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DILI children

Masoumeh Asgarshirazi, Mamak Shariat, Mahdi Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Liver injury associated with antiepileptic drugs accounts for a large proportion of drug-induced liver injuries (DILI) in children. Although withdrawal of the causative agent is the only proved treatment for DILI, in some clinical situations it is not possible. Recent studies have reported promising results of using hepatoprotective drugs with antioxidant actions for the management of DILI. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of folic acid versus silymarin treatment in relation to decreasing liver enzymes in patients with DILI due to antiepileptic therapy...
June 2017: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Esther Ocete-Hita, MaJ Salmerón-Fernández, Emilia Urrutia-Maldonado, Paloma Muñoz-de-Rueda, María Salmerón-Ruiz, MaC Martinez-Padilla, Angela Ruiz-Extremera
OBJECTIVES: Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury is a multifactorial complex disease, in which the toxic potential of the drug, together with genetic and acquired factors and deficiencies in adaptive processes, which limit the extent of damage, can determine susceptibility, and make individuals unique in their development of hepatotoxicity. The aim of the present study is to analyse the genetic factors (human leukocyte antigen [HLA], cytokine polymorphisms, and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor [KIR] genotype) of children who experience an episode of drug-induced liver injury...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Lucio F Babo Soares, Penny L Allen, Jenna Kingi, Kaye Roberts-Thomson, Silvana Bettiol, Leonard Crocombe
INTRODUCTION: This research compared the oral health status of school children in Dili (the capital of Timor Leste) in 2002 and 2014. METHODS: The 2014 oral health survey of Dili's children replicated the methods of an AusAID-supported oral health survey conducted in 2002. Equal numbers of children were invited to participate from four age groups (6-8, 9-11, 12-14 and 15-17 years). For the 2014 survey, the subdistricts of Dom Aleixo, Cristo Rei, Metinaro and Vera Cruz were randomly selected for inclusion...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Kathleen M Gura, Andrew E Mulberg, Paul D Mitchell, John Yap, Clara Y Kim, Minjun Chen, Alexis Potemkin, Mark Puder
BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) is complex and diagnosed by concurrent use of parenteral nutrition, clinical presentation, and alterations in hepatic biomarkers exclusive of other causes of liver disease. In comparison with individual measures, composite biomarkers may provide a more effective means for assessing disease progression and response to treatment than single parameters. Since IFALD is considered by some to be a type of drug-induced liver injury (DILI), those diagnostic criteria could potentially be used in this population...
September 28, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Lucio Frederico Babo Soares, Penny Allen, Silvana Bettiol, Leonard Crocombe
Timor-Leste is one of the poorest countries in the world. The aim of this article was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and dental caries experience in children living in Dili. Four out of 6 Dili subdistricts and 40 schools were randomly selected. Equal numbers of school children from 4 age groups (6-8, 9-11, 12-14, 15-17 years) were invited to participate. Data were gathered via a questionnaire and an oral examination by dental practitioners. In bivariate analysis, decayed, missing, and filled teeth index for deciduous + permanent teeth (dmft) was higher in children from mid- to high-SES than low-SES schools (1...
October 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Filiz Serdaroğlu, Tuğba Koca, Selim Dereci, Mustafa Akçam
The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in children. We analyzed the medical records for children aged 3 months to 18 years who presented to the hospital with ALT >45 IU/L and/or AST >50 IU/L, between 2012 and 2014, for various reasons, including those not related to liver disease. In total, 281 children met the study criteria. This group comprised of 125 (44.5%) females and 156 (55.5%) males. At the presentation, the most common patient complaint was fatigue (53...
