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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436854/manifold-embedding-and-semantic-segmentation-for-intraoperative-guidance-with-hyperspectral-brain-imaging
#1
Daniele Ravi, Himar Fabelo, Gustavo Marrero Callico, GuangZhong Yang
Recent advances in hyperspectral imaging have made it a promising solution for intra-operative tissue characterization, with the advantages of being non-contact, non-ionizing and non-invasive. Working with hyperspectral images in vivo, however, is not straightforward as the high dimensionality of the data makes real-time processing challenging. In this paper, a novel dimensionality reduction scheme and a new processing pipeline are introduced to obtain a detailed tumour classification map for intra-operative margin definition during brain surgery...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434153/machine-learning-xgboost-analysis-of-language-networks-to-classify-patients-with-epilepsy
#2
L Torlay, M Perrone-Bertolotti, E Thomas, M Baciu
Our goal was to apply a statistical approach to allow the identification of atypical language patterns and to differentiate patients with epilepsy from healthy subjects, based on their cerebral activity, as assessed by functional MRI (fMRI). Patients with focal epilepsy show reorganization or plasticity of brain networks involved in cognitive functions, inducing 'atypical' (compared to 'typical' in healthy people) brain profiles. Moreover, some of these patients suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy, and they undergo surgery to stop seizures...
April 22, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433835/the-relationship-between-pre-verbal-event-representations-and-semantic-structures-the-case-of-goal-and-source-paths
#3
Laura Lakusta, Danielle Spinelli, Kathryn Garcia
We explored the nature of infants' concepts for goal path and source path in motion events (e.g., the duck moved into the bowl/out of the bowl), specifically asking how infants' representations could support the acquisition of the semantic roles of goal path and source path in language. The results showed that 14.5-month-old infants categorized goal paths across different motion events (moving to X, moving on Y), and they also categorized source paths if the source reference objects were highly salient (relatively large in size and colorful)...
April 20, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433347/phonological-and-semantic-processing-during-comprehension-in-wernicke-s-aphasia-an-n400-and-phonological-mapping-negativity-study
#4
Holly Robson, Emma Pilkington, Louise Evans, Vincent Deluca, James L Keidel
Comprehension impairments in Wernicke's aphasia are thought to result from a combination of impaired phonological and semantic processes. However, the relationship between these cognitive processes and language comprehension has only been inferred through offline neuropsychological tasks. This study used ERPs to investigate phonological and semantic processing during online single word comprehension. EEG was recorded in a group of Wernicke's aphasia n=8 and control participants n=10 while performing a word-picture verification task...
April 19, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430974/using-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-undamaged-brain-to-identify-lesion-sites-that-predict-language-outcome-after-stroke
#5
Diego L Lorca-Puls, Andrea Gajardo-Vidal, Mohamed L Seghier, Alexander P Leff, Varun Sethi, Susan Prejawa, Thomas M H Hope, Joseph T Devlin, Cathy J Price
Transcranial magnetic stimulation focused on either the left anterior supramarginal gyrus or opercular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus has been reported to transiently impair the ability to perform phonological more than semantic tasks. Here we tested whether phonological processing abilities were also impaired following lesions to these regions in right-handed, English speaking adults, who were investigated at least 1 year after a left-hemisphere stroke. When our regions of interest were limited to 0...
