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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226890/stability-of-the-microdroplets-for-portable-biosensor
#1
Yusuke Izawa, Toshihisa Osaki, Koki Kamiya, Satoshi Fujii, Norihisa Miki, Shoji Takeuchi, Yusuke Izawa, Toshihisa Osaki, Koki Kamiya, Satoshi Fujii, Norihisa Miki, Shoji Takeuchi, Koki Kamiya, Satoshi Fujii, Norihisa Miki, Shoji Takeuchi, Yusuke Izawa, Toshihisa Osaki
This paper highlights the behavior of microdroplets used for portable biosensors. Microdroplets have been applied for various Lab-on-a-chip applications, in which portability/wearable is becoming a trend word. However, the resonance (sloshing phenomena) of the microdroplets could be an issue. For example, bilayer lipid membrane, fragile characteristics due to its thickness of 5 nm, easily ruptures by jiggling. We therefore prepared various dimensions of droplets by changing the well shape, and examined the resulting waves depending on the vibration frequency between 20 and 100 Hz, including daily life frequencies...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225912/effects-of-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-on-structure-of-diaphragm-in-western-diet-obese-rats
#2
Bruna Hart Ulsenheimer, Heloisa Deola Confortim, Léslie Cazetta Jeronimo, Lígia Aline Centenaro, Ana Tereza Bittencourt Guimarães, Maria Lúcia Bonfleur, Sandra Lucinei Balbo, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus, Marcia Miranda Torrejais
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) on the diaphragm muscle of obese rats fed on a western diet (WD) . Methods: Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed a standard rodent chow diet (CTL group) or WD ad libitum. After 10 weeks, WD rats were submitted to sham (WD SHAM) or duodenal-jejunal bypass (WD DJB). The structure, ultrastructure, collagen content and the morphometry of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) were analyzed two months after surgery...
January 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218992/differently-localized-lysophosphatidic-acid-acyltransferases-crucial-for-triacylglycerol-biosynthesis-in-the-oleaginous-alga-nannochloropsis
#3
Takashi Nobusawa, Koichi Hori, Hiroshi Mori, Ken Kurokawa, Hiroyuki Ohta
Production of renewable bioenergy will be necessary to meet rising global fossil fuel demands. Members of the marine microalgae genus Nannochloropsis produce large amounts of oils (triacylglycerols; TAGs), and this genus is regarded as one of the most promising for biodiesel production. Recent genome sequencing and transcriptomic studies on Nannochloropsis have provided a foundation for understanding its oleaginous trait, but the mechanism underlying oil accumulation remains to be clarified. Here we report Nannochloropsis knockout strains of four extraplastidic lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAT1-4), which catalyze a major de novo biosynthetic step of TAGs and membrane lipids...
February 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218306/plin5-alleviates-myocardial-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-through-inhibiting-the-lipolysis-of-lipid-droplets
#4
Pengfei Zheng, Zhonglin Xie, Yuan Yuan, Wen Sui, Chao Wang, Xing Gao, Yuanlin Zhao, Feng Zhang, Yu Gu, Peizhen Hu, Jing Ye, Xuyang Feng, Lijun Zhang
Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a complex pathophysiological process. Current research has suggested that energy metabolism disorders, of which the abnormal consumption of fatty acids is closely related, compose the main pathological basis for myocardial I/R injury. Lipid droplets (LD) are critical regulators of lipid metabolism by LD-associated proteins. Among the lipid droplet proteins, the perilipin family members regulate lipolysis and lipogenesis through different mechanisms. Plin5, an important perilipin protein, promotes LD generation and lowers fatty acid oxidation, thus protecting the myocardium from lipotoxicity...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217743/regulation-of-nitrogen-metabolism-by-gata-zinc-finger-transcription-factors-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#5
