammation would be a tremendous advantage in the characterization of many diseases. Here, we show how this goal can be achieved through the synergistic combination of nanotechnology and nuclear imaging. One of the most remarkable features of this hybrid approach is the possibility to tailor the pharmacokinetics of the nanomaterial-incorporated biomolecule and radionuclide. A good example of this approach is the covalent binding of a large amount of a neutrophil-specific, hydrophobic peptide on the surface of (68)Ga core-doped nanoparticles...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038571/highly-sensitive-and-specific-alu-based-quantification-of-human-cells-among-rodent-cells
#6
Kodai Funakoshi, Mozhdeh Bagheri, Ming Zhou, Ryoji Suzuki, Hiroshi Abe, Hideo Akashi
Alu elements are primate-specific short interspersed elements (SINEs), over 1 million copies of which are present in the human genome; thus, Alu elements are useful targets for detecting human cells. However, previous Alu-based techniques for detecting human genomic DNA do not reach the theoretical limits of sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive and specific Alu-based real-time PCR method for discriminating human cells from rodent cells, using a primer and probe set carefully designed to avoid possible cross-reactions with rodent genomes...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024471/programmed-death-ligand-1-expression-in-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-comparison-among-cytology-small-biopsy-and-surgical-resection-specimens
#7
Jonas J Heymann, William A Bulman, David Swinarski, Carlos A Pagan, John P Crapanzano, Mehrvash Haghighi, Ladan Fazlollahi, Mark B Stoopler, Joshua R Sonett, Adrian G Sacher, Catherine A Shu, Naiyer A Rizvi, Anjali Saqi
BACKGROUND: One immunotherapeutic agent for patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma, pembrolizumab, has a companion immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based assay that predicts response by quantifying programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. The current study assessed the feasibility of quantifying PD-L1 expression using cytologic non-small cell lung carcinoma specimens and compared the results with those from small biopsy and surgical resection specimens. METHODS: PD-L1 expression was quantified using the IHC-based 22C3 pharmDx assay, with "positivity" defined as staining in ≥50% viable tumor cells; ≥ 100 tumor cells were required for test adequacy...
October 12, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020964/il-27-mediates-hla-class-i-up-regulation-which-can-be-inhibited-by-the-il-6-pathway-in-hla-deficient-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#8
Grazia Carbotti, Amin Reza Nikpoor, Paola Vacca, Rosaria Gangemi, Chiara Giordano, Francesco Campelli, Silvano Ferrini, Marina Fabbi
BACKGROUND: Recently, immunotherapy with anti-PD-1 antibodies has shown clinical benefit in recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC). Since anti-PD-1 re-activates anti-tumor Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) responses, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms regulating HLA class I, and PD-L1 expression in HLA-negative SCLC. Here we addressed the role of IL-27, a cytokine related to both IL-6 and IL-12 families. METHODS: The human SCLC cell lines NCI-N592, -H69, -H146, -H446 and -H82 were treated in vitro with different cytokines (IL-27, IFN-γ, IL-6 or a soluble IL-6R/IL-6 chimera [sIL-6R/IL-6]) at different time points and analyzed for tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT proteins by Western blot, for surface molecule expression by immunofluorescence and FACS analyses or for specific mRNA expression by QRT-PCR...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993139/rapid-quantification-of-glutaminase-2-gls2-related-metabolites-by-hilic-ms-ms
#9
Guan-Yuan Chen, Hsi-Chun Chao, Hsiao-Wei Liao, I-Lin Tsai, Ching-Hua Kuo
Glutamine, glutamate and glutathione are key modulators of excessive oxidative stress in tumor cells. In this study, we developed a rapid and accurate HILIC-MS/MS method to simultaneously determine concentrations of cellular glutamine, glutamate and glutathione. A bared silica HILIC column was employed to analyze these polar metabolites. The LC-MS parameters were optimized to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The analysis can be completed within 4 min under optimal conditions. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, and linearity...
