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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806953/a-fast-healthcare-interoperability-resources-fhir-layer-implemented-over-i2b2
#1
Abdelali Boussadi, Eric Zapletal
BACKGROUND: Standards and technical specifications have been developed to define how the information contained in Electronic Health Records (EHRs) should be structured, semantically described, and communicated. Current trends rely on differentiating the representation of data instances from the definition of clinical information models. The dual model approach, which combines a reference model (RM) and a clinical information model (CIM), sets in practice this software design pattern. The most recent initiative, proposed by HL7, is called Fast Health Interoperability Resources (FHIR)...
August 14, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800619/-what-is-relevant-in-a-text-document-an-interpretable-machine-learning-approach
#2
Leila Arras, Franziska Horn, Grégoire Montavon, Klaus-Robert Müller, Wojciech Samek
Text documents can be described by a number of abstract concepts such as semantic category, writing style, or sentiment. Machine learning (ML) models have been trained to automatically map documents to these abstract concepts, allowing to annotate very large text collections, more than could be processed by a human in a lifetime. Besides predicting the text's category very accurately, it is also highly desirable to understand how and why the categorization process takes place. In this paper, we demonstrate that such understanding can be achieved by tracing the classification decision back to individual words using layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP), a recently developed technique for explaining predictions of complex non-linear classifiers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783650/automatic-polyp-detection-via-a-novel-unified-bottom-up-and-top-down-saliency-approach
#3
Yixuan Yuan, Dengwang Li, Max Q-H Meng
In this paper, we propose a novel automatic computer-aided method to detect polyps for colonoscopy videos. To find the perceptually and semantically meaningful salient polyp regions, we first segment images into multilevel superpixels. Each level corresponds to different sizes of superpixels. Rather than adopting hand-designed features to describe these superpixels in images, we employ sparse autoencoder (SAE) to learn discriminative features in an unsupervised way. Then a novel unified bottom-up and top-down saliency method is proposed to detect polyps...
July 31, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767364/learning-spatial-semantic-context-with-fully-convolutional-recurrent-network-for-online-handwritten-chinese-text-recognition
#4
Zecheng Xie, Zenghui Sun, Lianwen Jin, Hao Ni, Terry Lyons
Online handwritten Chinese text recognition (OHCTR) is a challenging problem as it involves a large-scale character set, ambiguous segmentation, and variable-length input sequences. In this paper, we exploit the outstanding capability of path signature to translate online pen-tip trajectories into informative signature feature maps, successfully capturing the analytic and geometric properties of pen strokes with strong local invariance and robustness. A multi-spatial-context fully convolutional recurrent network (MC-FCRN) is proposed to exploit the multiple spatial contexts from the signature feature maps and generate a prediction sequence while completely avoiding the difficult segmentation problem...
July 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764484/beyond-lexical-meaning-the-effect-of-emotional-prosody-on-spoken-word-recognition
#5
Seung Kyung Kim, Meghan Sumner
This study employs an auditory-visual associative priming paradigm to test whether non-emotional words uttered in emotional prosody (e.g., pineapple spoken in angry prosody or happy prosody) facilitate recognition of semantically emotional words (e.g., mad, upset or smile, joy). The results show an affective priming effect between emotional prosody and emotional words independent of lexical carriers of the prosody. Learned acoustic patterns in speech (e.g., emotional prosody) map directly to social concepts and representations, and this social information influences the spoken word recognition process...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763679/multivariate-pattern-analysis-of-event-related-potentials-predicts-the-subjective-relevance-of-everyday-objects
#6
William Francis Turner, Phillip Johnston, Kathleen de Boer, Carmen Morawetz, Stefan Bode
Potentially decision-relevant stimuli have been proposed to undergo immediate semantic processing. The current study investigated whether information regarding the general desirability ('Wanting') of visually presented 'everyday' objects was rapidly and automatically processed. Participants completed a foreground task while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded, and task-irrelevant images were presented in the background. Following this, participants rated the images with regards to Wanting and the potentially related attributes of Relevance, Familiarity, Aesthetic Pleasantness and Time Reference...
