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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077219/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-depression-using-mind-over-mood-cbt-skill-use-and-differential-symptom-alleviation
#1
Lance L Hawley, Christine A Padesky, Steven D Hollon, Enza Mancuso, Judith M Laposa, Karen Brozina, Zindel V Segal
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression is highly effective. An essential element of this therapy involves acquiring and utilizing CBT skills; however, it is unclear whether the type of CBT skill used is associated with differential symptom alleviation. Outpatients (N = 356) diagnosed with a primary mood disorder received 14 two-hour group sessions of CBT for depression, using the Mind Over Mood protocol. In each session, patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory and throughout the week they reported on their use of CBT skills: behavioral activation (BA), cognitive restructuring (CR), and core belief (CB) strategies...
January 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068503/talking-about-god-with-trauma-survivors
#2
Colin A Ross
Severe, chronic childhood trauma commonly results in a set of negative core self-beliefs. These include blaming the self for the abuse, feeling unworthy and unlovable, believing the world would be better off if one committed suicide, and believing that one does not deserve peace or happiness. Linked to these cognitive errors are beliefs that one is not worthy of God's love, that God wanted the person to be abused, and that the person can avoid God's judgment if she does not go to church. Strategies for dealing with these cognitive errors about God are presented within the context of a secular psychotherapy...
December 31, 2016: American Journal of Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068114/he-never-willed-to-have-the-will-he-has-historicist-narratives-civilized-blame-and-the-need-to-distinguish-two-notions-of-free-will
#3
Michael J Gill, Stephanie C Cerce
Harsh blame can be socially destructive. This article examines how harsh blame can be "civilized." A core construct here is the historicist narrative, which is a story-like account of how a person came to be the sort of person she is. We argue that historicist narratives regarding immoral actors can temper blame and that this happens via a novel mechanism. To illuminate that mechanism, we offer a novel theoretical perspective on lay beliefs about free will. We distinguish 2 senses of free will: (a) Freedom of action, which portrays the will as a dynamic choice-making mechanism and concerns whether the actor can exert volitional control via that mechanism at the time of action, and (b) Control of self-formation, which portrays the will as an enduring disposition (e...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027084/caring-for-the-amish-what-every-anesthesiologist-should-know
#4
Gregory E R Weller
The Amish are a relatively isolated group with cultural and religious customs that differ significantly from the mainstream American population. Functioning as tight-knit communities with strong conservative Christian beliefs, the Amish maintain a culture based on intentional separateness from the outside world. Key aspects of Amish life include distinct clothing and behaviors, a unique language, an agrarian lifestyle, limited formal education, nonviolence/nonaggression, and a general lack of modern technology, as exemplified by the use of the traditional horse-and-buggy...
December 22, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019013/a-cultural-take-on-the-links-between-religiosity-identity-and-meaning-in-life-in-religious-emerging-adults
#5
Oana Negru-Subtirica, Alexandra Tiganasu, Jessie Dezutter, Koen Luyckx
Identity and meaning in life are core developmental assets in emerging adulthood. We analysed how religiosity is related to these intentional strivings in emerging adults enrolled in theological education, by depicting (1) identity strivings and meaning in life accounts in faith narratives (Study 1) and (2) links between personal identity and meaning in life profiles and religious beliefs, behaviours, and subjective experiences (Study 2). Both studies highlighted that a Foreclosed status, with high personal commitment and reduced exploration, was dominant in faith narratives and personal identity profiles...
December 26, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018537/contextualizing-the-physician-charter-on-professionalism-in-qatar-from-patient-autonomy-to-family-autonomy
#6
Ming-Jung Ho, Abdullatif Alkhal, Ara Tekian, Julie Shih, Kevin Shaw, Chung-Hsiang Wang, Khalid Alyafei, Lyuba Konopasek
BACKGROUND : The Physician Charter on medical professionalism has been endorsed by professional organizations worldwide, yet it is unclear if this Western framework of professionalism is applicable in non-Western countries. OBJECTIVE : This study examines how physicians practicing in a Middle Eastern context perceive the terms, principles, and commitments outlined in the charter. METHODS : In May 2013, the authors conducted 6 focus groups with 43 clinician-educators practicing at Hamad Medical Corporation in Doha, Qatar, to discuss the applicability of the Physician Charter in a local context...
