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lung quantification

Antonio Fernández-Baldera, Charles R Hatt, Susan Murray, Eric A Hoffman, Ella A Kazerooni, Fernando J Martinez, MeiLan K Han, Craig J Galbán
Small airways disease (SAD) is one of the leading causes of airflow limitations in patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Parametric response mapping (PRM) of computed tomography (CT) scans allows for the quantification of this previously invisible COPD component. Although PRM is being investigated as a diagnostic tool for COPD, variability in the longitudinal measurements of SAD by PRM has been reported. Here, we show a method for correcting longitudinal PRM data because of non-pathological variations in serial CT scans...
September 2017: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
Cheng Cui, Pei Hu, Ji Jiang, Fansheng Kong, Hong Luo, Qian Zhao
CT-707, a mutant-selective inhibitor of an important cancer target, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), is designed to be a targeted therapeutic agent for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring ALK active and crizotinib resistant mutations. A rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of CT-707 and its two metabolites (M1 and M2) in human plasma. The samples were purified by solid phase extraction (SPE) and separated on a BEH C18 column (2...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Mizuho Nishio, Yutaka Tanaka
PURPOSE: To utilize Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for the quantification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to evaluate the combined use of multiple types of quantification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-seven patients (67 men, 20 women; age, 67.4 ± 11.0 years) who had undergone computed tomography (CT) and pulmonary function test (PFT) were included. The heterogeneity of CT attenuation in emphysema (HC) was obtained by analyzing a distribution of CT attenuation with GMM...
2018: PloS One
Aitor Gallastegui, James Cheung, Teresa Southard, Kelly R Hume
In vivo micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging allows longitudinal studies of pulmonary neoplasms in genetically engineered mouse models. Respiratory gating increases the accuracy of lung tumor measurements but lengthens anesthesia time in animals that may be at increased risk for complications. We hypothesized that semiautomated, volumetric, and linear tumor measurements performed in micro-CT images from non-gated scans would have correlation with histological findings. Primary lung tumors were induced in eight FVB mice with two transgenes (FVB/N-Tg(tetO-Kras2)12Hev/J; FVB...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Yazhen Zhu, Zhiwei Guo, Ying Liu, Xiyun Zheng, Guohua Yang, Guangjuan Zheng
Quantification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations is important for the prediction of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) efficacy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, clinicians lack a sensitive and convenient method to quantify EGFR mutant abundance. The present study introduces a novel method, namely amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-Plus, for the quantitative analysis of EGFR exon 19 deletion (19Del), L858R and T790M mutations. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples were collected from 77 patients with lung adenocarcinoma...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Jennifer W Israel, Grace A Chappell, Jeremy M Simon, Sebastian Pott, Alexias Safi, Lauren Lewis, Paul Cotney, Hala S Boulos, Wanda Bodnar, Jason D Lieb, Gregory E Crawford, Terrence S Furey, Ivan Rusyn
Epigenetic effects of environmental chemicals are under intense investigation to fill existing knowledge gaps between environmental/occupational exposures and adverse health outcomes. Chromatin accessibility is one prominent mechanism of epigenetic control of transcription, and understanding of the chemical effects on both could inform the causal role of epigenetic alterations in disease mechanisms. In this study, we hypothesized that baseline variability in chromatin organization and transcription profiles among various tissues and mouse strains influence the outcome of exposure to the DNA damaging chemical 1,3-butadiene...
