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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159059/triangulation-of-language-cognitive-impairments-naming-errors-and-their-neural-bases-post-stroke
#1
Ajay D Halai, Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
In order to gain a better understanding of aphasia one must consider the complex combinations of language impairments along with the pattern of paraphasias. Despite the fact that both deficits and paraphasias feature in diagnostic criteria, most research has focused only on the lesion correlates of language deficits, with minimal attention on the pattern of patients' paraphasias. In this study, we used a data-driven approach (principal component analysis - PCA) to fuse patient impairments and their pattern of errors into one unified model of chronic post-stroke aphasia...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149658/evaluating-casama-contextualized-semantic-maps-for-summarization-of-lung-cancer-studies
#2
Jean I Garcia-Gathright, Nicholas J Matiasz, Carlos Adame, Karthik V Sarma, Lauren Sauer, Nova F Smedley, Marshall L Spiegel, Jennifer Strunck, Edward B Garon, Ricky K Taira, Denise R Aberle, Alex A T Bui
OBJECTIVE: It is crucial for clinicians to stay up to date on current literature in order to apply recent evidence to clinical decision making. Automatic summarization systems can help clinicians quickly view an aggregated summary of literature on a topic. Casama, a representation and summarization system based on "contextualized semantic maps," captures the findings of biomedical studies as well as the contexts associated with patient population and study design. This paper presents a user-oriented evaluation of Casama in comparison to a context-free representation, SemRep...
November 3, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113073/an-ontology-based-reasoning-framework-for-querying-satellite-images-for-disaster-monitoring
#3
Marjan Alirezaie, Andrey Kiselev, Martin Längkvist, Franziska Klügl, Amy Loutfi
This paper presents a framework in which satellite images are classified and augmented with additional semantic information to enable queries about what can be found on the map at a particular location, but also about paths that can be taken. This is achieved by a reasoning framework based on qualitative spatial reasoning that is able to find answers to high level queries that may vary on the current situation. This framework called SemCityMap, provides the full pipeline from enriching the raw image data with rudimentary labels to the integration of a knowledge representation and reasoning methods to user interfaces for high level querying...
November 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105247/increased-functional-connectivity-in-the-ventral-and-dorsal-streams-during-retrieval-of-novel-words-in-professional-musicians
#4
Eva Dittinger, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Lutz Jäncke, Mireille Besson, Stefan Elmer
Current models of speech and language processing postulate the involvement of two parallel processing streams (the dual stream model): a ventral stream involved in mapping sensory and phonological representations onto lexical and conceptual representations and a dorsal stream contributing to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, and to how verbal information is encoded and manipulated in memory. Based on previous evidence showing that music training has an influence on language processing, cognitive functions, and word learning, we examined EEG-based intracranial functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal streams while musicians and nonmusicians learned the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations...
November 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098143/architecture-and-prototypical-implementation-of-a-semantic-querying-system-for-big-earth-observation-image-bases
#5
Dirk Tiede, Andrea Baraldi, Martin Sudmanns, Mariana Belgiu, Stefan Lang
Spatiotemporal analytics of multi-source Earth observation (EO) big data is a pre-condition for semantic content-based image retrieval (SCBIR). As a proof of concept, an innovative EO semantic querying (EO-SQ) subsystem was designed and prototypically implemented in series with an EO image understanding (EO-IU) subsystem. The EO-IU subsystem is automatically generating ESA Level 2 products (scene classification map, up to basic land cover units) from optical satellite data. The EO-SQ subsystem comprises a graphical user interface (GUI) and an array database embedded in a client server model...
2017: Eur J Remote Sens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083202/relationship-between-extensions-and-intensions-in-categorization-a-match-made-in-heaven
#6
Farah Mutiasari Djalal, James A Hampton, Gert Storms, Tom Heyman
The present study investigated the relationship between category extension and intension for 11 different semantic categories. It is often tacitly assumed that there is a (strong) extension-intension link. However, a recent study by Hampton and Passanisi (2016) examining the patterns of stable individual differences in concepts across participants called this hypothesis into question. To conceptually replicate their findings, two studies were conducted. We employed a category judgment task to measure category extensions, whereas a property generation (in Study 1) and property judgment task (Study 2) were used to measure intensions...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081422/neural-activation-patterns-and-connectivity-in-visual-attention-during-number-and-non-number-processing-an-erp-study-using-the-ishihara-pseudoisochromatic-plates
#7
Faraj Al-Marri, Faruque Reza, Tahamina Begum, Wan Hazabbah Wan Hitam, Goh Khean Jin, Jing Xiang
Visual cognitive function is important to build up executive function in daily life. Perception of visual Number form (e.g., Arabic digit) and numerosity (magnitude of the Number) is of interest to cognitive neuroscientists. Neural correlates and the functional measurement of Number representations are complex occurrences when their semantic categories are assimilated with other concepts of shape and colour. Colour perception can be processed further to modulate visual cognition. The Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates are one of the best and most common screening tools for basic red-green colour vision testing...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063557/best-paper-selection
#8
(no author information available yet)
Banda JM, Evans L, Vanguri RS, Tatonetti NP, Ryan PB, Shah NH. A curated and standardized adverse drug event resource to accelerate drug safety research. Sci Data 2016;3:160026 https://www.nature.com/articles/sdata201626 Bauer CR, Ganslandt T, Baum B, Christoph J, Engel I, Lobe M, Mate S, Staubert S, Drepper J, Prokosch HU, Winter A, Sax U. Integrated Data Repository Toolkit (IDRT). A Suite of Programs to Facilitate Health Analytics on Heterogeneous Medical Data. Methods Inf Med 2016;55(2):125-35 https://methods...