December 2016: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012033/early-maladaptive-schemas-in-adult-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
Alexandra Philipsen, Alexandra P Lam, Sigrid Breit, Caroline Lücke, Helge H Müller, Swantje Matthies
The main purpose of this study was to examine whether adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrate sets of dysfunctional cognitive beliefs and behavioural tendencies according to Jeffrey Young's schema-focused therapy model. Sets of dysfunctional beliefs (maladaptive schemas) were assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2) in 78 adult ADHD patients and 80 control subjects. Patients with ADHD scored significantly higher than the control group on almost all maladaptive schemas...
December 23, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993126/what-influences-general-practitioners-use-of-exercise-for-patients-with-chronic-knee-pain-results-from-a-national-survey
#8
Elizabeth Cottrell, Edward Roddy, Trishna Rathod, Mark Porcheret, Nadine E Foster
BACKGROUND: Exercise is a recommended 'core' treatment for chronic knee pain (CKP), however it appears to be underused by general practitioners (GPs). While behavioural theories suggest that attitudes and beliefs influence behaviours, no single theory reliably predicts GPs' behaviours. A theoretical analysis framework, developed from sociocognitive theories, was used to underpin investigation of the key influences associated with GPs' use of exercise for patients with CKP, to inform future interventions to optimise GPs' use of exercise...
December 19, 2016: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960103/examining-heterogeneity-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-evidence-for-subgroups-based-on-motivations
#9
Laura B Bragdon, Meredith E Coles
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous illness and evidence suggests that different clinical characteristics may relate to varying treatment outcomes. This study was designed to identify subgroups based on core motivational domains in a clinical sample of individuals with OCD, and to compare groups on clinical characteristics. Cluster analyses identified four subgroups including groups with relatively high or low levels of both harm avoidance (HA) and incompleteness (INC) motivations. A subgroup was identified that demonstrated a "traditional profile" marked by high motivation to avoid harm, and elevated levels of beliefs about responsibility/overestimation of threat...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959973/false-belief-performance-of-children-adopted-internationally
#10
Deborah A Hwa-Froelich, Hisako Matsuo, Kristal Jacobs
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore relationships among adoption, individual, and family variables on false belief performance of children adopted internationally (CAI). Method: Using a quasiexperimental design, thirty-five 4-year-old children adopted from Asian and Eastern European countries before age 2 years were compared with a U.S. group of 33 nonadopted 4-year-old children on a standardized English-language measure, 3 false belief tasks, and a go/no-go inhibition measure...
December 13, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959517/the-ins-and-outs-of-lipid-flip-flop
#11
John S Allhusen, John C Conboy
Our current view of cellular membranes centers on the fluid-mosaic model, which envisions the cellular membrane as a "liquidlike" bilayer of lipids, cholesterol, and proteins that freely diffuse in two dimensions. In stark contrast, the exchange of materials between the leaflets of a bilayer was presumed to be prohibited by the large enthalpic barrier associated with translocating hydrophilic materials, such as a charged lipid headgroup, through the hydrophobic membrane core. This static picture with regard to lipid translocation (or "flip-flop" as it is affectionately known) has been a long-held belief in the study of membrane dynamics...
December 13, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882596/core-intuitions-about-persons-coexist-and-interfere-with-acquired-christian-beliefs-about-god
#12
Michael Barlev, Spencer Mermelstein, Tamsin C German
This study tested the hypothesis that in the minds of adult religious adherents, acquired beliefs about the extraordinary characteristics of God coexist with, rather than replace, an initial representation of God formed by co-option of the evolved person concept. In three experiments, Christian religious adherents were asked to evaluate a series of statements for which core intuitions about persons and acquired Christian beliefs about God were consistent (i.e., true according to both [e.g., "God has beliefs that are true"] or false according to both [e...