Kyle R Pomraning, Erin L Bredeweg, Scott E Baker
Fungi accumulate lipids in a manner dependent on the quantity and quality of the nitrogen source on which they are growing. In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, growth on a complex source of nitrogen enables rapid growth and limited accumulation of neutral lipids, while growth on a simple nitrogen source promotes lipid accumulation in large lipid droplets. Here we examined the roles of nitrogen catabolite repression and its regulation by GATA zinc finger transcription factors on lipid metabolism in Y...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217095/endogenous-protein-interactome-of-human-udp-glucuronosyltransferases-exposed-by-untargeted-proteomics
#6
Michèle Rouleau, Yannick Audet-Delage, Sylvie Desjardins, Mélanie Rouleau, Camille Girard-Bock, Chantal Guillemette
The conjugative metabolism mediated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes (UGTs) significantly influences the bioavailability and biological responses of endogenous molecule substrates and xenobiotics including drugs. UGTs participate in the regulation of cellular homeostasis by limiting stress induced by toxic molecules, and by controlling hormonal signaling networks. Glucuronidation is highly regulated at genomic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. However, the UGT protein interaction network, which is likely to influence glucuronidation, has received little attention...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211464/molecular-basis-of-abhd5-lipolysis-activation
#7
Matthew A Sanders, Huamei Zhang, Ljiljana Mladenovic, Yan Yuan Tseng, James G Granneman
Alpha-beta hydrolase domain-containing 5 (ABHD5), the defective gene in human Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, is a highly conserved regulator of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-mediated lipolysis that plays important roles in metabolism, tumor progression, viral replication, and skin barrier formation. The structural determinants of ABHD5 lipolysis activation, however, are unknown. We performed comparative evolutionary analysis and structural modeling of ABHD5 and ABHD4, a functionally distinct paralog that diverged from ABHD5 ~500 million years ago, to identify determinants of ABHD5 lipolysis activation...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210075/pancreatic-stellate-cell-pandora-s-box-for-pancreatic-disease-biology
#8
REVIEW
Ratnakar R Bynigeri, Aparna Jakkampudi, Ramaiah Jangala, Chivukula Subramanyam, Mitnala Sasikala, G Venkat Rao, D Nageshwar Reddy, Rupjyoti Talukdar
Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) were identified in the early 1980s, but received much attention after 1998 when the methods to isolate and culture them from murine and human sources were developed. PSCs contribute to a small proportion of all pancreatic cells under physiological condition, but are essential for maintaining the normal pancreatic architecture. Quiescent PSCs are characterized by the presence of vitamin A laden lipid droplets. Upon PSC activation, these perinuclear lipid droplets disappear from the cytosol, attain a myofibroblast like phenotype and expresses the activation marker, alpha smooth muscle actin...
January 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209522/the-role-of-alkaline-phosphatase-in-intracellular-lipid-accumulation-in-the-human-hepatocarcinoma-cell-line-hepg2
#9
George M Chirambo, Chantal van Niekerk, Nigel J Crowther
Inhibition of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) decreases intracellular lipid accumulation in human preadipocytes and the murine preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1. Therefore, the current study was performed to determine if TNALP is required for intracellular lipid deposition in the human hepatocyte cell line, HepG2. Intracellular lipid accumulation, TNALP activity and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ gene expression were measured in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells in the presence and absence of the TNALP inhibitors levamisole and histidine...
