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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882596/core-intuitions-about-persons-coexist-and-interfere-with-acquired-christian-beliefs-about-god
#1
Michael Barlev, Spencer Mermelstein, Tamsin C German
This study tested the hypothesis that in the minds of adult religious adherents, acquired beliefs about the extraordinary characteristics of God coexist with, rather than replace, an initial representation of God formed by co-option of the evolved person concept. In three experiments, Christian religious adherents were asked to evaluate a series of statements for which core intuitions about persons and acquired Christian beliefs about God were consistent (i.e., true according to both [e.g., "God has beliefs that are true"] or false according to both [e...
November 24, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847496/revising-the-intolerance-of-uncertainty-model-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-evidence-from-uk-and-italian-undergraduate-samples
#2
Gioia Bottesi, Marta Ghisi, Eleonora Carraro, Nicola Barclay, Rebecca Payne, Mark H Freeston
The Intolerance of Uncertainty Model (IUM) of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) attributes a key role to Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU), and additional roles to Positive Beliefs about Worry (PBW), Negative Problem Orientation (NPO), and Cognitive Avoidance (CA), in the development and maintenance of worry, the core feature of GAD. Despite the role of the IUM components in worry and GAD has been considerably demonstrated, to date no studies have explicitly assessed whether and how PBW, NPO, and CA might turn IU into worry and somatic anxiety...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846998/foundational-workplace-safety-and-health-competencies-for-the-emerging-workforce
#3
Andrea H Okun, Rebecca J Guerin, Paul A Schulte
INTRODUCTION: Young workers (aged 15-24) suffer disproportionately from workplace injuries, with a nonfatal injury rate estimated to be two times higher than among workers age 25 or over. These workers make up approximately 9% of the U.S. workforce and studies have shown that nearly 80% of high school students work at some point during high school. Although young worker injuries are a pressing public health problem, the critical knowledge and skills needed to prepare youth for safe and healthy work are missing from most frameworks used to prepare the emerging U...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813208/an-interactive-training-programme-to-treat-body-image-disturbance
#4
Lucinda J Gledhill, Katri K Cornelissen, Piers L Cornelissen, Ian S Penton-Voak, Marcus R Munafò, Martin J Tovée
OBJECTIVES: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a life-threatening mental health condition. A core feature is a disturbance of body image, such that sufferers see themselves as fatter than they actually are. DESIGN: We tested the effectiveness of a novel training programme to recalibrate our participants' perception of body size. METHODS: In a novel adaptation of a cognitive bias training programme, participants judged the body size of a series of female bodies and were given feedback to improve their accuracy over four daily training sessions...
November 3, 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812142/neural-correlates-of-belief-and-emotion-attribution-in-schizophrenia
#5
Junghee Lee, William P Horan, Jonathan K Wynn, Michael F Green
Impaired mental state attribution is a core social cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. With functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined the extent to which the core neural system of mental state attribution is involved in mental state attribution, focusing on belief attribution and emotion attribution. Fifteen schizophrenia outpatients and 14 healthy controls performed two mental state attribution tasks in the scanner. In a Belief Attribution Task, after reading a short vignette, participants were asked infer either the belief of a character (a false belief condition) or a physical state of an affair (a false photograph condition)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810572/how-islam-influences-end-of-life-care-education-for-palliative-care-clinicians
#6
Madeline Leong, Sage Olnick, Tahara Akmal, Amanda Copenhaver, Rab Razzak
CONTEXT: According to the Joint Commission, cultural competency is a core skill required for end-of-life care. Religious and cultural beliefs predominantly influence patients' lives, especially during the dying process. Therefore, palliative care clinicians should have at least a basic understanding of major world religions. Islam is a major world religion with 1.7 billion followers. At our institution, a needs assessment showed a lack of knowledge with Islamic teachings regarding end-of-life care...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779827/a-mixed-methods-study-of-vicarious-posttraumatic-growth-in-certified-nurse-midwives
#7
Cheryl Tatano Beck, Jamie Rivera, Robert K Gable
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to investigate vicarious posttraumatic growth in certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) who have struggled after attending traumatic births. Vicarious posttraumatic growth involves positive changes in a clinician's life due to caring for patients who are traumatized. METHODS: A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was used. The American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) sent out e-mails to all CNM members with a link to the electronic survey...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776504/a-quasi-randomized-feasibility-pilot-study-of-specific-treatments-to-improve-emotion-recognition-and-mental-state-reasoning-impairments-in-schizophrenia
#8
Pamela Jane Marsh, Vince Polito, Subba Singh, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon, Anthony W Harris
BACKGROUND: Impaired ability to make inferences about what another person might think or feel (i.e., social cognition impairment) is recognised as a core feature of schizophrenia and a key determinant of the poor social functioning that characterizes this illness. The development of treatments to target social cognitive impairments as a causal factor of impaired functioning in schizophrenia is of high priority. In this study, we investigated the acceptability, feasibility, and limited efficacy of 2 programs targeted at specific domains of social cognition in schizophrenia: "SoCog" Mental-State Reasoning Training (SoCog-MSRT) and "SoCog" Emotion Recognition Training (SoCog-ERT)...