April 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424650/the-role-of-the-left-anterior-temporal-lobe-for-unpredictable-and-complex-mappings-in-word-reading
#6
Marilyne Joyal, Simona M Brambati, Robert J Laforce, Maxime Montembeault, Mariem Boukadi, Isabelle Rouleau, Joël Macoir, Sven Joubert, Shirley Fecteau, Maximiliano A Wilson
The anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) have been consistently associated with semantic processing which, in turn, has a key role in reading aloud single words. This study aimed to investigate (1) the reading abilities in patients with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), and (2) the relationship between gray matter (GM) volume of the left ATL and word reading performance using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Three groups of participants (svPPA, Alzheimer's Disease, AD and healthy elderly adults) performed a reading task with exception words, regular words and pseudowords, along with a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423835/snomed-ct-as-reference-terminology-in-the-danish-national-home-care-documentation-standard
#7
Kirstine Rosenbeck Gøeg, Pia Britt Elberg, Anne Randorff Højen, Ulla Lund Eskildsen
In Danish home care, multiple professions deliver services to citizens. FSIII is a national home care documentation standard, where one of the goals is to share documentation to improve coordination between these professional groups and avoid double documentation. The aim of this study was to develop a SNOMED-CT based navigation hierarchy to ensure that professions could preserve their documentation practice, to help avoid double documentation, and to ensure that the technical implementation did not require sophisticated semantic tools...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423796/personalized-guideline-based-treatment-recommendations-using-natural-language-processing-techniques
#8
Matthias Becker, Britta Böckmann
Clinical guidelines and clinical pathways are accepted and proven instruments for quality assurance and process optimization. Today, electronic representation of clinical guidelines exists as unstructured text, but is not well-integrated with patient-specific information from electronic health records. Consequently, generic content of the clinical guidelines is accessible, but it is not possible to visualize the position of the patient on the clinical pathway, decision support cannot be provided by personalized guidelines for the next treatment step...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423769/linked-data-applications-through-ontology-based-data-access-in-clinical-research
#9
Ann-Kristin Kock-Schoppenhauer, Christian Kamann, Hannes Ulrich, Petra Duhm-Harbeck, Josef Ingenerf
Clinical care and research data are widely dispersed in isolated systems based on heterogeneous data models. Biomedicine predominantly makes use of connected datasets based on the Semantic Web paradigm. Initiatives like Bio2RDF created Resource Description Framework (RDF) versions of Omics resources, enabling sophisticated Linked Data applications. In contrast, electronic healthcare records (EHR) data are generated and processed in diverse clinical subsystems within hospital information systems (HIS). Usually, each of them utilizes a relational database system with a different proprietary schema...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420108/a-robust-crowdsourcing-based-indoor-localization-system
#10
Baoding Zhou, Qingquan Li, Qingzhou Mao, Wei Tu
WiFi fingerprinting-based indoor localization has been widely used due to its simplicity and can be implemented on the smartphones. The major drawback of WiFi fingerprinting is that the radio map construction is very labor-intensive and time-consuming. Another drawback of WiFi fingerprinting is the Received Signal Strength (RSS) variance problem, caused by environmental changes and device diversity. RSS variance severely degrades the localization accuracy. In this paper, we propose a robust crowdsourcing-based indoor localization system (RCILS)...
April 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419879/challenging-the-myth-of-right-non-dominant-hemisphere-lessons-from-cortico-subcortical-stimulation-mapping-in-awake-surgery-and-surgical-implications
#11
REVIEW
Tatiana Vilasboas, Guillaume Herbet, Hugues Duffau
For a long time, the right hemisphere (RH) was considered as "non-dominant", especially in right-handers. In neurosurgical practice, this dogma resulted in the selection of awake procedure with language mapping only for lesions of the left "dominant" hemisphere. Conversely, surgery under general anesthesia (possibly with motor mapping) was usually proposed for right lesions. However, when objective neuropsychological assessments were performed, they frequently revealed cognitive and behavioral deficits following brain surgery, even in the RH...
April 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416459/the-error-of-broca-from-the-traditional-localizationist-concept-to-a-connectomal-anatomy-of-human-brain
#12
REVIEW
Hugues Duffau
Neurology, especially aphasiology, was mainly built on behavioral-structural correlations ("lesion method"). In this setting, Broca's area has been considered as the "speech area"; moreover, this observation led to localizationism. However, advances in brain mapping techniques, as functional neuroimaging and direct electrical stimulation in patients undergoing awake surgery for gliomas, has resulted in a paradigmatic shift regarding models of neural architecture. In fact, the brain is organized in distributed complex networks underpinning sensorimotor, visuospatial, language, cognitive and emotional functions...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413716/data-driven-regions-of-interest-for-longitudinal-change-in-three-variants-of-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Richard J Binney, Aleksandr Pankov, Gabriel Marx, Xuanzie He, Faye McKenna, Adam M Staffaroni, John Kornak, Suneth Attygalle, Adam L Boxer, Norbert Schuff, Maria-Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Michael W Weiner, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen
INTRODUCTION: Longitudinal imaging of neurodegenerative disorders is a potentially powerful biomarker for use in clinical trials. In Alzheimer's disease, studies have demonstrated that empirically derived regions of interest (ROIs) can provide more reliable measurement of disease progression compared with anatomically defined ROIs. METHODS: We set out to derive ROIs with optimal effect size for quantifying longitudinal change in a hypothetical clinical trial by comparing atrophy rates in 44 patients with behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 30 with the semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), and 26 with the nonfluent variant PPA (nfvPPA) to atrophy in 97 cognitively healthy controls...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413699/white-matter-connections-of-the-inferior-parietal-lobule-a-study-of-surgical-anatomy
#14
Joshua D Burks, Lillian B Boettcher, Andrew K Conner, Chad A Glenn, Phillip A Bonney, Cordell M Baker, Robert G Briggs, Nathan A Pittman, Daniel L O'Donoghue, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
INTRODUCTION: Interest in the function of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) has resulted in increased understanding of its involvement in visuospatial and cognitive functioning, and its role in semantic networks. A basic understanding of the nuanced white-matter anatomy in this region may be useful in improving outcomes when operating in this region of the brain. We sought to derive the surgical relationship between the IPL and underlying major white-matter bundles by characterizing macroscopic connectivity...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412593/bootstrapping-language-acquisition
#15
Omri Abend, Tom Kwiatkowski, Nathaniel J Smith, Sharon Goldwater, Mark Steedman
The semantic bootstrapping hypothesis proposes that children acquire their native language through exposure to sentences of the language paired with structured representations of their meaning, whose component substructures can be associated with words and syntactic structures used to express these concepts. The child's task is then to learn a language-specific grammar and lexicon based on (probably contextually ambiguous, possibly somewhat noisy) pairs of sentences and their meaning representations (logical forms)...
