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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742332/modulation-of-lipid-digestion-profiles-using-filled-egg-white-protein-microgels
#1
Luping Gu, Yujie Su, Zipei Zhang, Bingjing Zheng, Ruojie Zhang, David J McClements, Yan-Jun Yang
Colloidal delivery systems are required to encapsulate, protect, and release active food ingredients, such as vitamins, nutraceuticals, and minerals. In this study, lipid droplets were encapsulated within biopolymer microgels fabricated from egg white proteins an injection-gelation process. Confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that lipid droplets were dispersed within a network of crosslinked proteins within the microgels. The properties of the lipid-loaded microgels were compared to those of simple oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by egg white protein...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739822/stress-responsive-hilpda-is-necessary-for-thermoregulation-during-fasting
#2
Matthew J VandeKopple, Jinghai Wu, Lisa A Baer, Naresh C Bal, Santosh K Maurya, Anuradha Kalyanasundaram, Muthu Periasamy, Kristin I Stanford, Amato Giaccia, Nicholas Denko, Ioanna Papandreou
Hypoxia-Inducible Lipid-Droplet Associated protein (HILPDA) has been shown to localize to lipid droplets in nutrient responsive cell types such as hepatocytes and adipocytes. However, its role in the control of whole-body homeostasis is not known. We sought to measure cell-intrinsic and systemic stress responses in a mouse strain harboring whole body Hilpda deficiency. We generated a genetically engineered mouse model of whole body HILPDA deficiency by replacing the coding HILPDA exon with Luciferase. We subjected the knockout animals to environmental stresses and measured whole-animal metabolic and behavioral parameters...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739572/altenusin-a-non-steroidal-microbial-metabolite-attenuates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-activating-the-farnesoid-x-receptor
#3
Zhihui Zheng, Zanmei Zhao, Shuqiang Li, Xinhua Lu, Mengxi Jiang, Jie Lin, Yunqi An, Yang Xie, Meishu Xu, Wenbin Shen, Grace Guo, YIxian Huang, Song Li, Xuexia Zhang, Wen Xie
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent chronic liver disease. The incidence of NAFLD has increased steadily due to its close association with the global epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, there is no effective pharmacological therapy approved for NAFLD. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear receptor subfamily, plays important roles in maintaining the homeostasis of bile acids, glucose and lipids. FXR agonists have shown promise for the treatment of NAFLD. Here we report Altenusin (2076A), a natural non-steroidal fungal metabolite, as a novel selective agonist of FXR with an EC50 value of 3...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739280/intramyocellular-lipid-droplets-and-insulin-sensitivity-the-human-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Anne Gemmink, Bret H Goodpaster, Patrick Schrauwen, Matthijs K C Hesselink
Skeletal muscle can store excess fat as subcellular lipid droplets (LDs). While originally viewed as uninteresting static balls of triacylglycerol, it is now clear that myocellular LDs play an active role in myocellular (patho)physiology. In this review we aim to discuss the role of LDs in muscle cell insulin sensitivity and identify parameters which appear to affect this relationship. Moreover, we discuss the application of novel tools permitting detailed examination of these parameters.
July 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739279/eicosapentaenoic-acid-membrane-incorporation-impairs-cholesterol-efflux-from-cholesterol-loaded-human-macrophages-by-reducing-the-cholesteryl-ester-mobilization-from-lipid-droplets
#5
Natalie Fournier, Guillaume Sayet, Benoît Vedie, Maxime Nowak, Fatima Allaoui, Audrey Solgadi, Eric Caudron, Pierre Chaminade, Jean-François Benoist, Jean-Louis Paul
A diet containing a high n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio has cardioprotective properties. PUFAs incorporation into membranes influences the function of membrane proteins. We investigated the impact of the membrane incorporation of PUFAs, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5 n-3), on the anti-atherogenic cholesterol efflux pathways. We used cholesteryl esters (CE)-loaded human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) to mimic foam cells exposed to the FAs for a long period of time to ensure their incorporation into cellular membranes...
July 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739173/lipid-droplet-proteins-and-metabolic-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Shimeng Xu, Xuelin Zhang, Pingsheng Liu
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous cellular organelles for lipid storage which are composed of a neutral lipid core bounded by a protein decorated phospholipid monolayer. Although lipid storage is their most obvious function, LDs are far from inert as they participate in maintaining lipid homeostasis through lipid synthesis, metabolism, and transportation. Furthermore, they are involved in cell signaling and other molecular events closely associated with human disease such as dyslipidemia, obesity, lipodystrophy, diabetes, fatty liver, atherosclerosis, and others...
