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DILI children

Amanda Ricciuto, Binita M Kamath, Thomas D Walters, Karen Frost, Nicholas Carman, Peter C Church, Simon C Ling, Anne M Griffiths
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a large anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-treated pediatric inflammatory bowel disease cohort for drug-induced liver injury (DILI) following presentation of an index case with suspected DILI with autoimmune features after infliximab exposure. To characterize the incidence, natural history, and risk factors for liver enzyme elevation with anti-TNF use. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the index case and performed a retrospective cohort study of 659 children receiving anti-TNF therapy between 2000 and 2015 at a tertiary pediatric inflammatory bowel disease center...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
Aditi Kumar, Vikrant Sood, Rajeev Khanna, Sanjeev Kumar Verma, Nikhil Mehra, Dinesh Rawat, Seema Alam
Limited literature is available in pediatric population regarding drug-induced liver injury (DILI) making it a diagnostic challenge. This study was thus planned to determine the clinical spectrum and the outcome of DILI in children. All patients with DILI under 18 y of age were retrospectively reviewed and details regarding clinical presentation, Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) scale, drugs implicated, biochemical abnormalities and outcome were noted. DILI constituted 3.7% of all children with liver disease...
December 16, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Harshad Devarbhavi, Mallikarjun Patil, Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, Rajvir Singh, Tarun Joseph, Deepak Ganga
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Drugs producing acute liver failure (ALF) are uncommon and vary geographically. Here we review the implicated drugs, clinical features, laboratory characteristics and outcome of patients with drug-induced ALF (DIALF). We analyzed the predictors of mortality and their relationship with MELD, Kings College criteria (KCC) and ALFSG prognostic index. METHODS: We identified DIALF patients from our drug-induced liver injury (DILI) registry (1997-2017)...
December 9, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Veronica Bruno, Joshua P Klein, Dechen Nidup, Damber K Nirola, Lhab Tshering, Sonam Deki, Sarah J Clark, Kristin A Linn, Russell T Shinohara, Chencho Dorji, Dili Ram Pokhrel, Ugyen Dema, Farrah J Mateen
BACKGROUND: People with epilepsy (PWE) in low- and middle-income countries may not access the health resources that are considered optimal for epilepsy diagnosis. The diagnostic yield of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not been well studied in these settings. OBJECTIVES: To report the diagnostic yield of brain MRI and identify clinical associations of abnormal MRI findings among PWE in a neurocysticercosis-endemic, resource-limited setting and to identify the proportion and putative structural brain causes of drug-resistant epilepsy...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
Toyib Olaniyan, Mohamed Jeebhay, Martin Röösli, Rajen Naidoo, Roslynn Baatjies, Nino Künzil, Ming Tsai, Mark Davey, Kees de Hoogh, Dilys Berman, Bhawoodien Parker, Joy Leaner, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie
BACKGROUND: There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings...
September 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
Qiang Shi, Xi Yang, James J Greenhaw, Alec Thomas Salminen, Gary M Russotti, William F Salminen
Drug-induced liver injury in children (cDILI) accounts for about 1% of all reported adverse drug reactions throughout all age groups, less than 10% of all clinical DILI cases, and around 20% of all acute liver failure cases in children. The overall DILI susceptibility in children has been assumed to be lower than in adults. Nevertheless, controversial evidence is emerging about children's sensitivity to DILI, with children's relative susceptibility to DILI appearing to be highly drug-specific. The culprit drugs in cDILI are similar but not identical to DILI in adults (aDILI)...
September 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
Masoumeh Asgarshirazi, Mamak Shariat, Mahdi Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Liver injury associated with antiepileptic drugs accounts for a large proportion of drug-induced liver injuries (DILI) in children. Although withdrawal of the causative agent is the only proved treatment for DILI, in some clinical situations it is not possible. Recent studies have reported promising results of using hepatoprotective drugs with antioxidant actions for the management of DILI. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of folic acid versus silymarin treatment in relation to decreasing liver enzymes in patients with DILI due to antiepileptic therapy...