July 29, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743591/terminology-supported-archiving-and-publication-of-environmental-science-data-in-pangaea-open-access
#7
Michael Diepenbroek, Uwe Schindler, Robert Huber, Stéphane Pesant, Markus Stocker, Janine Felden, Melanie Buss, Matthias Weinrebe
Exemplified on the information system PANGAEA, we describe the application of terminologies for archiving and publishing environmental science data. A Terminology Catalogue (TC) was embedded into the system, with interfaces allowing to replicate and to manually work on terminologies. For data ingest and archiving, we show how the TC can improve structuring and harmonizing lineage and content descriptions of data sets. Key is the conceptualization of measurement and observation types (parameters) and methods, for which we have implemented a basic syntax and rule set...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743262/the-effects-of-semantic-congruency-a-research-of-audiovisual-p300-speller
#8
Yong Cao, Xingwei An, Yufeng Ke, Jin Jiang, Hanjun Yang, Yuqian Chen, Xuejun Jiao, Hongzhi Qi, Dong Ming
BACKGROUND: Over the past few decades, there have been many studies of aspects of brain-computer interface (BCI). Of particular interests are event-related potential (ERP)-based BCI spellers that aim at helping mental typewriting. Nowadays, audiovisual unimodal stimuli based BCI systems have attracted much attention from researchers, and most of the existing studies of audiovisual BCIs were based on semantic incongruent stimuli paradigm. However, no related studies had reported that whether there is difference of system performance or participant comfort between BCI based on semantic congruent paradigm and that based on semantic incongruent paradigm...
July 25, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739560/ontology-based-approach-to-social-data-sentiment-analysis-detection-of-adolescent-depression-signals
#9
Hyesil Jung, Hyeoun-Ae Park, Tae-Min Song
BACKGROUND: Social networking services (SNSs) contain abundant information about the feelings, thoughts, interests, and patterns of behavior of adolescents that can be obtained by analyzing SNS postings. An ontology that expresses the shared concepts and their relationships in a specific field could be used as a semantic framework for social media data analytics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to refine an adolescent depression ontology and terminology as a framework for analyzing social media data and to evaluate description logics between classes and the applicability of this ontology to sentiment analysis...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729738/human-hippocampal-pre-activation-predicts-behavior
#10
Anna Jafarpour, Vitoria Piai, Jack J Lin, Robert T Knight
The response to an upcoming salient event is accelerated when the event is expected given the preceding events - i.e. a temporal context effect. For example, naming a picture following a strongly constraining temporal context is faster than naming a picture after a weakly constraining temporal context. We used sentences as naturalistic stimuli to manipulate expectations on upcoming pictures without prior training. Here, using intracranial recordings from the human hippocampus we found more power in the high-frequency band prior to high-expected pictures than weakly expected ones...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727543/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-radiogenomics-map-identifies-relationships-between-molecular-and-imaging-phenotypes-with-prognostic-implications
#11
Mu Zhou, Ann Leung, Sebastian Echegaray, Andrew Gentles, Joseph B Shrager, Kristin C Jensen, Gerald J Berry, Sylvia K Plevritis, Daniel L Rubin, Sandy Napel, Olivier Gevaert
Purpose To create a radiogenomic map linking computed tomographic (CT) image features and gene expression profiles generated by RNA sequencing for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods A cohort of 113 patients with NSCLC diagnosed between April 2008 and September 2014 who had preoperative CT data and tumor tissue available was studied. For each tumor, a thoracic radiologist recorded 87 semantic image features, selected to reflect radiologic characteristics of nodule shape, margin, texture, tumor environment, and overall lung characteristics...
July 20, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713303/investigating-thematic-roles-through-implicit-learning-evidence-from-light-verb-constructions
#12
Eva Wittenberg, Manizeh Khan, Jesse Snedeker
The syntactic structure of a sentence is usually a strong predictor of its meaning: Each argument noun phrase (i.e., Subject and Object) should map onto exactly one thematic role (i.e., Agent and Patient, respectively). Some constructions, however, are exceptions to this pattern. This paper investigates how the syntactic structure of an utterance contributes to its construal, using ditransitive English light verb constructions, such as "Nils gave a hug to his brother," as an example of such mismatches: Hugging is a two-role event, but the ditransitive syntactic structure suggests a three-role event...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693370/toward-a-graded-psycholexical-space-mapping-model-sublexical-and-lexical-representations-in-chinese-character-reading-development
#13
Xiuli Tong, Catherine McBride
Following a review of contemporary models of word-level processing for reading and their limitations, we propose a new hypothetical model of Chinese character reading, namely, the graded lexical space mapping model that characterizes how sublexical radicals and lexical information are involved in Chinese character reading development. The underlying assumption of this model is that Chinese character recognition is a process of competitive mappings of phonology, semantics, and orthography in both lexical and sublexical systems, operating as functions of statistical properties of print input based on the individual's specific level of reading...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692956/deepfix-a-fully-convolutional-neural-network-for-predicting-human-eye-fixations
#14
Srinivas S S Kruthiventi, Kumar Ayush, R Venkatesh Babu
Understanding and predicting the human visual attention mechanism is an active area of research in the fields of neuroscience and computer vision. In this paper, we propose DeepFix, a fully convolutional neural network, which models the bottom-up mechanism of visual attention via saliency prediction. Unlike classical works, which characterize the saliency map using various hand-crafted features, our model automatically learns features in a hierarchical fashion and predicts the saliency map in an end-to-end manner...