August 2017: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060445/reconciliation-of-snomed-ct-and-domain-clinical-model-for-interoperable-medical-knowledge-creation
#9
Taqdir Ali, Sungyoung Lee
Use of heterogeneous data models in hospital information systems (HIS), obstructs the integration of clinical decision support system (CDSS) with clinical workflows. The diverse concepts diminish the interoperability level among the CDSS knowledge bases and data models of HIS. Standard terminology utilization in knowledge acquisition and its reconciliation with HIS data models are the candidate solution to overcome the interoperability barrier. We propose a reconciliation model to map concepts of diverse domain clinical models (DCM) with the standard terminology...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059288/neural-encoding-and-decoding-with-deep-learning-for-dynamic-natural-vision
#10
Haiguang Wen, Junxing Shi, Yizhen Zhang, Kun-Han Lu, Jiayue Cao, Zhongming Liu
Convolutional neural network (CNN) driven by image recognition has been shown to be able to explain cortical responses to static pictures at ventral-stream areas. Here, we further showed that such CNN could reliably predict and decode functional magnetic resonance imaging data from humans watching natural movies, despite its lack of any mechanism to account for temporal dynamics or feedback processing. Using separate data, encoding and decoding models were developed and evaluated for describing the bi-directional relationships between the CNN and the brain...
October 20, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059237/audiovisual-communication-of-object-names-improves-the-spatial-accuracy-of-recalled-object-locations-in-topographic-maps
#11
Nils Lammert-Siepmann, Anne-Kathrin Bestgen, Dennis Edler, Lars Kuchinke, Frank Dickmann
Knowing the correct location of a specific object learned from a (topographic) map is fundamental for orientation and navigation tasks. Spatial reference systems, such as coordinates or cardinal directions, are helpful tools for any geometric localization of positions that aims to be as exact as possible. Considering modern visualization techniques of multimedia cartography, map elements transferred through the auditory channel can be added easily. Audiovisual approaches have been discussed in the cartographic community for many years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055058/the-neural-oscillations-of-speech-processing-and-language-comprehension-state-of-the-art-and-emerging-mechanisms
#12
Lars Meyer
Neural oscillations subserve a broad range of functions in speech processing and language comprehension. On the one hand, speech contains-somewhat-repetitive trains of air pressure bursts that occur at three dominant amplitude modulation frequencies, physically marking the linguistically meaningful progressions of phonemes, syllables, and intonational phrase boundaries. To these acoustic events, neural oscillations of isomorphous operating frequencies are thought to synchronize, presumably resulting in an implicit temporal alignment of periods of neural excitability to linguistically meaningful spectral information on the three low-level linguistic description levels...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053874/tau-pathology-and-neurodegeneration-contribute-to-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Alexandre Bejanin, Daniel R Schonhaut, Renaud La Joie, Joel H Kramer, Suzanne L Baker, Natasha Sosa, Nagehan Ayakta, Averill Cantwell, Mustafa Janabi, Mariella Lauriola, James P O'Neil, Maria L Gorno-Tempini, Zachary A Miller, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, William J Jagust, Gil D Rabinovici
Neuropathological and in vivo studies have revealed a tight relationship between tau pathology and cognitive impairment across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum. However, tau pathology is also intimately associated with neurodegeneration and amyloid pathology. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether grey matter atrophy and amyloid pathology contribute to the relationship between tau pathology, as measured with 18F-AV-1451-PET imaging, and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. We included 40 amyloid-positive patients meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (n = 5) or probable Alzheimer's disease dementia (n = 35)...
