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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656569/ghanaian-parents-perceptions-of-pre-and-postnatal-nutrient-supplements-and-their-effects
#1
Katherine P Adams, Harriet Okronipa, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Mary Arimond, Sika Kumordzie, Brietta M Oaks, Maku E Ocansey, Rebecca R Young, Stephen A Vosti, Kathryn G Dewey
Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) have been studied in efficacy and effectiveness trials, but little is known about how parents perceive the products and their effects. In a randomised trial in Ghana, efficacy of SQ-LNS provided to women during pregnancy and the first 6 months postpartum and to their children from 6 to 18 months of age was assessed by comparison with iron-folic acid (IFA) capsules and multiple micronutrient (MMN) capsules provided to women. In a follow-up study conducted when the index children from the original trial were between 4 and 6 years of age, we used survey-based methods to assess retrospective and current parental perceptions of nutrient supplements generally and of SQ-LNS and their effects compared with perceptions IFA and MMN capsules...
April 15, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656549/sodium-nitroprusside-is-effective-in-preventing-and-or-reversing-the-development-of-schizophrenia-related-behaviors-in-an-animal-model-the-shr-strain
#2
Mariana C Diana, Fernanda F Peres, Veronica Justi, Rodrigo A Bressan, Acioly L T Lacerda, José Alexandre Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Vanesssa Costhek Abilio
AIMS: The treatment of schizophrenia with antipsychotics is still unsatisfactory. Therefore, the search for new treatments and prevention is crucial, and animal models are fundamental tools for this objective. Preclinical and clinical data evidence the antipsychotic profile of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. We aimed to investigate SNP in treating and/or preventing the schizophrenia-related behaviors presented by the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) strain...
April 14, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655938/delineation-of-early-brain-development-from-fetuses-to-infants-with-diffusion-mri-and-beyond
#3
REVIEW
Minhui Ouyang, Jessica Dubois, Qinlin Yu, Pratik Mukherjee, Hao Huang
Dynamic macrostructural and microstructural changes take place from the mid-fetal stage to 2 years after birth. Delineating brain structural changes during this early developmental period provides new insights into the complicated processes of both typical brain development and the pathological mechanisms underlying various psychiatric and neurological disorders including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Decades of histological studies have identified strong spatial and functional gradients of maturation in human brain gray and white matter...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655781/the-hyperopic-effect-of-narrow-band-long-wavelength-light-in-tree-shrews-increases-non-linearly-with-duration
#4
Alexander H Ward, Thomas T Norton, Carrie E Huisingh, Timothy J Gawne
During postnatal refractive development, an emmetropization mechanism uses refractive error to modulate the growth rate of the eye. Hyperopia (image focused behind the retina) produces what has been described as "GO" signaling that increases growth. Myopia (image focused in front of the retina) produces "STOP" signaling that slows growth. The interaction between GO and STOP conditions is non-linear; brief daily exposure to STOP counteracts long periods of GO. In young tree shrews, long-wavelength (red) light, presented 14 h per day, also appears to produce STOP signals...
April 12, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653258/cadmium-inhibits-lysine-acetylation-and-succinylation-inducing-testicular-injury-of-mouse-during-development
#5
Qiangzhen Yang, Peifei Li, Yi Wen, Sisi Li, Jun Chen, Xurui Liu, Lirui Wang, Xinhong Li
The toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) in the reproductive system have been confirmed, and lysine acetylation and succinylation play important roles in spermatogenesis. However, little attention determined whether Cd could affect lysine acylation and how it might have an impact on the reproductive system. Therefore, with the goal of contributing to this subject, we have examined the effects of Cd on lysine acetylation and succinylation of proteins in the germ cells of male mice testes during different developmental stages...
April 10, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653137/hyperactivity-and-memory-learning-deficits-evoked-by-developmental-exposure-to-nicotine-and-or-ethanol-are-mitigated-by-camp-and-cgmp-signaling-cascades-activation
#6
Yael Abreu-Villaça, Anna C Carvalho-Graça, Gabriela Skinner, Bruna M Lotufo, Vitor H S Duarte-Pinheiro, Anderson Ribeiro-Carvalho, Alex C Manhães, Claudio C Filgueiras
Pregnant smoking women are frequently episodic drinkers. Here, we investigated whether ethanol exposure restricted to the brain growth spurt period when combined with chronic developmental exposure to nicotine aggravates memory/learning deficits and hyperactivity, and associated cAMP and cGMP signaling disruption. To further investigate the role of these signaling cascades, we verified whether vinpocetine (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) ameliorates the neurochemical and behavioral outcomes. Swiss mice had free access to nicotine (NIC, 50 μg/ml) or water to drink during gestation and until the 8th postnatal day (PN8)...
