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I Absah, A Rishi, N J Talley, D Katzka, M Halland
BACKGROUND: Rumination syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by effortless and repetitive regurgitation of recently ingested food from the stomach to the oral cavity followed by either re-swallowing or spitting. Rumination is thought to occur due to a reversal of the esophagogastric pressure gradient. This is achieved by a coordinated abdominothoracic maneuver consisting of a thoracic suction, crural diaphragm relaxation and an increase in intragastric pressure...
October 20, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Elisa Bruno, Alessandra Nicoletti, Graziella Quattrocchi, Graziella Filippini, Carlo Colosimo, Mario Zappia
BACKGROUND: Essential tremor is one of the most common movement disorders. Treatment primarily consists of pharmacological agents. While primidone and propranolol are well-established treatments in clinical practice, they may be ineffective in 25% to 55% of patients and can produce serious adverse events in a large percentage of them. For these reasons, it is worth evaluating the treatment alternatives for essential tremor. Some specialists have suggested that pregabalin could be a potentially useful agent, but there is uncertainty about its efficacy and safety...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Anthony R Mawson, Nola T Radford, Binu Jacob
Stuttering affects about 1% of the general population and from 8 to 11% of children. The onset of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) typically occurs between 2 and 4 years of age. The etiology of stuttering is unknown and a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Clues to the pathogenesis of stuttering include the following observations: PDS is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and birth-associated trauma; stuttering can recur or develop in adulthood following traumatic events such as brain injury and stroke; PDS is associated with structural and functional abnormalities in the brain associated with speech and language; and stuttering resolves spontaneously in a high percentage of affected children...
October 18, 2016: European Neurology
Ruby Upadhyay, Thomas P Bleck, Katharina M Busl
Purpose. A 66-year-old man who presented with coma was found to have isolated severe hyperammonemia and diagnosed with a late-onset urea-cycle disorder. He was treated successfully and had full recovery. Methods. We report a novel case of noncirrhotic hyperammonemia and review the literature on this topic. Selected literature for review included English-language articles concerning hyperammonemia using the search terms "hyperammonemic encephalopathy", "non-cirrhotic encephalopathy", "hepatic encephalopathy", "urea-cycle disorders", "ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency", and "fulminant hepatic failure"...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Tao Xiong, Hongju Chen, Rong Luo, Dezhi Mu
BACKGROUND: The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased the need for evidence-based treatments to lessen the impact of symptoms. Presently, no therapies are available to effectively treat individuals with all of the symptoms of this disorder. It has been suggested that hyperbaric oxygen therapy may alleviate the biochemical dysfunction and clinical symptoms of ASD. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether treatment with hyperbaric oxygen:1. improves core symptoms of ASD, including social communication problems and stereotypical and repetitive behaviors;2...
October 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hissei Imai, Aran Tajika, Peiyao Chen, Alessandro Pompoli, Toshi A Furukawa
BACKGROUND: Panic disorder is common and deleterious to mental well-being. Psychological therapies and pharmacological interventions are both used as treatments for panic disorder with and without agoraphobia. However, there are no up-to-date reviews on the comparative efficacy and acceptability of the two treatment modalities, and such a review is necessary for improved treatment planning for this disorder. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and acceptability of psychological therapies versus pharmacological interventions for panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, in adults...
October 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Donna Gillies, Licia Maiocchi, Abhishta P Bhandari, Fiona Taylor, Carl Gray, Louise O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes, all of which are associated with high personal and health costs. A wide range of psychological treatments are used to prevent negative outcomes associated with trauma in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychological therapies in preventing PTSD and associated negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents who have undergone a traumatic event...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Timothy J McDermott, Amy S Badura-Brack, Katherine M Becker, Tara J Ryan, Yair Bar-Haim, Daniel S Pine, Maya M Khanna, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with executive functioning deficits, including disruptions in working memory (WM). Recent studies suggest that attention training reduces PTSD symptomatology, but the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. We used high-density magnetoencephalography (MEG) to evaluate whether attention training modulates brain regions serving WM processing in PTSD. Fourteen veterans with PTSD completed a WM task during a 306-sensor MEG recording before and after 8 sessions of attention training treatment...
October 8, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Marta Martin-Subero, Crisanto Diez-Quevedo
This paper aims to review the epidemiology and management of mental disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients, the need for antiviral therapy in this specific population, and current treatment strategies for HIV/HCV patients with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. This is a narrative review. Data was sourced from electronic databases and was not limited by language or date of publication. HIV infection has become a survivable chronic illness. Prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected patients is high ranging from 50% to 90%...
September 26, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Julián Benito-León, Ángela Domingo-Santos
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic tremor (OT) remains among the most intriguing and poorly understood of movement disorders. Compared to Parkinson's disease or even essential tremor, there are very few articles addressing more basic science issues. In this review, we will discuss the findings of main case series on OT, including data on etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, treatment strategies, and outcome. METHODS: Data for this review were identified by searching PUBMED (January 1966 to August 2016) for the terms "orthostatic tremor" or "shaky leg syndrome," which yielded 219 entries...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Fernando R Carvalho, Débora A Lentini-Oliveira, Lucila Bf Prado, Gilmar F Prado, Luciane Bc Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Apnoea is a breathing disorder marked by the absence of airflow at the nose or mouth. In children, risk factors include adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, neuromuscular disorders and craniofacial anomalies. The most common treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in childhood is adeno-tonsillectomy. This approach is limited by its surgical risks, mostly in children with comorbidities and, in some patients, by recurrence that can be associated with craniofacial problems...
