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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926092/key-genes-regulating-the-liposecretion-process-of-mature-adipocytes
#1
Giulia Maurizi, Tiina Petäistö, Angela Maurizi, Lucio Della Guardia
White mature adipocytes (MAs) are plastic cells able to reversibly transdifferentiate toward fibroblast-like cells maintaining stem cell gene signatures. The main morphologic aspect of this transdifferentiation process, called liposecretion, is the secretion of large lipid droplets and the development of organelles necessary for exocrine secretion. There is a considerable interest in the adipocyte plastic properties involving liposecretion process, but the molecular details are incompletely explored. This review analyzes the gene expression of MAs isolated from human subcutaneous fat tissue with respect to bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) focusing on gene regulatory pathways involved into cellular morphology changes, cellular proliferation and transports of molecules through the membrane, suggesting potential ways to guide liposecretion...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925902/adipose-triglyceride-lipase-regulation-an-overview
#2
Ines Katrin Cerk, Lisa Wechselberger, Monika Oberer
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the key-enzyme for the release of fatty acids (FAs) from triacylglycerol (TG) stores during intracellular lipolysis producing FAs used for energy production. There is growing evidence that the products and intermediates from lipolytic breakdown during the FA mobilization process also have fundamental regulatory functions affecting cell signaling, gene expression, metabolism, cell growth, cell death, and lipotoxicity. Regulation of ATGL is therefore vital for maintaining a defined balance between lipid storage and mobilization...
September 18, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925161/-protective-effects-of-liuwei-wuling-tablet-on-acute-alcoholic-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#3
Ping Yin, He-Rong Cui, Cong-En Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Ya-Kun Meng, Lan-Zhi He, Hui-Min Liu, Xiu-Xiu Sang, Jia-Bo Wang, Zhao-Fang Bai, Xiao-He Xiao
The protective action and the relevant mechanism of Liuwei Wuling tablet on acute alcoholic hepatic injury in mice were investigated. All the C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into 7 groups including blank, model, bifendate (150 mg•kg⁻¹, positive control) and experimental groups consisted of extremely low dose (0.1 g•kg⁻¹), low (0.5 g•kg⁻¹), upper (4 g•kg⁻¹) and high dose (8 g•kg⁻¹) of Liuwei Wuling tablet groups. The acute liver injury model was induced by modified method that the model, positive control and experimental groups were orally administrated 56% alcohol (6 g•kg⁻¹) twice at 12 hour intervals on the fifth day after drugs administration...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925080/specific-knock-down-of-tissue-non-specific-alkaline-phosphatase-mrna-levels-inhibits-intracellular-lipid-accumulation-in-3t3-l1-and-hepg2-cells
#4
George Chirambo, Chantal van Niekerk, Nigel J Crowther
The use of non-specific inhibitors of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) in pre-adipocytes blocks intracellular lipid accumulation. TNSALP is also expressed in hepatocytes, which are known to accumulate lipid in a similar manner to pre-adipocytes. The purpose of this study was to use specific silencing of TNSALP mRNA, using short interfering (si) RNA, to investigate the role of TNSALP in intracellular lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells. Cellular activity of TNSALP was measured using an automated colorimetric assay, and intracellular lipid accumulation was determined using the lipid-specific dye, Oil Red O...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924045/interaction-between-repressor-opi1p-and-er-membrane-protein-scs2p-facilitates-transit-of-phosphatidic-acid-from-the-er-to-mitochondria-and-is-essential-for-ino1-gene-expression-in-the-presence-of-choline