April 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396096/what-does-semantic-tiling-of-the-cortex-tell-us-about-semantics
#16
Lawrence W Barsalou
Recent use of voxel-wise modeling in cognitive neuroscience suggests that semantic maps tile the cortex. Although this impressive research establishes distributed cortical areas active during the conceptual processing that underlies semantics, it tells us little about the nature of this processing. While mapping concepts between Marr's computational and implementation levels to support neural encoding and decoding, this approach ignores Marr's algorithmic level, central for understanding the mechanisms that implement cognition, in general, and conceptual processing, in particular...
April 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391809/leveraging-medical-taxonomies-to-improve-knowledge-management-within-online-communities-of-practice-the-knowledge-maps-system
#17
Samuel Alan Stewart, Syed Sibte Raza Abidi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Online communities of practice contain a wealth of information, stored in the free text of shared communications between community members. The Knowledge Maps (KMaps) system is designed to facilitate Knowledge Translation in online communities through multi-level analyses of the shared messages of these communications. METHODS: Using state-of-the-art semantic mapping technologies (Metamap) the contents of the messages shared within an online community are mapped to terms from the MeSH medical lexicon, providing a multi-level topic-specific summary of the knowledge being shared within the community...
May 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380303/conception-and-implementation-of-an-austrian-biobank-directory-integration-framework
#18
Philipp Hofer-Picout, Horst Pichler, Johann Eder, Sabrina B Neururer, Heimo Müller, Robert Reihs, Petr Holub, Thomas Insam, Georg Goebel
INTRODUCTION: Sample collections and data are hosted within different biobanks at diverse institutions across Europe. Our data integration framework aims at incorporating data about sample collections from different biobanks into a common research infrastructure, facilitating researchers' abilities to obtain high-quality samples to conduct their research. The resulting information must be locally gathered and distributed to searchable higher level information biobank directories to maximize the visibility on the national and European levels...
April 5, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369572/a-critical-review-on-the-use-of-support-values-in-tree-viewers-and-bioinformatics-toolkits
#19
Lucas Czech, Jaime Huerta-Cepas, Alexandros Stamatakis
Phylogenetic trees are routinely visualized to present and interpret the evolutionary relationships of species. Most empirical evolutionary data studies contain a visualization of the inferred tree with branch support values. Ambiguous semantics in tree file formats can lead to erroneous tree visualizations and therefore to incorrect interpretations of phylogenetic analyses. Here, we discuss problems that arise when displaying branch values on trees after rerooting. Branch values are typically stored as node labels in the widely-used Newick tree format...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365720/belminer-adapting-a-rule-based-relation-extraction-system-to-extract-biological-expression-language-statements-from-bio-medical-literature-evidence-sentences
#20
K E Ravikumar, Majid Rastegar-Mojarad, Hongfang Liu
Extracting meaningful relationships with semantic significance from biomedical literature is often a challenging task. BioCreative V track4 challenge for the first time has organized a comprehensive shared task to test the robustness of the text-mining algorithms in extracting semantically meaningful assertions from the evidence statement in biomedical text. In this work, we tested the ability of a rule-based semantic parser to extract Biological Expression Language (BEL) statements from evidence sentences culled out of biomedical literature as part of BioCreative V Track4 challenge...
January 1, 2017: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
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