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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325130/antiretroviral-adherence-perspectives-of-pregnant-and-postpartum-women-in-guyana
#1
Deborah Vitalis, Zelee Hill
The Caribbean region has the second highest HIV prevalence after Sub-Saharan Africa. Guyana's adult HIV prevalence is 1.9% among pregnant women, with women accounting for an estimated 58% of all persons living with HIV. However, there are few studies on ART adherence in the Caribbean, none from Guyana, and none focusing on adherence in pregnancy and the postpartum period. The objective of this study was to explore the perspectives of HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women and healthcare providers in Guyana about barriers and facilitators to ART adherence...
March 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322222/white-matter-maturation-is-associated-with-the-emergence-of-theory-of-mind-in-early-childhood
#2
Charlotte Grosse Wiesmann, Jan Schreiber, Tania Singer, Nikolaus Steinbeis, Angela D Friederici
The ability to attribute mental states to other individuals is crucial for human cognition. A milestone of this ability is reached around the age of 4, when children start understanding that others can have false beliefs about the world. The neural basis supporting this critical step is currently unknown. Here, we relate this behavioural change to the maturation of white matter structure in 3- and 4-year-old children. Tract-based spatial statistics and probabilistic tractography show that the developmental breakthrough in false belief understanding is associated with age-related changes in local white matter structure in temporoparietal regions, the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, and with increased dorsal white matter connectivity between temporoparietal and inferior frontal regions...
March 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295170/implementing-universal-cervical-length-screening-in-asymptomatic-women-with-singleton-pregnancies-challenges-and-opportunities
#3
Michelle K Pedretti, Brenda M Kazemier, Jan E Dickinson, Ben W J Mol
Cervical length (CL) screening has been successfully utilised to identify asymptomatic women, with a singleton pregnancy, at risk of preterm birth (PTB), thereby providing an opportunity to offer interventions that may reduce that risk. Cervical length screening with ultrasound is most effectively performed with a transvaginal approach. Universal cervical length screening, encompassing all singleton pregnancies rather than restricting screening to those considered at increased risk of PTB, is currently not widely used, despite a growing body of evidence in support of its utility for PTB prevention...
March 10, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284098/harm-reduction-as-a-strategy-for-supporting-people-who-self-harm-on-mental-health-wards-the-views-and-experiences-of-practitioners
#4
Karen James, Isaac Samuels, Paul Moran, Duncan Stewart
BACKGROUND: Harm reduction has had positive outcomes for people using sexual health and substance misuse services. Clinical guidance recommends these approaches may be appropriately adopted by mental health practitioners when managing some people who self-harm. There has, however, been very little research in this area. METHODS: We explored practitioners' views of harm reduction as a strategy for supporting people who self-harm. The Self Harm Antipathy Scale (SHAS) was administered to a random sample of 395 mental health practitioners working on 31 wards in England, semi-structured interviews were then conducted with 18 survey respondents...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272114/medical-student-perceptions-of-feedback-and-feedback-behaviors-within-the-context-of-the-educational-alliance
#5
Lucy Bowen, Michelle Marshall, Deborah Murdoch-Eaton
PURPOSE: Using the "educational alliance" as a conceptual framework, the authors explored medical students' beliefs about feedback and how their feedback behaviors reflect their perceptions. METHOD: Five focus groups (four to six medical students each) at one UK medical school in 2015 were used to capture and elucidate learners' feedback perceptions and behaviors within the context of the learner-educator relationship. A map of key feedback opportunities across the program was used as a tool for exploring student engagement with the feedback process...
March 7, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271720/negotiating-health-and-chronic-illness-in-filipino-australians-a-qualitative-study-with-implications-for-health-promotion
#6
Della Maneze, Lucie Ramjan, Michelle DiGiacomo, Bronwyn Everett, Patricia Mary Davidson, Yenna Salamonson
OBJECTIVE: In spite of the healthy immigrant effect, the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases among migrants is reported to approximate that of the host country with longer duration of stay. For example, higher rates of chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and hypertension have been observed among Filipino migrants and these have been linked to acculturation. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Filipino-Australian migrants in managing their chronic health conditions in a Western host country...