#5
Maria L Gaspar, Yu-Fang Chang, Stephen A Jesch, Manuel Aregullin, Susan A Henry
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Opi1p repressor controls the expression of INO1 via the Opi1p/Ino2p-Ino4p regulatory circuit. Inositol depletion favors Opi1p interaction with both Scs2p and phosphatidic acid at the ER membrane. Inositol supplementation, however, favors the translocation of Opi1p from the ER into the nucleus where it interacts with the Ino2p-Ino4p complex, attenuating transcription of INO1. A strain devoid of Scs2p (scs2) and a mutant, OPI1FFAT, lacking the ability to interact with Scs2p were utilized to examine the specific role(s) of the Opi1p-Scs2p interaction in the regulation of INO1 expression and overall lipid metabolism...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923247/effects-of-plant-and-animal-based-high-fat-diets-on-lipid-storage-and-distribution-in-environmental-bacteria-colonized-gnotobiotic-mice
#6
Yi-Hsun Chen, Chien-Chao Chiu, Shao-Wen Hung, Ju-Yun Liu, Yu-Chih Wang, Qiang Lv, Cheng-Chih Hsu, Yi-Wen Huang, Wen-Ching Huang, Hsiao-Li Chuang, Ter-Hsin Chen
Different edible oils such as lard and soybean oil have been reported to interact with the gut microbiota, affecting host lipid metabolism. However, whether bacteria derived from the environment influence host lipid metabolism remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the roles of environmental bacteria in host lipid storage and distribution with various edible oils. Gnotobiotic C57BL/6JNarl mice were inoculated with Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus and Paenibacillus azoreducens and then fed either a normal diet (LabDiet 5010, control group) or a diet containing 60% lard (L-group) or soybean oil (S-group) for 18 months...
September 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920396/-inhibition-of-chitin-oligosaccharide-on-dyslipidemia-and-the-potential-molecular-mechanism-exploration
#7
Fanqi Yi, Junping Zheng, Qiongyu Li, Siming Jiao, Yuguang Du, Yun Ye, Hongtao Liu
The inhibitory effect of NACOS on dyslipidemia and potential molecular mechanisms by in vitro and in vivo experiments were investigated. For in vitro study, four experimental groups were designed by using HepG2 cells, including the control group, palmitic acid (PA) treatment alone group, NACOS treatment alone group and NACOS + PA treatment group. For in vivo study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n=5) at random including the normal control group (NCD), high fat diet (HFD) group, NACOS treatment alone group, NACOS+HFD group, which were treated for 20 weeks...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919478/atorvastatin-reduces-lipid-accumulation-in-the-liver-by-activating-protein-kinase-a-mediated-phosphorylation-of-perilipin-5
#8
Xing Gao, Yang Nan, Yuanlin Zhao, Yuan Yuan, Bincheng Ren, Chao Sun, Kaiyu Cao, Ming Yu, Xuyang Feng, Jing Ye
Statins have been proven to be effective in treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, it was reported that statins decreased the hepatic expression of perilipin 5 (Plin5), a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein, which plays critical roles in regulating lipid accumulation and lipolysis in liver. However, the function and regulation mechanism of Plin5 have not yet been well-established in NAFLD treatment with statins. In this study, we observed that atorvastatin moderately reduced the expression of Plin5 in livers without changing the protein level of Plin5 in the hepatic LD fraction of mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD)...