June 2017: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Esther Ocete-Hita, MaJ Salmerón-Fernández, Emilia Urrutia-Maldonado, Paloma Muñoz-de-Rueda, María Salmerón-Ruiz, MaC Martinez-Padilla, Angela Ruiz-Extremera
OBJECTIVES: Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury is a multifactorial complex disease, in which the toxic potential of the drug, together with genetic and acquired factors and deficiencies in adaptive processes, which limit the extent of damage, can determine susceptibility, and make individuals unique in their development of hepatotoxicity. The aim of the present study is to analyse the genetic factors (human leukocyte antigen [HLA], cytokine polymorphisms, and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor [KIR] genotype) of children who experience an episode of drug-induced liver injury...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Lucio F Babo Soares, Penny L Allen, Jenna Kingi, Kaye Roberts-Thomson, Silvana Bettiol, Leonard Crocombe
INTRODUCTION: This research compared the oral health status of school children in Dili (the capital of Timor Leste) in 2002 and 2014. METHODS: The 2014 oral health survey of Dili's children replicated the methods of an AusAID-supported oral health survey conducted in 2002. Equal numbers of children were invited to participate from four age groups (6-8, 9-11, 12-14 and 15-17 years). For the 2014 survey, the subdistricts of Dom Aleixo, Cristo Rei, Metinaro and Vera Cruz were randomly selected for inclusion...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Kathleen M Gura, Andrew E Mulberg, Paul D Mitchell, John Yap, Clara Y Kim, Minjun Chen, Alexis Potemkin, Mark Puder
BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) is complex and diagnosed by concurrent use of parenteral nutrition, clinical presentation, and alterations in hepatic biomarkers exclusive of other causes of liver disease. In comparison with individual measures, composite biomarkers may provide a more effective means for assessing disease progression and response to treatment than single parameters. Since IFALD is considered by some to be a type of drug-induced liver injury (DILI), those diagnostic criteria could potentially be used in this population...
September 28, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Lucio Frederico Babo Soares, Penny Allen, Silvana Bettiol, Leonard Crocombe
Timor-Leste is one of the poorest countries in the world. The aim of this article was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and dental caries experience in children living in Dili. Four out of 6 Dili subdistricts and 40 schools were randomly selected. Equal numbers of school children from 4 age groups (6-8, 9-11, 12-14, 15-17 years) were invited to participate. Data were gathered via a questionnaire and an oral examination by dental practitioners. In bivariate analysis, decayed, missing, and filled teeth index for deciduous + permanent teeth (dmft) was higher in children from mid- to high-SES than low-SES schools (1...
October 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Filiz Serdaroğlu, Tuğba Koca, Selim Dereci, Mustafa Akçam
The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in children. We analyzed the medical records for children aged 3 months to 18 years who presented to the hospital with ALT >45 IU/L and/or AST >50 IU/L, between 2012 and 2014, for various reasons, including those not related to liver disease. In total, 281 children met the study criteria. This group comprised of 125 (44.5%) females and 156 (55.5%) males. At the presentation, the most common patient complaint was fatigue (53...
February 19, 2016: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Helgi Kristinn Björnsson, Sigurdur Olafsson, Ottar M Bergmann, Einar S Björnsson
OBJECTIVE: High levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) can be a marker of severe liver disease with variable aetiologies and prognosis. Very few prospective studies have been undertaken on the aetiology and prognosis of patients with high ALT levels. No population-based prospective study has systematically evaluated drug-induced liver injury (DILI) among these patients. The objective was to determine the aetiology and prognosis of patients with high ALT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a catchment area of 160,000 inhabitants, a population-based prospective study identified all adult patients with serum level of ALT >500 U/L during a 12-month period...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Harshad Devarbhavi, Sujata Raj, Venu H Aradya, Vijaykumar T Rangegowda, Girish P Veeranna, Rajvir Singh, Vishnuvardan Reddy, Mallikarjun Patil
UNLABELLED: The liver and skin are the organs most commonly involved in serious adverse drug reactions. Rarely a drug reaction can affect both organs concurrently. The association of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrosis (TEN) is even rarer and not well studied. We describe our experience of DILI occurring in association with SJS/TEN including the etiologic agents, clinical and biochemical characteristics, and outcome. We identified patients who developed DILI in association with SJS/TEN from a registry of DILI patients from a single center...