March 8, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261139/assessment-of-dysfunctional-cognitions-in-binge-eating-disorder-factor-structure-and-validity-of-the-mizes-anorectic-cognitions-questionnaire-revised-mac-r
#7
Isabelle Carrard, Stephane Rothen, Maaike Kruseman, Yasser Khazaal
Background: Dysfunctional cognitions regarding weight and shape and their implications for self-esteem are considered core features of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. However, they have also been associated with the severity of binge eating disorder (BED). Therefore, they should be screened with appropriate instruments to tailor treatment to individual patient needs. The Mizes Anorectic Cognitions-Revised (MAC-R) is a self-report questionnaire that lists dysfunctional cognitions related to three hypothesized core beliefs typical of the psychopathology of eating disorders: weight and eating as the basis of approval from others; the belief that rigid self-control is fundamental to self-worth; and the rigidity of weight- and eating-regulation efforts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257853/cortical-features-of-distinct-developmental-trajectories-in-patients-with-delusional-infestation
#8
Dusan Hirjak, Markus Huber, Erwin Kirchler, Katharina M Kubera, Martin Karner, Fabio Sambataro, Roland W Freudenmann, Robert C Wolf
BACKGROUND: Although there is strong neuroimaging evidence that cortical alterations are a core feature of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, it still remains unclear to what extent such abnormalities occur in monothematic delusional disorders. In individuals with delusional infestation (DI), the delusional belief to be infested with pathogens, previous structural MRI studies have shown prefrontal, temporal, parietal, insular, thalamic and striatal gray matter volume changes. Differential contributions of cortical features of evolutionary and genetic origin (such as cortical thickness, area and folding) which may distinctly contribute to DI pathophysiology are unclear at present...
February 28, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248411/reflective-journals-unmasking-student-perceptions-of-anatomical-education
#9
Lelika Lazarus, Reshma Sookrajh, Kapil Sewsaran Satyapal
In medical education, reflection has been considered to be a core skill in professional competence. The anatomy laboratory is an ideal setting for faculty/student interaction and provides invaluable opportunities for active learning and reflection on anatomical knowledge. This study was designed to record student attitudes regarding human cadaveric dissection, explore their experiences of anatomy through an analysis of their journal-reflective writings and determine whether this type of creative writing had a beneficial effect on those students who chose to complete them...
March 1, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238788/childhood-vaccination-communication-outcomes-unpacked-and-organised-in-a-taxonomy-to-facilitate-core-outcome-establishment
#10
Jessica Kaufman, Rebecca Ryan, Claire Glenton, Simon Lewin, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Yuri Cartier, Julie Cliff, Angela Oyo-Ita, Heather Ames, Artur Manuel Muloliwa, Afiong Oku, Gabriel Rada, Sophie Hill
OBJECTIVE: We present a comprehensive taxonomy of outcomes for childhood vaccination communication interventions. Adding to our earlier map of trial outcomes, we aimed to: 1) identify relevant outcomes not measured in trials; 2) identify outcomes from stakeholder focus groups; and 3) organise outcomes into a taxonomy. STUDY DESIGN: We identified additional outcomes from non-vaccination health communication literature and through parent and healthcare professional focus groups...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229986/executive-function-training-for-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Lan Shuai, David Daley, Yu-Feng Wang, Jin-Song Zhang, Yan-Ting Kong, Xin Tan, Ning Ji
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with core deficits in executive function (EF) which predicts poorer academic and occupational functioning. This makes early intervention targeting EF impairments important to prevent long-term negative outcomes. Cognitive training is a potential ADHD treatment target. The present study aimed to explore the efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of a cognitive training program (targeting child's multiple EF components and involving parent support in daily life), as a nonpharmacological intervention for children with ADHD...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154999/the-spiritual-and-theological-challenges-of-stillbirth-for-bereaved-parents
#12
Daniel Nuzum, Sarah Meaney, Keelin O'Donoghue
Stillbirth is recognized as one of the most challenging experiences of bereavement raising significant spiritual and theological questions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with bereaved parents cared for in a tertiary maternity hospital to explore the spiritual impact of stillbirth. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Stillbirth was identified as an immensely challenging spiritual and personal experience with enduring impact for parents. The superordinate themes to emerge were searching for meaning, maintaining hope and questioning core beliefs...
June 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122413/the-heart-is-a-representation-of-life-an-exploration-of-illness-beliefs-in-couples-living-with-atrial-fibrillation
#13
Tomas Dalteg, Jonas Sandberg, Dan Malm, Anna Sandgren, Eva Benzein
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore illness beliefs in couples where one spouse has atrial fibrillation. BACKGROUND: Beliefs are the lenses through which we view the world, guiding our behaviour and constructing our lives. Couples evolve an ecology of beliefs from their interaction whereby their actions and choices arise from their beliefs. Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia that has implications for both patients and partners. A couple's illness beliefs play an important role in convalescence and illness management, and no previous studies have explored illness beliefs in couples living with AF DESIGN: A qualitative hermeneutic design...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116006/development-of-an-assessment-for-entrustable-professional-activity-epa-10-emergent-patient-management
#14
Laura R Thompson, Cynthia G Leung, Brad Green, Jonathan Lipps, Troy Schaffernocker, Cynthia Ledford, John Davis, David P Way, Nicholas E Kman
INTRODUCTION: Medical schools in the United States are encouraged to prepare and certify the entrustment of medical students to perform 13 core entrustable professional activities (EPAs) prior to graduation. Entrustment is defined as the informed belief that the learner is qualified to autonomously perform specific patient-care activities. Core EPA-10 is the entrustment of a graduate to care for the emergent patient. The purpose of this project was to design a realistic performance assessment method for evaluating fourth-year medical students on EPA-10...