February 13, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209485/effects-of-clozapine-on-adipokine-secretions-productions-and-lipid-droplets-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#10
Tomomi Tsubai, Akira Yoshimi, Yoji Hamada, Makoto Nakao, Hiroshi Arima, Yutaka Oiso, Yukihiro Noda
Clozapine, a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA), is a cause of side effects related to metabolic syndrome. The participation of serotonin 5-HT2C and histamine H1 receptors in the central nervous system has been reported as a mechanism of the weight gain caused by clozapine. In the present study, we investigated the direct pharmacological action of clozapine on the 3T3-L1 adipocytes and compared it to that of blonanserin, an SGA with low affinity for both receptors. Short-term exposure to clozapine decreased secretion and mRNA expression of leptin...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199134/genetic-control-of-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#11
Zhiqiang Jiang, Nelson H Knudsen, Gang Wang, Weiliang Qiu, Zun Zar Chi Naing, Yan Bai, Xingbin Ai, Chih-Hao Lee, Xiaobo Zhou
Bioenergetics homeostasis is important for cells to sustain normal functions and defend against injury. Genetics controls on bioenergetics homeostasis, especially lipid metabolism remain poorly understood in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), the third leading cause of death in the world. Additionally, biological function of most susceptible genes identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in COPD remains unclear. Here, we aim to address 1) how fatty acid oxidation, specifically β-oxidation (FAO), a key lipid metabolism pathway that provides energy to cells, contributes to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD; and 2) whether and how FAM13A (family with sequence similarity 13 member A), a well-replicated COPD GWAS gene, modulates FAO pathway...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197558/chemical-memory-with-states-coded-in-light-controlled-oscillations-of-interacting-belousov-zhabotinsky-droplets
#12
Konrad Gizynski, Jerzy Gorecki
The information storing potential of droplets, in which an oscillatory, photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction proceeds, is investigated experimentally. We consider coupled oscillations in pairs and triplets of droplets. Droplets are surrounded by a solution of lipids in decane. Oscillations synchronize via diffusion of an activator through a lipid bilayer. The reaction in each droplet can be individually controlled by illumination with blue light through an optical fiber. We found that in pairs of BZ droplets, only the in-phase and the forcing oscillation modes are stable, however switching between these modes is not reliable...
February 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195217/lipid-droplet-dynamics-and-insulin-sensitivity-upon-a-5-day-high-fat-diet-in-caucasians-and-south-asians
#13
Anne Gemmink, Leontine E H Bakker, Bruno Guigas, Esther Kornips, Gert Schaart, A Edo Meinders, Ingrid M Jazet, Matthijs K C Hesselink
A 5-day High-Fat High-Calorie diet (HFHC-diet) reduces insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) in South Asian, but not Caucasian healthy lean males. We aimed to investigate if differences in myocellular lipid handling are underlying this differential response. A two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and muscle biopsies were performed in 12 healthy lean Caucasian and South Asian males (BMI < 25 kg/m(2), 19-25 years) before and after a 5-day HFHC-diet (regular diet + 375 mL cream/day; 1275 kcal/day; 94% fat)...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194671/activation-of-insulin-pi3k-akt-p70s6k-pathway-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-contributes-to-fibrosis-in-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#14
Cindy X Cai, Hema Buddha, Shobha Castelino-Prabhu, Zhiwei Zhang, Robert S Britton, Bruce R Bacon, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are hallmark features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis (NASH). It remains unclear whether and how insulin contributes to the development of fibrosis in NASH. In this study, we explored insulin signaling in the regulation of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and the progression of NASH-fibrosis. METHODS: Phosphorylation of Akt and p70S6K were examined in primary HSC and in a rat model of NASH-fibrosis induced by high-fat and high-cholesterol diet for 24 weeks...
February 13, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193630/mycolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-modulate-the-flow-of-cholesterol-for-bacillary-proliferation-in-murine-macrophages
#15
Ilke Vermeulen, Mark Baird, Juma Al-Dulayymi, Muriel Smet, Jan Verschoor, Johan Grooten
The differentiation of macrophages into lipid-filled foam cells is a hallmark of the lung granuloma that forms in patients with active tuberculosis (TB). Mycolic acids (MAs), the abundant lipid virulence factors in the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), can induce this foam phenotype possibly as a way to perturb host cell lipid homeostasis to support the infection. It is not exactly clear how MAs allow differentiation of foam cells during Mtb infection. Here we investigated how chemically synthetic MAs, each with a defined stereochemistry similar to natural Mtb-associated mycolates, influence cell foamy phenotype and mycobacterial proliferation in murine host macrophages...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190924/hyperglycemia-simultaneously-induces-initial-caries-development-and-enhances-spontaneous-occlusal-surface-wear-in-molar-teeth-related-to-parotid-gland-disorder-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rats
#16
Taiki Nishimoto, Yasushi Kodama, Tetsuro Matsuura, Kiyokazu Ozaki, Yoshihiko Taniguchi
Diabetes and salivary gland dysfunction are major factors that induce dental caries in experimental animals, but there are no reports analyzing the association of dental caries and salivary glands in an animal model of diabetes mellitus (DM). To clarify the initial development of dental caries and preceding salivary gland disorder, we performed a histopathological analysis on teeth and salivary glands in diabetic Wistar rats 7 weeks after alloxan treatment (DM group) in comparison with nondiabetic rats (Non-DM group) and functional analysis on saliva secretion during the experimental period...
