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Core beliefs

Siobhan M Mor, Jacqueline M Norris, Katrina L Bosward, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio, Michael P Ward, Jaime Gongora, Meg Vost, Peter C Higgins, Paul D McGreevy, Peter J White, Sanaa Zaki
Background: New educational approaches are needed to improve student understanding of the wider sociological and ecological determinants of health as well as professional responsibilities in related areas. Field trips allow students to observe interaction between plant, animal and human communities, making them an ideal tool for teaching One Health concepts. Methods: Veterinary medical students participated in a field trip to a local parklands area, frequented by humans, dogs, horses, and wildlife...
June 2018: One Health
Kaitlin A Pruskowski, Julie A Rizzo, Beth A Shields, Rodney K Chan, Ian R Driscoll, Matthew P Rowan, Kevin K Chung
Maintaining body temperature is a unique challenge with burn care. We sought to describe core temperature goals in the operating room (OR) and the methods used to achieve and maintain these goals, along with current methods of warming in the intensive care unit (ICU), the perception of effect of increased ambient temperature on work performance, and concerns with contamination of sterile fields due to increased ambient temperature. A 24 question survey was disseminated to burn centers in the United States and Canada...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Todd Lucas, Mark Manning, Lenwood W Hayman, James Blessman
This study demonstrates the potential of racial identity to moderate how gain and loss-framed messaging, as well as culturally-targeted messaging, can affect receptivity to preventive health screening. African-Americans (N = 132) who were noncompliant with recommended colorectal cancer (CRC) screening completed a measure of racial identity centrality-encompassing the extent to which racial identity is a core component of self-concept-and then participated in an online education module about CRC screening, during which either gain or loss-framed messaging was introduced...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Annabel D Nijhof, Lara Bardi, Marcel Brass, Jan R Wiersema
The socio-communicative difficulties of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are hypothesized to be caused by a specific deficit in the ability to represent one's own and others' mental states, referred to as Theory of Mind or mentalizing. However, many individuals with ASD show successful performance on explicit measures of mentalizing, and for this reason, the deficit is thought to be better captured by measures of spontaneous mentalizing. While there is initial behavioral support for this hypothesis, spontaneous mentalizing in ASD has not yet been studied at the neural level...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sabrina Morin Chabane, Franzina Coutinho, Maude Laliberte, Debbie Feldman
PURPOSE: To conduct a knowledge translation exercise by sharing knowledge from a scoping review, describing physiotherapists' attitudes toward and beliefs about chronic pain, and to gain perspectives on these findings from physiotherapists working with this clientele. METHOD: We conducted three focus groups with a total of 14 outpatient physiotherapists working in public hospitals. We first showed a video (reflecting an encounter between a clinician and a person living with chronic pain) created based on themes that emerged from a scoping review we conducted, followed by a discussion about attitudes and beliefs toward chronic pain...
June 6, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
R C Hamdy, A Kinser, Tracey Kendall-Wilson, A Depelteau, R Copeland, K Whalen, J Culp
Visual well-formed hallucinations, fluctuations in the level of cognition, and alertness and extrapyramidal signs are core features of dementia with Lewy bodies. Some patients realize that what they are seeing or hearing are just hallucinations and learn to accept them. Others, however experience these hallucinations as quite real and cannot be dissuaded from the firm belief that they are. In fact, efforts to dissuade them often serve only to confirm the often associated paranoid delusions and this may lead to a catastrophic ending...
January 2018: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
Claire Henderson, Petra C Gronholm
Recent reviews on the evidence base for mental health related stigma reduction show that under certain conditions interpersonal contact is effective in promoting more positive attitudes, reduced desire for social distance, and increased stigma related knowledge (knowledge which disconfirms beliefs based on stereotypes). Short-term interventions may have effects that are attenuated over time; longer term programmes may support sustained improvements, but research following up long-term interventions is scarce...
June 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Matthew Browne
Vaccine scepticism is an increasingly important barrier to optimal coverage in developed countries. In this commentary, we make the case that negative attitudes towards vaccines reflect a broader and deeper set of beliefs about health and wellbeing. We suggest that this alternative worldview is influenced by ontological confusions (e.g. regarding purity, natural energy), and knowledge based on personal lived experience and trusted peers, rather than the positivist epistemological framework. Our view is supported by recent social-psychological research, including strong correlations of vaccine scepticism with adherence to complementary and alternative medicine, magical health beliefs, and conspiracy ideation...
June 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Jodie Harlowe, Stephanie Farrar, Lusia Stopa, Hannah Turner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low self-esteem has been identified as a maintaining factor in Cognitive Behavioural models of eating disorders and links have been identified between early memories, negative core beliefs and mental imagery. This study explored the impact of positive and negative self-imagery on aspects of the working self (implicit and explicit self-esteem, self-concept clarity and self-discrepancy) and affect. METHODS: Participants with high levels of eating disorder cognitions completed measures of explicit self-esteem, self-concept clarity, self-discrepancy and affect prior to completing a positive or negative self-imagery retrieval task...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Mieko Omura, Teresa E Stone, Jane Maguire, Tracy Levett-Jones
BACKGROUND: The hierarchical nature of healthcare environments presents a key risk factor for effective interprofessional communication. Power differentials evident in traditional healthcare cultures can make it difficult for healthcare professionals to raise concerns and be assertive when they have concerns about patient safety. This issue is of particular concern in Japan where inherent cultural and social norms discourage assertive communication. AIM: The aim of this study was to (a) explore nurses' perceptions of the relevance and use of assertive communication in Japanese healthcare environments; and (b) identify the factors that facilitate or impede assertive communication by Japanese nurses...