January 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114774/relational-wellbeing-following-traumatic-interpersonal-events-and-challenges-to-core-beliefs
#15
Julia S Kaufman, Lucy J Allbaugh, Margaret O'Dougherty Wright
OBJECTIVE: Prior research has found that the degree to which a traumatic event challenges core beliefs is associated with adjustment problems; however, how such experiences impact relational wellbeing has received little attention. The current study examined whether negative posttraumatic cognitions mediated the relation between examination of core beliefs and relational wellbeing in young adults following experiences of interpersonal trauma. METHOD: A moderated parallel mediation model investigated the relation between core beliefs and relational wellbeing through negative cognitions about the self, the world and others, self-blame, and depressive symptoms, following interpersonal violence (IPV; n = 168) and violent loss (VL; n = 102), with ego-resilience moderating the paths from examination of core beliefs to each mediator and relational wellbeing...
January 23, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114357/young-adults-belief-in-genetic-determinism-and-knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-modern-genetics-and-genomics-the-puggs-questionnaire
#16
Rebecca Bruu Carver, Jérémy Castéra, Niklas Gericke, Neima Alice Menezes Evangelista, Charbel N El-Hani
In this paper we present the development and validation a comprehensive questionnaire to assess college students' knowledge about modern genetics and genomics, their belief in genetic determinism, and their attitudes towards applications of modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. Written in everyday language with minimal jargon, the Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics (PUGGS) questionnaire is intended for use in research on science education and public understanding of science, as a means to investigate relationships between knowledge, determinism and attitudes about modern genetics, which are to date little understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112075/heterogeneity-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-empirically-defined-subgroups-from-the-pace-trial
#17
T E Williams, T Chalder, M Sharpe, P D White
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome is likely to be a heterogeneous condition. Previous studies have empirically defined subgroups using combinations of clinical and biological variables. We aimed to explore the heterogeneity of chronic fatigue syndrome. METHOD: We used baseline data from the PACE trial, which included 640 participants with chronic fatigue syndrome. Variable reduction, using a combination of clinical knowledge and principal component analyses, produced a final dataset of 26 variables for 541 patients...
January 23, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099764/the-posttraumatic-growth-inventory-a-revision-integrating-existential-and-spiritual-change
#18
Richard G Tedeschi, Arnie Cann, Kanako Taku, Emre Senol-Durak, Lawrence G Calhoun
Spiritual Change (SC) is one of 5 domains of posttraumatic growth (PTG). The current Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) assesses this area of growth with only 2 items, one focusing on religiosity and the other focusing on spiritual understanding. The addition of 4 newly developed spiritual-existential change (SEC) items, creating an expanded PTGI (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-X), reflects a diversity of perspectives on spiritual-existential experiences that are represented in different cultures. Samples were obtained from 3 countries: the United States (n = 250), Turkey (n = 502), and Japan (n = 314)...
February 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077219/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-depression-using-mind-over-mood-cbt-skill-use-and-differential-symptom-alleviation
#19
Lance L Hawley, Christine A Padesky, Steven D Hollon, Enza Mancuso, Judith M Laposa, Karen Brozina, Zindel V Segal
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression is highly effective. An essential element of this therapy involves acquiring and utilizing CBT skills; however, it is unclear whether the type of CBT skill used is associated with differential symptom alleviation. Outpatients (N = 356) diagnosed with a primary mood disorder received 14 two-hour group sessions of CBT for depression, using the Mind Over Mood protocol. In each session, patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory and throughout the week they reported on their use of CBT skills: behavioral activation (BA), cognitive restructuring (CR), and core belief (CB) strategies...
January 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068503/talking-about-god-with-trauma-survivors
#20
Colin A Ross
Severe, chronic childhood trauma commonly results in a set of negative core self-beliefs. These include blaming the self for the abuse, feeling unworthy and unlovable, believing the world would be better off if one committed suicide, and believing that one does not deserve peace or happiness. Linked to these cognitive errors are beliefs that one is not worthy of God's love, that God wanted the person to be abused, and that the person can avoid God's judgment if she does not go to church. Strategies for dealing with these cognitive errors about God are presented within the context of a secular psychotherapy...
December 31, 2016: American Journal of Psychotherapy
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