February 10, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Mariano Provencio, María Torrente, Virginia Calvo, David Pérez-Callejo, Lourdes Gutiérrez, Fernando Franco, Clara Pérez-Barrios, Miguel Barquín, Ana Royuela, Francisco García-García, Coralia Bueno, Aranzazu Garcia-Grande, Carlos Camps, Bartomeu Massuti, Eduardo Sotomayor, Atocha Romero
Background: Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) levels correlate well with tumor bulk. In this paper we aim to estimate the prognostic value of the dynamic quantification of ctDNA levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 251 serial plasma samples from 41 non-small-cell lung cancer patients who carried an activating EGFR mutation were analysed by digital PCR. For survival analysis, ctDNA levels were computed as a time-dependent covariate. Results: Dynamic ctDNA measurements had prognostic significance (hazard ratio for overall survival and progression free survival according to p...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Mitchell S Fourman, Adel Mahjoub, Jon B Mandell, Shibing Yu, Jessica C Tebbets, Jared A Crasto, Peter E Alexander, Kurt R Weiss
BACKGROUND: Current preclinical osteosarcoma (OS) models largely focus on quantifying primary tumor burden. However, most fatalities from OS are caused by metastatic disease. The quantification of metastatic OS currently relies on CT, which is limited by motion artifact, requires intravenous contrast, and can be technically demanding in the preclinical setting. We describe the ability for indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence angiography to quantify primary and metastatic OS in a previously validated orthotopic, immunocompetent mouse model...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Nikolas Lessmann, Bram van Ginneken, Majd Zreik, Pim A de Jong, Bob D de Vos, Max A Viergever, Ivana Isgum
Heavy smokers undergoing screening with low-dose chest CT are affected by cardiovascular disease as much as by lung cancer. Low-dose chest CT scans acquired in screening enable quantification of atherosclerotic calcifications and thus enable identification of subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. This paper presents a method for automatic detection of coronary artery, thoracic aorta, and cardiac valve calcifications in low-dose chest CT using two consecutive convolutional neural networks. The first network identifies and labels potential calcifications according to their anatomical location and the second network identifies true calcifications among the detected candidates...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Chia-Hung Chen, Chih-Kun Chang, Chih-Yen Tu, Wei-Chih Liao, Bing-Ru Wu, Kuei-Ting Chou, Yu-Rou Chiou, Shih-Neng Yang, Geoffrey Zhang, Tzung-Chi Huang
PURPOSE: Radiomics, which extract large amount of quantification image features from diagnostic medical images had been widely used for prognostication, treatment response prediction and cancer detection. The treatment options for lung nodules depend on their diagnosis, benign or malignant. Conventionally, lung nodule diagnosis is based on invasive biopsy. Recently, radiomics features, a non-invasive method based on clinical images, have shown high potential in lesion classification, treatment outcome prediction...
2018: PloS One
Rahmi Oklu, Rahul A Sheth, Keith H K Wong, Amin H Jahromi, Hassan Albadawi
Background: A single center, prospective tissue-based study was conducted to investigate an association between neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and venous thromboembolic disease in patients with malignancy. Methods: Plasma was collected from 65 patients in which 27 were cancer patients and 38 were age-matched non-cancer patients. Plasma NETs, circulating free DNA (cfDNA), DNase-1, endonuclease-G, endonuclease activity and thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) complex levels was quantified...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Shiho Asaka, Akihiko Yoshizawa, Rie Nakata, Tatsuya Negishi, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Takayuki Shiina, Shohei Shigeto, Kazuyuki Matsuda, Yukihiro Kobayashi, Takayuki Honda
The detection of epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) mutations is necessary for the selection of suitable patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cytology specimens are known to be suitable for EGFR mutation detection, although tissue specimens should be prioritized; however, there are limited studies that examine the utility of bronchial lavage fluid (BLF) in mutation detection. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the utility of BLF specimens for the detection of EGFR mutations using a conventional quantitative EGFR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Yan Sun, Chunhui Huo, Zhi Qiao, Zhi Shang, Asad Uzzaman, Sha Liu, Xiaoteng Jiang, Liu-Yin Fan, Liyun Ji, Xin Guan, Cheng-Xi Cao, Hua Xiao
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived microparticles present in most body fluids, mainly including microvesicles and exosomes. EVs-harbored proteins have emerged as novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and prediction of different cancers. Herein, we successfully isolated microvesicles and exosomes from human saliva, which were further characterized comprehensively. Salivary EVs protein profiling in normal subjects and lung cancer patients was systematically compared through utilizing LC-MS/MS based label free quantification...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
James Goya Heaf, Alastair Hansen, Gunnar Hellmund Laier
BACKGROUND: The association of increased cancer risk with glomerulonephritis (GN) is well known, but controversy exists concerning which types of GN are involved, and the size of the association. A national registry survey was performed to assess the size of this association, and the temporal relationship of cancer diagnosis to GN diagnosis. METHODS: All patients with biopsy-proven GN between 1985 and 2015 in Denmark were extracted from The Danish Renal Biopsy Registry and the National Pathology Data Bank...
