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Lipid droplet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922115/perilipin-5-fine-tunes-lipid-oxidation-to-metabolic-demand-and-protects-against-lipotoxicity-in-skeletal-muscle
#1
Claire Laurens, Virginie Bourlier, Aline Mairal, Katie Louche, Pierre-Marie Badin, Etienne Mouisel, Alexandra Montagner, André Marette, Angelo Tremblay, John S Weisnagel, Hervé Guillou, Dominique Langin, Denis R Joanisse, Cedric Moro
Lipid droplets (LD) play a central role in lipid homeostasis by controlling transient fatty acid (FA) storage and release from triacylglycerols stores, while preventing high levels of cellular toxic lipids. This crucial function in oxidative tissues is altered in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is a LD protein whose mechanistic and causal link with lipotoxicity and insulin resistance has raised controversies. We investigated here the physiological role of PLIN5 in skeletal muscle upon various metabolic challenges...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918728/cholesterol-metabolism-in-rabbit-blastocysts-under-maternal-diabetes
#2
S Mareike Pendzialek, Maria Schindler, Torsten Plösch, Jacqueline Gürke, Elisa Haucke, Stefanie Hecht, Bernd Fischer, Anne Navarrete Santos
In the rabbit reproductive model, maternal experimentally induced insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (expIDD) leads to accumulation of lipid droplets in blastocysts. Cholesterol metabolism is a likely candidate to explain such metabolic changes. Therefore, in the present study we analysed maternal and embryonic cholesterol concentrations and expression of related genes in vivo (diabetic model) and in vitro (embryo culture in hyperglycaemic medium). In pregnant expIDD rabbits, the serum composition of lipoprotein subfractions was changed, with a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase in very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; in uterine fluid, total cholesterol concentrations were elevated...
December 6, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917506/comparative-in-vitro-toxicity-assessment-of-perfluorinated-carboxylic-acids
#3
Cecon T Mahapatra, Nur P Damayanti, Samuel C Guffey, Jennifer S Serafin, Joseph Irudayaraj, Maria S Sepúlveda
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic fluorinated compounds that are highly bioaccumulative and persistent organic pollutants. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an eight-carbon chain perfluorinated carboxylic acid, was used heavily for the production of fluoropolymers, but concerns have led to its replacement by shorter carbon chain homologues such as perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA). However, limited toxicity data exist for these substitutes. We evaluated the toxicity of PFOA, PFHxA and PFBA on a zebrafish liver cell line and investigated the effects of exposure on cell metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914812/protective-effects-of-gomisin-n-against-hepatic-steatosis-through-ampk-activation
#4
Ye-Rang Yun, Ji-Hyun Kim, Ji Ha Kim, Myeong Ho Jung
Gomisin N (GN) is a phytochemical derived from Schisandra chinensis. It has been reported to exert a protective effect against hepatic steatosis by attenuating endoplasmic recticulum (ER) stress. However, the detailed mechanism by which GN inhibits hepatic steatosis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examined whether GN activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and exerts therapeutic effects on liver X receptor (LXR)- or palmitic acid (PA)-induced triglyceride (TG) accumulation in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, in vivo protective effects of GN against hepatic steatosis were assessed in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910983/investigation-and-intervention-of-autophagy-to-guide-cancer-treatment-with-nanogels
#5
Xudong Zhang, Xin Liang, Jianjun Gu, Danfeng Chang, Jinxie Zhang, Zhaowei Chen, Yanqi Ye, Chao Wang, Wei Tao, Xiaowei Zeng, Gan Liu, Yongjun Zhang, Lin Mei, Zhen Gu
Cancer cells use autophagy to resist poor survival environmental conditions such as low PH, poor nutrients as well as chemical therapy. Nanogels have been used as efficient chemical drug carriers for cancer treatment. However, the effect of nanogels on autophagy is still unknown. Here, we used Rab proteins as the marker of multiple trafficking vesicles in endocytosis and LC3 as the marker of autophagy to investigate the intracellular trafficking network of Rhodamine B (Rho)-labeled nanogels. The nanogels were internalized by the cells through multiple protein dependent endocytosis and micropinocytosis...