September 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918933/structural-proteomics-topology-and-relative-accessibility-of-plant-lipid-droplet-associated-proteins
#9
Pascale Jolivet, Laure Aymé, Alexandre Giuliani, Frank Wien, Thierry Chardot, Yann Gohon
Lipid droplets are the major stock of lipids in oleaginous plant seeds. Despite their economic importance for oil production and biotechnological issues (biofuels, lubricants and plasticizers), numerous questions about their formation, structure and regulation are still unresolved. To determine water accessible domains of protein coating at lipid droplets surface, a structural proteomic approach has been performed. This technique relies on the millisecond timescale production of hydroxyl radicals by the radiolysis of water using Synchrotron X-ray white beam...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918598/triacsin-c-reduces-lipid-droplet-formation-and-induces-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-primary-rat-hepatocytes
#10
Carlos R P Dechandt, Felippe H Zuccolotto-Dos-Reis, Bruno G Teodoro, Anna Maria A P Fernandes, Marcos N Eberlin, Isis C Kettelhut, Carlos Curti, Luciane C Alberici
Intracellular long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) activate fatty acids to produce acyl-CoA, which undergoes β-oxidation and participates in the synthesis of esterified lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). Imbalances in these metabolic routes are closely associated with the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Triacsin C is one of the few compounds that inhibit TAG accumulation into lipid droplets (LD) by suppressing ACSL activity. Here we report that treatment of primary rat hepatocytes with triacsin C at concentrations lower than the IC50 (4...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916263/autophagy-dependent-generation-of-free-fatty-acids-is-critical-for-normal-neutrophil-differentiation
#11
Thomas Riffelmacher, Alexander Clarke, Felix C Richter, Amanda Stranks, Sumeet Pandey, Sara Danielli, Philip Hublitz, Zhanru Yu, Errin Johnson, Tobias Schwerd, James McCullagh, Holm Uhlig, Sten Eirik W Jacobsen, Anna Katharina Simon
Neutrophils are critical and short-lived mediators of innate immunity that require constant replenishment. Their differentiation in the bone marrow requires extensive cytoplasmic and nuclear remodeling, but the processes governing these energy-consuming changes are unknown. While previous studies show that autophagy is required for differentiation of other blood cell lineages, its function during granulopoiesis has remained elusive. Here, we have shown that metabolism and autophagy are developmentally programmed and essential for neutrophil differentiation in vivo...
September 1, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#12
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914056/effect-of-the-composition-and-structure-of-excipient-emulsion-on-the-bioaccessibility-of-pesticides-residue-in-agricultural-products
#13
Ruojie Zhang, Wenhao Wu, Zipei Zhang, Yeonhwa Park, Lili He, Baoshan Xing, David Julian McClements
The influence of co-ingestion of food emulsions with tomatoes on the bioaccessibility of a model pesticide (chlorpyrifos) was studied. Emulsions were fabricated with different oil contents (0 to 8%), lipid compositions (MCT and corn oil) and particle diameters (d32 = 0.17 and 10 μm). The emulsions were then mixed with chlorpyrifos-contaminated tomato puree, and the mixtures were subjected to a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consisting of mouth, stomach, and small intestine. The particle size, surface charge, and microstructure of the emulsions was measured as they passed through the GIT, and chlorpyrifos bioaccessibility was determined after digestion...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913923/an-ipsc-patient-specific-model-of-cfh-y402h-polymorphism-displays-characteristic-features-of-amd-and-indicates-a-beneficial-role-for-uv-light-exposure
#14
Dean Hallam, Joseph Collin, Sanja Bojic, Valeria Chichagova, Adriana Buskin, Yaobo Xu, Lucia Lafage, Elsje G Otten, George Anyfantis, Carla Mellough, Stefan Przyborski, Sameer Alharthi, Viktor Korolchuk, Andrew Lotery, Gabriele Saretzki, Martin McKibbin, Lyle Armstrong, David Steel, David Kavanagh, Majlinda Lako
Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness, accounting for 8.7% of all blindness globally. Vision loss is caused ultimately by apoptosis of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and overlying photoreceptors. Treatments are evolving for the wet form of the disease, however these do not exist for the dry form. Complement factor H (CFH) polymorphism in exon 9 (Y402H) has shown a strong association with susceptibility to AMD resulting in complement activation, recruitment of phagocytes, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) damage and visual decline...
September 15, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913786/the-lipid-droplet-a-conserved-cellular-organelle
#15
REVIEW
Congyan Zhang, Pingsheng Liu
The lipid droplet (LD) is a unique multi-functional organelle that contains a neutral lipid core covered with a phospholipid monolayer membrane. The LDs have been found in almost all organisms from bacteria to humans with similar shape. Several conserved functions of LDs have been revealed by recent studies, including lipid metabolism and trafficking, as well as nucleic acid binding and protection. We summarized these findings and proposed a hypothesis that the LD is a conserved organelle.