February 19, 2016: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Helgi Kristinn Björnsson, Sigurdur Olafsson, Ottar M Bergmann, Einar S Björnsson
OBJECTIVE: High levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) can be a marker of severe liver disease with variable aetiologies and prognosis. Very few prospective studies have been undertaken on the aetiology and prognosis of patients with high ALT levels. No population-based prospective study has systematically evaluated drug-induced liver injury (DILI) among these patients. The objective was to determine the aetiology and prognosis of patients with high ALT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a catchment area of 160,000 inhabitants, a population-based prospective study identified all adult patients with serum level of ALT >500 U/L during a 12-month period...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Harshad Devarbhavi, Sujata Raj, Venu H Aradya, Vijaykumar T Rangegowda, Girish P Veeranna, Rajvir Singh, Vishnuvardan Reddy, Mallikarjun Patil
UNLABELLED: The liver and skin are the organs most commonly involved in serious adverse drug reactions. Rarely a drug reaction can affect both organs concurrently. The association of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrosis (TEN) is even rarer and not well studied. We describe our experience of DILI occurring in association with SJS/TEN including the etiologic agents, clinical and biochemical characteristics, and outcome. We identified patients who developed DILI in association with SJS/TEN from a registry of DILI patients from a single center...
March 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Josephine P Y Cheung, Dilys S K Liu, Catherine C C Lam, Allen M Y Cheong
PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop and validate a new Chinese reading chart for children. The characteristics of reading profiles among Hong Kong children were also investigated. METHODS: A new reading chart was developed using the design principles of the MNREAD chart. Children (N = 169) aged seven to 11 years with normal vision and no developmental or reading difficulties were recruited from four local Hong Kong primary schools located in four different districts...
September 2015: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Mansi D Amin, Sanjiv Harpavat, Daniel H Leung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an underrecognized cause of pediatric liver disease, accounts for almost 20% of pediatric acute liver failure cases, and is a major reason for liver transplantation in the USA. This article reviews the pathogenesis of DILI, approach to diagnosis and management, and highlights recent pediatric DILI case series. RECENT FINDINGS: Select individuals have an increased propensity to develop DILI. Known genetic polymorphisms of enzymes and host factors play an important role in medication management and influence the clinical outcome in 20-25% of all drug therapies...
October 2015: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Yun Zhu, Yong-Gang Li, Jia-Bo Wang, Shu-Hong Liu, Li-Fu Wang, Yan-Ling Zhao, Yun-Feng Bai, Zhong-Xia Wang, Jian-Yu Li, Xiao-He Xiao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a frequent cause of pediatric liver disease; however, the data on DILI are remarkably limited. METHODS: All 69 children hospitalized with DILI between January 2009 and December 2011 were retrospectively studied. RESULTS: A total of 37.7% of the children had medical histories of respiratory infection. The clinical injury patterns were as follows hepatocellular 89.9%, cholestatic 2.9%, and mixed 7...
July 2015: Gut and Liver
Charlotte Hall, P Sukijthamapan, R dos Santos, C Nourse, D Murphy, M Gibbons, J R Francis
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the number and geographic location of children aged <5 years exposed to sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) in Timor-Leste, to determine the proportion evaluated for isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and to review the programmatic challenges present in delivering IPT to this cohort. METHODS: A total of 256 consecutive sputum smear-positive TB index cases diagnosed at Bairo Pite Clinic between August 2013 and July 2014 were interviewed about places of residence and household contacts <5 years of age in the 3 months preceding diagnosis...
June 2015: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ruhul Amin, Telma Joana Corte Real De Oliveira, Mateus Da Cunha, Tanya Wells Brown, Michael Favin, Kelli Cappelier
BACKGROUND: Timor-Leste's immunization coverage is among the poorest in Asia. The 2009/2010 Demographic and Health Survey found that complete vaccination coverage in urban areas, at 47.7%, was lower than in rural areas, at 54.1%. The city of Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste, had even lower coverage (43.4%) than the national urban average. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the service- and user-related factors that account for low vaccination coverage in urban Dili, despite high literacy rates and relatively good access to immunization services and communication media...
