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Semantic maps

Ryan Eshleman, Rahul Singh
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events (ADEs) constitute one of the leading causes of post-therapeutic death and their identification constitutes an important challenge of modern precision medicine. Unfortunately, the onset and effects of ADEs are often underreported complicating timely intervention. At over 500 million posts per day, Twitter is a commonly used social media platform. The ubiquity of day-to-day personal information exchange on Twitter makes it a promising target for data mining for ADE identification and intervention...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Peter Rijnbeek
Massive numbers of electronic health records are currently being collected globally, including structured data in the form of diagnoses, medications, laboratory test results, and unstructured data contained in clinical narratives. This opens unprecedented possibilities for research and ultimately patient care. However, actual use of these databases in a multi-center study is severely hampered by a variety of challenges, e.g., each database has a different database structure and uses different terminology systems...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Reid Hoshide, Rahul Jandial
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Clément François, Toni Cunillera, Enara Garcia, Matti Laine, Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells
Learning a new language requires the identification of word units from continuous speech (the speech segmentation problem) and mapping them onto conceptual representation (the word to world mapping problem). Recent behavioral studies have revealed that the statistical properties found within and across modalities can serve as cues for both processes. However, segmentation and mapping have been largely studied separately, and thus it remains unclear whether both processes can be accomplished at the same time and if they share common neurophysiological features...
October 9, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Ya-Ning Chang, Stephen Welbourne, Chia-Ying Lee
Orthographic neighborhood (N) size effects have been extensively studied in English consistently producing a facilitatory effect in word naming tasks. In contrast, several recent studies on Chinese character naming have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of neighborhood size. Response latencies tend to be inhibited by inconsistent characters with large neighborhoods relative to small neighborhoods. These differences in neighborhood effects between languages may depend on the characteristics (depth) of the mapping between orthography and phonology...
October 6, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Jian Kang, Jixin Zhang, Yongqian Bai
An evaluation of the oil-spill emergency response capability (OS-ERC) currently in place in modern marine management is required to prevent pollution and loss accidents. The objective of this paper is to develop a novel OS-ERC evaluation model, the importance of which stems from the current lack of integrated approaches for interpreting, ranking and assessing OS-ERC performance factors. In the first part of this paper, the factors influencing OS-ERC are analyzed and classified to generate a global evaluation index system...
October 4, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Svetlana V Cook, Nick B Pandža, Alia K Lancaster, Kira Gor
The present paper explores nonnative (L2) phonological encoding of lexical entries and dissociates the difficulties associated with L2 phonological and phonolexical encoding by focusing on similarly sounding L2 words that are not differentiated by difficult phonological contrasts. We test two main claims of the fuzzy lexicon hypothesis: (1) L2 fuzzy phonolexical representations are not fully specified and lack details at both phonological and phonolexical levels of representation (Experiment 1); and (2) fuzzy phonolexical representations can lead to establishing incorrect form-to-meaning mappings (Experiment 2)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Long Xie, John B Pluta, Sandhitsu R Das, Laura E M Wisse, Hongzhi Wang, Lauren Mancuso, Dasha Kliot, Brian B Avants, Song-Lin Ding, José V Manjón, David A Wolk, Paul A Yushkevich
RATIONALE: The human perirhinal cortex (PRC) plays critical roles in episodic and semantic memory and visual perception. The PRC consists of Brodmann areas 35 and 36 (BA35, BA36). In Alzheimer's disease (AD), BA35 is the first cortical site affected by neurofibrillary tangle pathology, which is closely linked to neural injury in AD. Large anatomical variability, manifested in the form of different cortical folding and branching patterns, makes it difficult to segment the PRC in MRI scans...
October 1, 2016: NeuroImage
Joshua K Hartshorne, Timothy J O'Donnell, Yasutada Sudo, Miki Uruwashi, Miseon Lee, Jesse Snedeker
In acquiring language, children must learn to appropriately place the different participants of an event (e.g., causal agent, affected entity) into the correct syntactic positions (e.g., subject, object) so that listeners will know who did what to whom. While many of these mappings can be characterized by broad generalizations, both within and across languages (e.g., semantic agents tend to be mapped onto syntactic subjects), not all verbs fit neatly into these generalizations. One particularly striking example is verbs of psychological state: The experiencer of the state can appear as either the subject (Agnes fears/hates/loves Bartholomew) or the direct object (Agnes frightens/angers/delights Bartholomew)...
September 28, 2016: Cognition
Marianna D Eddy, Jonathan Grainger, Phillip J Holcomb, John D E Gabrieli
The development of neurocognitive mechanisms in single word reading was studied in children ages 8-10 years using ERPs combined with priming manipulations aimed at dissociating orthographic and phonological processes. Transposed-letter (TL) priming (barin-BRAIN vs. bosin-BRAIN) was used to assess orthographic processing, and pseudohomophone (PH) priming (brane-BRAIN vs. brant-BRAIN) was used to assess phonological processing. Children showed TL and PH priming effects on both the N250 and N400 ERP components, and the magnitude of TL priming correlated positively with reading ability, with better readers showing larger TL priming effects...
