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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092785/integrated-ssfp-for-functional-brain-mapping-at-7t-with-reduced-susceptibility-artifact
#1
Kaibao Sun, Rong Xue, Peng Zhang, Zhentao Zuo, Zhongwei Chen, Bo Wang, Thomas Martin, Yi Wang, Lin Chen, Sheng He, Danny J J Wang
Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) offers an alternative and potentially important tool to the standard gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) for functional MRI (fMRI). Both passband and transition band based bSSFP have been proposed for fMRI. The applications of these methods, however, are limited by banding artifacts due to the sensitivity of bSSFP signal to off-resonance effects. In this article, a unique case of the SSFP-FID sequence, termed integrated-SSFP or iSSFP, was proposed to overcome the obstacle by compressing the SSFP profile into the width of a single voxel...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088485/semantic-attributes-are-encoded-in-human-electrocorticographic-signals-during-visual-object-recognition
#2
Kyle Rupp, Matthew Roos, Griffin Milsap, Carlos Caceres, Christopher Ratto, Mark Chevillet, Nathan E Crone, Michael Wolmetz
Non-invasive neuroimaging studies have shown that semantic category and attribute information are encoded in neural population activity. Electrocorticography (ECoG) offers several advantages over non-invasive approaches, but the degree to which semantic attribute information is encoded in ECoG responses is not known. We recorded ECoG while patients named objects from 12 semantic categories and then trained high-dimensional encoding models to map semantic attributes to spectral-temporal features of the task-related neural responses...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077514/representational-similarity-mapping-of-distributional-semantics-in-left-inferior-frontal-middle-temporal-and-motor-cortex
#3
Francesca Carota, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Hamed Nili, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Language comprehension engages a distributed network of frontotemporal, parietal, and sensorimotor regions, but it is still unclear how meaning of words and their semantic relationships are represented and processed within these regions and to which degrees lexico-semantic representations differ between regions and semantic types. We used fMRI and representational similarity analysis to relate word-elicited multivoxel patterns to semantic similarity between action and object words. In left inferior frontal (BA 44-45-47), left posterior middle temporal and left precentral cortex, the similarity of brain response patterns reflected semantic similarity among action-related verbs, as well as across lexical classes-between action verbs and tool-related nouns and, to a degree, between action verbs and food nouns, but not between action verbs and animal nouns...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061771/s2o-a-software-tool-for-integrating-research-data-from-general-purpose-statistic-software-into-electronic-data-capture-systems
#4
Philipp Bruland, Martin Dugas
BACKGROUND: Data capture for clinical registries or pilot studies is often performed in spreadsheet-based applications like Microsoft Excel or IBM SPSS. Usually, data is transferred into statistic software, such as SAS, R or IBM SPSS Statistics, for analyses afterwards. Spreadsheet-based solutions suffer from several drawbacks: It is generally not possible to ensure a sufficient right and role management; it is not traced who has changed data when and why. Therefore, such systems are not able to comply with regulatory requirements for electronic data capture in clinical trials...
January 7, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060704/segnet-a-deep-convolutional-encoder-decoder-architecture-for-scene-segmentation
#5
Vijay Badrinarayanan, Alex Kendall, Roberto Cipolla
We present a novel and practical deep fully convolutional neural network architecture for semantic pixel-wise segmentation termed SegNet. This core trainable segmentation engine consists of an encoder network, a corresponding decoder network followed by a pixel-wise classification layer. The architecture of the encoder network is topologically identical to the 13 convolutional layers in the VGG16 network [1]. The role of the decoder network is to map the low resolution encoder feature maps to full input resolution feature maps for pixel-wise classification...
January 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053037/left-anterior-temporal-lobe-and-bilateral-anterior-cingulate-cortex-are-semantic-hub-regions-evidence-from-behavior-nodal-degree-mapping-in-brain-damaged-patients
#6
Ying Zhao, Luping Song, Junhua Ding, Nan Lin, Qiang Wang, Xiaoxia Du, Rong Sun, Zaizhu Han
: The organizational principles of semantic memory in the human brain are still controversial. Although studies have shown that the semantic system contains hub regions that bind information from different sensorimotoric modalities to form concepts, it is unknown whether there are hub regions other than the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). Meanwhile, previous studies have rarely used network measurements to explore the hubs or correlated network indexes with semantic performance, although the most direct supportive evidence of hubs should come from the network perspective...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048805/su-f-r-42-association-of-radiomic-and-metabolic-tumor-volumes-in-radiation-treatment-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#7
C Lopez, N Nagornaya, N Parra, D Kwon, F Ishkanian, A Markoe, A Maudsley, R Stoyanova
PURPOSE: High-throughput extraction of imaging and metabolomic quantitative features from MRI and MR Spectroscopy Imaging (MRSI) of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) results in tens of variables per patient. In radiotherapy (RT) of GBM, the relevant metabolic tumor volumes (MTVs) are related to aberrant levels of N-acetyl Aspartate (NAA) and Choline (Cho). Corresponding Clinical Target Volumes (CTVs) for RT planning are based on Contrast Enhancing T1-weighted MRI (CE-T1w) and T2-weighted/Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) MRI...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042667/the-difficulties-of-systematic-reviews
#8
REVIEW
Martin J Westgate, David B Lindenmayer
The need for robust evidence to support conservation actions has driven the adoption of systematic approaches to research synthesis in ecology. However, applying systematic review to complex or open questions remains challenging, and this task is becoming more difficult as the quantity of scientific literature increases. Here, we draw on the science of linguistics for guidance as to why the process of identifying and sorting information during systematic review remains so labor-intensive, and to provide potential solutions...