October 24, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741384/new-graduate-nurses-developmental-trajectories-for-capability-beliefs-concerning-core-competencies-for-healthcare-professionals-a-national-cohort-study-on-patient-centered-care-teamwork-and-evidence-based-practice
#9
Anna Ehrenberg, Petter Gustavsson, Lars Wallin, Anne-Marie Boström, Ann Rudman
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the developmental trajectories of registered nurses' capability beliefs during their first 3 years of practice. The focus was on three core competencies for health professionals-patient-centered care, teamwork, and evidence-based practice. METHODS: A national cohort of registered nurses (n = 1,205) was recruited during their nursing education and subsequently surveyed yearly during the first 3 years of working life. The survey included 16 items on capability beliefs divided into three subscales for the assessment of patient-centered care, teamwork, and evidence-based practice, and the data were analyzed with linear latent growth modeling...
October 14, 2016: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739190/an-integrative-bio-psycho-social-theory-of-anorexia-nervosa
#10
Calum Munro, Louise Randell, Stephen M Lawrie
: The need for novel approaches to understanding and treating anorexia nervosa (AN) is well recognized. The aim of this paper is to describe an integrative bio-psycho-social theory of maintaining factors in AN. We took a triangulation approach to develop a clinically relevant theory with face validity and internal consistency. We developed theoretical ideas from our clinical practice and reviewed theoretical ideas within the eating disorders and wider bio-psycho-social literature. The synthesis of these ideas and concepts into a clinically meaningful framework is described here...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736137/relating-dispositional-mindfulness-contemplative-practice-and-positive-reappraisal-with-posttraumatic-cognitive-coping-stress-and-growth
#11
Adam W Hanley, Eric L Garland, Richard G Tedeschi
Objective: A growing body of theoretical and empirical work suggests that mindfulness may support more positive posttraumatic outcomes by reducing posttraumatic stress (PTS) and encouraging posttraumatic growth (PTG). Positive reappraisal (PR), a cognitive coping correlate of dispositional mindfulness (DM) has also been linked with greater PTG. However, neither DM nor PR have been modeled in relation to core posttraumatic constructs such as core belief disruption, intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, PTS and PTG...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734121/phylogenetic-signal-in-phenotypic-traits-related-to-carbon-source-assimilation-and-chemical-sensitivity-in-acinetobacter-species
#12
Ado Van Assche, Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, Anna de Breij, Joseph De Brabanter, Kris A Willems, Lenie Dijkshoorn, Bart Lievens
A common belief is that the phylogeny of bacteria may reflect molecular functions and phenotypic characteristics, pointing towards phylogenetic conservatism of traits. Here, we tested this hypothesis for a large set of Acinetobacter strains. Members of the genus Acinetobacter are widespread in nature, demonstrate a high metabolic diversity and are resistant to several environmental stressors. Notably, some species are known to cause opportunistic human infections. A total of 133 strains belonging to 33 species with validly published names, two genomic species and species of an as-yet unknown taxonomic status were analyzed using the GENIII technology of Biolog, which allows high-throughput phenotyping...