March 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Josephine P Y Cheung, Dilys S K Liu, Catherine C C Lam, Allen M Y Cheong
PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop and validate a new Chinese reading chart for children. The characteristics of reading profiles among Hong Kong children were also investigated. METHODS: A new reading chart was developed using the design principles of the MNREAD chart. Children (N = 169) aged seven to 11 years with normal vision and no developmental or reading difficulties were recruited from four local Hong Kong primary schools located in four different districts...
September 2015: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Mansi D Amin, Sanjiv Harpavat, Daniel H Leung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an underrecognized cause of pediatric liver disease, accounts for almost 20% of pediatric acute liver failure cases, and is a major reason for liver transplantation in the USA. This article reviews the pathogenesis of DILI, approach to diagnosis and management, and highlights recent pediatric DILI case series. RECENT FINDINGS: Select individuals have an increased propensity to develop DILI. Known genetic polymorphisms of enzymes and host factors play an important role in medication management and influence the clinical outcome in 20-25% of all drug therapies...
October 2015: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Yun Zhu, Yong-Gang Li, Jia-Bo Wang, Shu-Hong Liu, Li-Fu Wang, Yan-Ling Zhao, Yun-Feng Bai, Zhong-Xia Wang, Jian-Yu Li, Xiao-He Xiao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a frequent cause of pediatric liver disease; however, the data on DILI are remarkably limited. METHODS: All 69 children hospitalized with DILI between January 2009 and December 2011 were retrospectively studied. RESULTS: A total of 37.7% of the children had medical histories of respiratory infection. The clinical injury patterns were as follows hepatocellular 89.9%, cholestatic 2.9%, and mixed 7...
July 2015: Gut and Liver
Charlotte Hall, P Sukijthamapan, R dos Santos, C Nourse, D Murphy, M Gibbons, J R Francis
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the number and geographic location of children aged <5 years exposed to sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) in Timor-Leste, to determine the proportion evaluated for isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and to review the programmatic challenges present in delivering IPT to this cohort. METHODS: A total of 256 consecutive sputum smear-positive TB index cases diagnosed at Bairo Pite Clinic between August 2013 and July 2014 were interviewed about places of residence and household contacts <5 years of age in the 3 months preceding diagnosis...
June 2015: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ruhul Amin, Telma Joana Corte Real De Oliveira, Mateus Da Cunha, Tanya Wells Brown, Michael Favin, Kelli Cappelier
BACKGROUND: Timor-Leste's immunization coverage is among the poorest in Asia. The 2009/2010 Demographic and Health Survey found that complete vaccination coverage in urban areas, at 47.7%, was lower than in rural areas, at 54.1%. The city of Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste, had even lower coverage (43.4%) than the national urban average. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the service- and user-related factors that account for low vaccination coverage in urban Dili, despite high literacy rates and relatively good access to immunization services and communication media...
November 2013: Global Health, Science and Practice
Einar S Björnsson
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is, like other adverse effects of drugs, underreported and underestimated in most epidemiological studies based on registries of DILI cases and reporting systems (e.g., Medwatch). The same is probably true for prospective population-based studies, although they are much more likely to mirror the true incidence of DILI. Despite these challenges, the epidemiology of DILI remains of utmost importance and is gradually coming into better focus. A recent population based study found a crude incidence of ∼19 cases per 100,000 per year...
May 2014: Seminars in Liver Disease
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