January 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183703/aup1-ancient-ubiquitous-protein-1-is-a-key-determinant-of-hepatic-very-low-density-lipoprotein-assembly-and-secretion
#17
Jing Zhang, Mostafa Zamani, Christoph Thiele, Jennifer Taher, Mohsen Amir Alipour, Zemin Yao, Khosrow Adeli
OBJECTIVE: AUP1 (ancient ubiquitous protein 1) is an endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein that also localizes to the surface of lipid droplets (LDs), with dual role in protein quality control and LD regulation. Here, we investigated the role of AUP1 in hepatic lipid mobilization and demonstrate critical roles in intracellular biogenesis of apoB100 (apolipoprotein B-100), LD mobilization, and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and secretion. APPROACH AND RESULTS: siRNA knockdown of AUP1 significantly increased secretion of VLDL-sized apoB100-containing particles from HepG2 cells, correcting a key metabolic defect in these cells that normally do not secrete much VLDL...
February 9, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179456/kinetics-of-milk-lipid-droplet-ld-transport-growth-and-secretion-revealed-by-intravital-imaging-ld-release-is-intermittently-stimulated-by-oxytocin
#18
Andrius Masedunskas, Yun Chen, Rebecca Stussman, Roberto Weigert, Ian H Mather
The lipid droplet (LD) fraction of milk has attracted special attention because it supplies preformed lipids for neonatal development and the assembled LDs are secreted by a unique apocrine mechanism. Because many aspects of this key process remain uncharacterized we developed a facile method for the intravital imaging of mammary cells in transgenic mice, which express fluorescently-tagged marker proteins. Using these techniques, we describe the first kinetic analysis of LD growth and secretion at peak lactation in real time...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179399/differential-proteomics-profiling-identifies-lipid-droplet-proteins-and-biological-functions-in-high-fat-diet-induced-fatty-livers
#19
Mingwei Liu, Rui Ge, Wanlin Liu, Qiongming Liu, Xia Xia, Mi Lai, Lizhu Liang, Chen Li, Lei Song, Bei Zhen, Jun Qin, Chen Ding
Eukaryotic cells store neutral lipids in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LD) enclosed in a monolayer of phospholipids and associated proteins (LDP). Growing evidence has demonstrated that LDPs play important roles in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. However, the composition of liver LDPs and role of their alterations in hepatosteatosis is not well understood. In this study, we performed liver proteome and lipid droplet sub-proteome profiling to identify enriched proteins in LD as LDPs, and quantified their changes in a high fat diet induced (HFD) fatty liver model...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176274/microglial-function-during-glucose-deprivation-inflammatory-and-neuropsychiatric-implications
#20
Matthew A Churchward, Devan R Tchir, Kathryn G Todd
Inflammation is increasingly recognized as a contributor to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety disorders and autism, though the factors leading to contextually inappropriate or sustained inflammation in pathological conditions are yet to be elucidated. Microglia, as the key mediators of inflammation in the CNS, serve as likely candidates in initiating pathological inflammation and as an ideal point of therapeutic intervention. Glucose deprivation, as a component of the pathophysiology of ischemia or occurring transiently in diabetes, may serve to modify microglial function contributing to inflammatory injury...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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