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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673269/dual-diagnosis-a-problematic-construct-when-applied-to-persons-with-intellectual-disabilities
#1
John D McLennan
The term dual diagnosis can refer to the co-occurrence of an intellectual disability and a mental disorder. While such a term may have some advocacy rationale aimed at facilitating improved mental health care for those with intellectual disabilities, it is proposed that the construct has flawed underpinnings, and its application may problematize mental health service delivery. A core concern is the promotion of categorical diagnostic models, whereas dimensional models may more accurately reflect underlying continuums for both cognitive and mental health challenges...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668717/using-the-normalization-process-theory-to-qualitatively-explore-sense-making-in-implementation-of-the-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-programme-it-s-not-rocket-science
#2
Eileen Sutton, Georgia Herbert, Sorrel Burden, Stephen Lewis, Steve Thomas, Andy Ness, Charlotte Atkinson
INTRODUCTION: The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programme (ERAS) is an approach to the perioperative care of patients encompassing multiple interventions and involving a wide range of different actors. It can thus be defined as a complex intervention. Despite the strength of the evidence-base in its support, the implementation of ERAS has been slow. This paper specifically explores the utility of Normalization Process Theory (NPT) as a methodological framework to aid exploration of ERAS implementation, with a focus on the core NPT construct coherence...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651266/narcissistic-leaders-and-their-victims-followers-low-on-self-esteem-and-low-on-core-self-evaluations-suffer-most
#3
Barbara Nevicka, Annebel H B De Hoogh, Deanne N Den Hartog, Frank D Belschak
Narcissistic leaders are self-absorbed and hold beliefs of entitlement and superiority. Their aggressive tendencies in the face of criticism and inclinations to validate their self-worth by derogating others may lead others to perceive them as being abusive. Here, we test the relationship between leader narcissism and followers' perceptions of abusive supervision. Drawing upon research related to the behavioral plasticity hypothesis, we propose that followers with low self-esteem will perceive narcissistic leaders as more abusive than those with high self-esteem...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642964/strengthening-primary-health-care-through-primary-care-and-public-health-collaboration-the-influence-of-intrapersonal-and-interpersonal-factors
#4
Ruta K Valaitis, Linda O'Mara, Sabrina T Wong, Marjorie MacDonald, Nancy Murray, Ruth Martin-Misener, Donna Meagher-Stewart
AimThe aim of this paper is to examine Canadian key informants' perceptions of intrapersonal (within an individual) and interpersonal (among individuals) factors that influence successful primary care and public health collaboration. BACKGROUND: Primary health care systems can be strengthened by building stronger collaborations between primary care and public health. Although there is literature that explores interpersonal factors that can influence successful inter-organizational collaborations, a few of them have specifically explored primary care and public health collaboration...
April 12, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628763/marked-differences-in-core-beliefs-about-self-and-others-between-sociotropy-and-autonomy-personality-vulnerabilities-in-the-cognitive-model-of-depression
#5
Koichi Otani, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata
Objective: The cognitive model of depression posits two distinctive personality vulnerabilities termed sociotropy and autonomy, each of which is composed of a cluster of maladaptive self-schemas. It is postulated that negative core beliefs about self underlie maladaptive self-schemas as a whole, whereas those about others may be implicated in the autonomous self-schemas. Therefore, the present study examined the relations of sociotropy and autonomy with core beliefs about self and others...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620380/the-cost-of-believing-emotions-are-uncontrollable-youths-beliefs-about-emotion-predict-emotion-regulation-and-depressive-symptoms
#6
Brett Q Ford, Sandy J Lwi, Amy L Gentzler, Benjamin Hankin, Iris B Mauss
As humans, we have a unique capacity to reflect on our experiences, including emotions. Over time, we develop beliefs about the nature of emotions, and these beliefs are consequential, guiding how we respond to emotions and how we feel as a consequence. One fundamental belief concerns the controllability of emotions: Believing emotions are uncontrollable (entity beliefs) should reduce the likelihood of trying to control emotional experiences using effective regulation strategies like reappraisal; this, in turn, could negatively affect core indices of psychological health, including depressive symptoms...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610548/personality-and-neural-correlates-of-mentalizing-ability
#7
Timothy A Allen, Amanda R Rueter, Samantha V Abram, James S Brown, Colin G DeYoung
Theory of mind, or mentalizing , defined as the ability to reason about another's mental states, is a crucial psychological function that is disrupted in some forms of psychopathology, but little is known about how individual differences in this ability relate to personality or brain function. One previous study linked mentalizing ability to individual differences in the personality trait Agreeableness. Agreeableness encompasses two major subdimensions: Compassion reflects tendencies toward empathy, prosocial behavior, and interpersonal concern, whereas Politeness captures tendencies to suppress aggressive and exploitative impulses...