October 6, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992232/development-of-a-minipig-physical-phantom-from-ct-data
#10
Sooyeun Park, Pilsoo Lee, Wi-Ho Ha, Han Sung Kim, Byeong Ryong Park, Jae Seok Kim, Sehwan Shim, Sunhoo Park, Young-Su Kim, Chan Hyeong Kim, Young-Woo Jin
Quantification of pathological progression of radiation-induced injury is essential in development of treatment methods, and a proper animal model is necessary for relevant radiological and medical studies. A minipig is a current animal model selected because of its similarities to humans in anatomy and pathology. In the present study, a minipig physical phantom was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. For dosimetry purposes, the minipig physical phantom was constructed on a slice-by-slice basis, with an array of holes to accommodate dosimeters...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992125/a-new-method-for-studying-cryptococcosis-in-a-murine-model-using-99mtc-cryptococcus-gattii
#11
Marliete Carvalho Costa, Lays Murta Mata, Noelly de Queiroz Ribeiro, Anderson Philip Nonato Santos, Lorena Vivien Neves Oliveira, Raquel Virgínia Rocha Vilela, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso, Simone Odília Antunes Fernandes, Daniel Assis Santos
Cryptococcus gattii is one of the etiologic agents of cryptococcosis, a systemic mycosis that occurs in healthy and immunosuppressed humans and animals worldwide. Primary pulmonary infection caused by C. gattii is usually followed by fungal dissemination to the central nervous system, resulting in high mortality rates. In this context, animal models of cryptococcosis are useful in the study of fungal pathogenesis and host response against the pathogen, and for testing novel therapeutic options. The most frequently applied method to study fungal dissemination from the lungs to other organs is by culturing tissues, which is not accurate for the detection and quantification of fungal load at early stages of the infection...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984339/a-unique-immunofluorescence-protocol-to-detect-protein-expression-in-vascular-tissues-tacking-a-long-standing-pathological-hitch
#12
Puneet Gandhi, Richa Khare
OBJECTIVE: Autofluorescence induced interference is one of the major drawbacks in immunofluorescence analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, as it decreases the signal-to-noise ratio of specific labeling. Apart from aldehyde-fixation induced artifacts; collagen and elastin, red blood cells and endogenous fluorescent pigment lipofuscin are prime sources of autofluorescence in vascular and aging tissues. We describe herein, an optimized indirect-immunofluorescence method for archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues tissues and cryo sections, using a combination of 3-reagents in a specific order, to achieve optimal fluorescence signals and imaging...
October 6, 2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981500/optical-coherence-tomography-for-identification-and-quantification-of-human-airway-wall-layers
#13
Julia N S d'Hooghe, Annika W M Goorsenberg, Daniel M de Bruin, Joris J T H Roelofs, Jouke T Annema, Peter I Bonta
BACKGROUND: High-resolution computed tomography has limitations in the assessment of airway wall layers and related remodeling in obstructive lung diseases. Near infrared-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technique that combined with bronchoscopy generates highly detailed images of the airway wall. The aim of this study is to identify and quantify human airway wall layers both ex-vivo and in-vivo by OCT and correlate these to histology. METHODS: Patients with lung cancer, prior to lobectomy, underwent bronchoscopy including in-vivo OCT imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977466/determination-of-salbutamol-residues-in-goat-various-tissues-after-exposure-to-growth-promoting-doses
#14
Yujuan Yang, Xu Gu, Yingchao Dong, Junguo Li, Haiqiu Ni, Moyong Xue, Zhen Zhao, Zhiwei Sun, Yuchang Qin
In order to monitor salbutamol (SAL) use in goats as a repartitioning, we determined SAL residues in various tissues of goats after repeated oral SAL administration at a dose of 0.15 mg/kg daily for 21 days. SAL concentrations were measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in extracts of tissues from goats sacrificed 0.25, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after the last dose. Our results showed that on Day 0.25 of the withdrawal period, the residual proportions of SAL (expressed as percentage) in liver, kidney, lung, hair, stomachs and muscle were 19...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972817/free-breathing-dynamic-19-f-gas-mr-imaging-for-mapping-of-regional-lung-ventilation-in-patients-with-copd
#15
Marcel Gutberlet, Till F Kaireit, Andreas Voskrebenzev, Florian Lasch, Julia Freise, Tobias Welte, Frank Wacker, Jens M Hohlfeld, Jens Vogel-Claussen
Purpose To quantify regional lung ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by using free-breathing dynamic fluorinated (fluorine 19 [(19)F]) gas magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved prospective study, 27 patients with COPD were examined by using breath-hold (19)F gas wash-in MR imaging during inhalation of a normoxic fluorinated gas mixture (perfluoropropane) and by using free-breathing dynamic (19)F gas washout MR imaging after inhalation of the gas mixture was finished for a total of 25-30 L...
