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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245026/ketogenic-diet-induced-extension-of-longevity-in-epileptic-kcna1-null-mice-is-influenced-by-gender-and-age-at-treatment-onset
#1
Kyoung-Chul Chun, Shun-Chieh Ma, Hyoungil Oh, Jong M Rho, Do Young Kim
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a leading cause of premature mortality in patients with epilepsy, and has been linked to multiple risk factors, including gender and early age at seizure onset. Despite the lack of a targeted therapy for SUDEP, it has recently been shown that a high-fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) enhances longevity in the epileptic Kcna1-null (KO) mouse, a validated model of SUDEP. Here, we asked whether the KD-driven prolongation of lifespan in KO mice is dependent on sex and/or age at treatment onset...
November 21, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244955/dose-and-diet-sources-of-arsenic-intake-in-mouse-in-utero-exposure-scenarios
#2
Manuela Murko, Brittany Elek, Miroslav Styblo, David James Thomas, Kevin A Francesconi
In humans, early life exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with adverse health effects. Inorganic arsenic in utero or in early postnatal life also produces adverse health effects in offspring of pregnant mice that consumed drinking water containing low part per billion levels of inorganic arsenic. Because aggregate exposure of pregnant mice to inorganic arsenic from both drinking water and food has not been fully evaluated in experimental studies, quantifying arsenic exposure of the developing mouse is problematic...
December 15, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244802/elevations-of-inflammatory-proteins-in-neonatal-blood-are-associated-with-obesity-and-overweight-among-2-year-old-children-born-extremely-premature
#3
Eliana M Perrin, T Michael O'Shea, Asheley Cockrell Skinner, Carl Bose, Elizabeth N Allred, Raina N Fichorova, Jelske W van der Burg, Alan Leviton
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is associated with elevated blood concentrations of inflammation markers. It is not known to what extent inflammation precedes the development of obesity. METHODS: In a cohort of 882 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation, we examined relationships between concentrations of 25 inflammation-related proteins in blood obtained during the first two postnatal weeks and body mass index at 2 years of age. RESULTS: Among children delivered for spontaneous indications (n=734), obesity was associated with elevated concentrations of four proteins (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-R1, and MCP-1) on the first postnatal day; one protein (IL-6) on postnatal day 7; and two proteins (ICAM-3 and VEGF-R1) on postnatal day 14...
December 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244799/prenatal-and-early-postnatal-measures-of-brain-development-and-childhood-sleep-patterns
#4
Desana Kocevska, Maria E Verhoeff, Selma Meinderts, Vincent W Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Sabine J Roza, Maartje P C M Luijk, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: Brain development underlies maturation of sleep patterns throughout childhood. Intrauterine head growth -marker of early neurodevelopment- has not been associated with childhood sleep characteristics. We explored associations between ultrasonographic measures of prenatal and early postnatal neurodevelopment and childhood sleep. METHODS: Six-thousand-five-hundred-twenty-eight children from a population-based birth cohort (Generation R) were included. Head circumference (HC) and lateral ventricles size were assessed with mid- and late-pregnancy fetal ultrasounds, and with cranial ultrasound 3-20 weeks postnatally...
December 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244798/amplitude-integrated-electroencephalography-during-the-first-72-hours-after-birth-in-neonates-diagnosed-prenatally-with-congenital-heart-disease
#5
Mirthe J Mebius, Nathalie J E Oostdijk, Sara J Kuik, Arend F Bos, Rolf M F Berger, Caterina M Bilardo, Elisabeth M W Kooi, Hendrik J Ter Horst
BACKGROUND: Little is known on amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) during the first days after birth in neonates with CHD. Our aim was, therefore, to assess electro-cortical activity using aEEG within the first 72 h after birth in neonates diagnosed prenatally with CHD, and to define independent prenatal and postnatal predictors for abnormal aEEG. METHODS: Neonates with CHD that were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit between 2010 and 2017 were retrospectively included...
December 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244793/effects-of-epinephrine-on-hemodynamic-changes-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-a-neonatal-piglet-model
#6
Michael Wagner, Po-Yin Cheung, Elliott S Li, Tze-Fun Lee, Min Lu, Megan O'Reilly, Monika Olischar, Georg M Schmölzer
BACKGROUND: Asphyxia is the most common reason for newborns to fail to make a successful fetal to neonatal transition. There is currently a lack of data evaluating hemodynamic effects of epinephrine during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. METHODS: Twenty-four newborn piglets were exposed to asphyxia. Thereafter, positive pressure ventilation was commenced for 30 s, followed by chest compressions (CC). Piglets were randomized into three experimental groups: 3:1 compression:ventilation ratio; CC during sustained inflation (SI) at a rate of 90 CC per minute, or CC during SI at a rate of 120 CC per minute...