December 2, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910752/submicron-emulsions-and-their-applications-in-oral-delivery
#6
Veenu Mundada, Mitali Patel, Krutika Sawant
A "submicron emulsion" is an isotropic mixture of drug, lipids, and surfactants, usually with hydrophilic cosolvents and with droplet diameters ranging from 10 to 500 nm. Submicron emulsions are of increasing interest in medicine due to their kinetic stability, high solubilizing capacity, and tiny globule size. Because of these properties, they have been applied in various fields, such as personal care, cosmetics, health care, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Submicron emulsions are by far the most advanced nanoparticulate systems for the systemic delivery of biologically active agents for controlled drug delivery and targeting...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908430/evaluation-of-tissue-metal-and-trace-element-content-in-a-rat-model-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-using-icp-drc-ms
#7
Eugenia R Gatiatulina, Elizaveta V Popova, Valentina S Polyakova, Anastasia A Skalnaya, Eduard F Agletdinov, Alexandr A Nikonorov, Anatoly V Skalny, Alexey A Tinkov
The primary objective of the study was to assess the level of metals and trace elements in liver, serum, and hair of rats with diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometer (ICP-DRC-MS). 56 female 3-months-old Wistar rats divided into two equal groups were fed either standard (10% calories from fat) or high-fat high-carbohydrate diet (60% calories from fat in chow and 10% sucrose solution) for 6 weeks. Serum was examined for insulin resistance markers, lipid profile, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906187/systemic-application-of-3-methyladenine-markedly-inhibited-atherosclerotic-lesion-in-apoe-mice-by-modulating-autophagy-foam-cell-formation-and-immune-negative-molecules
#8
Shen Dai, Bo Wang, Wen Li, Liyang Wang, Xingguo Song, Chun Guo, Yulan Li, Fengming Liu, Faliang Zhu, Qun Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Yongyu Shi, Jianing Wang, Wei Zhao, Lining Zhang
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved intracellular degradation process, is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and has become a potential therapeutic target. Here we tested the effect of two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-chromone (LY294002), commonly used as inhibitors of autophagy, in atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice. Systemic application of 3-MA but not LY294002 markedly reduced the size of atherosclerotic plaque and increased the stability of lesions in high-fat diet-fed mice as compared with controls...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905068/inhibition-of-mevalonate-pathway-and-synthesis-of-the-storage-lipids-in-human-liver-derived-and-non-liver-cell-lines-by-lippia-alba-essential-oils
#9
Sandra Montero-Villegas, Mónica Polo, Marianela Galle, Boris Rodenak-Kladniew, María Castro, Ana Ves-Losada, Rosana Crespo, Margarita García de Bravo
The essential oils (EOs) of Lippia alba, an herb extensively used as a folk medicine in Latin America, are today promoted as an effective means of eliminating problems caused by hyperlipemia. We hypothesized that L.alba EOs inhibited cholesterol and triacylglycerols synthesis and decreased the intracellular depots of those lipids (lipid droplets), mechanisms involving the induction of a hypolipidemic response. Our aim was, therefore, to evaluate the hypolipogenic capability of the EOs of four L. alba chemotypes on liver-derived (HepG2) and non-liver (A549) human cell lines and to identify the potential biochemical targets of those chemotypes, particularly within the mevalonate pathway (MP)...
November 30, 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904396/moisture-sensitivity-optical-mechanical-and-structural-properties-of-whey-protein-based-edible-films-incorporated-with-rapeseed-oil
#10
Sabina Galus, Justyna Kadzińska
The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900258/adipocyte-specific-hypoxia-inducible-gene-2-promotes-fat-deposition-and-diet-induced-insulin-resistance
#11
Marina T DiStefano, Rachel J Roth Flach, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Laura V Danai, Joseph V Virbasius, Sarah M Nicoloro, Juerg Straubhaar, Sezin Dagdeviren, Martin Wabitsch, Olga T Gupta, Jason K Kim, Michael P Czech
OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue relies on lipid droplet (LD) proteins in its role as a lipid-storing endocrine organ that controls whole body metabolism. Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 (Hig2) is a recently identified LD-associated protein in hepatocytes that promotes hepatic lipid storage, but its role in the adipocyte had not been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hig2 localization to LDs in adipocytes promotes adipose tissue lipid deposition and systemic glucose homeostasis. METHOD: White and brown adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Adiponection cre+) and selective brown/beige adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Ucp1 cre+) mice were generated to investigate the role of Hig2 in adipose depots...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898069/clozapine-modifies-the-differentiation-program-of-human-adipocytes-inducing-browning
#12
E Kristóf, Q-M Doan-Xuan, A K Sárvári, Á Klusóczki, P Fischer-Posovszky, M Wabitsch, Z Bacso, P Bai, Z Balajthy, L Fésüs
Administration of second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) often leads to weight gain and consequent cardio-metabolic side effects. We observed that clozapine but not six other antipsychotic drugs reprogrammed the gene expression pattern of differentiating human adipocytes ex vivo, leading to an elevated expression of the browning marker gene UCP1, more and smaller lipid droplets and more mitochondrial DNA than in the untreated white adipocytes. Laser scanning cytometry showed that up to 40% of the differentiating single primary and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes had the characteristic morphological features of browning cells...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895822/linagliptin-alleviates-fatty-liver-disease-in-diabetic-db-db-mice
#13
Svetlana V Michurina, Irina Ju Ishenko, Vadim V Klimontov, Sergey A Archipov, Natalia E Myakina, Marina A Cherepanova, Eugenii L Zavjalov, Galina V Koncevaya, Vladimir I Konenkov