October 12, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721185/development-and-validation-of-the-core-beliefs-questionnaire-in-a-sample-of-individuals-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#13
Quincy J J Wong, Bree Gregory, Jonathan E Gaston, Ronald M Rapee, Judith K Wilson, Maree J Abbott
BACKGROUND: Prominent cognitive models of social anxiety have consistently emphasised the importance of beliefs about the self in the aetiology and maintenance of social anxiety. The present study sought to develop and validate a new measure of core beliefs about the self for SAD, the Core Beliefs Questionnaire (CBQ). METHODS: Three versions of the CBQ were developed: a Trait version (fundamental absolute statements about the self), a Contingent version (statements about the self related to a specific social-evaluative situation), and an Other version (statements about how others view the self in social-evaluative situations generally)...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718368/vicarious-posttraumatic-growth-in-labor-and-delivery-nurses
#14
Cheryl Tatano Beck, Carrie Morgan Eaton, Robert K Gable
OBJECTIVE: To investigate vicarious posttraumatic growth in labor and delivery nurses who cared for women during traumatic births. DESIGN: A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was used. PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 467 labor and delivery nurses who completed the quantitative portion and 295 (63%) who completed the qualitative portion of this mixed-methods study via the Internet. METHODS: The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses sent out e-mails to members who were labor and delivery nurses with a link to the electronic survey...
November 2016: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708534/qualitative-analysis-of-the-resilience-of-adult-japanese-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#15
Ikuko Nishio, Masami Chujo
BACKGROUND: Resilience strategies are what we use to avoid and recover from error. In this study, we used the grounded theory approach to evaluate the resilience of Japanese patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 adults with Type 1 diabetes. Then, using grounded theory, we created a new model of resilience in this population. RESULTS: The results suggested a core category, "to make progress along the resilience path," comprising seven concepts classified into three stages...
September 2016: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651820/fine-needle-aspiration-and-core-biopsy-in-the-diagnosis-of-breast-lesions-a-comparison-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Suvradeep Mitra, Pranab Dey
In recent times, the diagnosis of breast lesions has mostly become dependent on core needle biopsies (CNBs) with a gradual reduction in the rate of performing fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Both the procedures have their pros and cons and outsmart each other taking into account different parameters. Both the methods are found to be fraught with loopholes, taking into account different performance indices, diagnostic accuracy and concordance, patient benefit, and cost-effectiveness. Unlike the popular belief of an absolute superiority of CNB over FNAC, the literature review does not reveal a very distinct demarcation in many aspects...
2016: CytoJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642181/early-maladaptive-schemas-in-adult-survivors-of-interpersonal-trauma-foundations-for-a-cognitive-theory-of-psychopathology
#17
Thanos Karatzias, Sally Jowett, Amelie Begley, Suzanne Deas
BACKGROUND: Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. OBJECTIVE: We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82)...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624085/a-whole-other-story-inclusive-victimhood-narratives-reduce-competitive-victimhood-and-intergroup-hostility
#18
Levi Adelman, Bernhard Leidner, Helin Ünal, Eman Nahhas, Nurit Shnabel
Conflict narratives, having at their core the belief that the ingroup suffered more than the outgroup (competitive victimhood), are key in maintaining conflicts. Three experiments conducted with Jewish Israelis (Study 1), Turkish Kurds (Study 2), and Americans (Study 3) tested whether conflict narratives can reduce conflict. Studies 1 and 3 showed that people respond to inclusive victimhood narratives that emphasize both ingroup and outgroup suffering with a reduction in competitive victimhood and, in turn, reduced support for aggressive policies-but only when people were relatively less concerned that acknowledgment of outgroup suffering might risk loss of third-party support...
October 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618545/psychological-correlates-of-habitual-diet-in-healthy-adults
#19
Richard J Stevenson
There are 3 motivations for studying the psychological correlates of habitual diet. First, diet is a major but modifiable cause of morbidity and mortality, and dietary interventions could be improved by knowing the psychological characteristics of consumers of healthy/unhealthy diets. Second, animal studies indicate that diet can impair cognition, stress responsiveness, and affective processing, but it is unclear whether this also happens in humans. Third, certain psychological traits are associated with obesity, but it is not known whether these precede and thus contribute to weight gain...
September 12, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614848/imaging-of-triglycerides-in-human-coronary-plaques-by-color-fluorescent-angioscopy-and-microscopy
#20
Yasumi Uchida, Yasuto Uchida, Nobuyuki Hiruta, Seiichiro Shirai, Tomoe Yoshida
Native triglycerides (TG) deposited in the human vascular wall is not measurable or visible in vivo to date. We discovered that by exciting fluorescence at 345 nm and emitting at 420 nm, 3-amino-4-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid monohydrate (3-ANA) elicits a brown fluorescence that is characteristic of just TG. Therefore, localization of TG in coronary plaques and normal segments that were obtained from 19 human autopsy cases was examined by color fluorescent angioscopy (CFA) and microscopy using 3-ANA as a biomarker of TG...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
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