May 19, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Oluwole Jegede, Inderpreet Virk, Karthik Cherukupally, Wil Germain, Patricia Fouron, Tolu Olupona, Ayodeji Jolayemi
The core symptomatology of the Olfactory Reference Syndrome (ORS) is characterized by a preoccupation with the belief that one emits an offensive odor, albeit not perceived by others. The present case is that of a 75-year-old African American woman, with an unclear past psychiatric history, who was brought into our Emergency Room after a suicide attempt. The patient reported a three-year history of a "rotten" smell from her vagina. She adamantly believes that she smells despite being told otherwise by people...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Thomas A Fergus, Nancy Wheless
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Contemporary conceptual models posit that different core variables contribute to worry, including intolerance of uncertainty (IU), metacognitive beliefs, and experiential avoidance. To date, a concurrent investigation of the incremental explanatory power of these variables in accounting for worry severity remains unexamined. The present study sought to address that gap in the literature. DESIGN/METHODS: Participants endorsing frequent worry (N = 127) completed self-report measures assessing IU, metacognitive beliefs, and experiential avoidance during an online session...
May 27, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Åsta Birkeland, Siv Ødemotland
As the Norwegian society, and thereby the kindergartens, have become more multicultural, the need for cultivating teachers capable of operating in an ever diversified and global world is highlighted as an important educational strategy within teacher education. The purpose of the specific intercultural program in kindergarten teacher education discussed in this article refers to competences needed as a professional teacher in a multicultural kindergarten. Teachers often have various assumptions and beliefs taken for granted...
May 19, 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Sandra Mulkens, Chloé de Vos, Anastacia de Graaff, Glenn Waller
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the extent to which therapists fail to apply empirically supported treatments in a sample of clinicians in The Netherlands, delivering cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders (CBT-ED). It aimed to replicate previous findings, and to extend them by examining other potential intra-individual factors associated with the level of (non-)use of core CBT-ED techniques. METHOD: Participants were 139 clinicians (127 women; mean age 41...
May 4, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Turkiya S Al Maskari, Craig A Melville, Diane S Willis
Background: Screening children for autism has gained wider acceptance within clinical practice, and early intervention has improved outcomes. Increasingly, adapting an existing screening instrument is a common, fast method to create a usable screening tool, especially for countries with limited resources and/or expertise. However, concerns have been raised regarding adaptation adequacy and the feasibility of screening across cultural groups. This study systematically examined the levels of cultural adaptation and feasibility aspects considered when screening for autism in non-English speaking countries to build upon the sparse knowledge that exists on this topic in the literature...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Chris Hammer, Leslie Podlog, Ross Wadey, Nick Galli, Anjali J Forber-Pratt, Maria Newton
PURPOSE: To examine how deliberate rumination and psychological need satisfaction interact to facilitate posttraumatic growth for para sport athletes with acquired disability. METHODS: Utilizing a sample of 70 para sport athletes, the hypothesized mediating role of deliberate rumination was examined via a simple mediation model. The interaction between needs satisfaction and deliberate rumination and their effect on posttraumatic growth was examined utilizing a moderated mediation procedure...
April 25, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
John D McLennan
The term dual diagnosis can refer to the co-occurrence of an intellectual disability and a mental disorder. While such a term may have some advocacy rationale aimed at facilitating improved mental health care for those with intellectual disabilities, it is proposed that the construct has flawed underpinnings, and its application may problematize mental health service delivery. A core concern is the promotion of categorical diagnostic models, whereas dimensional models may more accurately reflect underlying continuums for both cognitive and mental health challenges...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Eileen Sutton, Georgia Herbert, Sorrel Burden, Stephen Lewis, Steve Thomas, Andy Ness, Charlotte Atkinson
INTRODUCTION: The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programme (ERAS) is an approach to the perioperative care of patients encompassing multiple interventions and involving a wide range of different actors. It can thus be defined as a complex intervention. Despite the strength of the evidence-base in its support, the implementation of ERAS has been slow. This paper specifically explores the utility of Normalization Process Theory (NPT) as a methodological framework to aid exploration of ERAS implementation, with a focus on the core NPT construct coherence...
2018: PloS One
Barbara Nevicka, Annebel H B De Hoogh, Deanne N Den Hartog, Frank D Belschak
Narcissistic leaders are self-absorbed and hold beliefs of entitlement and superiority. Their aggressive tendencies in the face of criticism and inclinations to validate their self-worth by derogating others may lead others to perceive them as being abusive. Here, we test the relationship between leader narcissism and followers' perceptions of abusive supervision. Drawing upon research related to the behavioral plasticity hypothesis, we propose that followers with low self-esteem will perceive narcissistic leaders as more abusive than those with high self-esteem...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ruta K Valaitis, Linda O'Mara, Sabrina T Wong, Marjorie MacDonald, Nancy Murray, Ruth Martin-Misener, Donna Meagher-Stewart
AimThe aim of this paper is to examine Canadian key informants' perceptions of intrapersonal (within an individual) and interpersonal (among individuals) factors that influence successful primary care and public health collaboration. BACKGROUND: Primary health care systems can be strengthened by building stronger collaborations between primary care and public health. Although there is literature that explores interpersonal factors that can influence successful inter-organizational collaborations, a few of them have specifically explored primary care and public health collaboration...
April 12, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
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