November 2017: European Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593053/functional-organization-of-the-temporal-parietal-junction-for-theory-of-mind-in-preverbal-infants-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#8
Daniel C Hyde, Charline E Simon, Fransisca Ting, Julia Nikolaeva
Successful human social life requires imagining what others believe or think to understand and predict behavior. This ability, often referred to as theory of mind, reliably engages a specialized network of temporal and prefrontal brain regions in older children and adults, including selective recruitment of temporal-parietal junction (TPJ). To date, how and when this specialized brain organization for ToM arises is unknown due to limitations in functional neuroimaging at younger ages. Here we employed the emerging technique of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure the functional brain response across the parietal, temporal, and prefrontal regions in 7-month old male and female infants as they viewed different video scenarios of a person searching for a hidden object...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578596/social-cultural-traditional-beliefs-and-health-system-barriers-of-hepatitis-b-screening-among-hmong-americans-a-case-study
#9
Dao M Fang, Susan L Stewart
BACKGROUND: The incidence of liver cancer in Hmong Americans is 5 times higher than that of non-Hispanic whites, and there is a low hepatitis B screening rate (24%) among Hmong adults compared with other Asian American populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the Hmong's perceptions on social-cultural determinants, traditional health beliefs, and health care system barriers that influenced community-based hepatitis B screening interventions. METHODS: A qualitative method was used, integrating a collective case study research design...
April 1, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571078/close-relation-of-interpersonal-sensitivity-with-negative-core-beliefs-about-the-self-the-central-construct-of-cognitive-vulnerability-to-depression
#10
Koichi Otani, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata
Interpersonal sensitivity is a personality trait linked with anxious attachment conceptualized in attachment theory. This personality trait is comprised of four components, i.e., interpersonal awareness, separation anxiety, timidity and fragile inner-self, which are measured by the corresponding subscales of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Meanwhile, one study showed that six items of the IPSM tentatively used as negative self-schemas predicted the onset of depression. To clarify if interpersonal sensitivity reflects cognitive vulnerability, we examined the relation of this personality trait with negative core beliefs about the self...
March 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562922/what-is-required-to-facilitate-implementation-of-swedish-physical-activity-on-prescription-interview-study-with-primary-healthcare-staff-and-management
#11
Catharina Gustavsson, Maria Nordqvist, Kristina Bröms, Lars Jerdén, Lena V Kallings, Lars Wallin
BACKGROUND: The method, Swedish Physical Activity on Prescription (SPAP), has been launched in Swedish healthcare to promote physical activity for prevention and treatment of lifestyle related health disorders. Despite scientific support for the method, and education campaigns, it is used to a limited extent by health professionals. The aim of the study was to describe the views of health professionals on perceived facilitators, barriers and requirements for successful implementation of SPAP in primary healthcare...
March 21, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548101/typical-approximation-performance-for-maximum-coverage-problem
#12
Satoshi Takabe, Takanori Maehara, Koji Hukushima
This study investigated the typical performance of approximation algorithms known as belief propagation, the greedy algorithm, and linear-programming relaxation for maximum coverage problems in sparse biregular random graphs. After we used the cavity method for a corresponding hard-core lattice-gas model, results showed that two distinct thresholds of replica-symmetry and its breaking exist in the typical performance threshold of belief propagation. In the low-density region, the superiority of three algorithms in terms of a typical performance threshold is obtained by some theoretical analyses...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525461/paranoid-beliefs-and-realistic-expectations-of-victimization-data-from-the-survey-of-police-public-encounters
#13
Hyun-Jin Jun, Boyoung Nam, Lisa Fedina, Melissa Edmondson Smith, Jason Schiffman, Bruce Link, Jordan E DeVylder
BACKGROUND: The anticipation of threat or victimization is a core feature of paranoia. Cognitive theories of paranoia suggest that paranoid thoughts may arise as a psychological response to trauma exposure, which likewise may lead to greater anticipation of subsequent victimization. Little is known, however, about the relation between paranoid beliefs and anticipated victimization when accounting for past victimization experience. The present study aimed to address whether the experiences of past victimization contribute to the link between paranoid beliefs and the anticipation of threat or victimization, with a particular focus on exposure to police violence...