January 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039662/individual-differences-in-spontaneous-analogical-transfer
#9
James R Kubricht, Hongjing Lu, Keith J Holyoak
Research on analogical problem solving has shown that people often fail to spontaneously notice the relevance of a semantically remote source analog when solving a target problem, although they are able to form mappings and derive inferences when given a hint to recall the source. Relatively little work has investigated possible individual differences that predict spontaneous transfer, or how such differences may interact with interventions that facilitate transfer. In this study, fluid intelligence was measured for participants in an analogical problem-solving task, using an abridged version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test...
December 30, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032652/the-specificity-of-sound-symbolic-correspondences-in-spoken-language
#10
Christina Y Tzeng, Lynne C Nygaard, Laura L Namy
Although language has long been regarded as a primarily arbitrary system, sound symbolism, or non-arbitrary correspondences between the sound of a word and its meaning, also exists in natural language. Previous research suggests that listeners are sensitive to sound symbolism. However, little is known about the specificity of these mappings. This study investigated whether sound symbolic properties correspond to specific meanings, or whether these properties generalize across semantic dimensions. In three experiments, native English-speaking adults heard sound symbolic foreign words for dimensional adjective pairs (big/small, round/pointy, fast/slow, moving/still) and for each foreign word, selected a translation among English antonyms that either matched or mismatched with the correct meaning dimension...
December 29, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028201/decoding-the-cortical-dynamics-of-sound-meaning-mapping
#11
Ece Kocagoncu, Alex Clarke, Barry Devereux, Lorraine K Tyler
: Comprehending speech involves the rapid and optimally efficient mapping from sound to meaning. Influential cognitive models of spoken word recognition (Marslen-Wilson and Welsh, 1978) propose that the onset of a spoken word initiates a continuous process of activation of the lexical and semantic properties of the word candidates matching the speech input, and competition between them which continues until the point at which the word is differentiated from all other cohort candidates (the uniqueness point, UP)...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011250/shared-orthographic-neuronal-representations-for-spelling-and-reading
#12
Jeremy J Purcell, Xiong Jiang, Guinevere F Eden
A central question in the study of the neural basis of written language is whether reading and spelling utilize shared orthographic representations. While recent studies employing fMRI to test this question report that the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOTC) are active during both spelling and reading in the same subjects (Purcell et al., 2011a; Rapp and Lipka, 2011), the spatial resolution of fMRI limits the interpretation of these findings. Specifically, it is unknown if the neurons which encode orthography for reading are also involved in spelling of the same words...
December 20, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992327/stc-a-simple-to-complex-framework-for-weakly-supervised-semantic-segmentation
#13
Yunchao Wei, Xiaodan Liang, Yunpeng Chen, Xiaohui Shen, Ming-Ming Cheng, Jiashi Feng, Yao Zhao, Shuicheng Yan
Recently, significant improvement has been made on semantic object segmentation due to the development of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs). Training such a DCNN usually relies on a large number of images with pixel-level segmentation masks, and annotating these images is very costly in terms of both finance and human effort. In this paper, we propose a simple to complex (STC) framework in which only image-level annotations are utilized to learn DCNNs for semantic segmentation. Specifically, we first train an initial segmentation network called Initial-DCNN with the saliency maps of simple images (i...
December 6, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984788/disentangling-meaning-in-the-brain-left-temporal%C3%A2-involvement-in-agreement-processing
#14
Simona Mancini, Ileana Quiñones, Nicola Molinaro, Juan A Hernandez-Cabrera, Manuel Carreiras
Sentence comprehension is successfully accomplished by means of a form-to-meaning mapping procedure that relies on the extraction of morphosyntactic information from the input and its mapping to higher-level semantic-discourse representations. In this study, we sought to determine whether neuroanatomically distinct brain regions are involved in the processing of different types of information contained in the propositional meaning of a sentence, namely person and number. While person information indexes the role that an individual has in discourse (i...