AIM: To study the effects of linagliptin on the structural signs of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in db/db mice. METHODS: Male diabetic db/db mice (BKS.Cg-Dock7(m+)/(+)Lepr(db)/J) aged 10 wk received the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor linagliptin (10 mg/kg) or saline as a placebo once per day by gavage for 8 wk. Intact db/db mice served as controls. Structural changes in the liver were analyzed from light and electron microscopic images of sections from intact, placebo-treated and linagliptin-treated animals...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895698/combinations-of-bio-active-dietary-constituents-affect-human-white-adipocyte-function-in-vitro
#14
Ines Warnke, Johan W E Jocken, Rotraut Schoop, Christine Toepfer, Regina Goralczyk, Joseph Schwager
BACKGROUND: Specific bio-active dietary compounds modulate numerous metabolic processes in adipose tissue (AT), including pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. AT dysfunction, rather than an increased fat mass per se, is strongly associated with the development of insulin resistance and is characterized by impaired adipogenesis, hypertrophic adipocytes, inflammation, and impairments in substrate metabolism. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying AT dysfunction may provide new strategies for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic diseases...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893580/the-effects-of-adipose-derived-stem-cell-differentiated-adipocytes-on-skin-burn-wound-healing-in-rats
#15
Yu-Wen Chen, Tabita Timeea Scutaru, Nicolae Ghetu, Eugen Carasevici, Cristian Dumitru Lupascu, Dan Ferariu, Dragos Pieptu, Corneliu-George Coman, Mihai Danciu
Both adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and fat grafting promote burn wound healing, but whether adipogen-derived cells using various inducers such as 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and insulin affect wound healing is unknown. Herein, ADSC-differentiated adipogenic lineages were used in rat burn wounds to evaluate wound healing potential. ADSCs were cultivated using six different adipogenic differentiation conditions (IBMX ± insulin, IBMX for 5 days, high and low Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium) and in vitro morphological changes and cell proliferations during adipogenic differentiation were recorded...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893522/zone-i-of-tear-microdesiccates-is-a-lipid-containing-structure
#16
Felipe Traipe, Leonidas Traipe, Daniela Salinas-Toro, Daniela López, Felipe Valenzuela, Claudio Pérez, Cristian Cartes, Francisca Zuazo, Patricia Varela, Héctor Toledo-Araya, Remigio López-Solís
PURPOSE: Morphological features of tear microdesiccates on glass surfaces have been associated with tear fluid status. Tear-film lipids play a critical role in the pathophysiology of some ocular surface disorders. Tear microdesiccates display 4 distinctive morphological domains (zones I, II, III, and transition band). In this study, we investigated the lipid location in tear microdesiccates. METHODS: Tear from individual healthy eyes (assessed by symptoms, signs, and slit-lamp examination) was collected using absorbing minisponges...
November 23, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890596/monoacyl-phosphatidylcholine-inhibits-the-formation-of-lipid-multilamellar-structures-during-in-vitro-lipolysis-of-self-emulsifying-drug-delivery-systems
#17
Thuy Tran, Scheyla D V S Siqueira, Heinz Amenitsch, Thomas Rades, Anette Müllertz
The colloidal structures formed during lipolysis of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) might affect the solubilisation and possibly the absorption of drugs. The aim of the current study is to elucidate the structures formed during the in vitro lipolysis of four SEDDS containing medium-chain glycerides and caprylocaproyl polyoxyl-8 glycerides (Labrasol), with or without monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPC). In situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was combined with ex situ cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to elucidate the generated structures...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889747/alisol-a-24-acetate-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-and-metabolic-disorders-in-hepg2-cells
#18
Lu Zeng, WaiJiao Tang, JinJin Yin, LiJuan Feng, Yabing Li, Xiaorui Yao, BenJie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with metabolic disorders including hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation. Alisol A 24-acetate, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizome, has multiple biologic activities such as hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic. Thus we hypothesized that Alisol A 24 -acetate would have effect on NAFLD. The present study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of Alisol A 24-acetate against hepatic steatosis in a free fatty acids (FFAs) induced NAFLD cell model...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887615/developing-a-set-of-strong-intronic-promoters-for-robust-metabolic-engineering-in-oleaginous-rhodotorula-rhodosporidium-yeast-species
#19
Yanbin Liu, Sihui Amy Yap, Chong Mei John Koh, Lianghui Ji
BACKGROUND: Red yeast species in the Rhodotorula/Rhodosporidium genus are outstanding producers of triacylglyceride and cell biomass. Metabolic engineering is expected to further enhance the productivity and versatility of these hosts for the production of biobased chemicals and fuels. Promoters with strong activity during oil-accumulation stage are critical tools for metabolic engineering of these oleaginous yeasts. RESULTS: The upstream DNA sequences of 6 genes involved in lipid biosynthesis or accumulation in Rhodotorula toruloides were studied by luciferase reporter assay...
November 25, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886716/simulating-the-dynamics-of-lipid-droplets-in-adipocyte-differentiation
#20
Federico Boschi, Vanni Rizzatti, Mauro Zamboni, Andrea Sbarbati
BACKGROUND: Lipid droplets are cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids. The dynamic of lipid droplets (LDs), during the differentiation process from fibroblast-like cells into adipocyte, is strictly related to the lipid storage in cells. The number and size of the LDs depends on the lipidic or lipolytic stimulations to which the cells are exposed. METHOD: Here, we propose a computational approach to study the processes regulating the LDs' number and growth/reduction in size using Monte Carlo simulations...
January 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
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