October 7, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050387/temporal-lobe-networks-supporting-the-comprehension-of-spoken-words
#14
Leonardo Bonilha, Argye E Hillis, Gregory Hickok, Dirk B den Ouden, Chris Rorden, Julius Fridriksson
Auditory word comprehension is a cognitive process that involves the transformation of auditory signals into abstract concepts. Traditional lesion-based studies of stroke survivors with aphasia have suggested that neocortical regions adjacent to auditory cortex are primarily responsible for word comprehension. However, recent primary progressive aphasia and normal neurophysiological studies have challenged this concept, suggesting that the left temporal pole is crucial for word comprehension. Due to its vasculature, the temporal pole is not commonly completely lesioned in stroke survivors and this heterogeneity may have prevented its identification in lesion-based studies of auditory comprehension...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045921/commonalities-and-differences-in-the-neural-representations-of-english-portuguese-and-mandarin-sentences-when-knowledge-of-the-brain-language-mappings-for-two-languages-is-better-than-one
#15
Ying Yang, Jing Wang, Cyntia Bailer, Vladimir Cherkassky, Marcel Adam Just
This study extended cross-language semantic decoding (based on a concept's fMRI signature) to the decoding of sentences across three different languages (English, Portuguese and Mandarin). A classifier was trained on either the mapping between words and activation patterns in one language or the mappings in two languages (using an equivalent amount of training data), and then tested on its ability to decode the semantic content of a third language. The model trained on two languages was reliably more accurate than a classifier trained on one language for all three pairs of languages...
October 15, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038097/recommending-education-materials-for-diabetic-questions-using-information-retrieval-approaches
#16
Yuqun Zeng, Xusheng Liu, Yanshan Wang, Feichen Shen, Sijia Liu, Majid Rastegar-Mojarad, Liwei Wang, Hongfang Liu
BACKGROUND: Self-management is crucial to diabetes care and providing expert-vetted content for answering patients' questions is crucial in facilitating patient self-management. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to investigate the use of information retrieval techniques in recommending patient education materials for diabetic questions of patients. METHODS: We compared two retrieval algorithms, one based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation topic modeling (topic modeling-based model) and one based on semantic group (semantic group-based model), with the baseline retrieval models, vector space model (VSM), in recommending diabetic patient education materials to diabetic questions posted on the TuDiabetes forum...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034011/the-development-of-iconicity-in-children-s-co-speech-gesture-and-homesign
#17
Erica A Cartmill, Lilia Rissman, Miriam Novack, Susan Goldin-Meadow
Gesture can illustrate objects and events in the world by iconically reproducing elements of those objects and events. Children do not begin to express ideas iconically, however, until after they have begun to use conventional forms. In this paper, we investigate how children's use of iconic resources in gesture relates to the developing structure of their communicative systems. Using longitudinal video corpora, we compare the emergence of manual iconicity in hearing children who are learning a spoken language (co-speech gesture) to the emergence of manual iconicity in a deaf child who is creating a manual system of communication (homesign)...
2017: LIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029598/a-method-for-named-entity-normalization-in-biomedical-articles-application-to-diseases-and-plants
#18
Hyejin Cho, Wonjun Choi, Hyunju Lee
BACKGROUND: In biomedical articles, a named entity recognition (NER) technique that identifies entity names from texts is an important element for extracting biological knowledge from articles. After NER is applied to articles, the next step is to normalize the identified names into standard concepts (i.e., disease names are mapped to the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings disease terms). In biomedical articles, many entity normalization methods rely on domain-specific dictionaries for resolving synonyms and abbreviations...
October 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025925/strength-of-temporal-white-matter-pathways-predicts-semantic-learning
#19
Pablo Ripollés, Davina Biel, Claudia Peñaloza, Jörn Kaufmann, Josep Marco-Pallarés, Toemme Noesselt, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Learning the associations between words and meanings is a fundamental human ability. Although the language network is cortically well defined, the role of the white matter pathways supporting novel word-to-meaning mappings remains unclear. Here, by using contextual and cross-situational word-learning, we tested whether learning the meaning of a new word is related to the integrity of the language-related white matter pathways in 40 adults (18 women). The arcuate, uncinate, inferior-fronto-occipital and inferior-longitudinal fasciculi were virtually dissected using manual and automatic deterministic fiber-tracking...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020645/neural-correlates-of-the-lexicality-effect-in-children
#20
Yael Weiss, James R Booth
The comparison of words and pseudowords has been extensively used in adult neuroimaging studies to inform neurocognitive models of reading but has rarely been used to inform models of reading acquisition. Using a rhyming judgment task, the current study examined age-related differences in the spelling to sound mapping mechanisms involved in word and pseudoword reading. We hypothesized a developmental increase in specialization of the brain mechanisms engaged for word and pseudoword processing. Consistent with adult studies, children in the current study demonstrated a greater activation for words as compared to pseudowords in the anterior left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOT)...
October 8, 2017: Brain and Language
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