July 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738285/molecular-assessment-characterization-and-differentiation-of-theca-stem-cells-imply-the-presence-of-mesenchymal-and-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-sheep-ovarian-theca-layer
#7
Samane Adib, Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi
The ability of ovarian theca stem cells to differentiate into oocyte and theca cells may lead to a major advancement in reproductive biology and infertility treatments. However, there is little information about function, growth and differentiation potential of these immature cells. In this study adult sheep theca stem cells (TSCs) characteristics, and differentiation potential into osteocyte-like cells (OSLCs), adipocyte-like cells (ALCs), theca progenitor-like cells (TPCs), and oocyte-like cells (OLCs) were investigated...
July 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738076/the-comparison-of-chca-solvent-compositions-for-improving-lc-maldi-performance-and-its-application-to-study-the-impact-of-aflatoxin-b1-on-the-liver-proteome-of-diabetes-mellitus-type-1-mice
#8
Fuu-Jen Tsai, Shih-Yin Chen, Yu-Ching Liu, Hsin-Yi Liao, Chao-Jung Chen
In nanoflow liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (nanoLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF) approaches, it is critical to directly apply small amounts of the sample elutes on the sample target using a nanoLC system due to its low flow rate of 200 ~ 300 nl/min. It is recommended to apply a sheath liquid containing a matrix with a several μL/min flow rate at the end of the nanoLC column to ensure a larger co-eluted droplet for more reproducible sample spotting and avoid the laborious task of post-manual matrix spotting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737753/metabolic-control-of-the-scaffold-protein-tks5-in-tissue-invasive-proinflammatory-t-cells
#9
Yi Shen, Zhenke Wen, Yinyin Li, Eric L Matteson, Jison Hong, Jörg J Goronzy, Cornelia M Weyand
Pathogenic T cells in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) infiltrate non-lymphoid tissue sites, maneuver through extracellular matrix and form lasting inflammatory microstructures. Here we found that RA T cells abundantly express the podosome scaffolding protein TKS5, which enables them to form tissue-invasive membrane structures. TKS5 overexpression was regulated by the intracellular metabolic environment of RA T cells-specifically, by reduced glycolytic flux that led to deficiencies in ATP and pyruvate...
July 24, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736444/lipid-droplet-remodelling-and-reduced-muscle-ceramides-following-sprint-interval-and-moderate-intensity-continuous-exercise-training-in-obese-males
#10
S O Shepherd, M Cocks, P J Meikle, N A Mellett, A M Ranasinghe, T A Barker, A J M Wagenmakers, C S Shaw
BACKGROUND: In obesity, improved muscle insulin sensitivity following exercise training has been linked to the lowering of diacylglycerol (DAG) and ceramide concentrations. Little is known, however, about how improved insulin action with exercise training in obese individuals relates to lipid droplet (LD) adaptations in skeletal muscle. In this study we investigated the hypothesis that short-term sprint interval training (SIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) in obese individuals would increase perilipin (PLIN) expression, increase the proportion of LDs in contact with mitochondria and reduce muscle concentrations of DAGs and ceramides...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735096/lipid-droplet-functions-beyond-energy-storage
#11
REVIEW
Michael A Welte, Alex P Gould
Lipid droplets are cytoplasmic organelles that store neutral lipids and are critically important for energy metabolism. Their function in energy storage is firmly established and increasingly well characterized. However, emerging evidence indicates that lipid droplets also play important and diverse roles in the cellular handling of lipids and proteins that may not be directly related to energy homeostasis. Lipid handling roles of droplets include the storage of hydrophobic vitamin and signaling precursors, and the management of endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735095/regulation-of-lipid-droplet-associated-proteins-by-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors
#12
REVIEW
Montserrat A de la Rosa Rodriguez, Sander Kersten
Excess fatty acids are stored in cells as triglycerides in specialized organelles called lipid droplets (LD). LD can be found in nearly all cell types and may expand during certain (patho)physiological conditions. The synthesis and breakdown of triglycerides and their deposition in LD is governed by a diverse set of enzymes and LD-associated proteins. These proteins serve structural roles in and around LD and regulate the activity of key lipogenic and lipolytic enzymes. The LD-associated proteins are subject to multiple regulatory mechanisms at the protein and gene expression level...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734827/multi-omics-analyses-of-starvation-responses-reveal-a-central-role-for-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-acute-starvation-survival-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#13
Eva Bang Harvald, Richard R Sprenger, Kathrine Brændgaard Dall, Christer S Ejsing, Ronni Nielsen, Susanne Mandrup, Alejandro Brenes Murillo, Mark Larance, Anton Gartner, Angus I Lamond, Nils J Færgeman
Starvation causes comprehensive metabolic changes, which are still not fully understood. Here, we used quantitative proteomics and RNA sequencing to examine the temporal starvation responses in wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans and animals lacking the transcription factor HLH-30. Our findings show that starvation alters the abundance of hundreds of proteins and mRNAs in a temporal manner, many of which are involved in central metabolic pathways, including lipoprotein metabolism. We demonstrate that premature death of hlh-30 animals under starvation can be prevented by knockdown of either vit-1 or vit-5, encoding two different lipoproteins...
