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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823112/miniaturized-pulsed-laser-source-for-time-domain-diffuse-optics-routes-to-wearable-devices
#1
Laura Di Sieno, Jan Nissinen, Lauri Hallman, Edoardo Martinenghi, Davide Contini, Antonio Pifferi, Juha Kostamovaara, Alberto Dalla Mora
We validate a miniaturized pulsed laser source for use in time-domain (TD) diffuse optics, following rigorous and shared protocols for performance assessment of this class of devices. This compact source (12×6  mm2) has been previously developed for range finding applications and is able to provide short, high energy (∼100  ps, ∼0.5  nJ) optical pulses at up to 1 MHz repetition rate. Here, we start with a basic level laser characterization with an analysis of suitability of this laser for the diffuse optics application...
August 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823111/welfare-to-work-interventions-and-their-effects-on-the-mental-and-physical-health-of-lone-parents-and-their-children
#2
REVIEW
Marcia Gibson, Hilary Thomson, Kasia Banas, Vittoria Lutje, Martin J McKee, Susan P Martin, Candida Fenton, Clare Bambra, Lyndal Bond
BACKGROUND: Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents...
August 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823071/accelerating-the-integration-of-distributed-water-solutions-a-conceptual-financing-model-from-the-electricity-sector
#3
Kimberly J Quesnel, Newsha K Ajami, Noemi Wyss
Modern challenges require new approaches to urban water management. One solution in the portfolio of potential strategies is the integration of distributed water infrastructure, practices, and technologies into existing systems. However, many practical barriers have prevented the widespread adoption of these systems in the US. The objective of this paper is to address these challenges by developing a conceptual model encompassing regulatory, financial, and governance components that can be used to incorporate new distributed water solutions into our current network...
August 19, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823061/validity-and-reliability-of-the-norwegian-translation-of-the-achilles-tendon-total-rupture-score
#4
Ståle Bergman Myhrvold, Øystein Sandnes, Sigurd Erik Hoelsbrekken
PURPOSE: Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly being used in clinical research. The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) is a PROM designed to assess outcomes in patients with ruptures of the Achilles tendon. The aim of this study was to develop a Norwegian adaption of the ATRS and evaluate its validity and reliability. METHODS: The ATRS was translated into Norwegian in accordance with recommended guidelines. The study included 94 patients treated for Achilles tendon ruptures from January 2010 until February 2013, and the web-based questionnaires were administered twice...
August 19, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823054/recent-advances-in-synthetic-lipopeptides-as-anti-microbial-agents-designs-and-synthetic-approaches
#5
REVIEW
Jun-Jie Koh, Shuimu Lin, Roger W Beuerman, Shouping Liu
Infectious diseases impose serious public health burdens and continue to be a global public health crisis. The treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens is challenging because only a few viable therapeutic options are clinically available. The emergence and risk of drug-resistant superbugs and the dearth of new classes of antibiotics have drawn increasing awareness that we may return to the pre-antibiotic era. To date, lipopeptides have been received considerable attention because of the following properties: They exhibit potent antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of pathogens, rapid bactericidal activity and have a different antimicrobial action compared with most of the conventional antibiotics used today and very slow development of drug resistance tendency...
August 19, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823009/proton-pump-inhibitors-as-risk-factor-for-metabolic-syndrome-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-coeliac-disease-patients-on-gluten-free-diet
#6
Nicola Imperatore, Raffaella Tortora, Testa Anna, Nicolò Gerbino, Nicola Caporaso, Antonio Rispo
BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown that patients with coeliac disease (CD) are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS) and hepatic steatosis (HS) after commencing a gluten-free diet (GFD). This study aimed to evaluate the predictive factors for MS and HS in CD after 1 year of GFD. METHODS: All consecutive newly diagnosed CD patients were enrolled. We prospectively collected data about BMI; waist circumference; blood pressure; cholesterol; triglycerides, glucose and insulin blood levels; insulin resistance (through the homeostatic model assessment HOMA-IR) and treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI)...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822945/development-of-an-accurate-and-sensitive-method-for-lactate-analysis-in-exhaled-breath-condensate-by-lc-ms-ms
#7
Thomas C Jackson, Yan Victoria Zhang, Patricia J Sime, Richard P Phipps, R Matthew Kottmann
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is easily obtained for clinical diagnosis and prognosis for pulmonary diseases and has gained much interest in biomarker discovery research and studies. Lactate, a physiological material, is found in EBC and has been demonstrated to be a potential indicator of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other lung diseases. Several assays are available to detect lactate in human body fluids, and yet none is suitable for detecting lactate in EBC. Due to the very low concentration of lactate in EBC and low volume of EBC, it is very important to develop an assay to measure lactate with high sensitivity, accuracy and easy sample processing...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822905/development-and-effect-of-water-temperature-on-development-rate-of-pikeperch-sander-lucioperca-embryos
#8
H Güralp, K Pocherniaieva, M Blecha, T Policar, M Pšenička, T Saito
Knowledge of embryo development is essential to the application of reproductive biotechnology in aquaculture, including for pikeperch Sander lucioperca. We describe pikeperch embryo development and demonstrated effects of temperature on the duration of embryogenesis. Developmental stages in embryos incubated at 15 °C were identified as zygote, 0-1.5 h post-fertilization (hpf); cleavage, 2.5-7.5 hpf; blastula, 9-18.75 hpf; gastrula, 21-39, hpf; segmentation, 45-105 hpf; and hatching, 125-197 hpf. Additional groups of eggs were fertilized and incubated at 10, 15, 20, and 25 °C to document stages of development, development rate, and survival...