April 10, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652937/trajectories-of-maternal-depressive-symptoms-during-pregnancy-and-the-first-12-months-postpartum-and-child-externalizing-and-internalizing-behavior-at-three-years
#7
Dawn Kingston, Heather Kehler, Marie-Paule Austin, Muhammad Kashif Mughal, Abdul Wajid, Lydia Vermeyden, Karen Benzies, Stephanie Brown, Scott Stuart, Rebecca Giallo
BACKGROUND: Most evidence of the association between maternal depression and children's development is limited by being cross-sectional. To date, few studies have modelled trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from pregnancy through the early postpartum years and examined their association with social emotional and behavior functioning in preschool children. The objectives of this study were to: 1) identify distinct groups of women defined by their trajectories of depressive symptoms across four time points from mid-pregnancy to one year postpartum; and 2) examine the associations between these trajectories and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652901/early-postnatal-soluble-fgfr3-therapy-prevents-the-atypical-development-of-obesity-in-achondroplasia
#8
Celine Saint-Laurent, Stephanie Garcia, Vincent Sarrazy, Karine Dumas, Florence Authier, Sophie Sore, Albert Tran, Philippe Gual, Isabelle Gennero, Jean-Pierre Salles, Elvire Gouze
BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disease is characterized by abnormal bone development and early obesity. While the bone aspect of the disease has been thoroughly studied, early obesity affecting approximately 50% of them during childhood has been somewhat neglected. It nevertheless represents a major health problem in these patients, and is associated to life-threatening complications including increasing risk of cardiovascular pathologies. We have thus decided to study obesity in patients and to use the mouse model to evaluate if soluble FGFR3 therapy, an innovative treatment approach for achondroplasia, could also impact the development of this significant complication...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652578/mr-imaging-of-the-fetal-face-comprehensive-review
#9
Murali Nagarajan, Kedar G Sharbidre, Sudeep H Bhabad, Sharon E Byrd
The human face is a complex anatomic structure with an equally complex embryologic development. Derangement of the developmental process can result in various structural anomalies, which range from a mainly cosmetic deformity, such as cleft lip, to potentially life-threatening conditions such as arhinia. These anomalies (a) can occur as isolated anomalies; (b) can be associated with intracranial, spinal, or dental anomalies; or (c) can be a part of various syndromes, thus serving as diagnostic clues in such cases...
April 13, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651255/sex-specific-skeletal-muscle-fatigability-and-decreased-mitochondrial-oxidative-capacity-in-adult-rats-exposed-to-postnatal-hyperoxia
#10
Laura H Tetri, Gary M Diffee, Gregory P Barton, Rudolf K Braun, Hannah E Yoder, Kristin Haraldsdottir, Marlowe W Eldridge, Kara N Goss
Premature birth affects more than 10% of live births, and is characterized by relative hyperoxia exposure in an immature host. Long-term consequences of preterm birth include decreased aerobic capacity, decreased muscular strength and endurance, and increased prevalence of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Postnatal hyperoxia exposure in rodents is a well-established model of chronic lung disease of prematurity, and also recapitulates the pulmonary vascular, cardiovascular, and renal phenotype of premature birth...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650962/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-mediates-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-against-neonatal-hyperoxic-lung-injury
#11
So Yoon Ahn, Won Soon Park, Young Eun Kim, Dong Kyung Sung, Se In Sung, Jee Yin Ahn, Yun Sil Chang
We previously reported the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in protecting against neonatal hyperoxic lung injuries. Recently, the paracrine protective effect of MSCs was reported to be primarily mediated by extracellular vesicle (EV) secretion. However, the therapeutic efficacy of MSC-derived EVs and the role of the VEGF contained within EVs in neonatal hyperoxic lung injury have not been elucidated. The aim of the study was to determine whether MSC-derived EVs attenuate neonatal hyperoxic lung injury and, if so, whether this protection is mediated via the transfer of VEGF...
April 13, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650591/ldb1-and-rnf12-dependent-regulation-of-lhx2-controls-the-relative-balance-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-retina
#12
Jimmy de Melo, Brian S Clark, Anand Venkataraman, Fion Shiau, Cristina Zibetti, Seth Blackshaw
Precise control of the relative ratio of retinal neurons and glia generated during development is essential for visual function. We show that Lhx2 , which encodes a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor essential for specification and differentiation of retinal Müller glia, also plays a critical role in the development of retinal neurons. Overexpression of Lhx2 with its transcriptional coactivator Ldb1 , triggers cell cycle exit and inhibits both Notch signaling and retinal gliogenesis. Lhx2/Ldb1 overexpression also induced the formation of wide-field amacrine cells (wfACs)...
April 12, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650428/-extrauterine-growth-restriction-among-neonates-with-a-birthweight-less-than-1-500grams
#13
Alejandro Avila-Alvarez, Alfonso Solar Boga, Carmen Bermúdez-Hormigo, Jesús Fuentes Carballal
INTRODUCTION: Growth restriction in preterm infants has been related to a poor neurodevelopment outcome. OBJECTIVES: To define the incidence of postnatal growth restriction in premature babies ≤1,500 grams and to detect related clinical or biochemical markers. METHODS: Retrospective longitudinal observational study. Multivariate linear regression models were used to determine variables that can predict the change in weight z-score during admission...