July 12, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732574/albiflorin-ameliorates-obesity-by-inducing-thermogenic-genes-via-ampk-and-pi3k-akt-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#14
Mi-Young Jeong, Jinbong Park, Dong-Hyun Youn, Yunu Jung, JongWook Kang, Seona Lim, Min-Woo Kang, Hye-Lin Kim, Hong-Seob So, Raekil Park, Seung-Heon Hong, Jae-Young Um
OBJECTIVE: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation has been identified as a possible target to treat obesity and to protect against metabolic diseases by increasing energy consumption. We explored whether albiflorin (AF), a natural compound, could contribute to lowering the high risk of obesity with BAT and primary brown preadipocytes in vivo and in vitro. MATERIALS/METHODS: Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) were cultured with adipogenic differentiation media with or without AF...
August 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727846/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-versus-mild-intensity-endurance-training-on-metabolic-phenotype-and-corticosterone-response-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-or-control-diet
#15
Youqing Shen, Guoyuan Huang, Bryan P McCormick, Tao Song, Xiangfeng Xu
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727095/bta-mir-130a-regulates-the-biosynthesis-of-bovine-milk-fat-by-targeting-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma
#16
W C Yang, W L Guo, L S Zan, Y N Wang, K Q Tang
Milk fat determines the quality of milk and is also a main targeted trait in dairy cow breeding. Recent studies have revealed important regulatory roles of microRNAs (miRNA) in milk fat synthesis in the mammary gland. However, the role of miRNA in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the overexpression of miR-130a significantly decreased cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) levels and suppressed lipid droplet formation, whereas the inhibition of miR-130a resulted in greater lipid droplet formation and TAG accumulation in BMEC...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726765/oleic-acid-uptake-reveals-the-rescued-enterocyte-phenotype-of-colon-cancer-caco-2-by-ht29-mtx-cells-in-co-culture-mode
#17
Emmanuelle Berger, Merian Nassra, Claude Atgié, Pascale Plaisancié, Alain Géloën
Gastrointestinal epithelium is the unique route for nutrients and for many pharmaceuticals to enter the body. The present study aimed to analyze precisely whether co-culture of two colon cancer cell lines, mucus-producing cells HT29-MTX and enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, ameliorate differentiation into an in vitro intestinal barrier model and the signaling pathways involved. Differentiated Caco-2 cells gene datasets were compared first to intestinal or cancer phenotypes and second to signaling pathway gene datasets...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725267/heterologous-co-expression-of-a-yeast-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-scdga1-and-a-plant-oleosin-atoleo3-as-an-efficient-tool-for-enhancing-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-the-marine-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#18
Nodumo Nokulunga Zulu, Jennifer Popko, Krzysztof Zienkiewicz, Pablo Tarazona, Cornelia Herrfurth, Ivo Feussner
BACKGROUND: Microalgae are promising alternate and renewable sources for producing valuable products such as biofuel and essential fatty acids. Although this is the case, there are still challenges impeding on the effective commercial production of microalgal products. For instance, their product yield is still too low. Therefore, this study was oriented towards enhancing triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (strain Pt4). To achieve this, a type 2 acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase from yeast (ScDGA1) and the lipid droplet (LD) stabilizing oleosin protein 3 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtOLEO3) were expressed in Pt4...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720784/snap-tagged-chikungunya-virus-replicons-improve-visualisation-of-non-structural-protein-3-by-fluorescence-microscopy
#19
Roland Remenyi, Grace C Roberts, Carsten Zothner, Andres Merits, Mark Harris
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus, causes febrile disease, muscle and joint pain, which can become chronic in some individuals. The non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) plays essential roles during infection, but a complete understanding of its function is lacking. Here we used a microscopy-based approach to image CHIKV nsP3 inside human cells. The SNAP system consists of a self-labelling enzyme tag, which catalyses the covalent linking of exogenously supplemented synthetic ligands. Genetic insertion of this tag resulted in viable replicons and specific labelling while preserving the effect of nsP3 on stress granule responses and co-localisation with GTPase Activating Protein (SH3 domain) Binding Proteins (G3BPs)...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720531/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-the-genes-encoding-the-proteins-of-zika-virus
#20
Wangheng Hou, Ruth Cruz-Cosme, Najealicka Armstrong, Lilian Akello Obwolo, Fayuan Wen, Wenhui Hu, Min-Hua Luo, Qiyi Tang
Zika virus (ZIKV) encodes a precursor protein (also called polyprotein) of about 3424 amino acids that is processed by proteases to generate 10 mature proteins and a small peptide. In the present study, we characterized the chemical features, suborganelle distribution and potential function of each protein using Flag-tagged protein expression system. Western blot analysis revealed the molecular weight of the proteins and the polymerization of E, NS1, and NS3 proteins. In addition, we performed multi-labeled fluorescent immunocytochemistry and subcellular fractionation to determine the subcellular localization of these proteins in host cells...
July 15, 2017: Gene
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