September 27, 2016: Psychophysiology
Peter Rijnbeek
Massive numbers of electronic health records are currently being collected globally, including structured data in the form of diagnoses, medications, laboratory test results, and unstructured data contained in clinical narratives. This opens unprecedented possibilities for research and ultimately patient care. However, actual use of these databases in a multi-center study is severely hampered by a variety of challenges, e.g., each database has a different database structure and uses different terminology systems...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Wan-Yun Yu, Jie-Li Tsai
Previous psycholinguistic studies have demonstrated that people tend to direct fixations toward the visual object to which spoken input refers during language comprehension. However, it is still unclear how the visual scene, especially the semantic consistency between object and background, affects the word-object mapping process during comprehension. Two visual world paradigm experiments were conducted to investigate how the scene consistency dynamically influenced the language-driven eye movements in a speech comprehension and a scene comprehension task...
September 15, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Marco Masseroli, Abdulrahman Kaitoua, Pietro Pinoli, Stefano Ceri
While a huge amount of (epi)genomic data of multiple types is becoming available by using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, the most important emerging problem is the so-called tertiary analysis, concerned with sense making, e.g., discovering how different (epi)genomic regions and their products interact and cooperate with each other. We propose a paradigm shift in tertiary analysis, based on the use of the Genomic Data Model (GDM), a simple data model which links genomic feature data to their associated experimental, biological and clinical metadata...
September 13, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Richard J Binney, Paul Hoffman, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
A growing body of recent convergent evidence indicates that the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) has connectivity-derived graded differences in semantic function: the ventrolateral region appears to be the transmodal, omni-category center-point of the hub whilst secondary contributions come from the peripheries of the hub in a manner that reflects their differential connectivity to different input/output modalities. One of the key challenges for this neurocognitive theory is how different types of concept, especially those with less reliance upon external sensory experience (such as abstract and social concepts), are coded across the graded ATL hub...
September 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Valentina Borghesani, Fabian Pedregosa, Marco Buiatti, Alexis Amadon, Evelyn Eger, Manuela Piazza
The meaning of words referring to concrete items is thought of as a multidimensional representation that includes both perceptual (e.g., average size, prototypical color) and conceptual (e.g., taxonomic class) dimensions. Are these different dimensions coded in different brain regions? In healthy human subjects, we tested the presence of a mapping between the implied real object size (a perceptual dimension) and the taxonomic categories at different levels of specificity (conceptual dimensions) of a series of words, and the patterns of brain activity recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging in six areas along the ventral occipito-temporal cortical path...
September 1, 2016: NeuroImage
Yihan Deng, Jan Gaebel, Kerstin Denecke
Events such as clinical interventions, adverse drug events are one of the basic semantic units in the clinical workflow and are the foundation of the pathway representation. Current research has mainly concentrated on event recognition through concept mapping using from medical ontologies (UMLS, SNOMED CT) and gene relation detection in the biological context. However, the analysis of the patient status and the interaction between the patient status and a context event is still at the primary stage. In order to realize an efficient personalized treatment design and pathway planning, the correlation between a patient status and different types of clinical events should be analyzed...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Simona Amenta, Marco Marelli, Simone Sulpizio
In the present study, the role of phonological information in visual word recognition is investigated by adopting a large-scale data-driven approach that exploits a new consistency measure based on distributional semantics methods. A recent study by Marelli, Amenta, and Crepaldi (2015) showed that the consistency between an orthographic string and the meanings to which it is associated in a large corpus is a relevant predictor in lexical decision experiments. Exploiting irregular mappings between orthography and phonology in English, we were able to compute a phonology-to-semantics consistency measure that dissociates from its orthographic counterpart and tested both measures on lexical decision data taken from the British Lexicon Project (Keuleers et al...
August 29, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Christel Daniel, David Ouagne, Eric Sadou, Kerstin Forsberg, Mark Mc Gilchrist, Eric Zapletal, Nicolas Paris, Sajjad Hussain, Marie-Christine Jaulent, Dipka Kalra Md
With the development of platforms enabling the use of routinely collected clinical data in the context of international clinical research, scalable solutions for cross border semantic interoperability need to be developed. Within the context of the IMI EHR4CR project, we first defined the requirements and evaluation criteria of the EHR4CR semantic interoperability platform and then developed the semantic resources and supportive services and tooling to assist hospital sites in standardizing their data for allowing the execution of the project use cases...
2016: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
Samuele Cortese, F Xavier Castellanos, Claudia R Eickhoff, Giulia D'Acunto, Gabriele Masi, Peter T Fox, Angela R Laird, Simon B Eickhoff
BACKGROUND: Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed various ADHD-related dysfunctional brain regions, with heterogeneous findings across studies. Here, we used novel meta-analytic data-driven approaches to characterize the function and connectivity profile of ADHD-related dysfunctional regions consistently detected across studies. METHODS: We first conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 24 task-based fMRI studies in adults with ADHD...
June 24, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Guillaume Herbet, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Hugues Duffau
The neural foundations underlying semantic processing have been extensively investigated, highlighting a pivotal role of the ventral stream. However, although studies concerning the involvement of the left ventral route in verbal semantics are proficient, the potential implication of the right ventral pathway in non-verbal semantics has been to date unexplored. To gain insights on this matter, we used an intraoperative direct electrostimulation to map the structures mediating the non-verbal semantic system in the right hemisphere...
August 27, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
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