December 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244244/mineral-apposition-rates-in-coronal-dentine-of-mandibular-first-molars-in-soay-sheep-results-of-a-fluorochrome-labeling-study
#7
Patricia Kahle, Carsten Witzel, Uwe Kierdorf, Kai Frölich, Horst Kierdorf
We studied the spatio-temporal variation of mineral apposition rate (MAR) in postnatally formed coronal dentine of mandibular first molars from Soay sheep repeatedly injected with different fluorochromes. MARs declined along the cuspal to cervical crown axis, and from early to late formed dentine, i.e., from the dentine at the enamel-dentine-junction (EDJ) to the dentine adjacent to the dentine-pulp-interface (DPI). Highest mean MARs (about 21 µm/day) were recorded in cuspal dentine formed in the period of 28-42 days after birth...
December 15, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244216/relationship-between-glenoid-deformity-and-gait-characteristics-in-a-rat-model-of-neonatal-brachial-plexus-injury
#8
Kelsey Hennen, Dustin L Crouch, Ian D Hutchinson, Zhongyu Li, Katherine Saul
Neonatal brachial plexus injury (NBPI) results in substantial postural and functional impairments associated with underlying muscular and osseous deformities. We examined the relationship between glenoid deformity severity and gait in a rat model of NBPI, an established model for studying the in vivo pathomechanics of NBPI. At 8 weeks post-operatively, we monitored the gait of twenty-four rat pups who exhibited varying degrees of glenoid deformity following unilateral brachial plexus neurectomy and chemodenervation interventions administered 5 days postnatal...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243938/iron-deficiency-affects-seizure-susceptibility-in-a-time-and-sex-specific-manner
#9
Michael Rudy, Margot Mayer-Proschel
Iron deficiency (ID) affects more than three billion people worldwide making it the most common micronutrient deficiency. ID is most prevalent during gestation and early life, which is of particular concern since its impact on the developing central nervous system is associated with an increased risk of a wide range of different psychiatric disorders later in life. The cause for this association is not known, but many of these same disorders are also associated with an imbalance between excitation and inhibition (E/I) within the brain...
November 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243395/species-comparison-of-postnatal-development-of-the-female-reproductive-system
#10
REVIEW
Susan B Laffan, Lorraine M Posobiec, Jenny E Uhl, Justin D Vidal
The postnatal development of the female reproductive system in laboratory animals and humans is reviewed. To enable a meaningful species comparison of the developing female reproductive system, common definitions of developmental processes were established with a focus made on aspects that are similar across species. A species comparison of the key endocrine, morphologic, and functional (onset of ovarian cycles and ability to reproduce) features of postnatal development of the female reproductive system is provided for human, nonhuman primate, dog, rat, and also mouse, minipig, and rabbit where possible...
December 15, 2017: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243318/effect-of-maturity-and-infection-on-the-rate-of-relaxation-of-the-respiratory-muscles-in-ventilated-newborn-infants
#11
Theodore Dassios, Ourania Kaltsogianni, Paul Dixon, Anne Greenough
AIM: To assess the respiratory muscle time constant of relaxation (τ), an index of respiratory muscle function in ventilated newborns. METHODS: Sixty-two infants (42 born prematurely) with a median gestational age of 29 [interquartile range (IQR) 26-37] weeks were prospectively studied. Measurement of τ was done during spontaneous breathing on endotracheal continuous positive airway pressure prior to extubation and τ was calculated from the reciprocal of the slope of the airway pressure decline versus time...
December 15, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243289/examining-the-content-and-moderators-of-women-s-fears-for-giving-birth-a-meta-synthesis
#12
REVIEW
Kayleigh Sheen, Pauline Slade
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This meta-synthesis aimed to identify key elements contributing to FOC derived from women's own reports. BACKGROUND: Fear of childbirth (FOC) encompasses fear or anxiety about giving birth, which can resemble a phobic response. FOC holds implications for women's antenatal and postnatal wellbeing, and decisions made about the birth but a clear definition of the construct does not exist. METHOD: A meta-synthesis was conducted by searching databases (Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, EBSCO, Medline, PsychInfo, and PsychArticles) for qualitative studies describing women's perspectives with respect to fear, anxiety, concerns, phobia or stress about birth...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243252/predicting-calvarial-growth-in-normal-and-craniosynostotic-mice-using-a-computational-approach
#13
Arsalan Marghoub, Joseph Libby, Christian Babbs, Erwin Pauws, Michael J Fagan, Mehran Moazen
During postnatal calvarial growth the brain grows gradually and the overlying bones and sutures accommodate that growth until the later juvenile stages. The whole process is coordinated through a complex series of biological, chemical and perhaps mechanical signals between various elements of the craniofacial system. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent a computational model can accurately predict the calvarial growth in wild-type (WT) and mutant type (MT) Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice displaying bicoronal suture fusion...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242905/the-long-noncoding-rna-landscape-of-the-mouse-eye
#14