September 14, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913408/hepatocyte-specific-deletion-of-mouse-lamin-a-c-leads-to-male-selective-steatohepatitis
#16
Raymond Kwan, Graham F Brady, Maria Brzozowski, Sujith V Weerasinghe, Hope Martin, Min-Jung Park, Makayla J Brunt, Ram K Menon, Xin Tong, Lei Yin, Colin L Stewart, M Bishr Omary
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lamins are nuclear intermediate filament proteins that comprise the major components of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in LMNA, which encodes lamins A/C, cause laminopathies, including lipodystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and premature aging syndromes. However, the role of lamins in the liver is unknown, and it is unclear whether laminopathy-associated liver disease is caused by primary hepatocyte defects or systemic alterations. METHODS: To address these questions, we generated mice carrying a hepatocyte-specific deletion of Lmna (knockout [KO] mice) and characterized the KO liver and primary hepatocyte phenotypes by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, microarray analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Oil Red O and Picrosirius red staining...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904410/recent-advances-in-ergosterol-biosynthesis-and-regulation-mechanisms-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#17
REVIEW
Zhihong Hu, Bin He, Long Ma, Yunlong Sun, Yali Niu, Bin Zeng
Ergosterol, an important component of the fungal cell membrane, is not only essential for fungal growth and development but also very important for adaptation to stress in fungi. Ergosterol is also a direct precursor for steroid drugs. The biosynthesis of ergosterol can be divided into three modules: mevalonate, farnesyl pyrophosphate (farnesyl-PP) and ergosterol biosynthesis. The regulation of ergosterol content is mainly achieved by feedback regulation of ergosterol synthase activity through transcription, translation and posttranslational modification...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904380/transfer-of-labile-organic-matter-and-microbes-from-the-ocean-surface-to-the-marine-aerosol-an-experimental-approach
#18
Eugenio Rastelli, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Dell'Anno, Marco Lo Martire, Silvestro Greco, Maria Cristina Facchini, Matteo Rinaldi, Colin O'Dowd, Darius Ceburnis, Roberto Danovaro
Surface ocean bubble-bursting generates aerosols composed of microscopic salt-water droplets, enriched in marine organic matter. The organic fraction profoundly influences aerosols' properties, by scattering solar radiations and nucleating water particles. Still little is known on the biochemical and microbiological composition of these organic particles. In the present study, we experimentally simulated the bursting of bubbles at the seawater surface of the North-Eastern Atlantic Ocean, analysing the organic materials and the diversity of the bacteria in the source-seawaters and in the produced aerosols...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902428/nuclear-lamina-genetic-variants-including-a-truncated-lap2-in-twins-and-siblings-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Graham F Brady, Raymond Kwan, Peter J Ulintz, Phirum Nguyen, Shirin Bassirian, Venkatesha Basrur, Alexey I Nesvizhskii, Rohit Loomba, M Bishr Omary
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the major chronic liver disease in many countries. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial but twin and familial studies indicate significant heritability, which is not fully explained by currently-known genetic susceptibility loci. Notably, mutations in genes encoding nuclear lamina proteins, including lamins, cause lipodystrophy syndromes that include NAFLD. We hypothesized that variants in lamina-associated proteins predispose to NAFLD and used a candidate gene-sequencing approach to test for variants in 10 nuclear lamina-related genes in a cohort of 37 twin and sibling pairs: 21 individuals with, and 53 without, NAFLD...
September 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901468/apolipoprotein-a5-regulates-intracellular-triglyceride-metabolism-in-adipocytes
#20
Xiao-Yan Zheng, Bi-Lian Yu, Yu-Fei Xie, Shui-Ping Zhao, Chen-Lu Wu
It has previously been demonstrated that apolipoprotein A5 (apoA5) can be internalized by human adipocytes and significantly decreases intracellular triglyceride content. In the present study, endocytosis of apoA5 by adipocytes under different conditions, and the underlying mechanism by which apoA5 regulates cellular triglyceride storage, was investigated. The results revealed that the apoA5 protein was detected in human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues. In addition, the uptake of apoA5 was attenuated in human obese adipose tissues and in cultured adipocytes with hypertrophy or insulin resistance...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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