April 9, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650243/testicular-macrophages-guardians-of-fertility
#14
Noushin Mossadegh-Keller, Michael H Sieweke
Macrophages are innate immune cells present in essentially every organ of the body with dedicated tissue specific functions. We will present in this review the unique properties and functions of macrophage populations residing in the testis, an immune-privileged organ. Testicular macrophages (tMΦ) could be seen as guardians of fertility due to their immunosuppressive functions protecting spermatogenesis from auto immune-attack. They exhibit testis specific functions with essential roles in normal testis homeostasis and fetal testicular development...
April 3, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650192/family-support-and-maternal-self-efficacy-of-adolescent-mothers
#15
Jehan Puspasari, Imami Nur Rachmawati, Tri Budiati
OBJECTIVE: To identify a correlation between family support and maternal self-efficacy of adolescent mothers. METHOD: This cross-sectional study applied a consecutive sampling technique. The sample was 100 primiparous adolescent mothers. Instruments utilized were structured questionnaires, including a demographic questionnaire, Maternal Efficacy Questionnaire (MEQ), Postpartum Support System, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and Infant Characteristics Questionnaire (ICQ)...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649675/establishing-a-coherent-and-replicable-measurement-model-of-the-edinburgh-postnatal-depression-scale
#16
Colin R Martin, Maggie Redshaw
The 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is an established screening tool for postnatal depression. Inconsistent findings in factor structure and replication difficulties have limited the scope of development of the measure as a multi-dimensional tool. The current investigation sought to robustly determine the underlying factor structure of the EPDS and the replicability and stability of the most plausible model identified. A between-subjects design was used. EPDS data were collected postpartum from two independent cohorts using identical data capture methods...
March 23, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649487/expression-patterns-and-role-of-pten-in-rat-peripheral-nerve-development-and-injury
#17
Hui Chen, Jianping Xiang, Junxia Wu, Bo He, Tao Lin, Qingtang Zhu, Xiaolin Liu, Canbin Zheng
Studies have suggested that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) plays an important role in neuroprotection and neuronal regeneration. To better understand the potential role of PTEN with respect to peripheral nerve development and injury, we investigated the expression pattern of PTEN at different stages of rat peripheral nerve development and injury and subsequently assessed the effect of pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) on axonal regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. During the early stages of development, PTEN exhibits low expression in neuronal cell bodies and axons...
April 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649467/monosodium-glutamate-ingestion-during-the-development-period-reduces-aggression-mediated-by-the-vagus-nerve-in-a-rat-model-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
Ruriko Nishigaki, Yoshihiro Yokoyama, Yuko Shimizu, Ryosuke Marumoto, Sachiyo Misumi, Yoshitomo Ueda, Akimasa Ishida, Yasuyuki Shibuya, Hideki Hida
We used an umami substance, monosodium glutamate (MSG), as a simple stimulant to clarify the mechanism of the formation of emotional behavior. A 60 mM MSG solution was fed to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), used as a model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, from postnatal day 25 for 5 weeks kept in isolation. Emotional behaviors (anxiety and aggression) were then assessed by the open-field test, cylinder test and social interaction test. MSG ingestion during the developmental period resulted in a significant reduction in aggressive behavior but had few effects on anxiety-like behavior...
April 9, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649108/postnatal-growth-disadvantage-of-the-small-for-gestational-age-preterm-twins
#19
Iris Morag, Orly Stern Levkovitz, Maya Siman-Tov, Mor Frisch, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel, Tzipi Strauss
In this study, we examined early growth characteristics among small-for-gestational-age (SGA) preterm twins compared to their appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) counterparts. A retrospective study evaluated all consecutive twins born between 2008 and 2015 at a tertiary referral center whose gestational age ranged from 30.0 to 34.86 weeks. Included were twins in which one twin was AGA and the other SGA at birth. Changes of ≥2, 1-1.99, and 0-0.99 in z-score between births and 36 weeks post menstrual age (PMA) were respectively defined as severe, moderate, and mild postnatal growth failure (PNGF) in weight or head circumference (HC)...
April 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648595/progesterone-as-a-postnatal-prophylactic-agent-for-encephalopathy-caused-by-prenatal-hypoxic-ischemic-insult
#20
Yoshimasa Kawarai, Hirokazu Tanaka, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Makio Shozu
Brain damage caused by hypoxic ischemic insult during the perinatal period causes hypoxic ischemic encephalopathies (HIEs). Therapeutic hypothermia is indicated for HIE, but since the therapeutic burden is large for its limited therapeutic effectiveness, another strategy is needed. Progesterone (P4) plays a neuroprotective role through the actions of its metabolite, allopregnanolone (Allo), on P4 receptor, GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)A receptors or both. We examined the therapeutic potential of P4 using a newborn rat model of HIE...
April 10, 2018: Endocrinology
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