August 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822897/callous-unemotional-behaviors-in-early-childhood-the-development-of-empathy-and-prosociality-gone-awry
#9
REVIEW
Rebecca Waller, Luke W Hyde
Callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors are critical to understanding the development of severe forms of aggression and antisocial behavior. CU behaviors include deficits in empathy and prosocial behavior, as well as reduced interpersonal responsivity to others. We review recent research examining CU behaviors in early childhood and the role that parents play in the development of early CU behaviors. We integrate research on the development of empathy and prosociality with that of CU behaviors to propose a developmental model of early CU behaviors that considers person-by-context interactions...
August 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822813/reinforcement-learning-based-control-of-drug-dosing-for-cancer-chemotherapy-treatment
#10
Regina Padmanabhan, Nader Meskin, Wassim M Haddad
The increasing threat of cancer to human life and the improvement in survival rate of this disease due to effective treatment has promoted research in various related fields. This research has shaped clinical trials and emphasized the necessity to properly schedule cancer chemotherapy to ensure effective and safe treatment. Most of the control methodologies proposed for cancer chemotherapy scheduling treatment are model-based. In this paper, a reinforcement learning (RL)-based, model-free method is proposed for the closed-loop control of cancer chemotherapy drug dosing...
August 16, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822767/eurostemcell-a-european-infrastructure-for-communication-and-engagement-with-stem-cell-research
#11
REVIEW
Jan Barfoot, Kate Doherty, C Clare Blackburn
EuroStemCell is a large and growing network of organizations and individuals focused on public engagement with stem cells and regenerative medicine - a fluid and contested domain, where scientific, political, ethical, legal and societal perspectives intersect. Rooted in the European stem cell research community, this project has developed collaborative and innovative approaches to information provision and direct and online engagement, that reflect and respond to the dynamic growth of the field itself. EuroStemCell started as the communication and outreach component of a research consortium and subsequently continued as a stand-alone engagement initiative...
August 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822753/the-genepattern-notebook-environment
#12
Michael Reich, Thorin Tabor, Ted Liefeld, Helga Thorvaldsdóttir, Barbara Hill, Pablo Tamayo, Jill P Mesirov
Interactive analysis notebook environments promise to streamline genomics research through interleaving text, multimedia, and executable code into unified, sharable, reproducible "research narratives." However, current notebook systems require programming knowledge, limiting their wider adoption by the research community. We have developed the GenePattern Notebook environment (http://www.genepattern-notebook.org), to our knowledge the first system to integrate the dynamic capabilities of notebook systems with an investigator-focused, easy-to-use interface that provides access to hundreds of genomic tools without the need to write code...