February 2, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Mao-Jung Lee, William Feng, Lu Yang, Yu-Kuo Chen, Eric Chi, Anna Liu, Chung S Yang
Tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as vitamin E, have received a great deal of attention because of their interesting biological activities. In the present study, we reexamined and improved previous methods of sample preparation and the conditions of high-performance liquid chromatography for more accurate quantification of tocopherols, tocotrienols and their major chain-degradation metabolites. For the analysis of serum tocopherols/tocotrienols, we reconfirmed our method of mixing serum with ethanol followed by hexane extraction...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Yoshitomo Ishihara, Yukinori Matsuo, Yusuke Iizuka, Nami Ueki, Hiraku Iramina, Hideaki Hirashima, Takashi Mizowaki
Knowledge of the imaging doses delivered to patients and accurate dosimetry of the radiation to organs from various imaging procedures is becoming increasingly important for clinicians. The purposes of this study were to calculate imaging doses delivered to the organs of lung cancer patients during real-time tumor tracking (RTTT) with three-dimensional (3D), and four-dimensional (4D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), using Monte Carlo techniques to simulate kV X-ray dose distributions delivered using the Vero4DRT...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Yara Bernaldo de Quirós, Meghan Hartwick, David S Rotstein, Michael M Garner, Andrea Bogomolni, William Greer, Misty E Niemeyer, Greg Early, Frederick Wenzel, Michael Moore
The challenge of identifying cause of death in discarded bycaught marine mammals stems from a combination of the non-specific nature of the lesions of drowning, the complex physiologic adaptations unique to breath-holding marine mammals, lack of case histories, and the diverse nature of fishing gear. While no pathognomonic lesions are recognized, signs of acute external entanglement, bulging or reddened eyes, recently ingested gastric contents, pulmonary changes, and decompression-associated gas bubbles have been identified in the condition of peracute underwater entrapment (PUE) syndrome in previous studies of marine mammals...
January 31, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Mallory R Gordon, Jiaming Zhuang, Judy Ventura, Longyu Li, Kishore Raghupathi, Sankaran Thayumanavan
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the biodistribution properties of random copolymer-based core-crosslinked nanogels of various sizes and surface poly(ethylene glycol) composition. Near-IR labeled nanogels were systematically prepared comprised of varying particle sizes (28-135 nm), PEG corona quantity (0-50 mole percent) and PEG length (PEG Mn 1000, 2000, and 5000) and injected in mice that had been subcutaneously implanted with MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN human mammary carcinoma. In vivo biodistribution was obtained using Florescence Molecular Tomography imaging at 0, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours post injection...
January 29, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Marcus M Mücke, Lisa I Backus, Victoria T Mücke, Nicola Coppola, Carmen M Preda, Ming-Lun Yeh, Lydia S Y Tang, Pamela S Belperio, Eleanor M Wilson, Ming-Lung Yu, Stefan Zeuzem, Eva Herrmann, Johannes Vermehren
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection might pose a risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients coinfected with chronic or resolved HBV infection. The need for HBV antiviral prophylaxis during DAA treatment remains controversial. We aimed to analyse the absolute risk of HBV reactivation in patients with active or resolved HBV infection treated with DAAs for HCV infection. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science from Oct 1, 2010, to Sept 30, 2017, to identify studies of patients with chronic or resolved HBV infection at baseline treated with DAAs for chronic HCV infection...
January 19, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Önder Aybastıer, Sam Dawbaa, Cevdet Demir, Oğuzhan Akgün, Engin Ulukaya, Ferda Arı
Lung cancer has a high treatment cost and poor prognosis in comparison to other types of cancers. This work was involved in studying oxidative DNA base damage inhibition. Accordingly, standard carvacrol, thymol, thymoquinone with water and water-methanol extract of thyme (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtum (link.) Ietswaart), thyme oil and thyme water were prepared and investigated for their efficacy to inhibit DNA oxidative damage formed by H2O2 in malignant lung cells (A549). The antioxidant capacity by ABTS assay was 271...
January 20, 2018: Mutation Research
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