October 3, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963678/serial-automated-quantitative-ct-analysis-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-functional-correlations-and-comparison-with-changes-in-visual-ct-scores
#16
Joseph Jacob, Brian J Bartholmai, Srinivasan Rajagopalan, Maria Kokosi, Ryoko Egashira, Anne Laure Brun, Arjun Nair, Simon L F Walsh, Ronald Karwoski, Athol U Wells
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether computer-based CT quantitation of change can improve on visual change quantification of parenchymal features in IPF. METHODS: Sixty-six IPF patients with serial CT imaging (6-24 months apart) had CT features scored visually and with a computer software tool: ground glass opacity, reticulation and honeycombing (all three variables summed as interstitial lung disease extent [ILD]) and emphysema. Pulmonary vessel volume (PVV) was estimated by computer only...
September 29, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963578/detection-of-human-neutrophil-elastase-by-aptamer-affinity-capillary-electrophoresis-coupled-with-laser-induced-fluorescence-using-specified-site-fluorescently-labeled-aptamer
#17
Yunlong Bai, Hailin Wang, Qiang Zhao
As a multifunctional serine protease, human neutrophil elastase (HNE) plays critical roles in a variety of physiopathological processes, such as acute lung injury, emphysema, atherosclerosis, and arthritis. The quantification of HNE is important in many applications. In this paper, we report an aptamer affinity capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) assay for detection of HNE using a tetramethylrhodamine (TMR)-labeled DNA aptamer probe. The affinity complex of HNE and DNA aptamer probe was well separated from the unbound aptamer probe in CE separation based on the difference of electrophoretic mobility...
September 29, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961369/phosphoproteomics-profiling-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-treated-with-a-novel-phosphatase-activator
#18
Danica D Wiredja, Marzieh Ayati, Sahar Mazhar, Jaya Sangodkar, Sean Maxwell, Daniela Schlatzer, Goutham Narla, Mehmet Koyutürk, Mark R Chance
Activation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a promising anti-cancer therapeutic strategy, as this tumor suppressor has the ability to coordinately downregulate multiple pathways involved in the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. In order to understand the systems-level perturbations mediated by PP2A activation, we carried out mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic analysis of two KRAS mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (A549 and H358) treated with a novel Small Molecule Activator of PP2A (SMAP)...
September 29, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954217/one-sub-acinus-for-all-fate-of-inhaled-aerosols-in-heterogeneous-pulmonary-acinar-structures
#19
Philipp Hofemeier, Kenishiro Koshiyama, Shigeo Wada, Josué Sznitman
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) have offered an attractive gateway to investigate in silico respiratory flows and aerosol transport in the depths of the lungs. Yet, not only do existing models lack sufficient anatomical realism in capturing the heterogeneity and morphometry of the acinar environment, numerical simulations have been widely restricted to domains capturing a mere few percent of a single acinus. Here, we present to the best of our knowledge the most detailed and comprehensive in silico simulations to date on the fate of aerosols in the acinar depths...
September 24, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951841/study-on-pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-distribution-of-single-dose-oral-tryptanthrin-in-kunming-mice-by-validated-reversed-phase-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-ultraviolet-detection
#20
Xiaoyan Zhang, Jie Xia, Wenjing Zhang, Yao Luo, Wenbo Sun, Wei Zhou
BACKGROUND: Tryptanthrin is a major active constituent of several Chinese herbal plants, such as Isatidis radix. Tryptanthrin had been demonstrated to have several beneficial pharmacological effects in vitro for human diseases, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antibacteria activities. In contrast to the extensive in vitro investigations, the in vivo disposition process of tryptanthrin was explored limitedly. METHODS: In this study, the pharmacokinetics (PK) and tissue distribution of tryptanthrin in Kunming mice following a single oral dose of 80 mg/kg tryptanthrin were investigated for the first time...
September 2017: Integrative medicine research
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