November 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981671/distinct-white-matter-injury-associated-with-medial-temporal-lobe-atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-versus-semantic-dementia
#15
Alexandre Bejanin, Béatrice Desgranges, Renaud La Joie, Brigitte Landeau, Audrey Perrotin, Florence Mézenge, Serge Belliard, Vincent de La Sayette, Francis Eustache, Gaël Chételat
This study aims at further understanding the distinct vulnerability of brain networks in Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus semantic dementia (SD) investigating the white matter injury associated with medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy in both conditions. Twenty-six AD patients, twenty-one SD patients, and thirty-nine controls underwent a high-resolution T1-MRI scan allowing to obtain maps of grey matter volume and white matter density. A statistical conjunction approach was used to identify MTL regions showing grey matter atrophy in both patient groups...
December 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956600/revealing-the-dual-streams-of-speech-processing
#16
Julius Fridriksson, Grigori Yourganov, Leonardo Bonilha, Alexandra Basilakos, Dirk-Bart Den Ouden, Christopher Rorden
Several dual route models of human speech processing have been proposed suggesting a large-scale anatomical division between cortical regions that support motor-phonological aspects vs. lexical-semantic aspects of speech processing. However, to date, there is no complete agreement on what areas subserve each route or the nature of interactions across these routes that enables human speech processing. Relying on an extensive behavioral and neuroimaging assessment of a large sample of stroke survivors, we used a data-driven approach using principal components analysis of lesion-symptom mapping to identify brain regions crucial for performance on clusters of behavioral tasks without a priori separation into task types...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930808/searching-the-mouse-genome-informatics-mgi-resources-for-information-on-mouse-biology-from-genotype-to-phenotype
#17
David R Shaw
The Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) resource provides the research community with access to information on the genetics, genomics, and biology of the laboratory mouse. Core data in MGI include gene characterization and function, phenotype and disease model descriptions, DNA and protein sequence data, gene expression data, vertebrate homologies, SNPs, mapping data, and links to other bioinformatics databases. Semantic integration is supported through the use of standardized nomenclature, and through the use of controlled vocabularies such as the mouse Anatomical Dictionary, the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology, and the Gene Ontologies...
December 8, 2016: Current Protocols in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920731/do-you-read-how-i-read-systematic-individual-differences-in-semantic-reliance-amongst-normal-readers
#18
Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Gaston Madrid, Karalyn E Patterson
The extent to which meaning is involved in reading aloud has proven an area of longstanding debate, and current computational models differ on this dimension. The connectionist triangle model proposes that normal individuals rely on semantic information for correct reading of words with atypical spelling-sound relationships, but to varying degrees. This proposed individual difference would account for the varying stage of decline at which patients with semantic dementia first show the reading impairment known as surface dyslexia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919546/brain-morphometry-predicts-individual-creative-potential-and-the-ability-to-combine-remote-ideas
#19
David Bendetowicz, Marika Urbanski, Clarisse Aichelburg, Richard Levy, Emmanuelle Volle
For complex mental functions such as creative thinking, inter-individual variability is useful to better understand the underlying cognitive components and brain anatomy. Associative theories propose that creative individuals have flexible semantic associations, which allows remote elements to be formed into new combinations. However, the structural brain variability associated with the ability to combine remote associates has not been explored. To address this question, we performed a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study and explored the anatomical connectivity of significant regions...
November 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918836/evolvix-best-names-for-semantic-reproducibility-across-code2brain-interfaces
#20
Laurence Loewe, Katherine S Scheuer, Seth A Keel, Vaibhav Vyas, Ben Liblit, Bret Hanlon, Michael C Ferris, John Yin, Inês Dutra, Anthony Pietsch, Christine G Javid, Cecilia L Moog, Jocelyn Meyer, Jerdon Dresel, Brian McLoone, Sonya Loberger, Arezoo Movaghar, Morgaine Gilchrist-Scott, Yazeed Sabri, Dave Sescleifer, Ivan Pereda-Zorrilla, Andrew Zietlow, Rodrigo Smith, Samantha Pietenpol, Jacob Goldfinger, Sarah L Atzen, Erika Freiberg, Noah P Waters, Claire Nusbaum, Erik Nolan, Alyssa Hotz, Richard M Kliman, Ayalew Mentewab, Nathan Fregien, Martha Loewe
Names in programming are vital for understanding the meaning of code and big data. We define code2brain (C2B) interfaces as maps in compilers and brains between meaning and naming syntax, which help to understand executable code. While working toward an Evolvix syntax for general-purpose programming that makes accurate modeling easy for biologists, we observed how names affect C2B quality. To protect learning and coding investments, C2B interfaces require long-term backward compatibility and semantic reproducibility (accurate reproduction of computational meaning from coder-brains to reader-brains by code alone)...
December 5, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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