November 24, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847496/revising-the-intolerance-of-uncertainty-model-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-evidence-from-uk-and-italian-undergraduate-samples
#13
Gioia Bottesi, Marta Ghisi, Eleonora Carraro, Nicola Barclay, Rebecca Payne, Mark H Freeston
The Intolerance of Uncertainty Model (IUM) of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) attributes a key role to Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU), and additional roles to Positive Beliefs about Worry (PBW), Negative Problem Orientation (NPO), and Cognitive Avoidance (CA), in the development and maintenance of worry, the core feature of GAD. Despite the role of the IUM components in worry and GAD has been considerably demonstrated, to date no studies have explicitly assessed whether and how PBW, NPO, and CA might turn IU into worry and somatic anxiety...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846998/foundational-workplace-safety-and-health-competencies-for-the-emerging-workforce
#14
Andrea H Okun, Rebecca J Guerin, Paul A Schulte
INTRODUCTION: Young workers (aged 15-24) suffer disproportionately from workplace injuries, with a nonfatal injury rate estimated to be two times higher than among workers age 25 or over. These workers make up approximately 9% of the U.S. workforce and studies have shown that nearly 80% of high school students work at some point during high school. Although young worker injuries are a pressing public health problem, the critical knowledge and skills needed to prepare youth for safe and healthy work are missing from most frameworks used to prepare the emerging U...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813208/an-interactive-training-programme-to-treat-body-image-disturbance
#15
Lucinda J Gledhill, Katri K Cornelissen, Piers L Cornelissen, Ian S Penton-Voak, Marcus R Munafò, Martin J Tovée
OBJECTIVES: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a life-threatening mental health condition. A core feature is a disturbance of body image, such that sufferers see themselves as fatter than they actually are. DESIGN: We tested the effectiveness of a novel training programme to recalibrate our participants' perception of body size. METHODS: In a novel adaptation of a cognitive bias training programme, participants judged the body size of a series of female bodies and were given feedback to improve their accuracy over four daily training sessions...
February 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812142/neural-correlates-of-belief-and-emotion-attribution-in-schizophrenia
#16
Junghee Lee, William P Horan, Jonathan K Wynn, Michael F Green
Impaired mental state attribution is a core social cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. With functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined the extent to which the core neural system of mental state attribution is involved in mental state attribution, focusing on belief attribution and emotion attribution. Fifteen schizophrenia outpatients and 14 healthy controls performed two mental state attribution tasks in the scanner. In a Belief Attribution Task, after reading a short vignette, participants were asked infer either the belief of a character (a false belief condition) or a physical state of an affair (a false photograph condition)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810572/how-islam-influences-end-of-life-care-education-for-palliative-care-clinicians
#17
Madeline Leong, Sage Olnick, Tahara Akmal, Amanda Copenhaver, Rab Razzak
CONTEXT: According to the Joint Commission, cultural competency is a core skill required for end-of-life care. Religious and cultural beliefs predominantly influence patients' lives, especially during the dying process. Therefore, palliative care clinicians should have at least a basic understanding of major world religions. Islam is a major world religion with 1.7 billion followers. At our institution, a needs assessment showed a lack of knowledge with Islamic teachings regarding end-of-life care...
December 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779827/a-mixed-methods-study-of-vicarious-posttraumatic-growth-in-certified-nurse-midwives
#18
Cheryl Tatano Beck, Jamie Rivera, Robert K Gable
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to investigate vicarious posttraumatic growth in certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) who have struggled after attending traumatic births. Vicarious posttraumatic growth involves positive changes in a clinician's life due to caring for patients who are traumatized. METHODS: A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was used. The American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) sent out e-mails to all CNM members with a link to the electronic survey...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776504/a-quasi-randomized-feasibility-pilot-study-of-specific-treatments-to-improve-emotion-recognition-and-mental-state-reasoning-impairments-in-schizophrenia
#19
Pamela Jane Marsh, Vince Polito, Subba Singh, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon, Anthony W Harris
BACKGROUND: Impaired ability to make inferences about what another person might think or feel (i.e., social cognition impairment) is recognised as a core feature of schizophrenia and a key determinant of the poor social functioning that characterizes this illness. The development of treatments to target social cognitive impairments as a causal factor of impaired functioning in schizophrenia is of high priority. In this study, we investigated the acceptability, feasibility, and limited efficacy of 2 programs targeted at specific domains of social cognition in schizophrenia: "SoCog" Mental-State Reasoning Training (SoCog-MSRT) and "SoCog" Emotion Recognition Training (SoCog-ERT)...
October 24, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741384/new-graduate-nurses-developmental-trajectories-for-capability-beliefs-concerning-core-competencies-for-healthcare-professionals-a-national-cohort-study-on-patient-centered-care-teamwork-and-evidence-based-practice
#20
Anna Ehrenberg, Petter Gustavsson, Lars Wallin, Anne-Marie Boström, Ann Rudman
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the developmental trajectories of registered nurses' capability beliefs during their first 3 years of practice. The focus was on three core competencies for health professionals-patient-centered care, teamwork, and evidence-based practice. METHODS: A national cohort of registered nurses (n = 1,205) was recruited during their nursing education and subsequently surveyed yearly during the first 3 years of working life. The survey included 16 items on capability beliefs divided into three subscales for the assessment of patient-centered care, teamwork, and evidence-based practice, and the data were analyzed with linear latent growth modeling...
December 2016: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
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