November 2013: Global Health, Science and Practice
Einar S Björnsson
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is, like other adverse effects of drugs, underreported and underestimated in most epidemiological studies based on registries of DILI cases and reporting systems (e.g., Medwatch). The same is probably true for prospective population-based studies, although they are much more likely to mirror the true incidence of DILI. Despite these challenges, the epidemiology of DILI remains of utmost importance and is gradually coming into better focus. A recent population based study found a crude incidence of ∼19 cases per 100,000 per year...
May 2014: Seminars in Liver Disease
Ingrid Kirsten Bucens, Alison Reid, Aniceto Cardoso Barreto, Vikas Dwivedi, Megan Counahan
AIM: The aim of this study was to undertake a retrospective review of admissions and discharges to the paediatric wards at the National Hospital Guido Valadares, Dili, as the epidemiology of hospitalised children in East Timor cannot be easily understood from the hospital health management information system. METHOD: Data were sourced from unit registers for 3 years, 2008-2010 inclusive. Demographic characteristics and principal diagnoses were related to the risk of dying using stepwise multivariate logistic regression...
December 2013: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Kaori Mizumoto, Toru Takahashi, Yuri Kinoshita, Michiyo Higuchi, Cholis Bachroen, Valente Da Silva
Improvement in child nutritional status is one of the major health priorities in Timor-Leste. A qualitative study was conducted in Aileu District, adjacent to the capital of Timor-Leste, Dili, in September 2010 to determine the possible risk factors associated with the high prevalence of child malnutrition. In-depth interviews were conducted to 32 guardians of children aged younger than 5 years. It was observed that early termination of exclusive breast-feeding and a short lactation period along with an unsanitary living environment were associated with the nutritional status of children in the study area...
March 2015: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Shu-zhen Wang, Shan Gao, Yan-min Liu, Yun-li Huang, Yi-shen Chen, Xin-xin Wang, Wei Lin, Chun-yang Huang, Hui-yu Liao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and responsible agents of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in pediatric patients. METHODS: Thirty-one cases of DILI treated in our hospital's pediatric ward were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical data for each patient were extracted from the patient's medical records, and included reported causes, physical and biochemical features, natural history, blood examination results, and hepatic pathology findings...
March 2012: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Harshad Devarbhavi
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a minor but significant cause of liver injury across all regions. Antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury (TB DILI) is a leading cause of DILI and drug-induced acute liver failure (DIALF) in India and much of the developing world. Single center registries of DILI continue to highlight the high incidence of DILI and DIALF, much of it due to diagnostic errors and inappropriate prescriptions. The clinical spectrum includes asymptomatic elevation in liver tests to acute hepatitis and acute liver failure...
July 2011: Tropical Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation
Jean P Molleston, Robert J Fontana, M James Lopez, David E Kleiner, Jiezhun Gu, Naga Chalasani
BACKGROUND: The spectrum and severity of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in children are not well established. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The DILIN (Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network) Prospective Study is a longitudinal multicenter study designed to determine the etiologies, risk factors, and outcomes of suspected DILI. Between September 2004 and September 2009, 30 children ages 2 to 18 years with suspected DILI who met eligibility criteria were enrolled and studied for at least 6 months...
August 2011: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Andrew A Lover, Brett A Sutton, Angelina J Asy, Annelies Wilder-Smith
BACKGROUND: The Timor-Leste Ministry of Health has recently finalized the National Malaria Control Strategy for 2010-2020. A key component of this roadmap is to provide universal national coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) in support of achieving the primary goal of reducing both morbidity and mortality from malaria by 30% in the first three years, followed by a further reduction of 20% by end of the programme cycle in 2020 1. The strategic plan calls for this target to be supported by a comprehensive information, education and communication (IEC) programme; however, there is limited prior research into household and personal usage patterns to assist in the creation of targeted, effective, and socio-culturally specific behaviour change materials...
2011: Malaria Journal
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