August 14, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822703/turning-the-screw-even-further-to-increase-microparticle-retention-and-ocular-bioavailability-of-associated-drugs-the-bioadhesion-goal
#13
J Rodríguez Villanueva, L Rodríguez Villanueva
Ocular drug delivery is one of the most fascinating and challenging tasks facing pharmaceutical researchers. Improving drug ocular residence time and/or penetration is complex. Microparticles (MP) provide interesting opportunities to increase ocular bioavailability of drugs and patient compliance brought about by decreased frequency of dosing. However, sustained-release microsphere formulation would fail to accomplish the task of long-lasting drug release unless microspheres remained for a prolonged period at the site of action...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822691/fatal-meningitis-in-swine-after-intrathecal-administration-of-adeno-associated-virus-expressing-syngeneic-interleukin-10
#14
Mark D Unger, Josef Pleticha, James E Collins, Anibal G Armien, Jennifer L Brazzell, Laura K Newman, Lukas F Heilmann, Jodi A Scholz, Timothy P Maus, Andreas S Beutler
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) delivered by intrathecal (i.t.) gene vectors is a candidate investigational new drug (IND) for several chronic neurological disorders such as neuropathic pain. We performed a preclinical safety study of IL-10. A syngeneic large animal model was used delivering porcine IL-10 (pIL-10) to the i.t. space in swine by adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8), a gene vector that was previously found to be nontoxic in the i.t. space. Unexpectedly, animals became ill, developing ataxia, seizures, and an inability to feed and drink, and required euthanasia...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822682/a-systematic-review-of-digital-interventions-for-improving-the-diet-and-physical-activity-behaviors-of-adolescents
#15
REVIEW
Taylor Rose, Mary Barker, Chandni Maria Jacob, Leanne Morrison, Wendy Lawrence, Sofia Strömmer, Christina Vogel, Kathryn Woods-Townsend, David Farrell, Hazel Inskip, Janis Baird
Many adolescents have poor diet and physical activity behaviors, which can lead to the development of noncommunicable diseases in later life. Digital platforms offer inexpensive means of delivering health interventions, but little is known about their effectiveness. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of digital interventions to improve diet quality and increase physical activity in adolescents, to effective intervention components and to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822611/dismantling-of-the-diorit-research-reactor-conditioning-of-activated-graphite
#16
Isabel Cecilia Sierra Perler, Hans-Frieder Beer, Joachim Müth, Andreas Kramer
The research reactor DIORIT at the Paul Scherrer Institute was a natural uranium reactor moderated by D2O. It was put in operation in 1960 and finally shut down in August 1977. The dismantling project started in 1982 and could be successfully finished on September 11th, 2012. About 40 tons of activated reactor graphite had to be conditioned during the dismantling of this research reactor. The problem of conditioning of activated reactor graphite had not been solved so far worldwide. Therefore a conditioning method considering radiation protection and economic aspects had to be developed...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822601/training-in-multiple-breath-washout-testing-for-respiratory-physiotherapists
#17
Katherine O'Neill, J Stuart Elborn, Michael M Tunney, Philip O'Neill, Stephen Rowan, Susan Martin, Judy M Bradley
INTRODUCTION: The development of multiple breath washout (MBW) testing in respiratory disease highlights the need for increased awareness amongst respiratory physiotherapists and a potential opportunity for professional development in the use of an important outcome measure for clinical trials. OBJECTIVES: To rationalise how MBW may be a useful assessment tool for respiratory physiotherapists and to describe a local MBW training and certification programme for physiotherapists...
April 25, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822594/-grade-evidence-to-decision-etd-frameworks-a-systematic-and-transparent-approach-to-making-well-informed-healthcare-choices-1-introduction
#18
Pablo Alonso-Coello, Holger J Schünemann, Jenny Moberg, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Elie A Akl, Marina Davoli, Shaun Treweek, Reem A Mustafa, Gabriel Rada, Sarah Rosenbaum, Angela Morelli, Gordon H Guyatt, Andrew D Oxman
Clinicians, guideline developers, and policymakers sometimes neglect important criteria, give undue weight to criteria, and do not use the best available evidence to inform their judgments. Explicit and transparent systems for decision making can help to ensure that all important criteria are considered and that decisions are informed by the best available research evidence. The GRADE Working Group has developed Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks for the different type of recommendations or decisions. The purpose of EtD frameworks is to help people use evidence in a structured and transparent way to inform decisions in the context of clinical recommendations, coverage decisions, and health system or public health recommendations and decisions...
August 16, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822548/short-communication-verifying-holstein-heifer-heart-girth-to-body-weight-prediction-equations
#19
A J Heinrichs, B S Heinrichs, C M Jones, P S Erickson, K F Kalscheur, T D Nennich, B J Heins, F C Cardoso
The estimation of Holstein heifer body weight (BW) from heart girth measurements is needed, as many farms do not have animal scales to make the management decisions that require BW. The correlation between heart girth and BW is known to vary with differing animal conformation. The previous equation to correlate the 2 measures for Holstein dairy heifers was done 25 yr ago. Data were derived from 6 US experiment stations that are part of Regional Research Project NC-2042: Management Systems to Improve the Economic and Environmental Sustainability of Dairy Enterprises...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822547/bacterial-diversity-in-goat-milk-from-the-guanzhong-area-of-china
#20
Fuxin Zhang, Zhaoxia Wang, Feiyan Lei, Bini Wang, Shuaiming Jiang, Qiannan Peng, Jiachao Zhang, Yuyu Shao
In this study, the V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene from metagenomic DNA were sequenced to identify differences in microbial diversity in raw milk of Saanen and Guanzhong goats from the Guanzhong area of China. The results showed that Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum, accounting for 71.31% of all phyla identified in milk from the 2 breeds, and Enterobacter was the predominant genus (24.69%) within the microbial community. Microbial alpha diversity from Saanen goat milk was significantly higher than that of Guanzhong goat milk based on bioinformatic analysis of indices of Chao1, Shannon, Simpson, observed species, and the abundance-based coverage estimator...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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