Weiwei Chen, Shuai Yang, Zhonglou Zhou, Xiaoting Zhao, Jiayun Zhong, Peter S Reinach, Dongsheng Yan
Purpose: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of diverse biological functions. However, an extensive in-depth analysis of their expression profile and function in mammalian eyes is still lacking. Here we describe comprehensive landscapes of stage-dependent and tissue-specific lncRNA expression in the mouse eye. Methods: Affymetrix transcriptome array profiled lncRNA signatures from six different ocular tissue subsets (i.e., cornea, lens, retina, RPE, choroid, and sclera) in newborn and 8-week-old mice...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242832/persistence-of-supplemented-bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-infantis-evc001-in-breastfed-infants
#15
Steven A Frese, Andra A Hutton, Lindsey N Contreras, Claire A Shaw, Michelle C Palumbo, Giorgio Casaburi, Gege Xu, Jasmine C C Davis, Carlito B Lebrilla, Bethany M Henrick, Samara L Freeman, Daniela Barile, J Bruce German, David A Mills, Jennifer T Smilowitz, Mark A Underwood
Attempts to alter intestinal dysbiosis via administration of probiotics have consistently shown that colonization with the administered microbes is transient. This study sought to determine whether provision of an initial course of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) would lead to persistent colonization of the probiotic organism in breastfed infants. Mothers intending to breastfeed were recruited and provided with lactation support. One group of mothers fed B. infantis EVC001 to their infants from day 7 to day 28 of life (n = 34), and the second group did not administer any probiotic (n = 32)...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242571/divergent-risk-factors-for-cerebellar-and-intraventricular-hemorrhage
#16
Zachary A Vesoulis, Maja Herco, Amit M Mathur
OBJECTIVE: To identify whether intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and cerebellar hemorrhage (CH) have common or divergent risk factors. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cross-sectional cohort of infants including all infants born <30 weeks from 2007 to 2016. Comprehensive perinatal and clinical factors were extracted from the medical record. Outborn infants, infants with major congenital anomaly, those transferred prior to discharge, and those with mixed or no brain injury were excluded...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242413/assisted-physical-exercise-for-improving-bone-strength-in-preterm-infants-less-than-35-weeks-gestation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Subhash Chandra Shaw, Mari Jeeva Sankar, Anu Thukral, Chandra Kumar Natarajan, Ashok K Deorari, Vinod K Paul, Ramesh Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: To the efficacy of daily assisted physical exercise (starting from one week of postnatal age) on bone strength at 40 weeks of post menstrual age to no intervention in infants born between 27 and 34 weeks of gestation. DESIGN: Open-label randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Tertiary-care teaching hospital in northern India from 16 May 2013 to 21 Nov 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 50 preterm neonates randomized to exercise group (n=26) or control group (n=24) during May to November, 2013...
December 14, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241934/fetoplacental-cytogenetic-discrepancy-in-a-pregnancy-with-fetal-mosaic-tetrasomy-12p-and-pallister-killian-syndrome-detected-by-amniocentesis
#18
Chih-Ping Chen, Liang-Kai Wang, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Tzu-Yun Chuang, Li-Feng Chen, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present fetoplacental cytogenetic discrepancy in a pregnancy with prenatally detected mosaic tetrasomy 12p by amniocentesis. CASE REPORT: A 34-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniocytes revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+i(12)(p10)[7]/46,XX[16]. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis of the DNA extracted from cultured amniocytes revealed arr (12p)×3, (X)×2...
December 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241697/opening-the-black-box-of-endocrine-disruption-of-brain-development-lessons-from-the-characterization-of-bisphenol-a
#19
REVIEW
Dinushan Nesan, Laronna C Sewell, Deborah M Kurrasch
Bisphenol A (BPA) is among the best-studied endocrine disrupting chemicals, known to act via multiple steroid hormone receptors to mediate a myriad of cellular effects. Pre-, peri-, and postnatal BPA exposure have been linked to a variety of altered behaviors in multiple model organisms, ranging from zebrafish to frogs to mammalian models. Given that BPA can cross the human placental barrier and has been found in the serum of human fetuses during gestation, BPA has been postulated to adversely affect ongoing neurodevelopment, ultimately leading to behavioral disorders later in life...
December 11, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241680/race-effects-of-inhaled-nitric-oxide-in-preterm-infants-an-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#20
Lisa M Askie, Lucy C Davies, Michael D Schreiber, Anna Maria Hibbs, Philip L Ballard, Roberta A Ballard
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) improves survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) for preterm African American infants. STUDY DESIGN: An individual participant data meta-analysis was conducted, including 3 randomized, placebo-controlled trials that enrolled infants born at  <34 weeks of gestation receiving respiratory support, had at least 15% (or a minimum of 10 infants in each trial arm) of African American race, and used a starting iNO of >5  parts per million with the intention to treat for 7 days minimum...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
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