October 5, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Maureen A Lefton-Greif, Joan C Arvedson
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have played primary roles in the evaluation and management of children with feeding/swallowing disorders for more than five decades. Medical, surgical, and technological advances have improved the survival of young fragile infants and children, many of whom will present with feeding/swallowing problems. Regardless of their underlying etiologies, many of these children are at risk for aspiration-induced lung disease, undernutrition or malnutrition, developmental deficits, and stressful interactions with their caregivers...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Jena McDaniel, Paul J Yoder
The behavioral phenotype of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) offers one avenue for developing speech-language therapy services that are tailored to the individual's characteristics that affect treatment response. Behavioral phenotypes are patterns of behavioral strengths and weaknesses for specific genetic disorders that can help guide the development and implementation of effective interventions. Nonetheless, individual differences within children with DS must be acknowledged and addressed because behavioral phenotypes are probabilistic, not deterministic...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Patrick Rossignol, Matthieu Legrand, Mikhail Kosiborod, Steven M Hollenberg, W Frank Peacock, Michael Emmett, Murray Epstein, Csaba P Kovesdy, Mehmet Birhan Yilmaz, Wendy Gattis Stough, Etienne Gayat, Bertram Pitt, Faiez Zannad, Alexandre Mebazaa
Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte disorder, especially in chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, or heart failure. Hyperkalemia can lead to potentially fatal cardiac dysrhythmias, and it is associated with increased mortality. Determining whether emergency therapy is warranted is largely based on subjective clinical judgment. The Investigator Network Initiative Cardiovascular and Renal Clinical Trialists (INI-CRCT) aimed to evaluate the current knowledge pertaining to the emergency treatment of hyperkalemia...
September 29, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Marisa Lousada, Margarida Ramalho, Carolina Marques
OBJECTIVE: This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Language Intervention Programme for the treatment of 14 preschool-aged children with primary language impairment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used a waiting list control design, in which half the sample (7 children) received immediate intervention with the Language Intervention Programme, whereas the remaining children received treatment after a 4-week delay. The intervention consisted of 8 individual biweekly sessions...
September 30, 2016: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Melissa Harper Shehadeh, Eva Heim, Neerja Chowdhary, Andreas Maercker, Emiliano Albanese
BACKGROUND: Cultural adaptation of mental health care interventions is key, particularly when there is little or no therapist interaction. There is little published information on the methods of adaptation of bibliotherapy and e-mental health interventions. OBJECTIVE: To systematically search for evidence of the effectiveness of minimally guided interventions for the treatment of common mental disorders among culturally diverse people with common mental disorders; to analyze the extent and effects of cultural adaptation of minimally guided interventions for the treatment of common mental disorders...
2016: JMIR Mental Health
Valentina Damato, Amelia Evoli, Raffaele Iorio
Importance: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) are autoimmune astrocytopathies characterized by predominant involvement of the optic nerves and spinal cord. In most patients, an IgG autoantibody binding to astrocytic aquaporin 4, the principal water channel of the central nervous system, is detected. Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody specific for the CD20 B-lymphocyte surface antigen, has been increasingly adopted as a first-line off-label treatment for patients with NMOSDs...
September 26, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Giuseppe Filardo, Berardo Di Matteo, Elizaveta Kon, Giulia Merli, Maurilio Marcacci
PURPOSE: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is currently the most exploited strategy in the clinical practice to provide a regenerative stimulus for tendon healing. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the available evidence on the treatment of the main tendon disorders where PRP is currently applied. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed on the use of PRP as a treatment for tendinopathies focusing on the following sites: Achilles tendon, patellar tendon, rotator cuff tendons, and lateral elbow tendons...
September 24, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
R Darkow, A Flöel
Speech and language therapy is essential in the rehabilitation of aphasic disorders following a stroke. Due to the predicted increase of aphasia and limited resources within the healthcare system, the development of efficient and sustainable treatment methods is of exceptional importance. The effectiveness of both traditional and innovative approaches needs to be evaluated against the standards of evidence-based medicine. Class I evidence has been established for high-intensity speech and language therapy in subacute and chronic stages of aphasia...
October 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Jessica M Pisegna, Sky Yang, Audrey Purcell, Alix Rubio
OBJECTIVES: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic disorder often accompanied by laryngopharyngeal reflux. Speech-language pathologists are tasked with treating these patients with voice, dysphagia, and/or reflux therapy. This study investigated patient-reported reasons for reduced compliance with recommended reflux treatment and the top symptoms in patients with reflux, dysphagia, and voice symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: This study used a cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods design to identify and describe patients' reflux symptoms and reflux medication routines...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
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