September 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690513/feature-selection-methods-for-zero-shot-learning-of-neural-activity
#15
Carlos A Caceres, Matthew J Roos, Kyle M Rupp, Griffin Milsap, Nathan E Crone, Michael E Wolmetz, Christopher R Ratto
Dimensionality poses a serious challenge when making predictions from human neuroimaging data. Across imaging modalities, large pools of potential neural features (e.g., responses from particular voxels, electrodes, and temporal windows) have to be related to typically limited sets of stimuli and samples. In recent years, zero-shot prediction models have been introduced for mapping between neural signals and semantic attributes, which allows for classification of stimulus classes not explicitly included in the training set...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679928/semantic-web-reusable-learning-objects-personal-learning-networks-in-health-key-pieces-for-digital-health-literacy
#16
Stathis Th Konstantinidis, Heather Wharrad, Richard Windle, Panagiotis D Bamidis
The knowledge existing in the World Wide Web is exponentially expanding, while continuous advancements in health sciences contribute to the creation of new knowledge. There are a lot of efforts trying to identify how the social connectivity can endorse patients' empowerment, while other studies look at the identification and the quality of online materials. However, emphasis has not been put on the big picture of connecting the existing resources with the patients "new habits" of learning through their own Personal Learning Networks...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669897/erp-responses-to-lexical-semantic-processing-in-typically-developing-toddlers-in-adults-and-in-toddlers-at-risk-for-language-and-learning-impairment
#17
Chiara Cantiani, Valentina Riva, Caterina Piazza, Giulia Melesi, Giulia Mornati, Roberta Bettoni, Cecilia Marino, Massimo Molteni
Children begin to establish lexical-semantic representations during their first year of life, resulting in a rapid growth of vocabulary around 18-24 months of age. The neural mechanisms underlying this initial ability to map words onto conceptual representations remain relatively unknown. In the present study, the electrophysiological underpinnings of these mechanisms are explored during the critical phase of lexical acquisition using a picture-word matching paradigm. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) elicited by words (either congruous or incongruous with the previous picture context) and pseudo-words are investigated in 20-month-old toddlers (N = 20) and compared to those elicited in a sample of adults (N = 20), reflecting the final and efficient system, and a sample of toddlers at familial risk for language and learning impairment (LLI, N = 15)...
June 30, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653794/predicting-the-brain-activation-pattern-associated-with-the-propositional-content-of-a-sentence-modeling-neural-representations-of-events-and-states
#18
Jing Wang, Vladimir L Cherkassky, Marcel Adam Just
Even though much has recently been learned about the neural representation of individual concepts and categories, neuroimaging research is only beginning to reveal how more complex thoughts, such as event and state descriptions, are neurally represented. We present a predictive computational theory of the neural representations of individual events and states as they are described in 240 sentences. Regression models were trained to determine the mapping between 42 neurally plausible semantic features (NPSFs) and thematic roles of the concepts of a proposition and the fMRI activation patterns of various cortical regions that process different types of information...
June 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648889/mapping-between-fmri-responses-to-movies-and-their-natural-language-annotations
#19
REVIEW
Kiran Vodrahalli, Po-Hsuan Chen, Yingyu Liang, Christopher Baldassano, Janice Chen, Esther Yong, Christopher Honey, Uri Hasson, Peter Ramadge, Kenneth A Norman, Sanjeev Arora
Several research groups have shown how to map fMRI responses to the meanings of presented stimuli. This paper presents new methods for doing so when only a natural language annotation is available as the description of the stimulus. We study fMRI data gathered from subjects watching an episode of BBCs Sherlock (Chen et al., 2017), and learn bidirectional mappings between fMRI responses and natural language representations. By leveraging data from multiple subjects watching the same movie, we were able to perform scene classification with 72% accuracy (random guessing would give 4%) and scene ranking with average rank in the top 4% (random guessing would give 50%)...
June 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616382/improving-language-mapping-in-clinical-fmri-through-assessment-of-grammar
#20
Monika Połczyńska, Kevin Japardi, Susan Curtiss, Teena Moody, Christopher Benjamin, Andrew Cho, Celia Vigil, Taylor Kuhn, Michael Jones, Susan Bookheimer
INTRODUCTION: Brain surgery in the language dominant hemisphere remains challenging due to unintended post-surgical language deficits, despite using pre-surgical functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and intraoperative cortical stimulation. Moreover, patients are often recommended not to undergo surgery if the accompanying risk to language appears to be too high. While standard fMRI language mapping protocols may have relatively good predictive value at the group level, they remain sub-optimal on an individual level...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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