March 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523755/forgetting-ourselves-epistemic-costs-and-ethical-concerns-in-mindfulness-exercises
#14
Sahanika Ratnayake, David Merry
Mindfulness exercises are presented as being compatible with almost any spiritual, religious or philosophical beliefs. In this paper, we argue that they in fact involve imagining and conceptualising rather striking and controversial claims about the self, and the self's relationship to thoughts and feelings. For this reason, practising mindfulness exercises is likely to be in tension with many people's core beliefs and values, a tension that should be treated as a downside of therapeutic interventions involving mindfulness exercises, not unlike a side effect...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515473/the-persistence-of-the-self-over-time-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Lynette J Tippett, Sally C Prebble, Donna Rose Addis
Diachronic unity is the belief that, despite changes, we are the same person across the lifespan. We propose that diachronic unity is supported by the experience of remembering the self over time during episodic recall (i.e., phenomenological continuity). However, we also predict that diachronic unity is also possible when episodic memory is impaired, as long as the ability to construct life narratives from semantic memory (i.e., semantic continuity) is intact. To examine this prediction, we investigated diachronic unity in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), two conditions characterised by disrupted phenomenological continuity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506584/core-beliefs-in-healthy-youth-and-youth-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-dimensionality-and-links-to-depression-anxiety-and-attenuated-psychotic-symptoms
#16
Henry R Cowan, Dan P McAdams, Vijay A Mittal
Cognitive theory posits that core beliefs play an active role in developing and maintaining symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychosis. This study sought to comprehensively examine core beliefs, their dimensionality, and their relationships to depression, anxiety, and attenuated psychotic symptoms in two groups of community youth: a group at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR; n = 73, M age = 18.7) and a matched healthy comparison group (HC; n = 73, M age = 18.1). UHR youth reported significantly more negative beliefs about self and others, and significantly less positive beliefs about self and others...
March 6, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501072/what-accounts-for-poor-functioning-in-people-with-schizophrenia-a-re-evaluation-of-the-contributions-of-neurocognitive-v-attitudinal-and-motivational-factors
#17
Aaron T Beck, Robyn Himelstein, Keith Bredemeier, Steven M Silverstein, Paul Grant
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive deficits are often seen as core features of schizophrenia, and as primary determinants of poor functioning. Yet, our clinical observations suggest that individuals who score within the impaired range on standardized tests can reliably perform better in complex real-world situations, especially when performance is embedded within a positive socio-affective context. METHODS: We analyzed literature on the influence of non-neurocognitive factors on test performance in order to clarify their contributions...
March 4, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494381/moral-injury-and-religiosity-in-us-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms
#18
Harold G Koenig, Nagy A Youssef, Donna Ames, John P Oliver, Ellen J Teng, Kerry Haynes, Zachary D Erickson, Irina Arnold, Joseph M Currier, Keisha OʼGaro, Michelle Pearce
Moral injury (MI) involves feelings of shame, grief, meaninglessness, and remorse from having violated core moral beliefs related to traumatic experiences. This multisite cross-sectional study examined the association between religious involvement (RI) and MI symptoms, mediators of the relationship, and the modifying effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity in 373 US veterans with PTSD symptoms who served in a combat theater. Assessed were demographic, military, religious, physical, social, behavioral, and psychological characteristics using standard measures of RI, MI symptoms, PTSD, depression, and anxiety...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486384/sexuality-in-the-lives-of-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-a-meta-ethnographic-synthesis-of-qualitative-studies
#19
REVIEW
Charlotte Whittle, Catherine Butler
BACKGROUND: The normalisation movement calls for more recognition of the sexual rights of people with intellectual disabilities to challenge classically paradoxical cultural beliefs: 'hypersexual' versus 'asexual'. AIMS: This meta-ethnographic qualitative synthesis aimed to explore the voices of people with intellectual disabilities in regards to their experiences and perceptions of sexuality using a Coordinated Management of Meaning framework to derive new conceptual understandings of how their sexuality exists within multiple contexts...
February 24, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473450/factor-structure-of-the-beliefs-about-language-learning-inventory-for-thai-students-learning-japanese
#20
Takayoshi Fujiwara
The theoretical five-factor model for the 35-item Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) has rarely been examined empirically, despite its wide use to investigate language learning beliefs. This study examined the BALLI's dimensional structure with a sample of undergraduate students at a Thai university ( N = 537; male 43.4%, female 56.4%; age mean = 19.12 years), taking an elementary-level Japanese language course. Confirmatory factor analysis by M plus did not support Horwitz's theoretical model...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
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